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◦

± ±

± ◦ ◦ ± ◦

± ◦ ◦ ± ◦

µ

v L 0

L/L 0 + F/ (KL 0 ) = v/L 0

˙

F = v˙

S

0

L

0

d

1 +

1

K

S

0

L

0

d

1

dσ/d dσ/d < 0 K

×10 9 + ×10 6 %

2 s − 1 3 s − 1 4 s − 1 7 s −

2 s 1 3 s 1 4 s 1 7 s 1 5 s 1 4 s 1 s 1 2 5 s 1

◦

◦

σ = ρC V V = C σ V ρ C

V e (t ) =

C (ε i (t ) ε r (t ))

V s (t

)

=

t (t )

ε i ε r ε t

F e (t ) =

S b E (ε i (t ) + ε r (t ))

F s (t ) = S b t (t )

S b E

F s ( t ) = S b Eε t ( t ) S b E

t = L/C C C = 5000 t = 400 µ % 3 s 1

2

µ d σ d α N ∝ 2 A σ d d (1 − α
µ d σ d α N ∝ 2 A σ d d (1 − α

µ d σ d α

N

2A

σ

d

d

(1 α ) µ

A α

µ d σ d α N ∝ 2 A σ d d (1 − α )
µ d σ d α N ∝ 2 A σ d d (1 − α )
µ d σ d α N ∝ 2 A σ d d (1 − α )

+
+

+

µ s σ D 10 7 10 8 s 0 , 4R m σ D 8 0, 5R m σ D 8 10 8 σ D 10 7 10 8

2

× 2 2

h i W i W a h f W f = mgh f W a = W i W f h f

= mgh f W a = W i − W f h f s ( t
= mgh f W a = W i − W f h f s ( t

s(t ) F (t ) v (t )

m

1

t

v (t ) = v 0

F (t )dt

t

0

t

s(t ) = v (t )dt

t

0

m v 0 t 0 t % δ

δ

δ
δ
δ

δ

K c 2a σ

K = σ πa K m a σ K IC I C K

% R B R < B/25 B 2, 5(K IC E ) 2

K % R B R < B/ 25 B ≥ 2 , 5( K I C
K % R B R < B/ 25 B ≥ 2 , 5( K I C
K % R B R < B/ 25 B ≥ 2 , 5( K I C

γ

γ

µ %

µ x

I

= I 0 e µx

±1µm/m

ε = L = 1

L

R

K R

R K K = C (1 2ν )+1+2ν C ε = 0, 0014 K = 2, 1 δR/R = 0, 3% V ±

◦ 10 5 10 6 µ
◦ 10 5 10 6 µ

10 5 10 6

µ

◦ 10 5 10 6 µ

t

4 7

+

+