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I ................................................................................................... 20
1.1. , ,
................................................ 21
1.2. ................................................................................................ 23
1.2.1. ................................................................................. 23
1.2.2. ................................................................................ 27
1.2.3. ..................................................................... 28
1.2.4. ...................................................................................... 29
1.2.5.
....................................................................................................... 30
1.3. ............................................................................................. 32
1.4. , ................................... 33
1.4.1. .............................................................................................. 33
1.4.2. ........................................................................................... 34
1.4.3. ......................................................... 36
1.4.4. ......................................................................................... 36
1.4.5. ................................................................................................ 40
1.5. ................................................................................................................................. 41
1.5.1. ..................................................................................................... 41
1.5.2. ....................................................................................................... 43
1.5.3. .............................................................................. 45
1.5.4. ....... 50
1.5.5. .......................................................................... 52
1.6. ................................................................................................... 56
1.6.1. .............................................................................................. 56
2

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1.6.2. ...................................... 59
1.6.3. ......................................................................... 60
1.7. ....................................... 63
1.8. .................. 65
1.8.1. ........................................... 66
1.8.2. ............................................... 68
1.8.3.
.............................................................................. 69
1.8.4. ,
..................................... 70
1.8.5.
................................................................................................................ 72
1.8.6.
...................................................................................................... 75
1.8.7. ....................... 77
II
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................................................................................... 80
2.1. ......................................................................................................... 80
2.2. .......................................................................... 81
2.3. ............................................................................ 82
2.3.1. ................................................................................ 82
2.3.2.
....................................................................................................... 83
2.3.3.
............................................... 83
2.3.4.
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2.3.5.
............................................... 84
III ,
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3.1. -
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3.1.1. -
...................................................................... 85
3.1.2. -
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3.2.
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........................................................................................................................... 90


.......................................................................................................................... 91
ALARP .......................................................................................... 126
, .................. 128

................................................... 132

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ALARP

As Low As Reasonably Practicable

EFR

Employees for Replacement

FMEA

Failure Modes Effects Analysis

FRACAS Failure Reporting Analysis and


Corrective Action System

GAMAB Globalement Au Moins Aussi Bon

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LAD

Logistic and Administrative Delay

MC

Maintenance Cost

MTBM/
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Mean Time/Distance Between


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MDT

Mean Down Time

MTTF

Mean Time To Failure

MDTF

Mean Distance To Failure

(
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Minimum Endogenous Mortality

MMH

Maintenance Man Hours

MTBF

Mean Time Between Failure

MDBF

Mean Distance Between Failure

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MTBF(H) Mean Time Between Hazardous Failure

MTBSF

Mean Time Between "Safety System


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MTTM

Mean Time To Maintain (mean duration


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MTTR

Mean Time To Restore

MUT

Mean Up Time

O&MC

Operation and Maintenance Cost



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( 1.1)

QMS

Quality Management System

RAMS

Reliability, Availability,
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TTRS

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60050(191):1990 . 191.
;
62278:2002
(IEC 62278:2002)

-
, ,
(RAMS)
Railway applications - Specification and demonstration of
reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

Patra, A. Maintenance Decision Support Models for Railway Infrastructure using RAMS &
LCC Analyses, Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Lule University of
Technology, 2007
Patra, A. RAMS and LCC in Rail Track Maintenance, Division of Operation and
Maintenance Engineering, Lule University of Technology, 2009
Zoeteman, A. Railway Design and Maintenance from a Life-Cycle Cost Perspective: A
Decision-Support Approach, 2004
Goncalo Medeiros Pais Simoes. RAMS analysis of railway track infrastructure,2008
Antnio Ramos Andrade. Renewal decisions from a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) Perspective in
Railway Infrastructure: An integrative approach using separate LCC models for rail and
ballast components, 2008
Jens Braband. Risikoanalysen in der Eisenbahn-Automatisierung, 2005
Kumar, S. Reliability Analysis and Cost Modeling of Degrading Systems, Division of
Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Lule University of Technology, 2008
J.J.A. van den Breemer, S.H.S. Al-Jibouri, K.T. Veenvliet, H.W.N. Heijmans. RAMS and
LCC in the design process of infrastructural construction projects: an implementation case
. . . . .:
, 2002 368 .
.. :
. .: , 2008 280 .

90

, ,
( 1.1)

.1
.1.1()
.1.1.1 , , , (RAMS)
IEC 62278 (2002-09)
Railway applications Specification and

demonstration of reliability, availability,

maintainability and safety (RAMS)
, ,

(RAMS)



, , ,
RAMS. RAMS
.
RAMS.


,
RAMS
. - , ,
RAMS
.
IEC 62278-3 (2010-04)
Railway applications Specification and
demonstration of reliability, availability,
maintainability and safety (RAMS) - Part 3:
Guide to the application of IEC 62278 for
rolling stock RAM



, ,

(RAMS) 3:
62278 RAM

IEC/TR 62278-3:2010(E)
, (RAM) IEC 62278
RAM

/ .
91

, ,
( 1.1)

IEC 62279 (2002-09)


Railway applications Communications,
signalling and processing systems - Software
for railway control and protection systems



. ,
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IEC 62280-1 (2002-10)
Railway applications Communication,

signalling and processing systems Part 1:
,
Safety-related communication in closed
1:
transmission systems

, ,
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. ,

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IEC 62280-2 (2002-10)
Railway applications Communication,

signalling and processing systems Part 2:
,
Safety-related communication in open
2:
transmission systems

, ,
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.
, ,
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.
:
,
92

, ,
( 1.1)

, ,
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,
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IEC 62425 (2007-09)
Railway applications Communication,
signalling and processing systems Safety
related electronic systems for signalling


,
,

// .
IEC 62278
// ,
.
.1.1.2

.1

IEC 60300-1 (2003-06)


Dependability management Part 1:
1:
Dependability management systems

.
, ,
.

, , , ,
93

, ,
( 1.1)

.
: ,

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,
.
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Dependability management Part 2:
Guidelines for dependability management

2:


, , .

.
, .

IEC 60050-191 (1990-12)


International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

Chapter 191: Dependability and quality of
191:
service

108.

IEC 60300-3-1 (2003-01)


Dependability management Part 3-1:
Application guide Analysis techniques for
dependability Guide on methodology

3-1:

.
,
, .


.
IEC 60300-3-2 (2004-11)
Dependability management Part 3-2:
Application guide Collection of
dependability data from the field

3-2:

IEC 60300
94

, ,
( 1.1)

, ,

.
, ,
.

.
IEC 60300-3-3 (2004-07)
Dependability management Part 3-3:
Application guide Life cycle costing

3-3:

IEC 60300
, ,
, .
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.
.

, .
.
IEC 60300-3-4 (2007-09)
Dependability management Part 3-4:
3-4:
Application guide Guide to the specification
of dependability requirements

,
,
. ,
,
.
IEC 61160 (2005-09)
Design review



.

.

, , ,
.

95

, ,
( 1.1)

IEC 61703 (2001-09)


Mathematical expressions for reliability,
availability, maintainability and maintenance
support terms


, ,

, ,
.

.
IEC 61882 (2001-05)
Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP
studies) Application guide

(HAZOP)
, ,
.
HAZOP, , ,
,
.
IEC 62309 (2004-07)
Dependability of products containing reused
parts Requirements for functionality and
tests

,
,

,
.
/ ,
, ,
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,
, ,
, ,
.
/
IEC 61014 (2003-07)
Programmes for reliability growth


.
,
(,
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, .
96

, ,
( 1.1)

IEC 60300-3-10 (2001-01)


Dependability management Part 3-10:
Application guide Maintainability

3-10:


, ,
, IEC 60300-2.
,
,
. IEC,
IEC 60706, ,
.
IEC 60706-2 (2006-03)
Maintainability of equipment. Part 2:
Maintainability requirements and studies
during the design and development phase

.
2:

IEC 60706
,


. ,

.
, .


.
IEC 60706-3 (2006-04)
Maintainability of equipment. Part 3:
.
Verification and collection, analysis and
3: , ,
presentation of data

IEC 60706
, ,
,
. addresses ,
,
, ,
.

97

, ,
( 1.1)

IEC 60706-5 (2007-09)


Maintainability of equipment Part 5:
Testability and diagnostic testing


5:


,
,
.

IEC 60300-3-11 (2009-06)


Dependability management Part 3-11:
3-11:
Application guide Reliability centered

maintenance
,


,
, .
IEC 60300-3-10, IEC 60300-3-12
IEC 60300-3-14.
, -
,
.
IEC 60300-3-12 (2001-12)
Dependability management Part 3-12:
Application guide Integrated logistic
support

3-12:

-

,
,

.
IEC 60300-3-14 (2004-03)
Dependability management Part 3-14:
Application guide Maintenance and
maintenance support

3-14:



, ,
. , ,

,
.
98

, ,
( 1.1)

, , (
).
, ,
, , ,
, , .

IEC 60300-3-9 (1995-12)


Dependability management Part 3:
3:
Application guide Section 9: Risk analysis
9:
of technological systems

.

,
.
IEC 62198 (2001-04)
Project risk management Application

guidelines

.
,


.
IEC/ISO 31010 (2009-11)
Risk management Risk assessment

techniques

IEC/ISO 31010:2009 IEC/ISO


ISO 31000
. ,
. :
.
,
.
IEC 51
ISO/IEC.

IEC 60300-3-15 (2009-06)


Dependability management Part 3-15:
3-15:
Application guide Engineering of system

dependability


.
99

, ,
( 1.1)

,
,
, , .
IEC 62347 (2006-11)
Guidance on system dependability

specifications


.
.

.
-
.
IEC 61907 (2009-12)
Communication network dependability

engineering

.
,
,
, ,
.

,
, .
IEC/PAS 62508 (2007-06)
Guidance on human factors engineering for
system life cycle applications

(),


.

/
IEC 60300-3-5 (2001-03)
Dependability management Part 3-5:
3-5:
Application guide Reliability test conditions
and statistical test principles


100

, ,
( 1.1)


,
.

,
. ,

, , ,
, , .
IEC 60319 (1999-09)
Presentation and specification of reliability

data for electronic components

,
.
,

. , ,

.
IEC 60605-2 (1994-10)
Equipment reliability testing Part 2: Design
of test cycles


2:


8.1 8.2 IEC 605-1.
IEC 60605-4 (2001-08)
Equipment reliability testing Part 4:
Statistical procedures for exponential
distribution Point estimates, confidence
intervals, prediction intervals and tolerance
intervals


4:

,
,

,
,
,
.
IEC 60605-6 (2007-05)
Equipment reliability testing Part 6: Tests
for the validity and estimation of the constant
failure rate and constant failure intensity


6:


101

, ,
( 1.1)


IEC 60050(191).
, .

.
IEC 60812 (2006-01)
Analysis techniques for system reliability

Procedure for failure mode and effects

analysis (FMEA)


(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis FMEA), ,
(Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis FMECA)
:
;
;
;

.
IEC 61025 (2006-12)
Fault tree analysis (FTA)


, ,
,
.
IEC 61070 (1991-11)
Compliance test procedures for steady-state

availability

,

, .
.
IEC 61078 (2006-01)
Analysis techniques for dependability
Reliability block diagram and boolean
-
methods



. -
,
. ,
102

, ,
( 1.1)

,
, .
IEC 61123 (1991-12)
Reliability testing Compliance test plans for
success ratio


.
, .
IEC 61124 (2006-03)
Reliability testing Compliance tests for
constant failure rate and constant failure
intensity

,
. ,

. ,
, ,
.
IEC 61163-1 (2006-06)
Reliability stress screening Part 1:
Repairable assemblies manufactured in lots


1:
,

IEC 61163

,
,
, .
IEC 61163-2 (1998-11)
Reliability stress screening Part 2:
Electronic components


2:


. :
) , ;
) ,


103

, ,
( 1.1)

- ;
) , ,
.
IEC 61164 (2004-03)
Reliability growth Statistical test and
estimation methods

,
,
. , ,
.
IEC 61165 (2006-05)
Application of Markov techniques



, , .
,
, , . ,
,
.
.
IEC 61649 (2008-08)
Weibull analysis

,
, , ,
.. ,
, , , , ..,
,

, .
IEC 61650 (1997-08)
Reliability data analysis techniques
Procedures for comparison of two constant
failure rates and two constant failure (event)
intensities





()

;
; / .
,
.
.
104

, ,
( 1.1)

,
.
IEC 61709 (1996-10)
Electronic components Reliability

Reference conditions for failure rates and

stress models for conversion



. ,
.

(, , ).
, ,
, ,
, ,
..
IEC 61710 (2000-11)
Power law model Goodness-of-fit tests and
estimation methods

.
,
.
.
IEC 62308 (2006-07)
Equipment reliability Reliability assessment
methods



. , ,
. ,
,
.
IEC 62429 (2007-11)
Reliability growth - Stress testing for early
failures in unique complex systems


-
.
.
105

, ,
( 1.1)

IEC/TR 62380 (2004-08)


Reliability data handbook Universal model
for reliability prediction of electronics
components, PCBs and equipment


.
, .
IEC 62502
Analysis techniques for dependability Event
Tree Analysis

1.0
IEC 62551
Analysis techniques for dependability Petri
net modelling

1.0
IEC 62506
Analysis techniques for dependability
Methods for product accelerated testing

1.0

IEC 60410 (1973-01)


Sampling plans and procedures for inspection
by attributes


. ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, ,
.
IEC 60300-3-16 (2008-10)
Dependability management Part 3-16:
Application guide Guidelines for
specification of maintenance support services

3-16:




106

, ,
( 1.1)

,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, , .

IEC 61882 (2001-05)


Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP
studies) Application guide

(HAZOP)
, ,
.
HAZOP, , , ,
.
IEC 62402 (2007-06)
Obsolescence management Application

guide



,
.
.1.1.3
IEC/TR 61508-0
IEC/TR 61508-0:2005, Functional safety of
E/E/PE safety-related systems Part 0:
Functional safety and IEC 61508

/TR 61508-0:2005,
,
,
,
0:
61508


61508.
IEC/TR 61508-1
IEC 61508-1:1998, Functional safety of
E/E/PE safety-related systems Part 1:
General requirements

61508-1:1998,
,
,
,
1:

107

, ,
( 1.1)


, /
/ (/
/ (//)),
.

.
.
IEC Guide
104.
IEC/TR 61508-2
IEC 61508-2:2000, Functional safety of
E/E/PE safety-related systems Part 2:
Requirements for E/E/PE safety-related
systems

61508-2:2000,
,
,
,
2: ,
,
,

IEC 61508-1,

.
IEC Guide 104.
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