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# 1

30 The graphs show the variation with potential difference V of the current I for three circuit elements.
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graph X

aS

ha

ky

graph Y

graph Z

an

dr

The three circuit elements are a metal wire at constant temperature, a semiconductor diode and a
filament lamp.

semiconductor
diode

filament
lamp

jit

metal wire
at constant temperature

Ch

## Which row of the table correctly identifies these graphs?

Sa

X
Y

ng

ed

by

le

da

nd

re

ar

ra

31 In the circuit below, the battery converts an amount E of chemical energy to electrical energy
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when charge Q passes through the resistor in time t.

Co

pi

Which expressions give the e.m.f. of the battery and the current in the resistor?
e.m.f.

current

EQ

Q/t

EQ

Qt

E/Q

Q/t

E/Q

Qt

33 The diagrams show connected wires which carry currents I1, I2, I3 and I4.

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## The currents are related by the equation I1 + I2 = I3 + I4.

To which diagram does this equation apply?

I4

I3
I4

I2

I4

I1

I1

I1

I2

I3

I2

I3

ha

I1

ky

I2

aS

I3

dr

I4

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an

## 35 A potential divider is used to give outputs of 2 V and 3 V from a 5 V source, as shown.

Ch

+5V

+3V

Sa

jit

R1

by

R2

+2V

ng

ed

R3

ra

0V

R3/ k

10

pi

le

da

re

R2/ k

nd

R1/ k

ar

What are possible values for the resistances R1, R2 and R3?

## 30 Which equation is used to define resistance?

power = (current)2 resistance

## energy = (current)2 resistance time

Co

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34 When four identical lamps P, Q, R and S are connected as shown in diagram 1, they have normal
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brightness.

S
diagram 2

aS

diagram 1

ha

ky

Ch

## The lamps do not light.

Sa

jit

an

dr

When the four lamps are connected as shown in diagram 2, which statement is correct?

by

32 The filament of a 240 V, 100 W electric lamp heats up from room temperature to its operating
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temperature. As it heats up, its resistance increases by a factor of 16.

36 1

580 1

1.5 k1

ng

ed

D

9.2 k1

ra

## 33 At a circuit junction, a current I divides into currents I1, I2 and I3.

I2

da

nd

re

ar

I1

le

I3

I = I1 + I2 + I3.

Co

pi

## These currents are related by the equation

Which law does this statement illustrate and on what principle is the law based?
A

## Kirchhoffs second law based on conservation of energy

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31 The graph shows how the current through a lamp filament varies with the potential difference
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across it.

an

p.d.

dr

0
0

aS

ha

ky

current

Ch

## Which statement explains the shape of this graph?

As the filament temperature rises, electrons can pass more easily through the filament.

## It takes time for the filament to reach its working temperature.

The power output of the filament is proportional to the square of the current through it.

by

Sa

jit

ra

ng

ed

## 34 The combined resistance RT of two resistors of resistances R1 and R2 connected in parallel is

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given by the formula
1
1
1
= +
RT
R1
R2

ar

## Which statement is used in the derivation of this formula?

The currents through the two resistors are equal.

## The potential difference across each resistor is the same.

The supply current is split between the two resistors in the same ratio as the ratio of their
resistances.

The total power dissipated is the sum of the powers dissipated in the two resistors separately.

le

da

nd

re

pi

31 The sum of the electrical currents into a point in a circuit is equal to the sum of the currents out of
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the point.

Co

## Which of the following is correct?

A

This is Kirchhoffs first law, which results from the conservation of charge.

This is Kirchhoffs first law, which results from the conservation of energy.

This is Kirchhoffs second law, which results from the conservation of charge.

This is Kirchhoffs second law, which results from the conservation of energy.

32 The variation with potential difference V of the current I in a semiconductor diode is shown below.
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1.0 2.0

V/V

aS

-2.0 -1.0

ha

ky

I / mA
50

Ch

an

dr

-50

jit

What is the resistance of the diode for applied potential differences of +1.0 V and 1.0 V?

at 1.0 V

20 1

infinite

20 1

zero

0.05 1

infinite

0.05 1

zero

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

at +1.0 V

Sa

resistance

da

nd

re

36 Six resistors, each of resistance 5 , are connected to a 2 V cell of negligible internal resistance.
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51

51

2V

le

X
51

pi

51

Co

Y
51

51

## What is the potential difference between terminals X and Y?

A







2V

ky

dr

aS

ha

35 In the potentiometer circuit below, the moveable contact is placed at N on the bare wire XY, such
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that the galvanometer shows zero deflection.

an

## The resistance of the variable resistor is now increased.

Ch

What is the effect of this increase on the potential difference across the wire XY and on the
position of the moveable contact for zero deflection?
position of moveable contact

increases

nearer to X

increases

decreases

decreases

Sa

jit

## potential difference across XY

by

nearer to Y

nearer to Y

ng

ed

nearer to X

ra

30 The current in a component is reduced uniformly from 100 mA to 20 mA over a period of 8.0 s.
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320 mC

re

160 mC

480 mC

nd

ar

## What is the charge that flows during this time?

640 mC

pi

le

da

32 The e.m.f. of the cell in the following circuit is 9.0 V. The reading on the high-resistance voltmeter
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is 7.5 V.

Co

15

A

0.1 A

0.5 A

0.6 A

2.0 A

10 k

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6 k

Y
10 k

ha

6 k

ky

4 k

8 k

16 k

32 k

an

dr

aS

## What is the resistance between X and Y?

Sa

jit

Ch

34 The diagram shows a potential divider connected to a 9.0 V supply of negligible internal
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resistance.

by

10 k

P
50 k

ar

ra

ng

ed

9.0 V

zero to 1.5 V

zero to 7.5 V

1.5 V to 7.5 V

1.5 V to 9.0 V

pi

le

da

nd

re

Co

## How many electrons pass a point in the wire in this time?

A

1.2 1015

7.2 103

1.3 1019

4.5 1022

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31 The diagram shows a circuit in which the battery has negligible internal resistance.

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12 V

2.0

ky

6.0

aS

ha

3.0

1.0 A

1.6 A

2.0 A

3.0 A

an

dr

1
2

ed

by

1
4

Sa

## What is the ratio current in P ?

current in Q
A

I1

re

ar

ra

ng

32 The diagram shows currents I1, I2, I3, I4 and I5 in different branches of a circuit.

I2

pi

le

da

nd

I3

I4

## Which one of the following is correct?

Co

I1 = I2 + I3

I2 = I1 + I3

I3 = I4 + I5

I4 = I5 + I3

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jit

Ch

31 Two wires made of the same material and of the same length are connected in parallel to the
same voltage supply. Wire P has a diameter of 2 mm. Wire Q has a diameter of 1 mm.

I5

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33 Which diagram shows a potential divider circuit that can vary the voltage across the lamp?
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aS

ha

ky

1.5 V

1.5 V

2.0

Sa

jit

Ch

0.5

9702/01/O/N/03

an

dr

34 The diagram shows two circuits. In these circuits, only the internal resistances differ.

circuit X

3.0
circuit Y

power dissipated
in 3.0 resistor

greater in X than in Y

less in X than in Y

greater in X than in Y

greater in X than in Y

less in X than in Y

nd

re

da

ar

potential difference
across 3.0 resistor

ra

ng

## Which line in the table is correct?

ed

by

3.0

greater in X than in Y

le

less in X than in Y

less in X than in Y

pi

## 32 What is an equivalent unit to 1 volt?

1 J A1

1 J C1

1 W C1

1 W s1

Co

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34 The potential difference between point X and point Y is 20 V. The time taken for charge carriers to
move from X to Y is 15 s, and, in this time, the energy of the charge carriers changes by 12 J.
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## What is the current between X and Y?

A

0.040 A

0.11 A

9.0 A

25 A

10

33 The terminal voltage of a battery is observed to fall when the battery supplies a current to an
external resistor.
9702/01/M/J/04

ky

aS

ha

## What quantities are needed to calculate the fall in voltage?

dr

35 The diagram shows a battery, a fixed resistor, an ammeter and a variable resistor connected in
series.
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by

Sa

jit

Ch

an

ed

## The value of the variable resistor is reduced.

ng

Which correctly describes the changes in the readings of the ammeter and of the voltmeter?
voltmeter

ra

ammeter
A

decrease

decrease

increase

decrease

increase

increase

ar

decrease

da

nd

re

increase

le

36 Kirchhoffs two laws for electric circuits can be derived by using conservation laws.

pi

## On which conservation laws do Kirchhoffs laws depend?

Kirchhoffs
second law

charge

current

charge

energy

current

mass

energy

current

Co

Kirchhoffs
first law

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11

37 The diagram shows a parallel combination of three resistors. The total resistance of the
combination is 3 .
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12

ha

ky

3

6A

4A

2A

Sa

8A

ed
ng
ra
ar

nd

re

by

9702/01/O/N/04

jit

## Which heater has the greatest power dissipation?

12

dr

an

Ch

aS

da

35 The diagram shows a junction in a circuit where three wires P, Q and R meet. The currents in P
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and Q are 1 A and 3 A respectively, in the directions shown.

le

pi

3A

1A

Co

A

0.4

0.8

10

12

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## The thermistor is kept in air. The air is at room temperature.

Which graph best represents the way in which the current I in the thermistor depends upon the
potential difference V across it?

dr

an

aS

ha

ky

Ch

33 When a potential difference V is applied between the ends of a wire of diameter d and length l ,
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the current in the wire is I.

2I

4I

by

Sa

jit

What is the current when a potential difference of 2V is applied between the ends of a wire of the
same material of diameter 2d and the length 2l ? Assume that the temperature of the wire
remains constant.
D

8I

le

da

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

ed

37 In the circuit shown, the ammeters have negligible resistance and the voltmeters have infinite
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resistance.

I1

I2

V1

V2

pi

The readings on the meters are I1, I2, V1 and V2, as labelled on the diagram.

Co

Which is correct?
A

## I1 < I2 and V1 < V2

13

36 The diagram shows a potential divider circuit designed to provide a variable output p.d.
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5.0 k

9.0 V

aS

ha

ky

output

5.0 k

minimum output

3.0 V

4.5 V

9.0 V

9.0 V

4.5 V

Sa

jit

Ch

an

maximum output

dr

by

## 32 A copper wire of cross-sectional area 2.0 mm2 carries a current of 10 A.

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1.0 x 101

5.0 x 106

6.3 x 1019

ng

ed

How many electrons pass through a given cross-section of the wire in one second?
D

3.1 x 1025

ar

ra

## 33 A cylindrical piece of a soft, electrically-conducting material has resistance R. It is rolled out so

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that its length is doubled but its volume stays constant.

nd

R
2

re

R

2R

4R

Co

pi

le

da

## 35 Which electrical component is represented by the following symbol?

a diode

a light-dependent resistor

a resistor

a thermistor

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14

34 The I-V characteristics of two electrical components P and Q are shown below.

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2.0
I/A
1.5

P
Q

ha

ky

1.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0
V/V

## Which statement is correct?

P is a resistor and Q is a filament lamp.

## At 0.5 A the power dissipated in Q is double that in P.

by

Sa

jit

Ch

an

0
0

dr

aS

0.5

ed

36 The diagram shows a circuit with four voltmeter readings V, V1, V2 and V3.

ng

ra
ar
re
nd

V1

V2

2R

Co

pi

le

da

V3
V

A

V = V1 + V2 + V3

V + V1 = V2 + V3

V3 = 2(V2)

V V1 = V3

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15

## 37 In the circuit below, P is a potentiometer of total resistance 10 and Q is a fixed resistor of

resistance 10 . The battery has an e.m.f. of 4.0 V and negligible internal resistance. The
voltmeter has a very high resistance. The slider on the potentiometer is moved from X to Y and a
graph of voltmeter reading V is plotted against slider position.
9702/01/M/J/05

ky

ha

4.0 V

aS

an

dr

Ch

Sa

jit

slider position

ra

ed

ar

slider position

D
V
4

re

ng

by

da

nd

slider position

pi

le

## 32 Which equation is used to define resistance?

energy = (current)2 resistance time

## resistivity = resistance area length

Co

slider position

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16

32 The graphs show the variation with potential difference V of the current I for three circuit
components.
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graph X

graph Y

graph Z

dr

aS

ha

ky

semiconductor
diode

filament
lamp

by

Sa

metal wire
at constant
temperature

jit

## Which row of the table correctly identifies these graphs?

Ch

an

The components are a metal wire at constant temperature, a semiconductor diode and a filament
lamp.

ra

ng

ed

nd

re

ar

33 Tensile strain may be measured by the change in electrical resistance of a strain gauge. A strain
gauge consists of folded fine metal wire mounted on a flexible insulating backing sheet. The
strain gauge is firmly attached to the specimen, so that the strain in the metal wire is always
identical to that in the specimen.
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strain gauge

pi

le

da

specimen

When the strain in the specimen is increased, what happens to the resistance of the wire?
It decreases, because the length decreases and the cross-sectional area increases.

It decreases, because the length increases and the cross-sectional area decreases.

It increases, because the length decreases and the cross-sectional area increases.

It increases, because the length increases and the cross-sectional area decreases.

Co

17

34 The graph shows how the electric current I through a conducting liquid varies with the potential
difference V across it.
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At which point on the graph does the liquid have the smallest resistance?
D

ky

ha

dr

light-dependent resistor

thermistor

by

fuse

ed

ng

Sa

A

9702/01/O/N/05

jit

## 35 An electrical component has the following circuit symbol.

an

Ch

aS

ar

ra

36 Three resistors are connected in series with a battery as shown in the diagram. The battery has
negligible internal resistance.
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180

6.0 V

da

nd

re

120

pi

le

150

## What is the potential difference across the 180 resistor?

1.6 V

Co

2.4 V

3.6 V

6.0 V

29 Two heating coils X and Y, of resistance RX and RY respectively, deliver the same power when
12 V is applied across X and 6 V is applied across Y.
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What is the ratio RX / RY?
A

18

VL

dr

aS

ha

VT

ky

37 In the circuit below, the reading VT on the voltmeter changes from high to low as the temperature
of the thermistor changes. The reading VL on the voltmeter changes from high to low as the level
of light on the light-dependent resistor (LDR) changes.
9702/01/O/N/05

an

low

low

high

high

low

high

high

jit

low

Sa

by

light level

ed

temperature

Ch

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10

10

10

le

da

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

10

pi

## What is the total electrical resistance between X and Y?

Co

less than 1

between 1 and 10

between 10 and 30

40

19

## 31 The current in the circuit is 4.8 A.

9702/01/M/J/06

ha

ky

6.0 1018 s1

in direction X to Y

3.0 1019 s1

in direction Y to X

6.0 1018 s1

in direction Y to X

dr

in direction X to Y

an

3.0 1019 s1

Ch

aS

What is the rate of flow and the direction of flow of electrons through the resistor R?

1000

by

ed

ng

2000

9702/01/M/J/06

Sa

500

jit

1000

4V

6V

8V

re

0V

ar

ra

## What is the p.d. between X and Y?

9702/01/M/J/06

da

nd

34 The diagram shows a low-voltage circuit for heating the water in a fish tank.

heater

pi

le

source

Co

The heater has a resistance of 3.0 . The voltage source has an e.m.f. of 12 V and an internal
resistance of 1.0 .
At what rate does the voltage source supply energy to the heater?

27 W

36 W

48 W

64 W

20

ha

ky

aS

36 When four identical lamps P, Q, R and S are connected as shown in diagram 1, they have normal
brightness.
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diagram 2

dr

diagram 1

an

The four lamps and the battery are then connected as shown in diagram 2.

Sa

by

ed

jit

Ch

## Which statement is correct?

9702/01/M/J/06

ar

ra

ng

37 The diagram shows a light-dependent resistor (LDR) and a thermistor forming a potential divider.

le

da

nd

re

Co

pi

Under which set of conditions will the potential difference across the thermistor have the greatest
value?
illumination

temperature

low

low

high

low

low

high

high

high

21

32

A

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## 35 The resistance of a device is designed to change with temperature.

a light-dependent resistor

a potential divider

a semiconductor diode

a thermistor

jit
Sa
by

ra

ng

ed

I2

ar

20.2 mA

10.6 mA

le

da

nd

re

I1

pi

Co

9702/01/O/N/06

Ch

an

## What is the device?

aS

dr

ha

ky

I1

I2

0.2 mA

10.8 mA

0.2 mA

30.8 mA

0.2 mA

20.0 mA

0.2 mA

30.8 mA

10.8 mA

9702/01/O/N/06

22

33 An electrical component has a potential difference V across it and a current I through it. A graph
of I against V is drawn and is marked in three sections WX, XY and YZ.
9702/01/O/N/06
Z
I

ky

W
0
0

ha

aS

an

dr

In which ways does the resistance of the component vary within each of the three sections?
XY

YZ

constant

decreases

increases

constant

increases

increases

increases

decreases

constant

increases

increases

decreases

by

Sa

jit

Ch

WX

ng

ed

34 The diagram shows a potentiometer and a fixed resistor connected across a 12 V battery of
negligible internal resistance.
9702/01/O/N/06

ar

ra

20

re

12 V

20

da

nd

output

le

The fixed resistor and the potentiometer each have resistance 20 . The circuit is designed to
provide a variable output voltage.

pi

06V

0 12 V

6 12 V

12 20 V

Co

9702/01/M/J/07

A

0.16 mC

1.6 mC

4.0 mC

0.40 C

23

9702/01/O/N/06

A
100

100

100

100

100

aS

100

20

20
20

an

20

Ch

20

dr

C
20

100

ha

100

ky

100

20

Sa

jit

20

## 31 What is a correct statement of Ohms law?

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The potential difference across a component equals the current providing the resistance and
other physical conditions stay constant.

The potential difference across a component equals the current multiplied by the resistance.

## The potential difference across a component is proportional to the current in it providing

physical conditions stay constant.

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

da

nd

re

9702/01/M/J/07

5k

le

9V

Co

pi

## The light intensity is increased.

What is a possible voltmeter reading?
A

3V

4V

6V

8V

24

33 A cell of e.m.f. 2.0 V and negligible internal resistance is connected to the network of resistors
shown.
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2.0 k
Q
3.0 k

aS

5.0 k

ha

2.0 V

ky

5.0 k

dr

an

V1 is the potential difference between S and P. V2 is the potential difference between S and Q.

+0.20 V

0.20 V

0.50 V

Sa

+0.50 V

jit

Ch

## What is the value of V1 V2?

by

37 A researcher has two pieces of copper of the same volume. All of the first piece is made into a
cylindrical resistor P of length x.
9702/01/M/J/07

ed

current

ng

resistor P

re

ar

ra

All of the second piece is made into uniform wires each of the same length x which he connects
between two bars of negligible resistance to form a resistor Q.

current
bar of
negligible
resistance
wires

pi

le

da

nd

resistor Q

Co

## P and Q have equal resistance.

Q may have a larger or smaller resistance than P, depending on the number of wires made.

25

Q/t

EQ

Qt

E/Q

Q/t

E/Q

Qt

ha

EQ

dr

an

current

jit

Ch

e.m.f.

aS

Which expressions give the e.m.f. of the battery and the current in the resistor?

ky

35 In the circuit below, the battery converts an amount E of chemical energy to electrical energy
when charge Q passes through the resistor in time t.
9702/01/M/J/07

9702/01/M/J/07

Sa

battery

3.0 V

ra

ng

ed

by

2.0

ar

4.0

re

V/V

P/W

da

nd

## What are the terminal potential difference V and output power P?

1.0

0.50

1.0

1.5

2.0

1.0

2.0

1.5

Co

pi

le

31 Two wires P and Q have resistances RP and RQ respectively. Wire P is twice as long as wire Q
and has twice the diameter of wire Q. The wires are made of the same material.
9702/01/O/N/07
RP
?
What is the ratio
RQ
A

0.5

26

9702/01/O/N/07

ky

10

ha

10

6.0 V

0.60 C

3.0 C

18 C

dr

0.30 C

aS

## What charge flows through each of the 10 resistors in 1 minute?

jit

by

Sa

Ch

an

32 A potential divider consists of a fixed resistor R and a light-dependent resistor (LDR). 9702/01/O/N/07

ng

ed

ar

ra

What happens to the voltmeter reading, and why does it happen, when the intensity of light on
the LDR increases?
The voltmeter reading decreases because the LDR resistance decreases.

da

nd

re

pi

le

Co

## What is the ratio

1
4

9702/01/M/J/08

1
2

I.

power dissipated in Y
?
power dissipated in X
B

1
2

27

33 The circuit is designed to trigger an alarm system when the input voltage exceeds some preset
value. It does this by comparing Vout with a fixed reference voltage, which is set at 4.8 V.
9702/01/O/N/07

15 k

10 k

ky

Vin

dr

aS

ha

Vout

an

7.2 V

9.6 V

12 V

jit

4.8 V

Ch

9702/01/O/N/07

Sa

## 34 A potentiometer is used as shown to compare the e.m.f.s of two cells.

ed

by

driver cell

0.90 m

ng

0.70 m

metre rule

re

ar

ra

nd

The balance points for cells X and Y are 0.70 m and 0.90 m respectively.

le

0.69 V

pi

da

## If the e.m.f. of cell X is 1.1 V, what is the e.m.f. of cell Y?

0.86 V

0.99 V

1.4 V

28 Which electrical quantity would be the result of a calculation in which energy transfer is divided by
charge?
9702/01/O/N/07
current

potential difference

power

resistance

Co

28

35 When four identical resistors are connected as shown in diagram 1, the ammeter reads 1.0 A and
the voltmeter reads zero.
9702/01/O/N/07
diagram 2

diagram 1
6.0 V

ky

6.0 V

aS

ha

dr

The resistors and meters are reconnected to the supply as shown in diagram 2.

1.0

3.0

0.5

3.0

1.0

6.0

Ch

ammeter reading / A

ed

by

Sa

jit

voltmeter reading / V

an

ng

## 33 A total charge of 100 C flows through a 12 W light bulb in a time of 50 s.

9702/01/M/J/08

What is the potential difference across the bulb during this time?
B

2.0 V

6.0 V

24 V

ar

0.12 V

ra

re

34 Two copper wires X and Y have the same volume. Wire Y is four times as long as wire X.
4L

9702/01/M/J/08

le

da

nd

pi

## What is the ratio

4

16

64

Co

resistance of wire Y
?
resistance of wire X

34 The charge that a fully-charged 12 V car battery can supply is 100 kC. The starter motor of the car
requires a current of 200 A for an average period of 2.0 s. The battery does not recharge because
of a fault.
9702/01/O/N/08
What is the maximum number of times the starter motor of the car can be used?
A

21

25

42

250

29

35 The potential difference across a resistor is 12 V. The current in the resistor is 2.0 A.

9702/01/M/J/08

## 4.0 C passes through the resistor.

What is the energy transferred and the time taken?
time / s

3.0

2.0

3.0

8.0

48

2.0

48

8.0

dr

aS

ha

ky

energy / J

Ch

an

36 A thermistor and another component are connected to a constant voltage supply. A voltmeter is
connected across one of the components. The temperature of the thermistor is then reduced but
no other changes are made.
9702/01/M/J/08

jit

## In which circuit will the voltmeter reading increase?

A

ed

by

Sa

ra

ng

da

nd

re

ar

pi

le

31 Two wires P and Q made of the same material and of the same length are connected in parallel
to the same voltage supply. Wire P has diameter 2 mm and wire Q has diameter 1 mm.

Co

9702/01/O/N/08

## What is the ratio current in P ?

current in Q

1
4

1
2

2
1

4
1

30

37 In the circuit shown, the 6.0 V battery has negligible internal resistance. Resistors R1 and R2 and
the voltmeter have resistance 100 k.
9702/01/M/J/08

6.0 V

R2

100 k

100 k

aS

ha

ky

R1

dr

100 k

30 A

40 A

60 A

Ch

20 A

an

## What is the current in the resistor R2?

Sa

jit

38 The unknown e.m.f. E of a cell is to be determined using a potentiometer circuit. The balance
length is to be measured when the galvanometer records a null reading.
9702/01/M/J/08
What is the correct circuit to use?

ra

ng

ed

by

re

ar

Co

pi

le

da

nd

## 31 A 12 V battery is charged for 20 minutes by connecting it to a source of electromotive force

9702/01/M/J/09
(e.m.f.). The battery is supplied with 7.2 104 J of energy in this time.
How much charge flows into the battery?
A

5.0 C

60 C

100 C

6000 C

31

32 An electric power cable consists of six copper wires c surrounding a steel core s.

9702/01/O/N/08

c
c
c
s
c
c
c

ha

ky

1.0 km of one of the copper wires has a resistance of 10 and 1.0 km of the steel core has a
resistance of 100 .

0.61

1.6

160

610

dr

aS

## What is the approximate resistance of a 1.0 km length of the power cable?

B
I

jit

Sa

Ch

an

33 Which graph best represents the way the current I through a filament lamp varies with the
potential difference V across it?
9702/01/O/N/08

0
0

0
0

0
0

ed

by

0
0

9702/01/O/N/08

12 V

10

10

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

## 35 The diagram shows a circuit containing three resistors in parallel.

le

da

pi

The battery has e.m.f. 12 V and negligible internal resistance. The ammeter reading is 3.2 A.

Co

2.1

4.6

6.0

15

## 33 A copper wire is cylindrical and has resistance R.

9702/11/O/N/10

What will be the resistance of a copper wire of twice the length and twice the radius?
A

R
4

R
2

2R

32

36 The e.m.f. of the battery is 9.0 V. The reading on the high-resistance voltmeter is 7.5 V.
9702/01/O/N/08

9.0 V

ky

aS

ha

15

0.10 A

0.50 A

0.60 A

2.0 A

an

dr

E1

ed

by

Sa

9702/01/O/N/08

jit

Ch

## 37 The diagram shows a potentiometer circuit.

ar

ra

E2

ng

nd

re

The contact T is placed on the wire and moved along the wire until the galvanometer reading is
zero. The length XT is then noted.

da

In order to calculate the potential difference per unit length on the wire XY, which value must also
be known?
A

le

pi

Co

A

m2

m1

9702/11/M/J/10

33

## 32 What is meant by the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of a cell?

9702/01/M/J/09

The e.m.f. of a cell is the energy converted into electrical energy when unit charge passes
through the cell.

The e.m.f. of a cell is the energy transferred by the cell in driving unit charge through the
external resistance.

The e.m.f. of a cell is the energy transferred by the cell in driving unit charge through the
internal resistance of the cell.

The e.m.f. of a cell is the amount of energy needed to bring a unit positive charge from
infinity to its positive pole.

aS

ha

ky

1.2 V

by

Sa

9.0

jit

Ch

3.0 V

an

dr

33 Two cells of e.m.f. 3.0 V and 1.2 V and negligible internal resistance are connected to resistors of
9702/01/M/J/09
resistance 9.0 and 18 as shown.

ed

18

0.20 A

0.30 A

0.47 A

ra

0.10 A

ng

## What is the value of the current I in the 9.0 resistor?

9702/01/M/J/09

re

ar

30 Which amount of charge, flowing in the given time, will produce the largest current?
charge / C

time / s

1
4

1
4

le

da

nd

pi

Co

9702/11/M/J/10

## What will be the current in the galvanometer?

A

250 A

300 A

1.5 mA

2.5 mA

34

34 Six identical 12 resistors are arranged in two groups, one with three in series and the other with
9702/01/M/J/09
three in parallel.
12

12

12

12

ky

12

parallel

0.25

4.0

36

36

0.25

36

4.0

Ch

4.0

jit

Sa

parallel

by

series

an

dr

aS

series

ha

12

## 35 The diagrams show a light-dependent resistor in circuit P, and a thermistor in circuit Q.

da

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

ed

9702/01/M/J/09

circuit P

circuit Q

pi

le

How does the potential difference across the fixed resistor in each circuit change when both the
brightness of the light on the light-dependent resistor and the temperature of the thermistor are
9702/01/M/J/09
increased?
circuit Q

decrease

decrease

decrease

increase

increase

decrease

increase

increase

Co

circuit P

35

## 30 A cell is connected to a resistor.

9702/11/O/N/09

aS

ha

ky

At any given moment, the potential difference across the cell is less than its electromotive force.

## Which statement explains this?

The cell is continually discharging.

## Power is used when there is a current in the resistor.

jit

Ch

an

dr

16

by

resistance /

9702/11/O/N/09

ng

ed

current / A

Sa

31 Which values of current and resistance will produce a rate of energy transfer of 16 J s1?

ar

ra

re

32 A cylindrical wire 4.0 m long has a resistance of 31 and is made of metal of resistivity
9702/11/O/N/09
1.0 106 m.

nd

1.0 108 m

2.0 108 m

le

6.4 108 m

pi

da

2.0 104 m

Co

9702/12/M/J/10

## It is connected across a galvanometer of resistance 30 .

What will be the current in the galvanometer?
A

250 A

300 A

1.5 mA

2.5 mA

36

## 33 Each of Kirchhoff's two laws presumes that some quantity is conserved.

9702/11/O/N/09

Which row states Kirchhoff's first law and names the quantity that is conserved?
quantity

## the algebraic sum of

currents into a junction is
zero

charge

## the algebraic sum of

currents into a junction is
zero

energy

## the e.m.f. in a loop is

equal to the algebraic sum
of the product of current
and resistance round the
loop

charge

## the e.m.f. in a loop is

equal to the algebraic sum
of the product of current
and resistance round the
loop

energy

by

Sa

jit

Ch

an

dr

aS

ha

ky

statement

9702/11/O/N/09

ed

ng

ra

## the number of protons flowing past a point in XY per second

da

nd

re

ar

le

36 A network of resistors consists of two 3.0 resistors and three 6.0 resistors.

pi
m
Co

6.0

3.0

6.0
X

Y
3.0

6.0

A

0.86

1.2

3.5

24

9702/11/O/N/09

37

## 35 A potential divider consisting of resistors of resistance R1 and R2 is connected to an input

potential difference of V0 and gives an output p.d. of V.
9702/11/O/N/09

R2

ha

ky

V0
V

dr

aS

R1

V0 R 2
R1 + R 2

V0 ( R1 + R 2 )
R1

Ch

V0 R1
R1 + R 2

jit

V 0 R1
R2

an

9702/12/O/N/09

Sa

## 29 A cell is connected to a resistor.

ra

ng

ed

by

At any given moment, the potential difference across the cell is less than its electromotive force.

ar

## Power is used when there is a current in the resistor.

le

da

nd

re

pi

31 A cylindrical wire 4.0 m long has a resistance of 31 and is made of metal of resistivity
1.0 106 m.
9702/12/O/N/09

Co

## What is the radius of cross-section of the wire?

A

1.0 108 m

2.0 108 m

6.4 108 m

2.0 104 m

38

30 Which values of current and resistance will produce a rate of energy transfer of 16 J s1?
9702/12/O/N/09

resistance /

16

aS

ha

ky

current / A

9702/12/O/N/09

quantity
charge

## the algebraic sum of

currents into a junction is
zero

energy

## the e.m.f. in a loop is

equal to the algebraic sum
of the product of current
and resistance round the
loop

## the e.m.f. in a loop is

equal to the algebraic sum
of the product of current
and resistance round the
loop

by

Sa

jit

## the algebraic sum of

currents into a junction is
zero

Ch

statement

an

dr

Which row states Kirchhoff's first law and names the quantity that is conserved?

energy

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

ed

charge

le

da

9702/12/O/N/09

I
X

pi

## What does this current represent?

the amount of charge flowing past a point in XY per second

Co

39

## 34 A potential divider consisting of resistors of resistance R1 and R2 is connected to an input

potential difference of V0 and gives an output p.d. of V.
9702/12/O/N/09

ky

R2

ha

V0
V

## What is the value of V ?

V0 R1
R1 + R 2

V0 R 2
R1 + R 2

V0 ( R1 + R 2 )
R1

jit

Ch

V 0 R1
R2

an

dr

aS

R1

Sa

35 A network of resistors consists of two 3.0 resistors and three 6.0 resistors.

6.0

by

3.0

6.0

ed

9702/12/O/N/09

3.0

ra

ng

6.0

1.2

nd

re

0.86

ar

C

3.5

24

9702/11/M/J/10

pi

le

da

Co

## The battery, of negligible internal resistance, supplies a total power of 12 W.

What is the power dissipated by heating in resistor R?
A

2W

3W

4W

6W

40

## 32 The resistance of a thermistor depends on its temperature, and the resistance of a

light-dependent resistor (LDR) depends on the illumination.
9702/11/M/J/10

highest illumination

highest temperature

lowest illumination

lowest temperature

highest illumination

lowest temperature

lowest illumination

ky

highest temperature

ha

aS

LDR

dr

thermistor

Under which conditions will the resistance of both a thermistor and an LDR be highest?

an

34 In deriving a formula for the combined resistance of three different resistors in series, Kirchhoffs
laws are used.
9702/11/M/J/10

Ch

## Which physics principle is involved in this derivation?

the conservation of charge

by

Sa

jit

ed

## 36 In each arrangement of resistors, the ammeter has a resistance of 2 .

ng

9702/11/M/J/10

ra

Which arrangement gives the largest reading on the ammeter when the same potential difference
is applied between points P and Q?

re

A
P

Q
2

D
1

1
A

A
Q

Co

pi

le

da

nd

ar

A

m2

m1

9702/12/M/J/10

41

## 30 The resistance of a thermistor depends on its temperature, and the resistance of a

light-dependent resistor (LDR) depends on the illumination.
9702/12/M/J/10

highest illumination

highest temperature

lowest illumination

lowest temperature

highest illumination

lowest temperature

lowest illumination

ky

highest temperature

ha

aS

LDR

dr

thermistor

Under which conditions will the resistance of both a thermistor and an LDR be highest?

## 32 In each arrangement of resistors, the ammeter has a resistance of 2 .

an

9702/12/M/J/10

Ch

Which arrangement gives the largest reading on the ammeter when the same potential difference
is applied between points P and Q?

Sa

2
A
Q

D
1

ar

A
Q

re

A
2

ra

ng

ed

by

jit

nd

da

## 33 The resistance of a thermistor depends on its temperature, and the resistance of a

light-dependent resistor (LDR) depends on the illumination.
9702/13/M/J/10

pi

le

Under which conditions will the resistance of both a thermistor and an LDR be highest?
LDR

highest temperature

highest illumination

highest temperature

lowest illumination

lowest temperature

highest illumination

lowest temperature

lowest illumination

Co

thermistor

42

9702/12/M/J/10

aS

ha

ky

dr

3W

4W

6W

Ch

2W

an

Sa

## Which physics principle is involved in this derivation?

jit

35 In deriving a formula for the combined resistance of three different resistors in series, Kirchhoffs
laws are used.
9702/12/M/J/10

ra

ng

ed

by

ar

9702/13/M/J/10

re

250 A

300 A

1.5 mA

2.5 mA

da

nd

## What will be the current in the galvanometer?

pi

le

36 In deriving a formula for the combined resistance of three different resistors in series, Kirchhoffs
laws are used.
9702/13/M/J/10

## Which physics principle is involved in this derivation?

the conservation of charge

Co

43

## 34 In each arrangement of resistors, the ammeter has a resistance of 2 .

9702/13/M/J/10

Which arrangement gives the largest reading on the ammeter when the same potential difference
is applied between points P and Q?

2
A

A
P

ha

dr

D
1

aS

2
C

ky

an

1
A
Q

Ch

Sa

jit

by
Q

ar

ra

ng

ed

9702/13/M/J/10

re

da

2W

nd

B

3W

4W

6W

pi

le

a diode

a potentiometer

a resistor

a thermistor

Co

9702/12/O/N/10

44

## 31 The current in the circuit shown is 4.8 A.

9702/11/O/N/10

ha

ky

3.0 1019 s1

X to Y

6.0 1018 s1

Y to X

3.0 1019 s1

Y to X

6.0 1018 s1

dr

X to Y

an

Ch

rate of flow

jit

direction of flow

aS

What is the direction of flow and the rate of flow of electrons through the resistor R?

9702/11/O/N/10

ra

ng

ed

by

Sa

## 32 Which component has the I-V graph shown?

ar

filament lamp

light-dependent resistor

semiconductor diode

thermistor

le

da

nd

re

pi

9702/11/O/N/10

40

Co

160
120

A

320

240

190

80

45

## 35 The diagram shows part of a circuit.

9702/12/O/N/10

6.0

4.0

4.0

6.0

ky

3.0

4.0

dr

6.0

aS

ha

4.0

4.0

10

37

Ch

1.3

an

What is the resistance between the points P and Q due to the resistance network?

9702/11/O/N/10

jit

Sa

10

by

ng

ed

10

10

ar

ra

10

re

## What is the total electrical resistance between X and Y?

less than 1

between 1 and 10

between 10 and 30

40

pi

le

da

nd

31 When there is no current in a wire, which statement about the conduction electrons in that wire
is correct?
9702/12/O/N/10
Electrons in the wire are moving totally randomly within the wire.

Equal numbers of electrons move at the same speed, but in opposite directions, along the
wire.

## No current is flowing therefore the electrons in the wire are stationary.

No current is flowing therefore the electrons in the wire are vibrating around a fixed point.

Co

46

## 37 In the circuit below, P is a potentiometer of total resistance 10 and Q is a fixed resistor of

resistance 10 . The battery has an e.m.f. of 4.0 V and negligible internal resistance. The
voltmeter has a very high resistance.
9702/11/O/N/10
X

ky

ha

4.0 V

dr

aS

an

The slider on the potentiometer is moved from X to Y and a graph of voltmeter reading V is
plotted against slider position.

Ch

B
V
4

by

jit

V
4

ed

0
X

V
4

Sa

V
4

slider position

Y
slider position

Y
slider position

ra

ng

slider position

## 32 The current in the circuit shown is 4.8 A.

le

da

nd

re

ar

9702/13/O/N/10

R
X

Co

pi

What is the direction of flow and the rate of flow of electrons through the resistor R?
direction of flow

rate of flow

X to Y

3.0 1019 s1

X to Y

6.0 1018 s1

Y to X

3.0 1019 s1

Y to X

6.0 1018 s1

47

## 32 A high-resistance voltmeter connected across a battery reads 6.0 V.

9702/12/O/N/10

When the battery is connected in series with a lamp of resistance of 10 , the voltmeter reading
falls to 5.6 V.
Which statement explains this observation?
The electromotive force (e.m.f.) of the battery decreases because more work is done across
its internal resistance.

The e.m.f. of the battery decreases because work is done across the lamp.

The potential difference (p.d.) across the battery decreases because more work is done
across its internal resistance.

The p.d. across the battery decreases because work is done across the lamp.

an

dr

aS

ha

ky

Ch

31 A relay is required to operate 800 m from its power supply. The power supply has negligible
internal resistance. The relay requires 16.0 V and a current of 0.60 A to operate.
9702/13/O/N/10

jit

A cable connects the relay to the power supply and two of the wires in the cable are used to
supply power to the relay.

Sa

B

m1

ra

m2

20.8 V

29.3 V

9702/13/M/J/10

ar

18.4 V

ed

16.6 V

ng

by

nd

re

9702/13/O/N/10

40

da

160

le

120

pi

320

240

190

80

Co

## 31 A copper wire of cross-sectional area 2.0 mm2 carries a current of 10 A.

How many electrons pass through a given cross-section of the wire in one second?
A

1.0 101

5.0 106

6.3 1019

3.1 1025

9702/11/M/J/11

48

33 A battery of e.m.f. 12 V and internal resistance 2.0 is connected in series with an ammeter of
negligible resistance and an external resistor. External resistors of various different values are
used.
9702/12/O/N/10
12 V

ha

ky

2.0

aS

1.0

10

1.2

1.5

1.8

an

external resistor
value /

by

Sa

jit

Ch

current / A

dr

## Which combination of current and resistor value is not correct?

ra

ng

ed

34 A wire PQ is made of three different materials, with resistivities , 2 and 3. There is a current I
in this composite wire, as shown.
9702/12/O/N/10

ar

re

Which graph best shows how the potential V along the wire varies with distance x from P?
B

nd

le

da

0
0

0
0

Co

pi

C
V

0
0

0
0

49

ky

9702/12/O/N/10

aS

ha

output
voltage

dr

## The light level increases.

output voltage

decreases

decreases

decreases

increases

increases

decreases

increases

increases

ng

ed

by

Sa

jit

resistance
of the LDR

Ch

an

What is the effect on the resistance of the light-dependent resistor (LDR) and on the output
voltage?

ra

34 A relay is required to operate 800 m from its power supply. The power supply has negligible
9702/11/O/N/10
internal resistance. The relay requires 16.0 V and a current of 0.60 A to operate.

re

ar

A cable connects the relay to the power supply and two of the wires in the cable are used to
supply power to the relay.

nd

da

A

18.4 V

20.8 V

29.3 V

le

16.6 V

9702/11/M/J/11

pi

## What does this mean?

Each coulomb of charge from the battery supplies 9.0 J of electrical energy to the whole
circuit.

The battery supplies 9.0 J to an external circuit for each coulomb of charge.

The potential difference across any component connected to the battery will be 9.0 V.

## There will always be 9.0 V across the battery terminals.

Co

50

37 Three resistors, with resistances R1, R2 and R3, are connected in series and are found to have a
combined resistance of 500 . When connected in parallel, the combined resistance is found to
9702/12/O/N/10
be 50 .

R2 /

R3 /

160

160

80

200

200

100

225

225

50

230

230

40

an

dr

aS

ha

ky

R1 /

9702/13/O/N/10

Ch

## 34 A copper wire is cylindrical and has resistance R.

What will be the resistance of a copper wire of twice the length and twice the radius?

R
2

2R

Sa

jit

R
4

ed

by

## 35 In the circuit below, P is a potentiometer of total resistance 10 and Q is a fixed resistor of

resistance 10 . The battery has an e.m.f. of 4.0 V and negligible internal resistance. The
voltmeter has a very high resistance.
9702/13/O/N/10

ra

ng

ar

4.0 V

nd

re

da

The slider on the potentiometer is moved from X to Y and a graph of voltmeter reading V is
plotted against slider position.

le

Co

V
4

pi

V
4

V
4

V
4

0
X

Y
slider position

Y
slider position

Y
slider position

Y
slider position

51

## 36 Which component has the I-V graph shown?

9702/13/O/N/10

light-dependent resistor

semiconductor diode

thermistor

Ch
9702/13/O/N/10

Sa

10

jit

by

10

10

ar

ra

ng

ed

10

aS

filament lamp

an

dr

ha

ky

re

## What is the total electrical resistance between X and Y?

less than 1

between 1 and 10

between 10 and 30

40

pi

le

da

nd

Co

32 What describes the electric potential difference between two points in a wire that carries a
9702/12/M/J/11
current?
A

the force required to move a unit positive charge between the points

the ratio of the energy dissipated between the points to the current

the ratio of the power dissipated between the points to the current

the ratio of the power dissipated between the points to the charge moved

52

33 The graphs show possible current-voltage (I-V ) relationships for a filament lamp and for a
semiconductor diode.
9702/11/M/J/11
P

Q
I

0
0

0
0

0
0

aS

0
0

ha

ky

semiconductor
diode

ed

by

Sa

jit

Ch

filament lamp

an

dr

Which row best specifies the correct I-V graphs for the lamp and the diode?

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

37 In the circuit shown, XY is a length L of uniform resistance wire. R1 and R2 are unknown resistors.
J is a sliding contact that joins the junction of R1 and R2 to points on XY through a small signal
lamp S.
9702/11/M/J/11

da

S
R1

pi

le

R2

V1
of the potential differences across R1 and R2, a point is found on XY at
V2
which the lamp is off. This point is at a distance x from X.

Co

## What is the value of the ratio

A

L
x

x
L

V1
?
V2

Lx
x

x
Lx

53

35 The diagram shows part of a current-carrying circuit. The ammeter has negligible internal
resistance.
9702/11/M/J/11
1.0

ky

2.0
A
5.0 A

ha

5.0 A

aS

5.0

0.7 A

1.3 A

1.5 A

Ch

1.7 A

an

dr

## What is the reading on the ammeter?

Sa

jit

9702/11/M/J/11

by

ng

ed

ra

How will the powers to the resistors change when resistor W is removed?
The powers to X, Y and Z will all increase.

The power to X will decrease and the powers to Y and Z will increase.

The power to X will increase and the powers to Y and Z will decrease.

The power to X will increase and the powers to Y and Z will remain unaltered.

da

nd

re

ar

le

35 Which graph best represents the way in which the current I through a thermistor depends upon
the potential difference V across it?
9702/12/M/J/11
B

pi

Co

0
V

0
V

0
V

54

## 33 A cylindrical piece of a soft, electrically-conducting material has resistance R. It is rolled out so

that its length is doubled but its volume stays constant.
9702/12/M/J/11
What is its new resistance?

R
2

2R

4R

ky

aS

ha

34 A source of electromotive force (e.m.f.) E has a constant internal resistance r and is connected to
an external variable resistor of resistance R.
9702/12/M/J/11
As R is increased from a value below r to a value above r, which statement is correct?
The terminal potential difference remains constant.

Sa

jit

Ch

an

dr

## 36 Safety on railways is increased by using several electrical switches.

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

In the diagram, switches P, Q, R, S and T control the current through a green lamp.

re

nd

green lamp

da

le

## Which row does not allow the green lamp to light?

Q

closed

closed

closed

open

closed

closed

open

closed

closed

open

closed

open

open

closed

closed

open

open

closed

open

closed

Co

pi

9702/12/M/J/11

55

34 The resistance of a metal cube is measured by placing it between two parallel plates, as shown.
9702/11/M/J/11

ha

ky

dr

aS

The cube has volume V and is made of a material with resistivity . The connections to the cube
have negligible resistance.

1
3

2
3

1
3

2
3

9702/13/M/J/11

Sa

jit

## 31 A battery is marked 9.0 V.

Ch

an

Which expression gives the electrical resistance of the metal cube between X and Y?

## What does this mean?

Each coulomb of charge from the battery supplies 9.0 J of electrical energy to the whole
circuit.

The battery supplies 9.0 J to an external circuit for each coulomb of charge.

The potential difference across any component connected to the battery will be 9.0 V.

ra

ng

ed

by

ar

## 33 Four resistors of equal value are connected as shown.

pi

le

da

nd

re

9702/13/M/J/11

Co

How will the powers to the resistors change when resistor W is removed?
A

## The powers to X, Y and Z will all increase.

The power to X will decrease and the powers to Y and Z will increase.

The power to X will increase and the powers to Y and Z will decrease.

The power to X will increase and the powers to Y and Z will remain unaltered.

56

37 The diagram shows a fixed resistor and a light-dependent resistor (LDR) in series with a constant
9702/12/M/J/11
low-voltage supply.

ha

ky

aS

When the LDR is in the dark, the fixed resistor and the LDR have the same value of resistance.

dr

decreased

increased

increased

decreased

no change

increased

no change

decreased

Ch

ed

by

Sa

jit

an

## What happens to the potential differences across the two components?

ng

34 The graphs show possible current-voltage (I-V ) relationships for a filament lamp and for a
semiconductor diode.
9702/13/M/J/11

R
I

nd

re

ar

ra

da

0
0

0
0

0
0

pi

le

Which row best specifies the correct I-V graphs for the lamp and the diode?
semiconductor
diode

Co

filament lamp

0
0

57

## 38 The diagram shows a d.c. circuit.

9702/12/M/J/11

6
3

ha

ky

What is the resistance between the points P and Q due to the resistance network?
2.1

3.0

21

dr

aS

0.47

9702/13/M/J/11

an

## 32 A copper wire of cross-sectional area 2.0 mm2 carries a current of 10 A.

1.0 101

5.0 106

6.3 1019

3.1 1025

jit

Ch

How many electrons pass through a given cross-section of the wire in one second?

Sa

35 The resistance of a metal cube is measured by placing it between two parallel plates, as shown.

ed

by

9702/13/M/J/11

ar

ra

ng

re

The cube has volume V and is made of a material with resistivity . The connections to the cube
have negligible resistance.

1
3

2
3

1
3

le

da

nd

Which expression gives the electrical resistance of the metal cube between X and Y?

2
3

9702/11/O/N/11

pi

## Current is the speed of the charged particles that carry it.

Electromotive force (e.m.f.) is the energy converted to electrical energy from other forms, per
unit charge.

The potential difference (p.d.) between two points is the work done in moving unit charge
from one point to the other.

The resistance between two points is the p.d. between the two points, per unit current.

Co

58

36 In the circuit shown, XY is a length L of uniform resistance wire. R1 and R2 are unknown resistors.
J is a sliding contact that joins the junction of R1 and R2 to points on XY through a small signal
lamp S.
9702/13/M/J/11
L
Y

ky

ha

R1

aS

an

dr

R2

V1
of the potential differences across R1 and R2, a point is found on XY at
V2
which the lamp is off. This point is at a distance x from X.

x
L

Lx
x

x
Lx

ed

Sa

L
x

V1
?
V2

by

jit

Ch

## To determine the ratio

ng

37 A cell, two resistors of equal resistance and an ammeter are used to construct four circuits. The
9702/11/O/N/11
resistors are the only parts of the circuits that have resistance.

da

nd

re

ar

ra

## In which circuit will the ammeter show the greatest reading?

le

pi

A
D

Co

59

36 A cell of e.m.f. E and internal resistance r is connected in series with a switch S and an external
9702/11/O/N/11
resistor of resistance R.
r

ky

aS

ha

dr

## The p.d. between P and Q is V.

an

When S is closed,
V decreases because there is a p.d. across R.

## V decreases because there is a p.d. across r.

V remains the same because the decrease of p.d. across r is balanced by the increase of
p.d. across R.

V remains the same because the sum of the p.d.s across r and R is still equal to E.

by

Sa

jit

Ch

ed

34 Which of the equations that link some of the following terms is correct?
V

current

ra

ng

## potential difference (p.d.)

ar

resistance

Q 2R
t

le

P=

pi

da

nd

re

charge

ER 2 = V 2t

VI
=t
P

PQ = EI

Co

R
Q

energy

power

time

9702/11/O/N/11

60

39 The diagram shows a potential divider circuit designed to provide a variable output p.d.
9702/11/O/N/11

5.0 k

output

ky

9.0 V

aS

ha

5.0 k

minimum output

3.0 V

4.5 V

9.0 V

9.0 V

4.5 V

by

Sa

jit

Ch

an

maximum output

dr

## Which row gives the available range of output p.d.?

ra

ng

ed

37 The diagram shows part of a current-carrying circuit. The ammeter has negligible internal
resistance.
9702/13/M/J/11
1.0

2.0
A

nd

re

ar

5.0 A

5.0 A
5.0

A

1.3 A

1.5 A

1.7 A

le

da

0.7 A

pi

9702/11/M/J/12

Co

0.3 C

5C

18 C

300 C

9702/12/O/N/11

A

0.40 V

5.3 V

12 V

75 V

61

## 38 Three resistors of resistance R, 2R and 3R are connected in parallel.

9702/11/O/N/11

2R

ha

ky

3R

aS

Using I to represent the current through the resistor of resistance R, which row represents the
relationships between the currents through the resistors?

1
3

1
2

1
2

1
3

2
3

1
3

2I

Ch

an

3R

jit

2R

3I

by

Sa

dr

resistor resistance

9702/11/M/J/12

ed

34 An iron wire has length 8.0 m and diameter 0.50 mm. The wire has resistance R.

ng

A second iron wire has length 2.0 m and diameter 1.0 mm.

R
16

R
8

ar

R
2

re

ra

## What is the resistance of the second wire?

nd

34 Two electrically-conducting cylinders X and Y are made from the same material.

Y
2D

pi

le

da

Co

2L

## The resistance of each cylinder is measured between its ends.

What is the ratio resistance of X ?
resistance of Y
A

2
1

1
1

1
2

1
4

9702/12/O/N/11

62

33 The graph shows the variation with potential difference (p.d.) of the current in a lamp filament.
9702/12/O/N/11

aS

ha

ky

current

p.d.

dr

## Which statement explains the shape of this graph?

As the filament temperature rises, electrons can pass more easily through the filament.

## It takes time for the filament to reach its working temperature.

The power output of the filament is proportional to the square of the current in it.

Sa

jit

Ch

an

by

## 35 A power supply of electromotive force (e.m.f.) 12 V and internal resistance 2 is connected in

series with a load resistor. The value of the load resistor is varied from 0.5 to 4 . 9702/12/O/N/11

ed

Which graph shows how the power P dissipated in the load resistor varies with the resistance of

ra

resistance of load /

2
3
4
resistance of load /

pi

le

da

nd

re

ar

ng

Co

resistance of load /

2
3
4
resistance of load /

63

37 The diagram shows a potential divider circuit which, by adjustment of the contact X, can be used
9702/12/O/N/11
to provide a variable potential difference between the terminals P and Q.

25 V

ky

4 k

ha

C

0 and 20 V

0 and 25 V

5 V and 25 V

Ch

0 and 5 V

jit

an

dr

aS

1 k

9702/12/O/N/11

Sa

## 36 Each of Kirchhoffs laws is linked to the conservation of a physical quantity.

Kirchhoffs
second law

energy

charge

energy

momentum

charge

energy

momentum

ar

ra

ng

ed

Kirchhoffs
first law

by

Which physical quantities are assumed to be conserved in the formulation of Kirchhoffs first law
and of Kirchhoffs second law?

nd

re

energy

The resistivity of a material is numerically equal to the resistance in ohms of a one metre
length of wire of that material, the area of cross-section of the wire being one square
millimetre and the resistance being measured between the ends of the wire.

Co

pi

The resistivity of a material is numerically equal to the resistance in ohms of a cube of that
material, the cube being of side length one metre and the resistance being measured
between opposite faces.

le

9702/11/O/N/11

da

## 33 Which statement about electrical resistivity is correct?

The resistivity of a material is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the sample of the
material used in the measurement.

The resistivity of a material is proportional to the length of the sample of the material used in
the measurement.

64

38 A constant 60 V d.c. supply is connected across two resistors of resistance 400 k and 200 k.

9702/12/O/N/11

60 V
d.c. supply

ky

400 k

aS

ha

200 k

200 k

12 V

15 V

20 V

30 V

Ch

an

dr

What is the reading on a voltmeter, also of resistance 200 k, when connected across the
200 k resistor as shown in the diagram?

jit

9702/13/O/N/11

## Current is the speed of the charged particles that carry it.

Electromotive force (e.m.f.) is the energy converted to electrical energy from other forms, per
unit charge.

The potential difference (p.d.) between two points is the work done in moving unit charge
from one point to the other.

The resistance between two points is the p.d. between the two points, per unit current.

ra

ng

ed

by

Sa

pi

le

da

nd

re

ar

9702/11/M/J/12

3A

4A

## What must be known in order to determine the value of I ?

e.m.f. of the power supply

resistance of resistor S

## Kirchhoffs second law

Co

65

36 A cell, two resistors of equal resistance and an ammeter are used to construct four circuits. The
9702/13/O/N/11
resistors are the only parts of the circuits that have resistance.
In which circuit will the ammeter show the greatest reading?
B

ha

ky

aS

an

dr

Sa

jit

Ch

ng

ed

by

ra

## 37 Three resistors of resistance R, 2R and 3R are connected in parallel.

9702/13/O/N/11

ar

nd

re

2R

da

3R

Co

pi

le

Using I to represent the current through the resistor of resistance R, which row represents the
relationships between the currents through the resistors?
resistor resistance
R

2R

1
3

3R

1
2

1
2

1
3

2
3

1
3

2I

3I

66

38 A cell of e.m.f. E and internal resistance r is connected in series with a switch S and an external
resistor of resistance R.
9702/13/O/N/11
r

ky

ha

aS

## The p.d. between P and Q is V.

dr

When S is closed,
V decreases because there is a p.d. across R.

## V decreases because there is a p.d. across r.

V remains the same because the decrease of p.d. across r is balanced by the increase of
p.d. across R.

V remains the same because the sum of the p.d.s across r and R is still equal to E.

Sa

jit

Ch

an

ng
LDR

R
0V

le

da

nd

re

ar

ra

+10 V

ed

by

37 A potential divider consists of a light-dependent resistor (LDR) in series with a variable resistor of
resistance R. The resistance of the LDR decreases when the light level increases. The variable
resistor can be set at either high resistance or low resistance.
9702/11/M/J/12

pi

R

high

high

high

low

low

high

low

low

Co

## light level at LDR

output
voltage

67

40 The diagram shows a potential divider circuit designed to provide a variable output p.d.

9702/13/O/N/11

5.0 k

output

9.0 V

ha

ky

5.0 k

3.0 V

4.5 V

9.0 V

9.0 V

4.5 V

dr

minimum output

Sa

jit

Ch

an

maximum output

aS

## Which row gives the available range of output p.d.?

by

33 Two copper wires of the same length but different diameters carry the same current.

9702/12/M/J/12

ed

Which statement about the flow of charged particles through the wires is correct?
Charged particles are provided by the power supply. Therefore the speed at which they
travel depends only on the voltage of the supply.

The charged particles in both wires move with the same average speed because the current
in both wires is the same.

The charged particles move faster through the wire with the larger diameter because there is
a greater volume through which to flow.

The charged particles move faster through the wire with the smaller diameter because it has
a larger potential difference applied to it.

da

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

le

9702/12/M/J/12

Co

pi

## A second cable Y has resistance 2R and carries current 1 I.

2
power dissipated in Y
What is the ratio
?
power dissipated in X

1
4

1
2

68

36 In the circuit below, the ammeter reading is I and the voltmeter reading is V.

9702/11/M/J/12

aS

ha

ky

decreases

decreases to zero

increases

decreases to zero

increases

## stays the same

increases

Ch

by

Sa

jit

an

dr

When the switch is closed, which row describes what happens to I and V ?

ed

35 The diagram shows a circuit with four voltmeter readings V, V1, V2 and V3.

ng

V1

pi
m
Co

V2

2R

le

da

nd

re

ar

ra

V3
V

A

V = V1 + V2 + V3

V + V1 = V2 + V3

V3 = 2(V2)

V V1 = V3

9702/12/M/J/12

69

## 35 Which statement about electrical resistivity is correct?

9702/13/O/N/11

The resistivity of a material is numerically equal to the resistance in ohms of a cube of that
material, the cube being of side length one metre and the resistance being measured
between opposite faces.

The resistivity of a material is numerically equal to the resistance in ohms of a one metre
length of wire of that material, the area of cross-section of the wire being one square
millimetre and the resistance being measured between the ends of the wire.

The resistivity of a material is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the sample of the
material used in the measurement.

The resistivity of a material is proportional to the length of the sample of the material used in
the measurement.

dr

aS

ha

ky

an

jit

Ch

9702/11/M/J/12

Sa

by

## Which statement is correct?

When switch S is closed, the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of the battery falls because work is
done against the internal resistance of the battery.

When switch S is closed, the e.m.f. of the battery falls because work is done against the
resistance R.

When switch S is closed, the potential difference across the battery falls because work is
done against the internal resistance of the battery.

When switch S is closed, the potential difference across the battery falls because work is
done against the resistance R.

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

ed

9702/13/M/J/12

da

32 An iron wire has length 8.0 m and diameter 0.50 mm. The wire has resistance R.

le

A second iron wire has length 2.0 m and diameter 1.0 mm.

pi

R
16

R
8

R
2

Co

9702/13/M/J/12

## How much charge passes a point in the conductor in this time?

A

0.3 C

5C

18 C

300 C

70

39 Which of the equations that link some of the following terms is correct?

resistance

charge

energy

power

time

VI
=t
P

PQ = EI

an

Ch

ER 2 = V 2t

jit

Sa

P=

dr

Q 2R
t

ky

current

ha

aS

## potential difference (p.d.)

9702/13/O/N/11

LDR

R
0V

le

da

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

+10 V

ed

by

38 A potential divider consists of a light-dependent resistor (LDR) in series with a variable resistor of
resistance R. The resistance of the LDR decreases when the light level increases. The variable
resistor can be set at either high resistance or low resistance.
9702/13/M/J/12

pi

R

high

high

high

low

low

high

low

low

Co

## light level at LDR

output
voltage

71

37 The diagram shows the circuit for a signal to display a green or a red light. It is controlled by the
switch S.
9702/12/M/J/12
G
g
green
S
R

red

ky

12 V

ha

black

dr

aS

The signal is some way from S to which it is connected by a cable with green, red and black
wires. At the signal, the green and red wires are connected to the corresponding lamp and the
black wire is connected to a terminal x to provide a common return. The arrangement is shown
correctly connected and with the switch set to illuminate the red lamp.

Ch

an

During maintenance, the wires at the signal are disconnected and, when reconnected, the black
wire is connected in error to the green lamp (terminal g) instead of terminal x. The red wire is
connected correctly to its lamp and connections at S remain as in the diagram.

green

Sa

jit

black

by

red

ed

12 V

ng

When the system is tested with the switch connection to the red wire, what does the signal show?
the green lamp illuminated normally

## the red and green lamps both illuminated dimly

nd

re

ar

ra

le

da

35 In a fire alarm system, a thermistor T has a resistance of 2000 at room temperature. Its
resistance decreases as the temperature increases. The alarm is triggered when the potential
difference between X and Y reaches 4.5 V.
9702/11/O/N/12

Co

pi

12 V

150

T
X

## What is the resistance of the thermistor when the alarm is triggered?

A

90

150

250

1300

72

35 In the circuit below, the ammeter reading is I and the voltmeter reading is V.

9702/13/M/J/12

aS

ha

ky

decreases

decreases to zero

increases

decreases to zero

increases

## stays the same

increases

Ch

Sa

jit

an

dr

When the switch is closed, which row describes what happens to I and V ?

by

## 36 A light-dependent resistor (LDR) is connected in series with a resistor R and a battery.

ed

9702/12/M/J/12

ra

ng

LDR

re

ar

nd

The resistance of the LDR is equal to the resistance of R when no light falls on the LDR.

da

When the light intensity falling on the LDR increases, which statement is correct?
The current in R decreases.

## The p.d. across the LDR decreases.

Co

pi

le

32 The potential difference between point X and point Y in a circuit is 20V. The time taken for charge
carriers to move from X to Y is 15 s. In this time, the energy of the charge carriers changes by
12 J.
9702/11/O/N/12
What is the current between X and Y?
A

0.040 A

0.11 A

9.0 A

25 A

73

2

ha

dr

an

Ch

lowest

## 36 The diagram shows a simple circuit.

jit

highest

aS

Which arrangement has the highest total resistance and which has the lowest?

ky

9702/12/M/J/12

9702/13/M/J/12

by

Sa

ed

ng

## Which statement is correct?

When switch S is closed, the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of the battery falls because work is
done against the internal resistance of the battery.

When switch S is closed, the e.m.f. of the battery falls because work is done against the
resistance R.

When switch S is closed, the potential difference across the battery falls because work is
done against the internal resistance of the battery.

When switch S is closed, the potential difference across the battery falls because work is
done against the resistance R.

da

nd

re

ar

ra

le

Co

pi

material

resistivity / m

bronze

1.6 107

nichrome

1.6 106

silver

1.6 108

zinc

6.3 108

9702/11/O/N/12

74

3A

9702/13/M/J/12

aS

ha

ky

4A

## e.m.f. of the power supply

resistance of resistor S

jit

Ch

an

dr

## What must be known in order to determine the value of I ?

Sa

34 The I-V characteristics of two electrical components P and Q are shown below.

by

2.0

ed

I/A

P
Q

ar

ra

1.0

ng

1.5

0
0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0
V/V

le

da

nd

re

0.5

pi

Co

## P is a resistor and Q is a filament lamp.

The resistance of Q increases as the current in it increases.

## For a current of 0.5 A, the power dissipated in Q is double that in P.

9702/11/O/N/12

75

34 The graph shows the variation with length l of resistance R for two wires X and Y made from the
same material.
9702/12/O/N/12
20

10

aS

ha

ky

R/

0
0.2

0.4

l /m

an

0.6

dr

## cross-sectional area of X = 2 cross-sectional area of Y

resistivity of X = 2 resistivity of Y

## when equal lengths of X and Y are connected in series to a battery,

power in X = 2 power in Y

## when equal lengths of X and Y are connected in parallel to a battery,

current in X = 2 current in Y

ed

by

Sa

jit

Ch

ng

35 A cell of internal resistance 2.0 and electromotive force (e.m.f.) 1.5 V is connected to a resistor
9702/12/O/N/12
of resistance 3.0 .

1.2 V

0.9 V

0.6 V

re

1.5 V

ar

ra

## What is the potential difference across the 3.0 resistor?

nd

36 A 100 resistor conducts a current with changing direction and magnitude, as shown.
9702/12/O/N/12

da

pi

le

current / A

0
time

Co

A

100 W

150 W

250 W

400 W

76

ky

as shown.
9702/11/O/N/12

aS

ha

voltmeter

decreases

increases

increases

decreases

unchanged

decreases

unchanged

increases

E1

9702/11/O/N/12

E2

da

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

Sa

jit

Ch

ammeter

an

dr

## The resistance of the variable resistor is increased.

pi

le

The contact T is placed on the wire and moved along the wire until the galvanometer reading is
zero. The length XT is then noted.

Co

In order to calculate the potential difference per unit length of the wire XY, which value must also
be known?
A

77

## 37 The ammeter reading in the circuit below is I.

+

9702/12/O/N/12

ky

aS

dr

ha

Another circuit containing the same voltage supply, two switches, an ammeter and two resistors
each of resistance R, is shown.

an

S2

Sa

jit

Ch

S1

S1

S2

ammeter

closed

closed

ed

by

## Which row is not correct?

closed

open

open

closed

open

open

re

ar

ra

ng

da

nd

32 A power supply of electromotive force (e.m.f.) 12 V and internal resistance 2.0 is connected in
series with a 13 resistor.
9702/11/M/J/13
2.0

pi

le

12 V

Co

13

## What is the power dissipated in the 13 resistor?

A

8.3 W

9.6 W

10 W

11 W

78

38 A light-dependent resistor R has resistance of about 1 M in the dark and about 1 k when
illuminated. It is connected in series with a 5 k resistor to a 1.5 V cell of negligible internal
resistance.
9702/12/O/N/12
1.5 V

ky

aS

ha

5 k

The light-dependent resistor is illuminated (in an otherwise dark room) by a flashing light.

1.5

1.5

by

Ch

1.5

V/V

Sa

1.5

V/V

an

V/V

jit

V/V

dr

Which graph best shows the variation with time t of potential difference V across R?

33 A copper wire is stretched so that its diameter is reduced from 1.0 mm to a uniform 0.5 mm.

ed

9702/12/O/N/12

ng

## The resistance of the unstretched copper wire is 0.2 .

What will be the resistance of the stretched wire?
B

0.8

1.6

3.2

ar

0.4

ra

9702/12/O/N/12

nd

re

da

## It involves changing other energy forms into electrical energy.

It is the energy per unit charge to move charge right round a circuit.

It is the work done per unit charge by the charge moving from one point to another.

le

Co

pi

Which statements apply to potential difference and which apply to electromotive force?
potential difference

electromotive force

1 and 3

2 and 4

1 and 4

2 and 3

2 and 3

1 and 4

2 and 4

1 and 3

79

35 The diagram shows a four-terminal box connected to a battery and two ammeters.

9702/12/O/N/12

ky

ha

Ch

an

dr

aS

## Which circuit, within the box, will give this result?

Sa

jit

by

37 The diagram shows a resistor network. The potential difference across the network is V.
9702/12/O/N/12

R1

R3

ng

ed

ra

R2

re

ar

## Is the equation shown below correct for the network?

V = I (1/R1 + 1/R2 + R3)

Yes, it correctly combines two series resistors with one parallel resistor, and correctly uses
Ohms Law.

Yes, it correctly combines two parallel resistors with one series resistor, and correctly uses
Ohms Law.

da

le

## No, because it should read V = I (1/R1 + 1/R2 + R3).

pi

nd

No, because the terms 1/R2 and R3 have different units and cannot be added.

Co

33 A low-voltage supply with an e.m.f. of 20 V and an internal resistance of 1.5 is used to supply
power to a heater of resistance 6.5 in a fish tank.
9702/12/M/J/13
What is the power supplied to the water in the fish tank?
A

41 W

50 W

53 W

62 W

80

## 36 In the circuit below, P is a potentiometer of total resistance 10 and Q is a fixed resistor of

resistance 10 . The battery has an e.m.f. of 4.0 V and negligible internal resistance. The
voltmeter has a very high resistance.
9702/12/O/N/12
X

ky

ha

4.0 V

dr

aS

Ch

an

The slider on the potentiometer is moved from X to Y and a graph of voltmeter reading V is
plotted against slider position.

A
V

by

ed

ng

slider position

slider position

ar

ra

Sa

jit

## Which graph is obtained?

V
4

da

nd

re

slider position

slider position

Co

pi

le

32 A power cable has length 2000 m. The cable is made of twelve parallel strands of copper wire,
each with diameter 0.51 mm.
9702/12/M/J/13
What is the resistance of the cable? (resistivity of copper = 1.7 108 m)
A

0.014

3.5

14

166

81

20

8.0

6.0

8.0
Q

ky

9702/12/M/J/13

ha

7.0

0.25

0.61

4.0

16

dr

aS

## What is the total resistance between P and Q?

Ch

an

33 When a battery is connected to a resistor, the battery gradually becomes warm. This causes the
internal resistance of the battery to increase whilst its e.m.f. stays unchanged.

decrease

decrease

decrease

unchanged

unchanged

decrease

unchanged

Sa

output power

ed

by

terminal potential
difference

ng

jit

As the internal resistance of the battery increases, how do the terminal potential difference and
the output power change, if at all?
9702/11/M/J/13

ra

unchanged

charge

energy

energy

charge

voltage

charge

Co

pi

second law

voltage

le

charge

da

nd

first law

re

ar

34 The principles of conservation of which two quantities are associated with Kirchhoffs first and
second laws?
9702/11/M/J/13

34 A filament lamp has a resistance of 180 when the current in it is 500 mA.
What is the power transformed in the lamp?
A

45 W

50 W

90 W

1400 W

9702/12/M/J/13

82

9702/11/M/J/13

ha

ky

3V

an

dr

aS

B

0.5 V

1.0 V

1.5 V

jit

Ch

Sa

## 37 A 12 V battery is in series with an ammeter, a 2 fixed resistor and a 0 10 variable resistor. A

high-resistance voltmeter is connected across the variable resistor.
9702/11/M/J/13

ed

by

12 V

ra

ng

re

ar

0 10
V

nd

The resistance of the variable resistor is changed from zero to its maximum value.

da

Which graph shows how the potential difference (p.d.) measured by the voltmeter varies with the
current measured by the ammeter?
B

pi

le

p.d.

p.d.

D
p.d.

Co

p.d.

0
current

0
current

0
current

current

83

36 The diagram shows an incorrectly connected circuit. The ammeter has a resistance of 0.1 and
the voltmeter has a resistance of 1 M.
9702/11/M/J/13
0.1
A
1 M

1 k

aS

ha

ky

dr

2V

Ch

jit

Sa

an

## Which statement is correct?

VL

re

VT

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

38 In the circuit below, the reading VT on the voltmeter changes from high to low as the temperature
of the thermistor changes. The reading VL on the voltmeter changes from high to low as the level
of light on the light-dependent resistor (LDR) changes.
9702/12/M/J/13

da

nd

pi

le

light level

low

low

low

high

high

low

high

high

Co

temperature

84

## 36 A 12 V battery is in series with an ammeter, a 2 fixed resistor and a 0 10 variable resistor.

High-resistance voltmeters P and Q are connected across the variable resistor and the fixed
resistor respectively, as shown.
9702/12/M/J/13

ky

12 V

0 10

aS

dr

an

ha

Ch

The resistance of the variable resistor is changed from its maximum value to zero.
Which graph shows the variation with current of the voltmeter readings?

voltmeter

by

ed

P
0
0

ng

0
0

Sa

voltmeter

jit

current

ar

ra

current

re

Co

pi

le

da

nd

voltmeter

voltmeter

Q
0
0

current

0
0

current

85

35 Two wires P and Q made of the same material are connected to the same electrical supply.
P has twice the length of Q and one-third of the diameter of Q, as shown in the diagram.
9702/12/M/J/13

ky

ha

2l

aS

3d

2
3

an

2
9

1
6

1
18

Sa

Ch

current in P
?
current in Q

jit

## What is the ratio

dr

by

31 Two cells X and Y are connected in series with a resistor of resistance 9.0 , as shown.
9702/13/M/J/13

ra

ng

ed

9.0

re

ar

Cell X has an electromotive force (e.m.f.) of 1.0 V and an internal resistance of 1.0 . Cell Y has
an e.m.f. of 2.0 V and an internal resistance of 2.0 .

0.17 A

0.10 A

0.083 A

da

0.25 A

nd

## What is the current in the circuit?

le

34 An electric power cable consists of six copper wires c surrounding a steel core s.

9702/13/M/J/13

Co

pi

c
c
c
s
c
c
c

A length of 1.0 km of one of the copper wires has a resistance of 10 and 1.0 km of the steel core
has a resistance of 100 .
What is the approximate resistance of a 1.0 km length of the power cable?
A

0.61

1.6

160

610

86

33 The graph shows how current I varies with voltage V for a filament lamp.
5
I/A
4

9702/13/M/J/13

ky

ha

0
2

10 V / V

dr

aS

V/V

R/

2.0

1.5

4.0

3.2

6.0

1.9

8.0

0.9

by

Sa

jit

Ch

## Which row gives the correct resistance at the stated value of V ?

an

Since the graph is not a straight line, the resistance of the lamp varies with V.

ed

32 The circular cross-sectional area of a metal wire varies along its length. There is a current in the
wire. The narrow end of the wire is at a reference potential of zero.
9702/13/M/J/13
current

ng

current

ra

ar

zero
potential

nd

re

Which graph best represents the variation with distance x along the wire of the potential
difference V relative to the reference zero?
A
B

le

da

pi

0
0

0
0

Co

0
0

0
0

87

35 The diagram shows a length of track from a model railway connected to a battery, a resistor and
a relay coil.
9702/13/M/J/13
resistor

ha

ky

railway track

relay coil

aS

With no train present, there is a current in the relay coil which operates a switch to turn on a light.

an

dr

When a train occupies the section of track, most of the current flows through the wheels and
axles of the train in preference to the relay coil. The switch in the relay turns off the light.
Why is a resistor placed between the battery and the track?
to limit the heating of the wheels of the train

to limit the energy lost in the relay coil when a train is present

by

Sa

jit

Ch

ed

## 36 A 12 V battery is in series with an ammeter, a 2 fixed resistor and a 0 10 variable resistor. A

high-resistance voltmeter is connected across the fixed resistor.
9702/13/M/J/13

ra

ng

12 V

nd

re

ar

A
2

0 10

da

le

The resistance of the variable resistor is changed from zero to its maximum value.

pi

Which graph shows how the potential difference (p.d.) measured by the voltmeter varies with the
current measured by the ammeter?
A
p.d.

Co

p.d.

0
current

C
p.d.

0
current

D
p.d.

0
current

current

88

37 In the circuit shown, the battery and ammeter each have negligible resistance.

9702/13/M/J/13

12 V

ky

aS

ha

The following combinations of resistors are placed in turn between the terminals X and Y of the
circuit.
Which combination would give an ammeter reading of 8 A?
A

1
2

Ch

an

jit

D
2

Sa

C
2

by

dr

ed

1
3

ra

ng

ar

## 38 Four resistors of resistance R, 2R, 3R and 4R are connected to form a network.

9702/11/O/N/13

le

da

nd

re

A battery of negligible internal resistance and a voltmeter are connected to the resistor network
as shown.
3R

4R

2R

pi

Co

A

2V

4V

6V

10 V

89

## 36 In the circuit below, P is a potentiometer of total resistance 10 and Q is a fixed resistor of

resistance 10 . The battery has an electromotive force (e.m.f.) of 4.0 V and negligible internal
resistance. The voltmeter has a very high resistance.
9702/11/O/N/13
X

ky

4.0 V

ha

dr

aS

an

The slider on the potentiometer is moved from X to Y and a graph of voltmeter reading V is
plotted against slider position.

B
V

0
X

V
4

by

slider position

Y
slider position

ra

ng

slider position

Sa

ed

jit

Ch

## Which graph would be obtained?

X
slider position

re

ar

33 The diagram shows an electric circuit in which the resistance of the external resistor is 2R and
the internal resistance of the source is R.
9702/11/O/N/13

da

nd

pi

le

2R

Co

A

1
4

## power in external resistor

?
power in internal resistance
B

1
2

90

## 37 A 2 resistor and a 4 resistor are connected to a cell.

9702/11/O/N/13

B
V

jit

Ch

an

dr

ha

aS

Which graph shows how the potential V varies with distance between X and Y?

ky

Sa

ed

by

ng

ar

ra

35 The wire of a heating element has resistance R. The wire breaks and is replaced by a different
wire.
9702/11/O/N/13

re

Data for the original wire and the replacement wire are shown in the table.
diameter

resistivity
of metal

original wire

replacement wire

2d

le

da

nd

length

pi

## What is the resistance of the replacement wire?

Co

R
4

R
2

2R

32 The current in a component is reduced uniformly from 100 mA to 20 mA over a period of 8.0 s.
9702/13/O/N/13

## What is the charge that flows during this time?

A

160 mC

320 mC

480 mC

640 mC

91

34 Two lamps are connected in series to a 250 V power supply. One lamp is rated 240 V, 60 W and
the other is rated 10 V, 2.5 W.
9702/11/O/N/13
Which statement most accurately describes what happens?
Both lamps light at less than their normal brightness.

## The 10 V lamp blows.

aS

ha

ky

an

dr

33 An electric current is passed from a thick copper wire through a section of thinner copper wire
before entering a second thick copper wire as shown.
9702/13/O/N/13

thinner
copper wire

copper wire

jit

copper wire

Ch

current

Sa

Which statement about the current and the speed of electrons in the wires is correct?
The current and the speed of the electrons in the thinner wire are both less than in the thicker
copper wires.

The current and the speed of the electrons is the same in all the wires.

The current is the same in all the wires but the speed of the electrons in the thinner wire is
greater than in the thicker wires.

The current is the same in all the wires but the speed of the electrons in the thinner wire is
less than in the thicker wire.

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

nd

re

34 An electrical device of fixed resistance 20 is connected in series with a variable resistor and a
battery of electromotive force (e.m.f.) 16 V and negligible internal resistance.
9702/13/O/N/13

pi

le

da

16 V

Co

20
device

What is the resistance of the variable resistor when the power dissipated in the electrical device
is 4.0 W?
A

16

36

44

60

92

## 35 A copper wire is cylindrical and has resistance R.

9702/13/O/N/13

What will be the resistance of a copper wire of twice the length and twice the radius?

R
4

R
2

2R

ky

36 The diagram shows the electric motor for a garden pump connected to a 24 V power supply by an
insulated two-core cable.

cable

aS

ha

9702/13/O/N/13

dr

M pump
motor

an

jit

Ch

by

Sa

The motor does not work so, to find the fault, the negative terminal of a voltmeter is connected to
the negative terminal of the power supply and its other end is connected in turn to terminals X
and Y at the motor.

ed

when connected
to Y / V

24

24

12

24

24

## break in negative wire of cable

ra

24

ar

re

24

conclusion

da

nd

ng

when connected
to X / V

le

33 Two wires P and Q made of the same material and of the same length are connected in parallel
to the same voltage supply. Wire P has diameter 2 mm and wire Q has diameter 1 mm.

pi

9702/13/M/J/14

Co

## What is the ratio current in P ?

current in Q

1
4

1
2

2
1

4
1

93

37 In the circuit shown, the resistance of the thermistor decreases as temperature increases.
9702/13/O/N/13

ky

d.c.
supply

ha

aS

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

by

Ch

jit

Sa

an

dr

Which graph shows the variation with Celsius temperature of potential difference V between
points P and Q ?

ed

ng

4V
drop

re

ar

ra

7 V drop

nd

da

20 V rise

le

Co

pi

potential drop
across M / V

potential drop
across P / V

potential drop
across Q / V

13

13

13

13

11

17

17

9702/13/O/N/13

94

## 30 A battery of electromotive force (e.m.f.) V and negligible internal resistance is connected to a 1 k

resistor, as shown.
9702/12/M/J/14
1 k

ky

aS

ha

an

dr

A student attempts to measure the potential difference (p.d.) between points P and Q using two
voltmeters, one at a time. The first voltmeter has a resistance of 1 k and the second voltmeter
has a resistance of 1 M.

with 1 M resistance

V
2
V
2

V
2

Sa

by

V
2

ra

ed

ng

jit

with 1 k resistance

Ch

## What are the readings of the voltmeters?

re

ar

32 The diagram shows an electric pump for a garden fountain connected by an 18 m cable to a
230 V mains electrical supply.
9702/12/M/J/14
230 V
mains

da

nd

M pump

pi

le

18 m

Co

The performance of the pump is acceptable if the potential difference (p.d.) across it is at least
218 V. The current through it is then 0.83 A.

What is the maximum resistance per metre of each of the two wires in the cable if the pump is to
perform acceptably?
A

0.40 m1

0.80 m1

1.3 m1

1.4 m1

95

33 Cell X has an e.m.f. of 2.0 V and an internal resistance of 2.0 . Cell Y has an e.m.f. of 1.6 V and
an internal resistance of 1.2 . These two cells are connected to a resistor of resistance 0.8 , as
shown.
9702/12/M/J/14

cell X
2.0 V

ha

ky

2.0

1.6 V

0.50 A

0.90 A

an
Ch
1.0 A

by

Sa

jit

0.10 A

dr

1.2

cell Y

aS

0.8

ng

ed

9702/12/M/J/14

V4

V2

V3

da

nd

re

ar

ra

V1

pi

le

## What are the readings on the other voltmeters?

voltmeter V4 / V

1.5

1.0

3.0

2.0

4.5

3.0

6.0

4.0

Co

voltmeter V3 / V

96

34 In the circuit shown, a light-dependent resistor (LDR) is connected to two resistors R1 and R2.
The potential difference (p.d.) across R1 is V1 and the p.d. across R2 is V2. The current in the
circuit is I.
9702/12/M/J/14

V1

R2

V2

an

dr

aS

ha

R1

ky

Ch

The current I increases when the light intensity decreases.

## The p.d. V2 increases when the light intensity decreases.

V
The ratio 1 is independent of light intensity.
V2

Sa

jit

by

ed

35 A power supply and a solar cell are compared using the potentiometer circuit shown.

ng

power supply
2.000 V

9702/12/M/J/14

40.0 cm

da

nd

re

ar

ra

pi

le

galvanometer

solar cell

Co

## The e.m.f. produced by the solar cell is measured on the potentiometer.

The potentiometer wire PQ is 100.0 cm long and has a resistance of 5.00 . The power supply
has an e.m.f. of 2.000 V and the solar cell has an e.m.f. of 5.00 mV.

Which resistance R must be used so that the galvanometer reads zero when PS = 40.0 cm?
A

395

795

995

1055

97

34 A cell has an electromotive force (e.m.f.) of 6 V and internal resistance R. An external resistor,
also of resistance R, is connected across this cell, as shown.
9702/13/M/J/14
cell
6V

ha

ky

dr

aS

an

## Power P is dissipated by the external resistor.

Ch

The cell is replaced by a different cell that has an e.m.f. of 6 V and negligible internal resistance.
What is the new power that is dissipated in the external resistor?
B

2P

4P

Sa

0.5P

jit

## 37 What is the current in the 40 resistor of the circuit shown?

by

9702/13/M/J/14

20

20

zero

Co

pi

le

da

nd

re

20

40

ar

ra

ng

ed

20

10 V

0.13 A

0.25 A

0.50 A

98

37 The diagram shows a light-dependent resistor (LDR) and a thermistor forming a potential divider.
9702/13/M/J/14

aS

ha

ky

temperature

low

low

high

low

low

high

high

high

by

Sa

jit

Ch

illumination

an

dr

Under which set of conditions will the potential difference across the thermistor have the greatest
value?

9702/13/M/J/14

ra

ng

ed

35 The diagram shows a low-voltage circuit for heating the water in a fish tank.

power
supply

re

ar

heater

da

nd

The heater has a resistance of 3.0 . The power supply has an e.m.f. of 12 V and an internal
resistance of 1.0 .

27 W

36 W

48 W

64 W

pi

le

## At which rate is energy supplied to the heater?

Co

31 A copper wire is to be replaced by an aluminium alloy wire of the same length and resistance.
Copper has half the resistivity of the alloy.
9702/12/M/J/14
What is the ratio
A

## diameter of alloy wire

?
diameter of copper wire
B

2 2

99

36 The diagrams show the same cell, ammeter, potentiometer and fixed resistor connected in
different ways.
9702/13/M/J/14
W

dr

aS

ha

ky

Ch

an

Sa

jit

by

ed

The distance d between the sliding contact and a particular end of the potentiometer is varied.
The current measured is then plotted against the distance d.

ng

B

W and Y

X and Y

Y and Z

ar

ra

W and X

nd

re

## 38 A battery of negligible internal resistance is connected to a resistor network, an ammeter and a

switch S, as shown.
9702/13/M/J/14

da

7.2

pi

le

4.8

2.8

Co

## When S is open, the reading on the ammeter is 250 mA.

When S is closed, what is the change in the reading on the ammeter?
A

1.07 A

1.32 A

190 mA

440 mA

100

30 Two electrically-conducting cylinders X and Y are made from the same material.

9702/11/M/J/14

X

Y
2D

ky

ha

2L

aS

1
1

1
2

1
4

Ch

an

2
1

dr

resistance of Y

by

Sa

jit

## 31 A battery, with a constant internal resistance, is connected to a resistor of resistance 250 , as

shown.
9702/11/M/J/14

ed

250

ra

ng

The current in the resistor is 40 mA for a time of 60 s. During this time 6.0 J of energy is lost in the
internal resistance.

re

e.m.f. / V

2.4

2.4

7.5

da

energy / J

ar

What are the energy supplied to the external resistor during the 60 s and the e.m.f. of the battery?

24

10.0

24

12.5

nd

pi

le

2.4

Co

## 32 Which symbol represents a component whose resistance is designed to change with

temperature?
9702/11/M/J/14
A

101

33 In the circuit below, a voltmeter of resistance RV and an ammeter of resistance RA are used to
measure the resistance R of the fixed resistor.
9702/11/M/J/14

ky

ha

aS

dr

Ch

jit

Sa

by

an

## Which condition is necessary for an accurate value to be obtained for R?

ng

ed

34 In the circuit shown, all the resistors are identical and all the ammeters have negligible
resistance.
9702/11/M/J/14

A2

A3

A4

nd

re

ar

ra

A1

da

le

ammeter A3 / A

ammeter A4 / A

1.0

0.3

0.1

1.4

0.6

0.2

1.8

0.9

0.3

2.2

1.2

0.4

Co

pi

ammeter A2 / A

102

## 35 The potential difference across a component in a circuit is 2.0 V.

9702/11/M/J/14

How many electrons must flow through this component in order for it to be supplied with 4.8 J of
energy?
2.6 1018

1.5 1019

3.0 1019

6.0 1019

ky

36 What is the total resistance between points P and Q in this network of resistors?
Q

dr

16

16

24

32

Sa

jit

an

16

Ch

16

ha

aS

9702/11/M/J/14

by

## 35 The combined resistance RT of two resistors of resistances R1 and R2 connected in parallel is

given by the formula shown.
9702/11/O/N/14

ng

ed

1
1
1
=
+
R2
RT
R1

ra

## Which statement is used in the derivation of this formula?

The currents through the two resistors are equal.

## The potential difference across each resistor is the same.

The supply current is split between the two resistors in the same ratio as the ratio of their
resistances.

The total power dissipated is the sum of the powers dissipated in the two resistors
separately.

Co

pi

le

da

nd

re

ar

103

32 A pencil is used to draw a line of length 30 cm and width 1.2 mm. The resistivity of the material in
9702/11/O/N/14
the pencil is 2.0 105 m and the resistance of the line is 40 k.

1.25 108 m

1.25 107 m

1.25 105 m

ky

ha

1.25 1010 m

aS

## What is the thickness of the line?

Ch

9702/11/O/N/14

an

conductor

dr

33 A conductor consists of three wires connected in series. The wires are all made of the same
metal but have different cross-sectional areas. There is a current I in the conductor.

jit

## Point Y on the conductor is at zero potential.

Sa

Which graph best shows the variation of potential V with distance along the conductor?

by

ed

ng

0
X

ra

distance

ar

distance
Y

nd

le

da

re

0
X

pi

0
X

distance
Y

Co

0
X

distance
Y

104

34 The graph shows how the electric current I through a conducting liquid varies with the potential
difference V across it.
9702/11/O/N/14
At which point on the graph does the liquid have the smallest resistance?
D

ky

ha

dr

aS

9702/11/O/N/14

by

Sa

jit

Ch

an

ed

sliding contact

ng

## uniform metal wire

ar

ra

The light-dependent resistor (LDR) is then covered up and the ammeter gives a non-zero

re

## Which change could return the ammeter reading to zero?

Decrease the supply voltage.

pi

le

da

nd

## 33 A metal wire of length 0.50 m has a resistance of 12 .

Co

9702/13/O/N/14

What is the resistance of a wire of length 2.0 m and made of the same material, but with half the
diameter?
A

12

48

96

192

105

ha

ky

9702/11/O/N/14

aS

18 k

22 k

36 k

an

11 k

dr

## What is the value of R ?

ra

ng

ed

by

Sa

jit

Ch

34 A student found two unmarked resistors. To determine the resistance of the resistors, the circuit
below was set up. The resistors were connected in turn between P and Q, noting the current
readings. The voltage readings were noted without the resistors and with each resistor in turn.

1.5

28

46

14

100

1.4

nd

1.5

1.3

re

ar

da

le

e.m.f. / V

pi

R/

I / mA

V/V

e.m.f. / V

R/

I / mA

V/V

e.m.f. / V

I / mA

R/

e.m.f. / V

V/V

I / mA

R/

m
Co

V/V

9702/13/O/N/14

106

## 35 A potential divider consists of resistors of resistance R1 and R2 connected in series across a

source of potential difference V0. The potential difference across R1 is Vout.
9702/13/O/N/14

R2

ky

V0

aS

ha

Vout

R1

R2

doubled

doubled

doubled

halved

halved

doubled

halved

halved

by

Sa

jit

Ch

R1

an

dr

## Which changes to R1 and R2 will increase the value of Vout?

37 In the circuit shown, the ammeters have negligible resistance and the voltmeters have infinite
resistance.

le

da

nd

re

ar

ra

I1

ng

ed

9702/13/O/N/14

I2

V1

V2

pi

The readings on the meters are I1, I2, V1 and V2, as labelled on the diagram.

## Which statement is correct?

I1 > I2 and V1 > V2

Co

107

9702/13/O/N/14

A
240 V

heater

ky

ha

## What is the total resistance of the extension lead?

B

6.2

28

31

Ch

3.1

an

dr

aS

A voltmeter measures the potential difference (p.d.) across the heater as 216 V and an ammeter
measures the current through the heater as 7.7 A.

Sa

jit

32 A pedal bicycle is fitted with an electric motor. The rider switches on the motor for a time of
3.0 minutes. A constant current of 3.5 A in the electric motor is provided from a battery with a
terminal voltage of 24 V.

84 J

250 J

ng

630 J

ed

by

## What is the energy supplied by the battery?

9702/13/M/J/15

15 000 J

9702/13/M/J/15

nd

re

ar

ra

When switch S is closed, the e.m.f. of the battery falls because work is done against the
resistance of R.

pi

When switch S is closed, the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of the battery falls because work is
done against the internal resistance of the battery.

le

da

## Which statement is correct?

When switch S is closed, the potential difference across the battery falls because work is
done against the internal resistance of the battery.

Co

C
D

When switch S is closed, the potential difference across the battery falls because work is
done against the resistance of R.

108

## 34 A simple circuit is formed by connecting a resistor of resistance R between the terminals of a

battery of electromotive force (e.m.f.) 9.0 V and constant internal resistance r.
9702/13/M/J/15
9.0 V

ha

ky

aS

## What is the internal resistance r of the battery?

0.33

20

160

jit

Ch

0.17

an

dr

A charge of 6.0 C flows through the resistor in a time of 2.0 minutes causing it to dissipate 48 J of
thermal energy.

9702/13/M/J/15

by

1.0

Sa

37 The diagram shows part of a current-carrying circuit. The ammeter has negligible resistance.

ed

2.0

A
5.0 A

ng

5.0 A

ra

5.0

1.3 A

re

0.7 A

1.5 A

nd

ar

1.7 A

9702/12/M/J/15

da

## Current is the speed of the charged particles that carry it.

Electromotive force (e.m.f.) is the energy converted to electrical energy from other forms per
unit charge.

pi

le

The potential difference (p.d.) between two points is the work done per unit charge when
moving charge from one point to the other.

Co

The resistance between two points is the p.d. between the two points per unit current.

109

## 36 A box with four terminals P, Q, R and S contains two identical resistors.

aS

ha

ky

9702/13/M/J/15

an

dr

When a battery of electromotive force (e.m.f.) E and negligible internal resistance is connected
E
.
across PS, a high-resistance voltmeter connected across QR reads
2

Ch

Which diagram shows the correct arrangement of the two resistors inside the box?

jit

da

nd

re

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

Sa

le

pi

9702/13/M/J/15

Co

## What is the current in the galvanometer?

A

250 A

300 A

1.5 mA

2.5 mA

110

31 Which unit is not used in either the definition of the coulomb or the definition of the volt?

joule

ohm

second

9702/12/M/J/15

ampere

ky

aS

ha

32 When a thin metal wire is stretched, it becomes longer and thinner. This causes a change in the
resistance of the wire. The volume of the wire remains constant.
9702/12/M/J/15
Which graph could represent the variation with extension x of the resistance R of the wire?
B
R

an

Sa

jit

Ch

dr

by

9702/12/M/J/15

ed

## The external resistance is EQ.

The total energy dissipation in the cell and the external circuit is EQ.

re

ar

ra

ng

## 33 The diagrams show two different circuits.

pi

le

da

nd

9702/11/M/J/15

Co

The cells in each circuit have the same electromotive force and zero internal resistance. The
three resistors each have the same resistance R.
In the circuit on the left, the power dissipated in the resistor is P.

A

P
4

P
2

2P

111

## 35 Each of Kirchhoff's two laws presumes that some quantity is conserved.

9702/12/M/J/15

Which row states Kirchhoff's first law and names the quantity that is conserved?
quantity

## the algebraic sum of

currents into a junction is
zero

charge

## the algebraic sum of

currents into a junction is
zero

energy

## the e.m.f. in a loop is

equal to the algebraic sum
of the product of current
and resistance round the
loop

charge

## the e.m.f. in a loop is

equal to the algebraic sum
of the product of current
and resistance round the
loop

energy

by

Sa

jit

Ch

an

dr

aS

ha

ky

statement

ed

current

I
R

resistance

energy

power

time

ar
charge

re
nd
da
Q 2R
t

ER 2 = V 2t

pi

P=

le

VI
=t
P

PQ = EI

Co

m
C

ra

ng

## potential difference (p.d.)

9702/11/M/J/15

112

36 A potential divider circuit consists of fixed resistors of resistance 2.0 and 4.0 connected in
series with a 3.0 resistor fitted with a sliding contact. These are connected across a battery of
e.m.f. 9.0 V and zero internal resistance, as shown.
9702/12/M/J/15

ha

ky

4.0

dr

Ch

an

2.0

output
voltage

aS

3.0

9.0 V

4.0

2.0

5.0

2.0

9.0

9.0

2.0

Sa

minimum
voltage / V

ra

ng

ed

by

maximum
voltage / V

jit

What are the maximum and the minimum output voltages of this potential divider circuit?

ar

37 A cell of e.m.f. 2.0 V and negligible internal resistance is connected to a network of resistors as
shown.
9702/12/M/J/15

da

nd

re

2.0 V

le

2.0

pi

4.0

2.0

Co

4.0

## What is the current I ?

A

0.25 A

0.33 A

0.50 A

1.5 A

113

36 A battery with e.m.f. E and internal resistance r is connected in series with a variable external
resistor.
9702/11/M/J/15
E

ky

ha

aS

Sa

jit

Ch

an

dr

## Which statement is correct? (Ignore any temperature effects.)

6.0

0 4.0

re

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

37 A battery of electromotive force (e.m.f.) 6.0 V and negligible internal resistance is connected in
series with a resistor of resistance 6.0 and a variable resistor of resistance from zero to 4.0 . A
voltmeter is connected across the variable resistor. The resistance of the variable resistor is
changed.
9702/11/M/J/15
6.0 V

nd

0 V 2.4 V

0 V 3.6 V

2.4 V 6.0 V

le

da

3.6 V 6.0 V

pi

Co

## 35 The charge that an electric battery can deliver is specified in ampere-hours.

9702/11/M/J/15

For example, a battery of capacity 40 ampere-hours could supply, when fully charged, 0.2 A for
200 hours.
What is the maximum energy that a fully charged 12 V, 40 ampere-hour battery could supply?
A

1.7 kJ

29 kJ

1.7 MJ

29 MJ

114

## 38 A wire RST is connected to another wire XY as shown.

9702/11/M/J/15

ky

ha

50 cm

aS

Each wire is 100 cm long with a resistance per unit length of 10 m1.

5.0

8.3

13.3

an

3.3

dr

9702/11/O/N/15

jit

Ch

## 31 The diagram shows a graph.

ng

ed

by

Sa

y-axis

ra

x-axis

ar

For a uniform metallic wire, what could the graph not represent?

current
urrent

nd

re

y--axi

resistance
esistance

in C

te

potential difference

current

pi

le

difference

resistance
esista

da

pot

x--axi

32 An iron wire has length 8.0 m and diameter 0.50 mm. The wire has resistance R.

Co

A second iron wire has length 2.0 m and diameter 1.0 mm.

## What is the resistance of the second wire?

A

R
16

R
8

R
2

9702/11/O/N/15

115

34 A thermistor and another component are connected to a constant voltage supply. A voltmeter is
connected across one of the components. The temperature of the thermistor is then reduced but
no other changes are made.
9702/11/O/N/15
In which circuit will the voltmeter reading increase?

aS

ha

ky

Ch

an

dr

ed

by

Sa

jit

ar

ra

ng

da

nd

re

36 The diagram shows a potentiometer and a fixed resistor connected across a 12 V battery of
negligible internal resistance.
9702/11/O/N/15

20

le

12 V

pi

20

Co

output

The fixed resistor and the potentiometer each have resistance 20 . The circuit is designed to
provide a variable output voltage.
What is the range of output voltages?
A

06V

0 12 V

6 12 V

12 20 V

116

## 35 A 110 V d.c. supply is connected to a heater, a fuse and a switch, as shown.

F1

fuse

9702/11/O/N/15

switch

F2

S+
heater

ha

ky

110 V
S

aS

Owing to a fault in the system, power is not supplied to the heater. A technician diagnoses the
fault using a voltmeter.

an

dr

He closes the switch and connects his meter between the positive supply terminal S+ and the
fuse terminal F2. The voltmeter reads 110 V.
Which diagnosis is correct?
The fuse has melted.

The fuse has not melted and there is a short circuit in the heater.

The fuse has not melted and there is no path for current through the heater.

The fuse has not melted and the switch has operated correctly.

by

Sa

jit

Ch

ng

ed

33 The Atlantic torpedo is a large electric fish capable of generating a voltage of 220 V between its
tail and its head. This drives a pulse of current of 15 A lasting for a time of 2.0 ms. The fish
produces 200 pulses per second.
9702/11/O/N/15

ra

## What is the average power output of the fish?

B

1.3 kW

3.3 kW

6.6 kW

re

ar

33 W

nd

37 The electromotive force of a power supply is 120 V. It delivers a current of 1.2 A to a resistor of
resistance 80 and a current of 0.40 A to another resistor, as shown.
9702/12/O/N/15

le

da

e.m.f. of supply
120 V

pi

1.2 A

80

Co

0.40 A

A

15

20

60

75

117

9702/12/O/N/15

0
0

aS

ha

ky

a filament lamp

## a metallic conductor at constant temperature

a semiconductor diode

a thermistor

Sa

jit

Ch

an

dr

by

## 35 A power supply of electromotive force (e.m.f.) 12 V and internal resistance 2 is connected in

series with a load resistor. The resistance of the load resistor is varied from 0.5 to 4 .

ed

Which graph shows how the power P dissipated in the load resistor varies with the resistance of
9702/12/O/N/15

ng

0
1

2
3
4
resistance of load /

resistance of load /
D

pi

le

da

nd

re

ar

ra

Co

0
0

resistance of load /

resistance of load /

118

## 36 The diagram shows an arrangement of resistors.

9702/12/O/N/15

10
X

10

ha

ky

10

aS

10

between 1 and 10

between 10 and 30

40

an

Ch

less than 1

Sa

jit

dr

## What is the total electrical resistance between X and Y?

by

38 The diagram shows a four-terminal box connected to a battery and two ammeters.

ed

ng

A
4

ar

ra

9702/12/O/N/15

re

## The currents in the two meters are identical.

Which circuit, within the box, will give this result?

nd

da

pi

le

Co

119

shown.
9702/13/O/N/15
E

ky

ha

dr

Sa

jit

Ch

an

## In the equation (E V ) = Ir , what does the term (E V ) represent?

aS

The current in the circuit is I and the potential difference (p.d.) across the external resistor is V.

specimen

ra

ng

ed

by

33 Tensile strain may be measured by the change in electrical resistance of a device called a strain
gauge. A strain gauge consists of folded fine metal wire mounted on a flexible insulating backing
sheet. The strain gauge is firmly attached to the specimen.
9702/13/O/N/15

ar

strain gauge

re

When the strain in the specimen is increased, what happens to the resistance of the wire?
It decreases, because the length decreases and the cross-sectional area increases.

It decreases, because the length increases and the cross-sectional area decreases.

It increases, because the length decreases and the cross-sectional area increases.

It increases, because the length increases and the cross-sectional area decreases.

Co

pi

le

da

nd

120

34 In the circuit shown, lamp P is rated 250 V, 50 W and lamp Q is rated 250 V, 200 W. The two
lamps are connected in series to a 250 V power supply.
9702/13/O/N/15
250 V

ha

ky

aS

an

## Lamp P emits four times as much power as lamp Q.

jit

Ch

dr

Which statement most accurately describes what happens when the switch is closed?

C1
heater
C2

ar

ra

ng

S+
110 V
S

switch

ed

fuse

by

Sa

36 A 110 V supply of negligible internal resistance is connected to a heater through a fuse and a
switch.
9702/13/O/N/15

re

Terminals S+ and S are the positive and negative terminals of the supply. Points C1 and C2 at
either side of the heater are accessible for fault-finding.

nd

## A voltmeter is connected between S and C1.

da

With the circuit working correctly, the voltmeter reading is noted with the switch closed.

le

A fault occurs and the voltmeter is again connected between S and C1 with the switch closed.

pi

## Which fault would result in the same two voltmeter readings?

a break in the wire of the heater

a melted fuse

## a short circuit in the heater

Co

121

35 The cooling system in many houses is controlled by three electrical switches. These are:
9702/13/O/N/15

a thermostat switch that closes when the temperature rises to a given value,

## a clock switch that closes at times when cooling may be required,

an override switch that closes to turn on the system when exceptional temperature
rises occur.

thermostat
A

ha

ky

Which diagram shows the switches correctly connected between the power supply and the
cooling system?
clock

cooling system

aS

power supply

an

dr

override

thermostat
B

Ch

power supply

cooling system

jit

override

by

Sa

clock

thermostat
C

override

cooling system

ng

ed

power supply

clock

thermostat
D

cooling system

ra

power supply

override

re

ar

clock

Co

pi

le

da

nd

1A

## The current passing through the end resistor is 1 A.

What is the potential difference (p.d.) V across the input terminals?
A

2V

5V

8V

13 V

9702/13/O/N/15

122

30 An electrical conductor has a resistance of 5.6 k. A potential difference (p.d.) of 9.0 V is applied
across its ends.
9702/12/F/M/16
How many electrons pass a point in the conductor in one minute?
6.0 1020

1.0 1019

6.0 1017

1.0 1016

ky

ha

## 31 A fixed resistor of resistance 12 is connected to a battery. There is a current of 0.20 A in the

resistor. The current is now doubled.
9702/12/F/M/16

0.96 W

1.92 W

4.8 W

dr

0.48 W

aS

jit

## p.d., current, area, length

by

Sa

Ch

an

32 Which measurements are taken in order to calculate the resistivity of the metal of a piece of
wire?
9702/12/F/M/16

ed

34 Three cells with e.m.f.s V1, V2 and V3, have negligible internal resistance. These cells are
connected to three resistors with resistances R1, R2 and R3, as shown.
9702/12/F/M/16

ng

V1

R1

ar

ra

nd

re

V2

da

## The current in the circuit is I.

V1 + V2 + V3 = I (R1 + R2 + R3)

pi

le

## Which equation is correct?

V1 + V2 V3 = I (R1 + R2 + R3)

V1 V2 + V3 = I (R1 + R2 + R3)

V1 V2 V3 = I (R1 + R2 + R3)

Co

R2

R3

V3

123

9702/12/F/M/16

R
Y

X
R

ky

ha

4.0

5.3

12

dr

2.7

aS

## What is the value of R ?

9702/12/F/M/16

Ch

an

36 In deriving a formula for the combined resistance of three different resistors in series, Kirchhoffs
laws are used.
Which physics principle is involved in this derivation?
the conservation of charge

## the current varies in each resistor, in proportion to the resistor value

ed

by

Sa

jit

ra

ng

37 The battery of a car has an internal resistance of 0.10 and an electromotive force of 12 V. When
the battery is connected to the starter motor, the potential difference across the battery terminals
is 7.0 V.
9702/12/F/M/16

70 A

re

50 A

ar

C

120 A

190 A

da

nd

## 33 A 12 V battery is charged for 20 minutes by connecting it to a source of electromotive force

(e.m.f.). The battery is supplied with 7.2 104 J of energy in this time.
9702/12/F/M/16

5.0 C

Co

pi

le

## How much charge flows through the battery?

B

60 C

100 C

6000 C

124

31 Two copper wires of equal length are connected in parallel. A potential difference is applied
across the ends of this parallel arrangement. Wire S has a diameter of 3.0 mm. Wire T has a
diameter of 1.5 mm.
9702/11/M/J/16
What is the value of the ratio current in S ?
current in T
C

1
2

ha

ky

1
4

32 A 100 resistor conducts a current with changing direction and magnitude, as shown.

aS

9702/11/M/J/16

150 W

250 W

9702/11/M/J/16

re

ar

ra

ng

ed

A

time / ms

400 W

by

100 W

Sa

jit

Ch

an

dr

current / A

0
0

nd

0
0

0
0

0
0

da

9702/11/M/J/16

le

pi

R1

Co

R2

## What is the combined resistance between X and Y?

A

R1 + R2

R1 R 2
R1 + R 2

R1 + R 2
R1 R 2

R1
R2

125

34 In the circuit shown, X is a variable resistor whose resistance can be changed from 5.0 to
500 . The e.m.f. of the battery is 12.0 V. It has negligible internal resistance.
9702/11/M/J/16

40

ha

ky

12.0 V

aS

output

1.5 V to 11.1 V

1.5 V to 12.0 V

an

1.3 V to 12.0 V

Ch

jit

1.3 V to 11.1 V

Sa

dr

What is the maximum range of values of potential difference across the output?

by
Q

6V

ng

ed

3V

9702/11/M/J/16

re

ar

ra

nd

5V

da

## The potential difference (p.d.) between P and Q is 3 V.

The p.d. between Q and R is 6 V.

pi

le

Co

## Which row in the table is correct?

p.d. between
Q and S

p.d. between
S and R

2V

4V

2V

10 V

3V

4V

3V

10 V

126

33 Two lamps are connected in series to a 250 V power supply. One lamp is rated 240 V, 60 W and
the other is rated 10 V, 2.5 W.
9702/12/M/J/16
Which statement most accurately describes what happens?
Both lamps light at less than their normal brightness.

## The 10 V lamp blows.

aS

ha

ky

an

dr

37 A voltmeter is used to monitor the operation of an electric motor. The motor speed is controlled
by a variable resistor. A fixed resistor is used to limit the speed.
9702/11/M/J/16

Ch

## The current in the motor is gradually changed.

jit

In which circuit is the voltmeter reading proportional to the current in the motor?

Sa

by

supply

ng

ed

ra

ar

supply

pi

le

da

nd

re

V
M

Co

supply

M
D

+
V

supply

127

32 The potential difference V across a filament lamp is slowly raised from zero to its normal
operating value.
9702/12/M/J/16
Which graph represents the variation with V of the current I in the lamp?
A

0
0

0
0

aS

0
0

dr

0
0

ha

ky

9702/12/M/J/16

Sa

jit

Ch

an

## 34 Which equation is used to define resistance?

ed

by

35 The charge that a fully charged 12 V car battery can supply is 100 kC. The starter motor of the car
requires a current of 200 A for an average period of 2.0 s. The battery does not recharge because
of a fault.
9702/12/M/J/16

25

42

250

ar

21

ra

ng

What is the maximum number of times the starter motor of the car can be used?

re

37 In the circuit shown, contact may be made at any point along the 3 resistor (potentiometer).
9702/12/M/J/16

da

nd

9V

pi

le

Co

output
voltage

## The battery has e.m.f. 9 V and negligible internal resistance.

What is the maximum range of the output voltage?
A

02 V

05 V

23 V

25 V

128

## 36 A potential divider circuit is formed by connecting a battery of negligible internal resistance in

series with two variable resistors, as shown.
9702/12/M/J/16

RY

ky

RX

ha

VX

dr

aS

## The variable resistors have resistances RX and RY.

VX is the potential difference across resistance RX.

an

larger

larger

larger

smaller

smaller

larger

smaller

smaller

Sa

by

RY

ed

RX

jit

Ch

## Which combination of changes must cause VX to increase?

ra

ng

32 The graph shows the variation with length of the resistance of a uniform metal wire.

nd

re

ar

resistance

da

0
0

length

pi

le

## The gradient of the graph is G.

The wire has cross-sectional area A.

Co

Which expression could be used to calculate the resistivity of the metal of the wire?
A

GA

G
A

A
G

G A2

9702/13/M/J/16

129

9702/13/M/J/16

+1.6 1019 C

+3.2 1019 C

+4.0 1019 C

ky

ha

4.8 1019 C

aS

## What is not a possible value for the charge on an ion in solution?

dr

33 What describes the electric potential difference between two points in a wire that carries a
current?
9702/13/M/J/16
the force required to move a unit positive charge between the points

the ratio of the energy dissipated between the points to the current

the ratio of the power dissipated between the points to the current

the ratio of the power dissipated between the points to the charge moved

Sa

jit

Ch

an

Q
I

ar

ra

ng

ed

by

34 The graphs show possible current-voltage (I-V ) characteristics for a filament lamp and for a
semiconductor diode.
9702/13/M/J/16

0
0

nd

re

0
0

0
0

0
0

da

Which row in the table best specifies the correct I-V graphs for the lamp and for the diode?

le

filament lamp
P

pi

m
Co

semiconductor
diode

130

35 A circuit contains a cell, two resistors of resistances R1 and R2 and a variable resistor X. The cell
has negligible internal resistance.
9702/13/M/J/16
V1
R1

I2

aS

ha

ky

R2

an

dr

Ch

## The resistance of X is reduced.

What is the effect on V1 and I2?
I2

decreases

decreases

decreases

increases

increases

decreases

increases

increases

ng

ed

by

Sa

jit

V1

nd

re

ar

ra

37 Two identical batteries each have e.m.f. 6.0 V and internal resistance r. The batteries are
connected to an external resistor of resistance 11 , as shown.
9702/13/M/J/16

6.0 V

pi

le

da

6.0 V

11

Co

0.50 A

## The current in the external resistor is 0.50 A.

What is the internal resistance r of each battery?
A

1.0

2.0

4.0

6.5

131

36 A 100 cm potentiometer wire QT is connected in series with a 2.00 V cell. Another circuit,
consisting of a 2.00 V cell in series with resistors of resistance 4.00 and 6.00 , is set up
alongside the potentiometer. Connections PQ and RS are then made so that the potential
difference (p.d.) across the 4.00 resistor is balanced against the p.d. across a length L of
potentiometer wire. Both cells have negligible internal resistance.
9702/13/M/J/16

ha

ky

2.00 V

L
S

aS

dr

6.00

## What is the balance length L?

A

40 cm

60 cm

100 cm

PQR and XYZ are wires in a circuit. A galvanometer connects Q and Y as a null indicator.

ra

ng

ed

0 cm

by

Sa

2.00 V

jit

Ch

4.00

an

da

nd

re

ar

pi

le

Co

9702/12/F/M/16