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Geoinformatics TrendsinTechnology

19601975197519851985199219901995199520012001Beyond

ImprovementsinallcomponentsofGIS
1.HardwareMiniaturization
2.Massiveprocessingpower(Parallel
Computing,GRIDComputing,Cloud
Computing(SAAS))
3.Smartdevices(fluidhuman
computerinteraction)

1.Wired Wireless
2.Switchingtechnologies
3.2G3G4GWiMAX,FTTH
4.Explosioninnumberof
internethubs
5.NKN

1.Capacitybuilding
2.MegaUniversities
3.Academicoutput

1.ImprovedDesktopGIS
softwares
2.StandardisedWebservices
3.Opensourcelibraries(APIs)
4.SpatialDatabases
5.MobileGIS
6.SpatialCataloging
7.Spatialdatastandardization
(NSDIetc.)

1.Improvedresolutionimagery
2.Betterdistributionnetworks
3.WirelessGeosensors
4.Crowdsourcing/VGI
5.GEOSS(GEONETCast)

SPATIAL MULTIMEDIA

VISUALISATION OF TOOLSET
EXTENSIONS

MULTIMEDIA IN GIS

SOUND AND VIDEO


DATA TYPES

DEVELOPING HYPER MEDIA


SPATIAL DATABASES

Raju

GIS technological trends

Mobile and wireless technology is becoming


Pervasive
Mobile GIS is evolving in a enterprise. The solutions may be very effective many
areas including Emergency/ Disaster management

Advantages:
Smaller
Faster
Locationally aware
Smarter
Embedded

Integrated with Services


The beginning WAP-Based GIS Systems
Sending and receiving Information about geography to remote servers

Enabling Technology
Data [Process] Information [Model] DSS/SDSS [Knowledge Discovery (AI) ]Expert System

Faster Hardware
Distributed Computing
Mobile/Wireless
Services Oriented Architecture
Large Data Repositories

Pervasive
Computing

GIS Software

Capacity In 10 Years
100x Computing
1000x Storage
5000x Networks

Terabyte/Second Communications

Technological trends
Data

- Multi-spectral Hyper spectral


- Low High spatial resolution
- Mono stereo imaging
Hardware
- Workstation based - PC Mobile level
Software
- Desktop Web GIS Mobile GIS
Internet
- Low Bandwidth Broadband based
- Web services (BHUVAN/Google Earth/World
Wind etc.)
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GIS technological trends

Influence of IT Trends in GIS


Pervasive high performance

computing
Digital connectivity
Geographic data capture and
compilation
Geographic data management
Standards and open systems
(after Peter Croswell)
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GIS technological trends

25 Years of Computers

Source: ITC Study Material

GRID Computing

GLOBUS
Middleware

BOINC
Folding@Home
MilkyWay@Home
SETI@Home
Einstein@Home
GIMPS

5.634PFLOPS
5PFLOPS
1.6PFLOPS
730TFLOPS
210TFLOPS
61TFLOPS

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_computing

April4,2011
March17,2009
April2010
April2010
April2010
June2011

Next What?

SaaS
PaaS
IaaS
EaaS

Cloud Computing

ArcGIS10Brochure

Interoperability
Strategic target
Use of the standards
OGC standards for geo-referenced data
Web Feature
Server

Web Map
Server

Web Coverage
Server

Web Map Service (WMS)


Web Feature Service (WFS)
Web Coverage Service (WCS)
Catalogue (CSW)
Geography Markup Language
(GML)
Web Map Context (WMC)
OGC KML
Others

Web Services Architecture Approach


For Example
Applications
Users

e.g., Transportation Planning,


Climate Change Monitoring,
Site Assessment

Services
Other
Applications

e.g., Metadata Service,


gazetteer service,
Web Map Service

Data
e.g., topographic,
thematic, imagery,
toponymy, metadata

A trip planning web site


that calculates the best
route between two cities
uses
Gazetteer service,
Road network server,
Web mapping service
based on
Geographical Names,
Road network features
Base maps

Web Mapping with WMS


Map
Server

Viewer Client
Web Browser

Web Map Servers

internet

Map
Server

Map
Server

Map
Server

Web Based Processing

Data

WPS
WPS
Buffer

Process 2

Process n

Information

Mobile Mapping
Mobile computing is bringing fundamental changes to way of utilization of Geography,
ability to bring and interact directly with the world around you. Mobile computing
comprises the integration of three merging technologies - Lightweight hardware,
global positioning system (GPS), and Wireless communication

Applications
Street sign inventory
Power pole maintenance
Meter reading
Road Pavement management
Military Fieldwork
Mineral Exploration
Habitat studies
Toxic inventory
Crop management
Property damage assesment
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GIS technological trends

I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

What is LBS ?
Provide personalized services to mobile users based on
their current location
Where am I?
What is the nearest restaurant, cinema ect.
Operator
services

Tracking

Assistance

Range of applications
Monitoring

Information

I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

What is LBS ?
Mobile Devices

What is LBS ?
LBS as an intersection of three technologies

LBS as an intersection of technologies (Brimicombe 2002)

LBS

need to deal with GIS

GPS BASED: FLEET MONITORING SYSTEMS

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GIS technological trends

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GIS technological trends

Category wise distribution of Points


Category
Bhuvan POI

Total Points
2631

3000

Bridges or Culverts 52

2500

Buildings
Land Cover and
Natural Resources
Landslides

1003

2000

104

1500

896

1000

Other Infrastructure 315

500

River Bank Erosion 196


Roads
459
Total Points5656

22

TOTAL POINTS

Raju

GIS technological trends

2631

1003

315
52

896

104

459
196

3D and Virtual GIS


To represent the real world better
Better visual impact
Simulate and scenario development
Real time analysis
Animation

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GIS technological trends

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GIS technological trends

Sensor Networks
An association of
sensors to monitor
an event or
conditions.
Wired
Laboratory
monitoring
Manufacturing
monitoring

Wireless
Environmental
monitoring
Security monitoring

Hybrid
Many
types
sensors

of
Source:Mr.Kapil Oberai,IIRS

Source: http://www.spatial.maine.edu/~max/Bari/a3.pdf

Source: http://www.spatial.maine.edu/~max/Bari/a3.pdf, www.esri.com

GISAT
ISROisdesigningaGEOImagingSatellite(GISAT).
GISATwillcarryaGEOImagerwithmultispectral
(visible,nearinfraredandthermal),multi
resolution(50mto1.5km)imaginginstruments.

ONBOARDKNOWNINSTRUMENTS
HighresolutionMultispectralVNIRimager
HyperspectralVNIRimager
HyperspectralSWIRimager
HighResolutionTIRimager

GISATwillbeplacedingeostationaryorbitof
36,000km.
GISATwillprovidenearrealtimepicturesoflarge
areasofthecountry,undercloudfreeconditions,
atfrequentintervals.
Thatis,selectedSectorwiseimageevery5
minutesandentireIndianlandmassimageevery
30minutesat50mspatialresolution.
GISATisplannedtobelaunchedduring201617.

Longitude93.5E
Estimateofthesatellite'sfootprint,assumingazenithangleof75

Generic EUMETCast Solution


EUMETCast (DVB) Standard Hardware - indicative costs Cband antenna
LNB/Feedhorn, Antenna

1000 EUR

2 x PC, Hard Disk, Ethernet

2000 EUR

DVB PCI Card

100 EUR

EUMETCast Client Software

60 EUR

EUMETCast Key Unit (EKU)

40 EUR

Total (2 PCs)

3200 EUR

High Speed Networks

NATIONAL
KNOWLEDGE
NETWORK

Major Influences on GIS

Advanced GIS work has been influenced significantly by the high


computing and advanced visualization system.

GIS has quickly incorporated distributed systems and databases


for interoperable solutions.

Microcomputer has allowed GIS to be applied to new fields and


has improved GIS education.

Mobility of portable GIS and GPS systems has revolutionized GIS


use.

The World Wide Web and high speed network access has given
a new dimension to geo-spatial domain.

larger data sets may be processed

more complex models can be established

more complex analysis for decision-making

better methods of display and visualization

Parallel Processing

Perform tasks on several difference processors


simultaneously within same computer;

impact:

Analysis which require repeating same steps


Raster data in which each pixel is independent are likely to
be easier

Image processing such as classification can benefit

Visualization can be greatly improved

Trends in GIS Applications

GIS technology becoming more affordable, more reliable, more


widely used and better known;

3-D capabilities of GIS widely used in geology, hydrology,


geomorphology and mining, landscape ecology studies;

May develop in areas of image processing (X-rays and medical


imaging);

Studies of global issues (Climate change


deforestation, acid rain, endangered species)

Real-time applications (urban management, emergency services and


transport control)

studies,

tropical

Changing Emphases
From Description to Simulation & Modeling

Past

Future

Picture worth a
thousand words:

Visual simulation & virtual


reality.

Maps & diagrams of


how is, or how was

Real time display of how is,


and how might be-Ex.
-forest fire
-freeway traffic flow

Web portals serve static


data sets

Web portals serve continuous


sensor-derived data
Iconic models: scaled down
representations of the real thing

Symbolic models: based on logical


relationships in mathematical or statistical form

Changing Emphases:
From Data to Analysis

Spatial

5%

Analysis

10-15%
Attribute Tagging

75%
Data Conversion:

Past

Spatial Analysis
Attribute Tagging

Data

Conversion

Present/Future

Thanks for your attention


Time for questions
/interactions