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ikBkuqØef.

kdk
i`"BkÄïk%
iqjksoko~Q iii
Hkwfedk vii
eÄõye~ 1
izFke% ikB% vdkjkUr&iq¡fYyÄõ% 2
f}rh;% ikB% vkdkjkUr&L=khfYkÄ%õ 12
r`rh;% ikB% vdkjkUr&uiqaldfYkÄõ% 21
prqFkZ% ikB% loZuke&iz;ksx% 32
i×pe% ikB% f}rh;k&foHkfDr%] y`V~ydkj% p 39
"k"B% ikB% vga uekfe (i|ikB%) 46
lIre% ikB% leqnzrV% (r`rh;k&prqFkhZ&foHkfDr%) 50
v"Ve% ikB% vLekoaQ fo|ky;% (i×peh&"k"Bh&foHkfDr%) 57
uoe% ikB% m|kufogkj% (lIreh&foHkfDr%] la[;kokfpinkfu p) 64
n'ke% ikB% uhfr'yksdk% (foHkfDriqujko`fÙk%) 70
,dkn'k% ikB% cdL; izrhdkj% (vO;;iz;ksx%) 74
}kn'k% ikB% lkse'keZfirq% dFkk 79
=k;ksn'k% ikB% lqHkkf"krkfu 84
prqnZ'k% ikB% ;equk fo"kjfgrk tkrk 88
i×pn'k% ikB% ekrqypUnz!! (ckyxhre~) 93
ifjf'k"Ve~ dkjd&foHkfDr&ifjp;%] 'kCn:ikf.k] /krq:ikf.k p 98
izFke% ikB%
'kCnifjp;% vdkjkUr&i¡fq YyÄ%õ

Nk=k% f'k{kd% Ñ"kd%

e;wj% dkd% 'kqd%

oqQDoqQj% v'o% o`"kHk%

¯lg% HkYywd% xt%

?kV% nhid% nwjHkk"k%


e.Mwd% eRL;% edj%

pUnz% lw;%Z diksr%

fcMky% ew"kd% uoqQy%

lkSfpd% jtd% o`¼%

rky% i;ZÄï% fo|qíhi%


3
vdkjkUr&iq¡fYyÄõ%
,"k% d%\
,"k% osQ'ko%A
osQ'ko% ¯d djksfr\
osQ'ko% uefrA
¯d l% fy[kfr\
ufg] l% u fy[kfr]
l% uefrA

,rkS dkS\
,rkS ckydkSA
ckydkS ¯d oqQ#r%\
ckydkS iBr%A
¯d rkS fy[kr%\
ufg] rkS u fy[kr%]
rkS iBr%A
,rs osQ\
,rs okujk%A
okujk% ¯d oqQoZfUr\
okujk% [kknfUrA
¯d rs owQnZfUr\
ufg] rs u owQnZfUr]
rs [kknfUrA
4
#fpjk
#fpjk& &izFizkeks
Fkeks Hkkx%
Hkkx%
,"k% d%\
,"k% v'o%A
v'o% ¯d djksfr\
v'o% /kofrA
¯d l% fr"Bfr\
ufg] l% u fr"Bfr]
l% /kofrA

,rkS dkS\
,rkS xtkSA
xtkS ¯d oqQ#r%\
xtkS pyr%A
¯d rkS /kor%\
ufg] rkS u /kor%]
rkS pyr%A

,rs osQ\
,rs e;wjk%A
e;wjk% ¯d oqQoZfUr\
e;wjk% u`R;fUrA
¯d rs fopjfUr\
ufg] rs u fopjfUr]
rs rq u`R;fUrA
5
vdkjkUr&iq¡fYyÄõ%
'kCnkFkkZ%

,"k% (iqa-) μ ;g
d% (iqa-) μ dkSu
djksfr μ djrk gS@djrh gS
uefr μ ueLdkj djrk gS@djrh gSS
l% (iqa-) μ og
fy[kfr μ fy[krk gS@fy[krh gS
ufg (vO;;) μ ugha
,rkS (iqa-) μ ;s nks (nksuksa)
dkS (iqa-) μ dkSu (nks)
oqQ#r% μ (nks) djrs gSa@djrh gSa
iBr% μ (nks) i<+rs gaS@i<+rh gSa
rkS (iqa-) μ os nks (nksuksa)
,rs (iqa-) μ ;s lc
osQ (iqa-) μ (vusd) dkSu
okujk% μ (vusd) cUnj
oqQoZfUr μ djrs gSa@djrh gSa
[kknfUr μ [kkrs gSa@[kkrh gSa
rs (iqa-) μ os lc
owQnZfUr μ owQnrs gSa@owQnrh gSa
v'o% μ ?kksM+k
/kofr μ nkSM+rk gS@nkSM+rh gS
fr"Bfr μ Bgjrk gS@Bgjrh gS
xtkS μ nks gkFkh
pyr% μ (nks) pyrs gSa@pyrh gSa
6
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
/kor% μ (nks) nkSM+rs gSa@nkSM+rh gSa
e;wjk% μ (vusd) eksj
u`R;fUr μ ukprs gaS@ukprh gSa
fopjfUr μ ?kwers gSa@?kwerh gSa

vH;kl%
1- ekSf[kde~ mPPkkj.ka oqQ#r&
f'k{kd & f'k{kd%
;qod & ;qod%
?kV & ?kV%
nhid & nhid%
oqQDoqQj & oqQDoqQj%
jk"Vªèot & jk"Vªèot%
2- (d) inkuka o.kZfoPNsna izn'kZ;r&
;Fkk& uj% ¾ u~ $ v $ j~ $ v%
u j%
djksfr ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------

ckydk% ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------

Nk=k% ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------

v'ok% ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------

7
vdkjkUr&iq¡fYyÄõ%
([k) o.kZl;
a kstusu ina fy[kr&
;Fkk& n~ $ ½ $ 'k~ $ ;~ $ v $ e~ ¾ n`';e~
o~ $ vk $ u~ $ v $ j~ $ v% ¾
i~ $ v $ B~ $ v $ u~ $ r~ $ b ¾
d~ $ m $ j~ $ o~ $ v $ u~ $ r~ $ b ¾
/~ $ vk $ o~ $ v $ u~ $ r~ $ b ¾

3- mnkgj.ka n`"V~ok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


;Fkk& fid% fidkS fidk%
----------- dkdkS -----------

dPNi% ----------- -----------


----------- ----------- foMkyk%
----------- e`xkS -----------

?kV% ----------- -----------

4- fp=kkf.k n`"V~ok laLÑrinkfu fy[kr&

----------------- ----------------- -----------------

8
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
----------------- ----------------- -----------------

5- fp=ka n`"V~ok mÙkja fy[kr&


;Fkk& ckyd% ¯d djksfs r\
ckyd% iBfrA

v'okS ¯d oqQ#r%\
----------------------------

Nk=kk% ¯d oqQoZfUr\
----------------------------

9
vdkjkUr&iq¡fYyÄõ%
okujk% ¯d oqQoZfUr\
----------------------------

e;wjkS ¯d oqQ#r%\
----------------------------

xt% ¯d djksfr\
----------------------------

6- inkfu la;ksT; okD;kfu jp;r&


o`{k% pyfUr
xtk% xk;fr
¯lgkS iBr%
xk;d% u`R;fUr
ckydkS xtZr%
HkYywdk% iQyfr
10
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
7- e×tw"kkr% ina fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
u`R;fUr xtZr% /kofr pyr% iQyfUr [kknfr
(d) e;wjk% --------------A (?k) ¯lgkS --------------A
([k) xtkS --------------A (Ä) okuj% --------------A
(x) o`{kk% --------------A (p) v'o% --------------A
8- l%] rkS] rs bR;srHs ;% mfpra loZukeina fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& v'o% /kofrA & l% /kofrA
(d) xtk% pyfUrA & -------------- pyfUrA

([k) Nk=kkS fy[kr%A & -------------- fy[kr%A

(x) okujk% ØhMfUrA & -------------- ØhMfUrA

(?k) xk;d% xk;frA & -------------- xk;frA

(Ä) o`{kkS iQyr%A & -------------- iQyr%A

è;krO;e~&
(d) laLÑrs =khf.k fyÄõkfu HkofUr& iq¡fYyÄaõ] L=khfyÄaõ] uiqaldfyÄõ×pA
([k) laLÑrs =k;% iq#"kk% HkofUr& izFkeiq#"k%] eè;eiq#"k%] mÙkeiq#"k'pA
(x) laLÑrs =khf.k opukfu HkofUr& ,dopua] f}opua] cgqopu×pA

11
vdkjkUr&iq¡fYyÄõ%
f}rh;% ikB%
'kCnifjp;% vkdkjkUr&L=khfYkÄõ%

Nk=kk f'kf{kdk ifjpkfjdk

pVdk vtk fiihfydk

ukSdk oqQf×pdk ?kfVdk

ikd'kkyk f}pfØdk nksyk

mRihfBdk tofudk lwfpdk


isfVdk vfXuisfVdk Nqfjdk

[kV~ok iz;ksx'kkyk fnunf'kZdk

ekfidk ekyk rqyk

ikB'kkyk

ef{kdk o`¼k ikB'kkyk

oh.kk flDFkofrZdk yrk


13
vkdkjkUr&L=khfYkÄõ%
,"k% d%\
,"k% jkts'k%A
l% ¯d djksfr\
l% glfrA

,"kk dk\
,"kk f'kf{kdkA
lk ¯d djksfr\
lk fy[kfrA
¯d lk iBfr\
lk u iBfr] lk rq fy[kfrA

,rkS dkS\
,rkS ckydkSA
rkS ¯d oqQ#r%\
rkS [ksyr%A

,rs osQ\
,rs vtsA
rs ¯d oqQ#r%\
rs pjr%A
¯d rs ficr%\
rs u ficr%] rs rq pjr%A
14
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
,rs osQ\
,rs ckydk%A
rs ¯d oqQoZfUr\
rs ØUnfUrA
¯d rs iBfUr\
rs u iBfUr] rs rq ØUnfUr
,rk% dk%\
,rk% ckfydk%A
¯d rk% ØhMfUr\
ufg] rk% u`R;fUrA

,"kk dk vfLr\
,"kk okfVdk vfLrA
v=k tukS Hkzer%A
v=k yrk% dfydk% p lfUrA
Hkzejk% xq×tfUrA
pVdk% fogjfUrA

'kCnkFkkZ%
,"kk (L=kh-) & ;g
dk (L=kh-] loZuke) & dkSu
lk (L=kh-) & og
15
vkdkjkUr&L=khfYkÄõ%
,rs (L=kh-) & ;s nks
vts (L=kh-) & nks cdfj;k¡
rs (L=kh-) & os nks
pjr% & (nks) pjrs gSa@pjrh gSa
ficr% & (nks) ihrs gSa@ihrh gSa
ØUnfUr & jksrs gSa@jksrh gSa
,rk% (L=kh-) & ;s lc
rk% (L=kh-) & os lc
okfVdk & cxhpk
v=k (vO;;) & ;gk¡
tukS & nks yksx
Hkzer% & (nks) ?kwers gSa@?kwerh gSa
dfydk% & dfy;k¡
lfUr & gSa
Hkzejk% & HkkSajs
xq×tfUr & xw¡trs gSa@xw¡trh gSa
pVdk% & (vusd) xkSjS;k
fogjfUr & fopj.k djrs gSa@djrh gSa

vH;kl%
1- mPPkkj.ka oqQ#r&
(d) ckyd% ckfydk
f'k{kd% f'kf{kdk
uk;d% ukf;dk
xk;d% xkf;dk
l% lk
16
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
([k) fiihfydk fiihfyosQ fiihfydk%
lk rs rk%
ckfydk ckfyosQ ckfydk%
?kfVdk ?kfVosQ ?kfVdk%
dfydk dfyosQ dfydk%

2- (d) v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka o.kZfoPNsna izn'kZ;r&


;Fkk& f'kf{kdk ¾ 'k~ $ b $ o~Q $ "k~ $ b $ o~Q $ vk
f'k f{k dk
okfVdk ¾ ------------------------------------------------------

o`{kk% ¾ ------------------------------------------------------

Hkzejk% ¾ ------------------------------------------------------

izKk ¾ ------------------------------------------------------

fo|k ¾ ------------------------------------------------------

([k) o.kZla;kstua ÑRok ina dks"BosQ fy[kr&


;Fkk& x~$m$×k~$t~$v$u~$r~$b ¾ xq×tfUr
v$/~$;~$vk$i~$b$d~$vk ¾

d~$m$j~$m$r~$v% ¾

'k~$m$n~$/~$v% ¾

l~$r~$j~$bZ$y~$b$Ä~$x~$v% ¾
17
vkdkjkUr&L=khfYkÄõ%
'k~$j~$bZ$e~$v$r~$bZ ¾
l~$j~$vks$r~$v% ¾
3- fp=ka n`"V~ok laLÑr'kCna fy[kr&

-------------------- -------------------- --------------------

-------------------- -------------------- --------------------

4- dks"Bdkr~ mfpra 'kCna fpRok okD;a iwj;r&


;Fkk& ckfydk iBfrA (ckfydk@ckfydk%)
(d) ----------------- xq×tfrA (Hkzej%@Hkzejk%)
([k) ----------------- pyr%A (fiihfydk%@fiihfyosQ)
(x) ----------------- vfLrA (rwfydk@rwfyosQ)
(?k) ----------------- lfUrA (f}pfØosQ@f}pfØdk%)
(Ä) ----------------- pjfUrA (vtk%@vts)

18
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
5- opukuqlkja fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk& yrk yrs yrk%

xhrk ----------- -----------

----------- isfVosQ -----------

----------- ----------- [kV~ok%

lk ----------- -----------

----------- jksfVosQ -----------

6- l%] lk] rs] rk%] rkS bR;ssrsH;% mfpra loZukeina fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu
iwj;r&
;Fkk& yrk vfLrA & lk vfLrA
(d) efgyk% glfUrA & ------------- glfUrA

([k) lq/k onfrA & ------------- onfrA

(x) v'o% èkkofrA & ------------- èkkofrA

(?k) ckydkS i';r%A & ------------- i';r%A

(Ä) Hkzejk% xq×tfUrA & ------------- xq×tfUrA

19
vkdkjkUr&L=khfYkÄõ%
7- e×tw"kkr% drZ`ina fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
HkDrk% vts ckyd% flagk% f}pfØdk

(d) --------------- pjr%A


([k) --------------- xtZfUrA
(x) --------------- uefUrA
(?k) --------------- glfrA
(Ä) --------------- pyfrA

8- e×tw"kkr% drZ`inkuqlkja fØ;kina fpRok 'kwU;LFkkua iwj;r&


xk;r% u`R;fr fy[kfUr i';fUr fogjr%

(d) jek --------------------A


([k) pVosQ -----------------A
(x) ckfyosQ --------------A
(?k) Nk=kk% -----------------A
(Ä) tuk% ------------------A

20
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
r`rh;% ikB%
'kCnifjp;% vdkjkUr&uiql
a dfyÄõ%

i.kZe~ iQye~ lÄõ.kde~

e~
j?kqoa'k

iqLrde~ orqy
Z e~ x`ge~

vk;re~ fo|qnO~ ;tue~ ik=ke~

lw{en'kZde~ jsy;kue~ N=ke~

eqo
q Qq Ve~ ok|e~ }kje~
okrk;ue~ mius=ke~ lksikue~

uhMe~ i×tje~ foekue~

ØhMude~ djoL=ke~ Hkoue~

nwjn'kZue~ ukfjosQye~ m|kue~

deye~ dÄrï e~ lw=ke~


22
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
,rr~ fde~ vfLr\
,rr~ iQye~ vfLrA

,rs osQ Lr%\


,rs iQys Lr%A

,rkfu dkfu lfUr\


,rkfu iQykfu lfUrA

fde~ ,rs iq"is\


,rs iq"is u Lr%A
,rs i.ksZ Lr%A

fde~ ,rkfu iqLrdkfu\


u] ,rkfu eqoQq VkfuA
23
vdkjkUr&uiqaldfyÄõ%
,rkfu dkfu lfUr\
,rkfu foekukfu lfUrA

v=k ckyk% foaQ oqQoZfUr\


v=k ckyk% ØhMfUrA

¯d ;kukfu pyfUr\
u] osQoya pØkf.k pyfUrA

,"kk dk\
,"kk ckfydkA

fde~ v=k oh.kk% lfUr\


u] v=k ,dk ,o oh.kk vfLrA

24
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
,rs osQ Lr%\
,rs N=ks Lr%A

fde~ v=k jsy;kukfu lfUr\


u] v=k dkj;kus Lr%A

fde~ ,rr~ ok|e~\


u] ,rr~ tyik=ke~A

,rs osQ\
,rs O;tus Lr%A

dkfu ,rkfu\
,rkfu i.kkZfuA

fde~ ,rr~ foekue~\


u] ,"k% [kx%A
[kx% mRirfrA
25
vdkjkUr&uiqaldfyÄõ%
'kCnkFkkZ%

,rr~ (uiq-a ) & ;g


iQye~ (uiq-a ) & iQy
,rs (uiq-a ) & (nks) ;s
,rkfu (uiq-a ) & (vusd) ;s
dkfu (uiq-a ) & dkSu
iq"is (uiq-a ) & nks iwQy
i.ksZ (uia-q ) & nks iÙks
eqoQq Vkfu (uia-q ) & (vusd) rkt@eqoQq V
foekukfu (uia-q ) & (vusd) gokbZ tgkt
;kukfu (uia-q ) & (vusd) xkM+h
osQ (uia-q ) & (nks) dkSu
Lr% (uia-q ) & (nks) gSa
N=ks (uia-q ) & nks Nkrk
jsy;kukfu (uia-q ) & (vusd) jsyxkM+h
dkj;kus (uia-q ) & nks dkj
ok|e~ (uia-q ) & cktk
tyik=ke~ (uia-q ) & ikuh dk cjru
O;tus (uia-q ) & nks ia[ks
,rkfu (uia-q ) & ;s lc
[kx% (ia-q ) & fpfM+;k
mRirfr & mM+rk gS@mM+rh gS
26
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
vH;kl%

1- ekSf[kde~ mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&


fp=ke~ fp=ks fp=kkf.k
iq"ie~ iq"is iq"ikf.k
ik=ke~ ik=ks ik=kkf.k
us=ke~ us=ks us=kkf.k
O;tue~ O;tus O;tukfu
m|kue~ m|kus m|kukfu
}kje~ }kjs }kjkf.k

2- (d) v/ksfyf[krkuka 'kCnkuka o.kZfoPNsna izn'kZ;r&


;Fkk& O;tue~ & o~ $ ;~ $ v $ t~ $ v $ u~ $ v $ e~

iqLrde~ & -----------------------------------------------------------------

fo}ku~ & -----------------------------------------------------------------

fpÉe~ & -----------------------------------------------------------------

vkÈkn% & -----------------------------------------------------------------

vkàkue~ & -----------------------------------------------------------------


27
vdkjkUr&uiqaldfyÄõ%
([k) o.kZl;
a kstua ÑRok dks"BosQ ina fy[kr&
;Fkk& i~ $ j~ $ v $ g~ $ y~ $ vk $ n $ v% ¾ izÈkn%

(d) v $ i~ $ v $ j~ $ vk $ g~ $ .k~ $ v% ¾

([k) n~ $ o~ $ vk $ n~ $ v $ 'k~ $ v% ¾

(x) n~ $ o~ $ vk $ j~ $ v $ e~ ¾

(?k) o~ $ b $ 'k~ $ o~ $ vk $ l~ $ v% ¾

(Ä) i~ $ j~ $ v $ r~ $ ;~ $ v $ d~ $ "k~ $ v $ e~ ¾

3- fp=kkf.k n`"V~ok rs"kka laLÑrinkfu fy[kr&


--------------------

-------------------- --------------------

28
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
-------------------- --------------------

-------------------- --------------------

4- fp=ka n`"V~ok mÙkja fy[kr&


;Fkk& dkdk% ¯d oqQoZfUr\
dkdk% mRirfUrA

v'ok% ¯d oqQoZfUr\
-----------------------------

29
vdkjkUr&uiqaldfyÄõ%
ckyk% ¯d oqQoZfUr\
-----------------------------

e;wjkS ¯d oqQ#r%A
-----------------------------

dkfu irfUr\
-----------------------------

ckys ¯d oqQ#r%\
-----------------------------

30
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
5- funs'Z kkuqlkja okD;kfu jp;r&
;Fkk& ,rr~ irfrA (cgqopus) & ,rkfu irfUrA
(d) ,rr~ iQye~A (cgqopus) & ------------------------------

([k) ,rs O;tusA (,dopus) & ------------------------------

(x) ,rkfu ;kukfuA (f}opus)s & ------------------------------

(?k) Hkzej% xq×tfrA (cgqopus) & ------------------------------

(Ä) e;wj% u`R;frA (f}opus) & ------------------------------

6- mfprinkfu la;ksT; okD;kfu jp;r&


dksfdys fodlfr
iou% u`R;fUr
iq"ie~ mRirfr
[kx% ogfr
e;wjk% xtZfUr
¯lgk% owQtr%

31
vdkjkUr&uiqaldfyÄõ%
prqFkZ% ikB%
loZuke&iz;ksx%

,"k% fo|ky;%A
v=k Nk=kk%] f'k{kdk%]
f'kf{kdk% p lfUrA

,"kk lÄ.õ kd;U=k&iz;ksx'kkyk vfLrA


,rkfu lÄ.õ kd;U=kkf.k lfUrA

,rr~ vLekoaQ fo|ky;L;


m|kue~ vfLrA
m|kus iq"ikf.k lfUrA
o;e~ v=k ØhMke% iBke% pA
½pk & ro uke fde~\
iz.ko% & ee uke iz.ko%A ro uke fde~\
½pk & ee uke ½pkA Roa oqQ=k iBfl\
iz.ko% & vge~ v=k ,o iBkfeA
½pk & vge~ vfi v=k ,o iBkfeA
bnkuhe~ vkoka fe=ks Lo%A

f'kf{kdk& Nk=kk%! ;w;a ¯d oqQq #Fk\


Nk=kk% & vkpk;s!Z o;a xPNke%A
f'kf{kdk& ;w;a oqQ=k xPNFk\
Nk=kk% & o;a lHkkxkja xPNke%A
f'kf{kdk& ;q"ekoaQ iqLrdkfu oqQ=k lfUr\
Nk=kk% & vLekoaQ iqLrdkfu v=k lfUrA

f'k{kd% &
Nk=kkS! ;qoka ¯d oqQ#Fk%\
Nk=kkS &
vkpk;Z! vkoka 'yksoQa xk;ko%A
f'k{kd% &
'kksHkue~] ¯d ;qoka 'yksoQa u fy[kFk%\
Nk=kkS &
vkoka fy[kko%] iBko%] xk;ko%]
fp=kkf.k vfi jp;ko%A
f'k{kd% & cgq'kksHkue~A

33
loZuke&iz;ksx%
'kCnkFkkZ%
lÄ.õ kd;U=kkf.k & (vusd) dEI;wVj
vLekde~ & gekjk@ge yksxksa dk
o;e~ (loZuke) & ge lc
ro & rsjk
ee & esjk
Roe~ (loZuke) & rqe
vge~ (loZuke) & eSa
,o (vO;;) & gh
vfi (vO;;) & Hkh
bnkuhe~ (vO;;) & vc@bl le;
vkoke~ (loZuke) & ge nksuksa
fe=ks (uiq-a ) & (nks) fe=k
Lo% & (ge nksuks)a gSa
;w;e~ (loZuke) & rqe lc
vkpk;s!Z & f'kf{kdk (lEcks/u)
;q"ekde~ & rqEgkjk@rqe yksxksa dk
oqQ=k & dgk¡
lHkkxkje~ & lHkkxkj dks
;qoke~ (loZuke) & rqe nksuksa
vkpk;Z! & xq#@f'k{kd (lEcks/u)
'kksHkue~ & vPNk
xk;ko% & (ge nks) xkrs gS@a xkrh gSa
jp;ko% & (ge nks) cukrs gS@a cukrh gSa
34
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
vge~ vkoke~ o;e~
eke~ vkoke~ vLeku~
ee vko;ks% vLekde~
Roe~ ;qoke~ ;w;e~
Roke~ ;qoke~ ;q"eku~
ro ;qo;ks% ;q"ekde~

2- funs'Z kkuqlkja ifjorZua oqQ#r&


;Fkk& vga iBkfeA & (cgqopus) & o;a iBke%A
(d) vga u`R;kfeA & (cgqopus) & --------------------------------

([k) Roa iBflA & (cgqopus) & --------------------------------

(x) ;qoka ØhMFk%A & (,dopus) & --------------------------------

(?k) vkoka xPNko%A & (cgqopus) & --------------------------------

(Ä) vLekda iqLrdkfuA & (,dopus) & --------------------------------

(p) ro x`ge~A & (f}opus) & --------------------------------

35
loZuke&iz;ksx%
3- dks"Bdkr~ mfpra 'kCna fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) -------------------- iBkfeA (o;e~@vge~)

([k) -------------------- xPNFk%A (;qoke~@;w;e~)

(x) ,rr~ -------------------- iqLrde~A (eke~@ee)

(?k) -------------------- ØhMudkfuA (;q"eku~@;q"ekde~)

(Ä) -------------------- Nk=ks Lo%A (o;e~@vkoke~)

(p) ,"kk -------------------- ys[kuhA (ro@Roke~)


4- fØ;kinS% okD;kfu iwj;r&
iBfl /koke% xPNko% ØhMFk% fy[kkfe i';Fk
;Fkk& vga iBkfeA
(d) Roa ---------------------
([k) vkoka -----------------
(x) ;w;a --------------------
(?k) vgaa -------------------
(Ä) ;qoka -------------------
(p) o;a --------------------
36
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
5- mfprinS% okD;fuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
ee ro vko;ks% ;qo;ks% vLekde~ ;q"ekde~
;Fkk& ,"kk ee iqfLrdkA
(d) ,rr~ ------------------------ x`ge~A
([k) ------------------------ eS=kh n`<kA
(x) ,"k% ------------------------ fo|ky;%A
(?k) ,"kk ------------------------ vè;kfidkA
(Ä) Hkkjre~ ------------------------ ns'k%A
(p) ,rkfu ------------------------ iqLrdkfuA
6- ,dopuinL; cgqopuina] cgqopuinL; ,dopuina p fy[kr&
;Fkk& ,"k% ,rs
(d) l% ------------

([k) rk% ------------

(x) ,rk% ------------

(?k) Roe~ ------------

(Ä) vLekde~ ------------

(p) ro ------------

(N) ,rkfu ------------


37
loZuke&iz;ksx%
7- okrkZykis fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& fiz;o
a nk & 'koqQURkys! Roa ¯d djksf"k\
'koqQUryk & fiz;oa ns! ------------------ u`R;kfe] ------------------ ¯d djksf"k\
a nk & 'koqQURkys! ------------------ xk;kfeA ¯d ------------------ u xk;fl\
fiz;o
'koqQUryk & fiz;oa ns! ------------------ u xk;kfeA ------------------ rq u`R;kfeA
a nk & 'koqQURkys! ¯d ------------------ ekrk u`R;frA
fiz;o
'koqQUryk & vke~] ------------------ ekrk vfi u`R;frA
a nk & lk/q] ------------------ pyko%A
fiz;o
8- mi;qDrsu vFksuZ lg ;kst;r&
'kCn% vFkZ%
lk rqe nksuksa dk
rkfu rqe lc
vLekde~ esjk
;w;e~ og (L=khfyÄõ)
vkoke~ rqEgkjk
ee os (uiql
a dfyÄõ)
;qo;ks% ge nksuksa
ro gekjk

38
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
i×pe% ikB%
f}rh;k&foHkfDr%] y`Vy
~ dkj% p

vfHkuo% & ef.kosQ! izHkkr! ;qoka oqQ=k xPNFk%\


ef.kdk & vfHkuo! vkoka tUrq'kkyka xPNko%A
vfHkuo% & r=k ;qoka ¯d ¯d nz{;Fk%\
izHkkr% & r=k vkoke~ vusdku~ i'kwu~ nz{;ko%A
ef.kdk & ¯d r=k ¯lgk%] HkYywdk%] gfj.kk% lfUr\
vfHkuo% & vke~] r=k okujk%] xtk%] x.Mdk%] edjk%] O;k?kzk% vfi lfUrA
r=k ;qoka 'k'kdku~] 'kYydha] ukukfoèkku~ [kxku~ vfi nz{;Fk%A
izHkkr% & vfHkuo! ¯d tUrq'kkyk;ka likZ% vfi Hkfo";fUr\
vfHkuo% & izHkkr! r=k ukxk%] vtxjk%] Ñ".klikZ%] vU;s p fofo/k% likZ%
Hkfo";fUrA
ef.kdk & izHkkr! bnkuhe~ vkoka tUrq'kkyka xfe";ko%A
(mHkkS tUrq'kkyka izfo'kr%] fofo/ku~ tUrwu]~ [kxku~ p i';r%A)
ef.kdk & izHkkr! vkoke~ bnkuha JkUrkS] v/quk foJkea dfj";ko%A
izHkkr% & ef.kosQ! v=k vYikgkjx`ge~ vfi Hkfo";frA r=k xPNko%A
(mHkkS vYikgkjx`ga xPNr%)
ef.kdk & izHkkr! v=k fe"VkÂkfu] 'khryis;kfu p lfUrA

izHkkr% & 'kksHkue~] v/quk vkoka fe"VkÂkfu [kkfn";ko%] 'khryis;kfu p


ikL;ko%A rr% x`ga pfy";ko%A

'kCnkFkkZ%

nz{;Fk% & (rqe nksuks)a ns[kksx@s ns[kksxh


¯lg% & 'ksj
HkYywd% & Hkkyw
gfj.k% & fgj.k
40
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
xtk% & (vusd) gkFkh
x.Mdk% & (vusd) xs.Mk
edjk% & (vusd) exjePN
O;k?kzk% & (vusd) ck?k
'k'kdku~ & [kjxks'kksa dks
'kYydhe~ & lkgh dks
ukukfo/ku~ [kxku~ & vusd izdkj osQ if{k;ksa dks
likZ% & (vusd) lk¡i
ukxk% & (vusd) ukx
vtxjk% & (vusd) vtxj
Ñ".klikZ% & (vusd) dkys lk¡i
izfo'kr% & (os nksuks)a izo's k djrs gS@a djrh gSa
JkUrkS & (nks) FkosQ gq,
r=k (vO;;) & ogk¡
vèkquk & vc
fe"VkÂkfu & feBkb;k¡
'khryis;kfu & 'khryis;
rr% (vO;;) & mlosQ ckn

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
(d) ckyde~ ckydkS ckydku~
jkee~ jkekS jkeku~
Nk=kk Nk=ks Nk=kk%
ekyk ekys ekyk%
iq"ie~ iq"is iq"ikf.k
O;tue~ O;tus O;tukfu
41
f}rh;k&foHkfDr%] y`V~ydkj% p
([k) [kkfn";fr [kkfn";r% [kkfn";fUr
ysf[k";fl ysf[k";Fk% ysf[k";Fk
dfj";kfe dfj";ko% dfj";ke%
uaL;fr uaL;r% uaL;fUr
ikL;fl ikL;Fk% ikL;Fk
xfe";kfe xfe";ko% xfe";ke%

2- dks"BosQ"kq iznÙk'kCns"kq mi;qDrfoHkfDar ;kstf;Rok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


;Fkk& vga jksfVdka [kkfn";kfeA (jksfVdk)
(d) Roa ----------------- ficflA (nqX/)
([k) Nk=k% ----------------- nz{;frA (nwjn'kZu)
(x) rk% ----------------- ysf[k";fUrA (dFkk)
(?k) o;a ----------------- xk;ke%A (dfork)
(Ä) Ñ"kdk% ----------------- oifUrA (cht)
(p) lk ----------------- xfe";frA (iqLrdky;)

3- fp=kkf.k vk/`R; okD;kfu iwj;r&

tuk% ----------------- uefUrA

42
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
ckfyosQ ----------------- /kj;r%A

,"kk ----------------- vfLrA

e`xk% ----------------- pjfUrA

ckydk% ----------------- [kknfUrA

4- v/ksfyf[krku~ 'kCnku~ vk/`R; lkFkZdkfu okD;kfu jp;r&


vtk% f'kf{kdka uaL;r%
o;a ys[ka jp;ke%
ckydkS r`.ka ifB";ko%
vkoka dFkka pfj";fUr
ROka iqLroaQ dFkf;";fl
jke% fp=ka ysf[k";fr
43
f}rh;k&foHkfDr%] y`V~ydkj% p
;Fkk& vtk% r`.ka pfj";fUrA
(d) -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

([k) -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

(x) -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

(?k) -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

(Ä) -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

5- opukuqlkja fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk& dforke~ dfors dfork%
------------ iqLrosQ ------------
------------ ------------ e;wjku~
Ñ"kde~ ------------ ------------
------------ ------------ r`.kkfu
ine~ ------------ ------------

6- mnkgj.kkuqlkja fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk& izFkeiq#"k% ifB";fr ifB";r% ifB";fURk
eè;eiq#"k% [kkfn";fl ---------------- ----------------

mÙkeiq#"k% ---------------- ---------------- [kkfn";ke%


44
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
izFkeiq#"k% ----------------------- ysf[k";r% -----------------------

eè;eiq#"k% ----------------------- ----------------------- uaL;Fk


mÙkeiq#"k% xfe";kfe ----------------------- -----------------------

7- mnkgj.kkuqlkja okD;kfu jp;r&


,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk& Nk=k% dFkka ifB";frA Nk=kkS dFks ifB";r%A Nk=kk% dFkk% ifB";fUrA
(d) Roa ys[ka ysf[k";flA ------------------------------A ------------------------------A
([k) ------------------------------A ckys oL=ks /kjf;";r%A ------------------------------A
(x) ------------------------------A ------------------------------A ekykdkjk% ekyk% jpf;";fUrA
(?k) vga iqLroaQ ifB";kfeA ------------------------------A ------------------------------A
(Ä) ------------------------------A ------------------------------A ckydk% iQykfu [kkfn";fUrA
8- laokns fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& jek & yrs! ¯d Roa fo|ky;a xfe";fl\
yrk & jes! vga ------------------------- u ------------------------A vga rq nsoky;a
----------------------A

jek & yrs! ¯d Roa izfrfnua nsoky;a ----------------------\


yrk & vke~! vga --------------------- nsoky;a -------------------A r=k vga izlkna
----------------------A Roa dnk nsoky;a ----------------------\

jek & vga izfrfnua lk;a nsoky;a ----------------------A izkr% rq fo|ky;a


----------------------A r=k iqLrdkfu ----------------------A
45
f}rh;k&foHkfDr%] y`V~ydkj% p
"k"B% ikB%
vga uekfe
vga uekfe ekrje~
xq#a uekfe lknje~ AA1AA
Lo;a iBkfe loZnk
fiz;a onkfe loZnk AA2AA
fgra djksfe loZnk
'kqHka djksfe loZnk AA3AA
gfja uekfe lknje~
xq#a uekfe lknje~ AA4AA
pykfe uhfr&lRiFks
gjkfe ekr`Hkw&O;Fkke~ AA5AA
n/kfe lk/qrkozre~
l`tkfe dhfrZlRdFkke~ AA6AA
izHkqa tikfe lknje~
vga uekfe ekrje~ AA7AA

bPNkjke f}osnh ^iz.ko%*


'kCnkFkkZ%
lknje~ & vknj osQ lkFk
uhfrlRiFks & uhfr osQ lPps jkLrs ij
ekr`Hkw&O;Fkke~ & ekr`Hkwfe dh O;Fkk dks
lk/qrkozre~ & lTturk osQ ozr dks
gjkfe & gj.k djrk gw@¡ djrh gw]¡ nwj djrk gw@¡ djrh gw¡
n/kfe & /kj.k djrk gw@¡ djrh gw¡
l`tkfe & jpuk djrk gw@¡ djrh gw¡
dhfrZlRdFkke~ & ;'k dh lPph dgkuh dks

vH;kl%
1- ,rka dforka lLoja xk;rA
2- dfork;k% fuEufyf[krklq ifƒ"kq fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) ---------------------- iBkfe loZnkA
([k) fgra ---------------------- loZnkA

(x) pykfe uhfr ----------------------A

(?k) n/kfe ---------------------- ozre~A


(Ä) izHkqa ---------------------- lknje~A
47
vga uekfe
3- ,d'kCnsu mÙkja fy[kr&
(d) vga oaQ uekfe\
([k) vga izHkqa dFka tikfe\
(x) vga ¯d gjkfe\
(?k) vga ¯d ozra n/kfe\
(Ä) vga ¯d l`tkfe\
4- ,rS% fØ;kinS% okD;kfu jp;r&
uekfe pykfe
iBkfe tikfe
l`tkfe djksfe
5- LodYiuka ÑROkk okD;kfu jp;r&
;Fkk& vga fp=ka l`tkfeA
(d) o;a ------------------- ------------------- A

([k) ------------------- ------------------- onkfeA

(x) vga ------------------- ------------------- A

(?k) ------------------- ------------------- pyke%A

(Ä) Roa ------------------- ------------------- A

48
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
6- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) Roa fuR;a dka uefl\
([k) Roa Lo;a ¯d ¯d djksf"k\
(x) Roa dL;k% O;Fkka gfj";fl\
(?k) Roa ¯d ozra /kj;fl\
(Ä) Roa ¯d l`tfl\
7- e×tw"kkr% leqfprina x`ghRok okD;a iwj;r&
;w;e~ ckydkS Roe~ o;e~ ckfydk%
(d) -------------------------- ikia gjflA
([k) -------------------------- x`gkdk;± oqQ#r%A
(x) -------------------------- fp=kkf.k l`tFkA
(?k) -------------------------- jk"Vªxhra xk;ke%A
(Ä) -------------------------- nsoha uefUrA

è;krO;e~&
f'k{kosQu lLojxkuk; iz;kl% dj.kh;%A

49
vga uekfe
lIre% ikB%
r`rh;k&prqFkhZ&foHkfDr%
leqnrz V%

,"k% leqnrz V% vfLrA iz.ko% v=k fe=kS% lg ØhMfrA l% ckyqdkfHk% x`ga


jp;frA ckydk% dUnqoQs u ØhMfUrA rs iknsu dUnqda f{kifUrA osQpu rjÄ%Sõ lg
ØhMfUrA vijs rjÄ%Sõ lkoaQ leqPNyfUrA v=k vusdk% ukSdk% vfi lfUrA
èkhojS% lg i;ZVdk% ukSdkfHk% leqnfz ogkja oqQoZfUrA
osQpu tuk% izkr% leqnaz xPNfUrA r=k lkèko%
equ;% p LukfUrA HkDrk% nsoky;a xPNfUrA r=k rs
nsoHs ;% nsohH;% p iq"ikf.k viZ;fUr izkFkZ;fUr p&
ueks nsoHs ;% losHZ ;%
ikyosQH;ks ueks ue%A
vf[kykH;% ifo=kkH;%
nsohH;'p ueks ue%AA
rr% ija iwtd% losHZ ;% izlkna ;PNfr] mifn'kfr p&
Jks=ka JqrsuSo u oqQ.Mysu
nkusu ikf.kuZ rq dÄ.ï ksuA
foHkkfr dk;% d#.kkijk.kka
ijksidkjSuZ rq pUnusuAA

rr% tuk% f}pfØd;k] ;kusu] iknkH;ka ok Lo Lo x`ga izfr xPNfUrA

'kCnkFkkZ%
ckyqdkfHk% & jsrksa ls
jp;fr & cukrk gS@cukrh gS
iknsu & (,d) iSj ls
f{kifUr & isQa drs gS@a isQa drh gSa
osQpu (vO;;) & oqQN
rjÄ%Sõ & ygjksa ls
vijs & nwljs
lkde~ (vO;;) & lkFk
leqPNyfUr & mNyrs gS@a mNyrh gSa
vusdk% & cgqr lh
èkhojS% & eYykgksa osQ lkFk
i;ZVdk% & (vusd) i;ZVd@lSykuh
51
leqnzrV%
LukfUr & ugkrs gS@a ugkrh gSa
viZ;fUr & p<+krs gS@a p<krh gSa
vf[kykH;% ifo=kkH;% & leLr ifo=k
nsohH;% & nsfo;ksa dks
rr% ija & mlosQ ckn
iwtd% & iwtkjh
;PNfr & nsrk gS@nsrh gS
mifn'kfr & mins'k nsrk gS@nsrh gS
Jks=ke~ & dku
Jqrus o
S (Jqrus $,o) & lquus ls gh@'kkL=kksa dks lquus ls
ikf.k% & gkFk
dÄï.ksu & oaQxu ls
foHkkfr & 'kksHkk ikrk gS@ikrh gS
dk;% & 'kjhj
d#.kkijk.kke~ & n;k ls Hkjs gq, dk@Hkjh gqbZ dh
ijksidkjS% (ij$midkjS%) & nwljksa osQ midkjksa ls
f}pfØd;k & lkbfdy ls
iknkH;ke~ & nksuksa iSjksa ls

vH;kl%
1- ekSf[kde~ mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
(d) nsok; nsokH;ke~~ nsoHs ;%
bZ'ojk; bZ'ojkH;ke~ bZ'ojsH;%
ckyk; ckykH;ke~ ckysH;%
iQyk; iQykH;ke~ iQysH;%
52
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
([k) ukSd;k ukSdkH;ke~ ukSdkfHk%
f}pfØd;k f}pfØdkH;ke~ f}pfØdkfHk%
pVd;k pVdkH;ke~ pVdkfHk%
ckyqd;k ckyqdkH;ke~ ckyqdkfHk%
(x) iknsu iknkH;ke~ iknS%
deysu deykH;ke~ deyS%
nsous nsokH;ke~ nso%S
iq"is.k iq"ikH;ke~ iq"iS%
(?k) f'kf{kdk;S f'kf{kdkH;ke~ f'kf{kdkH;%
yrk;S yrkH;ke~ yrkH;%
ekyk;S ekykH;ke~~ ekykH;%
ukSdk;S ukSdkH;ke~ ukSdkH;%
2- ;Fkk;ksX;a ;kst;r&
nhid% iks"k.kk;
ØhMude~ nkuk;
/ue~ izdk'kk;
ijksidkj% [ksyuk;
nqX/e~ iq.;k;
3- prqFkhZ&foHkfDriz;ksx.s k okD;kfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& ijksidkj% iq.;k; HkofrA (iq.;)
(d) -------------------- ue%A (f'k{kd)
([k) lqj's k% -------------------- iqLrda ;PNfrA (fe=k)
53
leqnzrV%
(x) lTtuk% -------------------- thofUrA (ijksidkj)
(?k) ekrk -------------------- vÂa nnkfrA (fHk{kqd)
(Ä) ijihMue~ -------------------- HkofrA (iki)
4- r`rh;k&foHkfDriz;ksx.s k okD;kfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& ih;w"k% fe=ks.k lg xPNfrA (fe=k)
(d) ckfydk% -------------------- lg iBfUrA (ckyd)
([k) rMkx% -------------------- foHkkfrA (dey)
(x) vgefi -------------------- [ksykfeA (dUnqd)

(?k) v'ok% -------------------- lg èkkofUrA (v'o)


(Ä) e`xk% -------------------- lg pjfUrA (e`x)

5- mÙkjs"kq fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) ckydk% osQu dUnqda f{kifUr\
mÙkje~ & ckydk% -------------------- dUnqoQa f{kifUrA

([k) vijs oSQ% lkoaQ leqPNyfUr\

mÙkje~ & vijs -------------------- lkoaQ leqPNyfUrA


(x) i;ZVdk% dkfHk% leqnfz ogkja oqQoZfUr\

mÙkje~ & i;ZVdk% -------------------- leqnfz ogkja oqQoZfUrA


54
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
(?k) dLeS ue%\
mÙkje~ & -------------------- ue%A
(Ä) HkDrk% osQH;% iq"ikf.k viZ;fUr\
mÙkje~ & HkDrk% -------------------- iq"ikf.k viZ;fUrA

(p) dkH;% ueks ue%\


mÙkje~ & -------------------- ueks ue%A
6- dks"Bdkr~ mfpriniz;ksx.s k fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) lhrk ------------------ lg oua xPNfrA (jke%@jkes.k)
([k) /fud% ------------------ /ua nnkfrA (fu/Zue~@fu/Zuk;)
(x) cky% ------------------ lg fo|ky;a xPNfr (tuosQu@tudk;)
(?k) vga ------------------ ØhMk{ks=ka xPNkfeA (f}pfØdk;k%@f}pfØd;k)
(Ä) iz/kukpk;Z% ------------------ ikfjrksf"koaQ nnkfrA (Nk=kk.kke~@Nk=ksH;%)
7- funs'Z kkuqlkja ifjorZ;r&
;Fkk& nsoHs ;% & (L=khfyÄõs) nsohH;%
Nk=kk;S & (iqf¡ YyÄsõ) --------------------

rjÄsõ.k & (cgqopus)s --------------------

bZ'ojsH;% & (,dopus)s --------------------

dUnqoQs u & (f}opus)s --------------------

uk;osQH;% & (L=khfyÄsõ) --------------------


55
leqnzrV%
è;krO;e~&
'kjhjkÄkõ uka ifjp;%
yykVe~ osQ'k%
us=ke~ Hkzw%
d.kZ% duhfudk
ukfldk diksy%
v/j%
d.B%
LdU/%

o{k%LFkye~

mnje~
gLr%
ukfHk%

u[k%
Å#%
qy h
v Ä~x
tkuq%

xqYiQ%
pj.k%

56
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
v"Ve% ikB%
i×peh&"k"Bh&foHkfDr% vLekoaQ fo|ky;%
vLekoaQ fo|ky;% xzkeL; lehis vfLrA izkr% Nk=kk% ee xzkekr~ fo|ky;e~
vkxPNfUrA vU;sH;% xzkesH;% vfi Nk=kk% v=k iBuk; lekxPNfUrA fo|ky;L;
izkFkZuk&lHkk vrho euksjek vfLrA izkFkZuklHkk;k% vuUrja ckydk% ckfydk% p

fo|ky;%

Lo&Lo&d{kka xPNfUrA rs f'k{kosQH;% fofo/fo"k;ku~ iBfUrA fo|ky;L;


iqLrdky;kr~ Nk=kk% iqLrdkfu vku;fUrA r=k rs lekpkji=kkf.k vfi iBfUrA
iqLrdkuke~ vè;;usu KkuL; fodkl% HkofrA
fo|ky;L; iqjr% ,de~ m|kue~ vfLrA m|kuL; 'kksHkk vrho je.kh;kA
v=k iq"ik.kka cgo% izdkjk% lfUrA rs"kke~ mifj Hkzejk% xq×tfUrA rs iq"ik.kka jla
ficfUrA r=k [kxkuka dyowQtue~ vfrlq[kna HkofrA
fo|ky;L; ØhMk{ks=ke~ vfrfo'kkye~ vfLrA v=k Nk=kk% u osQoya ØhMkdkyka'ks
vfi rq vodk'kkr~ ije~ vfi ØhMfUrA ØhMkf'k{kdkr~ rs ØhMkfuiq.krke~
vfèkxPNfUrA vLekoaQ fo|ky;s vè;;usu ØhMusu p Nk=kk.kka 'kkjhfjd%
ekufld% p fodkl% HkofrA
fo|;k fou;su p lEiÂk% LoLFkk% Nk=kk% ,o lektL; ns'kL; p lsoka
oqQq oZfUrA mDr×p&
fo|k nnkfr fou;a fou;k|kfr ik=krke~ A
ik=kRokn~ /uekIuksfr /ukn~ /e± rr% lq[ke~ AA

'kCnkFkkZ%

vU;sH;% xzkesH;% & nwljs xk¡oksa ls


lekxPNfUr & vkrs gS@a vkrh gSa
vrho & vR;Ur
euksjek (L=kh-) & lqUnj
Lo&Lo&d{kke~ & viuh viuh d{kkvksa dks (es)a
58
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
fofo/fo"k;ku~ & rjg rjg osQ fo"k;ksa dks
vku;fUr & ykrs gS@a ykrh gSa
iqjr% (vO;;) & lkeus
je.kh;k (L=kh-) & lqUnj
mifj (vO;;) & mQij
Hkzejk% & HkkSja s
xq×tfUr & xwt
¡ rs gS@a x¡t
w rh gSa
[kxkuke~ & fpfM+;ks@a dk@osQ@dh
dyowQtue~ & pgpgkuk@e/qjèofu
lq[kne~ & lq[k nsus okyk
vf/xPNfUr & izkIr djrs gS@a izkIr djrh gSa
lEiUuk% & ;qDr
nnkfr & nsrk gS@nsrh gS
ik=kRokr~ & ;ksX;rk ls
vkIuksfr & izkIr djrk gS@izkIr djrh gS

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQq #r&
eksndkr~ eksndkH;ke~ eksnosQH;%
ekyk;k% ekykH;ke~ ekykH;%
fp=kkr~ fp=kkH;ke~ fp=ksH;%
'kqdL; 'kqd;ks% 'kqdkuke~
yrk;k% yr;ks% yrkuke~
fp=kL; fp=k;ks% fp=kk.kke~
59
vLekda fo|ky;%
2- js[kkfÄïrkfu inkfu cgqopus ifjorZ;r&
;Fkk& Nk=kk% xzkekr~ vkxPNfUrA
Nk=kk% xzkesH;% vkxPNfUrA
(d) tuk% vki.kkr~ ØhMudkfu Øh.kfUrA
tuk% --------------------------- ØhMudkfu Øh.kfUrA

([k) ckydk% iqLrdky;kr~ iqLrdkfu vku;fUrA


ckydk% --------------------------- iqLrdkfu vku;fUrA

(x) if=kdk;k% fp=kkf.k i';rA


--------------------------- fp=kkf.k i';rA

(?k) 'kk[kk;k% i=kkf.k vku;A


--------------------------- i=kkf.k vku;A

(Ä) yrk;k% iq"ikf.k fpuqrA


--------------------------- iq"ikf.k fpuqrA

(p) o`{kkr~ i=kkf.k irfUrA


--------------------------- i=kkf.k irfUrA

60
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
3- js[kkfÄïrkfu inkfu ,dopus ifjorZ;r&
;Fkk& oukuka n`';e~
ouL; n`';e~
(d) m|kukuka 'kksHkkA (?k) dksfdykuka Loj%A
-------------- 'kksHkkA -------------- Loj%A

([k) fp=kk.kka o.kZ%A (Ä) flagkuka funzkA


-------------- o.kZ%A -------------- funzkA

(x) ckfydkuke~ vkHkw"k.ke~A (p) es?kkuka xtZue~A


-------------- vkHkw"k.ke~A -------------- xtZue~A

4- v/ksfyf[kra fp=ka i';rA mnkgj.kkuqlkjs.k dks"BdxrS% 'kCnS% okD;kfu


jp;r&
7 8
fe=ke~ izHkq%

lqxzho foHkh"k.k 1
6
tud%
u`i% yo
v;ksè;k
jke%
n'kjFk 2
jko.k
5 lhrk iq=k%
Hkjr
'k=kq%
4 3
vxzt% ifr%

61
vLekda fo|ky;%
;Fkk& (1) jke% (yo) yoL; tud%A
(2) jke% (n'kjFk) ------------------------ iq=k%A
(3) jke% ------------------------------------------------
(4) --------------------------------------------------------
(5) --------------------------------------------------------
(6) --------------------------------------------------------
(7) --------------------------------------------------------
(8) --------------------------------------------------------
5- fp=kkf.k n`"V~ok dks"Bdxr'kCns"kq mfprka foHkfDar iz;Tq ; okD;kfu iwj;r&

eRL;k% -------------------- cfg% u`i% -------------------- irfrA (v'o)


vkxPNfUrA (rMkx)

liZ% -------------------- fuxZPNfrA (fcy) -------------------- tya irfrA (es?k)

62
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
-------------------- i=kkf.k irfUrA (o`{k)

6- mi;qDr'kCna fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) ckydk% -------------------- x`ge~ vkxPNfUrA (fo|ky;kr~@fo|ky;su)
([k) ';ke% -------------------- nqXèke~ vku;frA (x`g.s k@x`gkr~)A
(x) unh -------------------- izHkofrA (ioZrkr~@ioZrus )A
(?k) ekrk -------------------- tye~ vku;frA (owQisu@owQikr~)A
(Ä) ujs'k% -------------------- oLrwfu Øh.kkfr (vki.ksu@vki.kkr~)A
7- xksiky% ¯d ¯d oLrq oqQr% vku;fr bfr fy[kr&
iqLrdky;kr~ xzkekr~ ekykdkjkr~ dks"kkr~ vki.kkr~

(d) -------------------- iQykfu vku;frA


([k) -------------------- iqLrdkfu vku;frA
(x) -------------------- /ue~ vku;frA
(?k) -------------------- nqX/e~ vku;frA
(Ä) -------------------- iq"ikf.k vku;frA
63
vLekda fo|ky;%
uoe% ikB%
lIreh&foHkfDr%] la[;kokfpinkfu p
m|kufogkj%
,rr~ fde~\
,rr~ euksjee~ m|kue~ vfLrA
vfLeu~ m|kus osQ osQ fopjfUr\
vfLeu~ m|kus e`x%] okuj%] e;wj%]
dkd% bR;kn;% fopjfUrA
v=k ,o ckydk%] o`¼k%] efgyk% p HkzefUrA
,d% f'k'kq% okuja i';frA
}kS ckydkS e`xa i';r%A
=k;% o`¼k% o`{ks dksfdyL;
uhMe~ voyksd;fUrA
pRokj% e;wjk% osQdka oqQoZfUrA prÏ% efgyk% fidL; owQtue~ vkd.kZ;fUrA
o`{ks"kq cgwfu iQykfu lfUrA rs"kq ,dfLeu~
o`{ks pRokfj iQykfu iDokfu lfUrA dkd%
,oaQ iDoa iQya [kknfrA ,dk ckfydk m|kukr~
iq"ikf.k u;frA r=kSo }s ckfyosQ }s iQys
[kknr%A
m|kus ,d% tyiw.kZ% tyk'k;% vfi vfLrA
v=k =khf.k deykfu] frÏ% oqQeqfnU;% p fodflrkfu lfUrA r=k pRokj% e`xk%
tya ficfUr] i×p ehuk% tyL; mifj rjfUr] "kV~ dPNik% tys brLrr%

HkzefUrA ljksojL; rVs lIr f'k'ko% [ksyfUr] v"VkS tuk% /kofUr] uo okujk%
r=k ,o owQnZfUrA
tyk'k;L; lehis ,d% f'koky;% vfLrA
f'koky;s }kn'k LrEHkk% lfUrA v=k fHkfÙkdk;ka
"kksM'k nsoizfrek% p fufeZrk% lfUrA vL; ifjljs
v"Vkn'k v'kksdo`{kk% lfUrA ,dkn'k oVo%
osnikBa oqQoZfUrA foa'kfr% HkDrk% f'koe~ vpZ;fUrA

'kCnkFkkZ%

euksjee~ & lqUnj


bR;kn;% (bfr $ vkn;%) & bR;kfn
o`¼k% & cw<s+
efgyk% & efgyk,¡
65
m|kufogkj%
uhMe~ & ?kkal
s ys dks
voyksd;fUr & ns[krs gS@a ns[krh gSa
osQdke~ & eksj dh vkokt
fidL; & dks;y dk@osQ@dh
owQtue~ & owQd
vkd.kZ;fUr & lqurs gS@a lqurh gSa
iDokfu & iosQ gq,
tyiw.kZ% & ikuh ls Hkjk gqvk
oqQeqfnU;% & oqQeqnfu;k¡
ehuk% & eNfy;k¡
mifj (vO;;) & mQij
brLrr% (vO;;) & b/j&m/j
f'koky;% & f'koefUnj
LrEHkk% & [kEHks
fHkfÙkdk;ke~ & nhokj ij
nsoizfrek% & nsorkvksa dh ewfÙkZ;k¡
oVo% & (vusd) czãpkjh
vpZ;fUr & iwtk djrs gS@a djrh gSa

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
(d) ,d% ,dk ,de~
}kS }s }s
=k;% frÏ% =khf.k
pRokj% prÏ% pRokfj
66
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
i×p "kV~ lIr
v"VkS (v"V) uo n'k
,dkn'k }kn'k =k;ksn'k
prqn'Z k i×pn'k "kksM'k
lIrn'k v"Vkn'k ,dksu¯o'kfr% (uon'k)
¯o'kfr%
([k) f'k";s f'k";;ks% f'k";s"kq
tus tu;ks% tus"kq
i=ks i=k;ks% i=ks"kq
iq"is iq"i;ks% iq"is"kq
izHkk;ke~ izHk;ks% izHkklq
fo|k;ke~ fo|;ks% fo|klq
2- mnkgj.kkuqlkja fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& Nk=ks Nk=k;ks% Nk=ks"kq
ujs -------------- --------------
-------------- -------------- deys"kq
-------------- o`{k;ks% --------------

i=ks -------------- --------------


-------------- -------------- ukSdklq
-------------- oh.k;ks% --------------
67
m|kufogkj%
3- fp=kkf.k n`"V~ok la[;ka fy[kr&

--------------- dUnqdkfuA --------------- pVdk%A

~
j?kqoa'ke

--------------- e;wjkSA --------------- iqLrde~A

--------------- Nk=ksA

4- v/ksfyf[krkuka la[;k'kCnkuka laLÑrinkfu fy[kr&


;Fkk& ukS uo
vkB -----------------

X;kjg -----------------

mUuhl -----------------

ik¡p -----------------

vBkjg -----------------

rsjg -----------------
68
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
5- v/ksfyf[krk% la[;k% vkjksgØes.k fy[kr&
"kksM'k v"V ,dkn'k foa'kfr%
lIrn'k }kn'k v"Vkn'k uo
6- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&

iq"is"kq xÄõk;ke~ fo|ky;s o`{k;ks% m|kus"kq ckfyd;ks%


(d) o;a ------------------------- iBke%A
([k) tuk% ------------------------- HkzefUrA
(x) ------------------------- ukSdk% lfUrA
(?k) ------------------------- Hkzejk% xq×tfUrA
(Ä) ------------------------- u`R;a je.kh;e~ vfLrA
(p) --------------------- iQykfu iDokfu lfUrA
7- dks"BosQ"kq nÙks"kq 'kCns"kq mfprka foHkfDar iz;Tq ; okD;kfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& ljksojs ehuk% lfUrA (ljksoj)
(d) ------------------------- dPNik% HkzefUrA (rMkx)
([k) ------------------------- lSfudk% lfUrA (f'kfoj)
(x) ;kukfu ------------------------- /kofUrA (jktekxZ)
(?k) ------------------------- jRukfu lfUrA (/jk)
(Ä) Nk=kk% ------------------------- iz;ksxa oqQoZfUrA (iz;ksx'kkyk)

69
m|kufogkj%
n'ke% ikB%
uhfr'yksdk%
foHkfDriqujko`fÙk%

m|esu fg flè;fUr dk;kZf.k u euksjFkS%A


ufg lqIrL; flagL; izfo'kfUr eq[ks e`xk% AA1AA
fiz;okD;iznkusu losZ rq";fUr tUro%A
rLekr~ fiz;a fg oDrO;a opus dk nfjnzrk AA2AA
uefUr iQfyuks o`{kk% uefUr xqf.kuks tuk%A
'kq"do`{kk'p ew[kkZ'p u uefUr dnkpu AA3AA
vfHkoknu'khyL; fuR;a o`¼ksilsfou%A
pRokfj rL; o/ZUrs vk;qfoZ|k ;'kks cye~ AA4AA
dkO;'kkL=kfouksnus dkyks xPNfr /herke~A
O;lusu p ew[kkZ.kka funz;k dygsu ok AA5AA

'kCnkFkkZ%
m|esu & ifjJe ls
flè;fUr & iwjs gksrs gS@a gksrh gSa
euksjFkS% & bPNkvksa ls
lqIrL; & lks;s gq, dk@osQ@dh
izfo'kfUr & izo's k djrs gS@a djrh gSa
e`xk% & vusd i'kq
fiz;okD;iznkusu & e/qj okD; cksyus ls
rq";fUr & lar"q V gksrs gS@a gksrh gSa
oDrO;e~ & cksyuk pkfg,
iQfyu% & iQyokys
xqf.ku% & xq.kokyss
'kq"do`{kk'p & vkSj lw[ks isM+
dnkpu & dHkh Hkh
vfHkoknu'khyL; & iz.kke djus osQ LoHkko okys dk@osQ@dh
o`¼ksilsfou% & cM+kas dh lsok djus okyksa dk@osQ@dh
o/ZUrs & c<+rs gS@a c<+rh gSa
;'k% & dhfÙkZ
dkO;'kkL=kfouksnus & dkO;'kkL=k osQ }kjk euksj×tu ls
/herke~ & cqf¼ekuksa dk@osQ@dh
dygsu & >xM+s ls

vH;kl%
1- izFkea prqFk± i×pea 'yksd×p lLoja xk;rA
2- 'yksoQs "kq fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) uefUr --------------------- o`{kk%] uefUr --------------------- tuk%A
---------------------------- ew[kkZ'p u uefUr ----------------------------AA
71
uhfr'yksdk%
([k) dkO;'kkL=kfouksnus --------------------- xPNfr ---------------------A
---------------------------- ew[kkZ.kka funz;k ---------------------------- ok AA

3- 'yksdka'kku~ ;kst;r&
d [k
m|esu fg flè;fUr losZ rq";fUr tUro%A
fiz;okD;iznkusu opus dk nfjnzrkA
pRokfj rL; o/ZUrs izfo'kfUr eq[ks e`xk%A
rLekr~ fiz;a fg oDrO;a dk;kZf.k u euksjFkS%A
ufg lqIrL; ¯lgL; vk;qfoZ|k ;'kks cye~A

4- mi;qDrdFkukuka le{ke~ ^vke~* vuqi;qDrdFkukuka le{ka ^u* bfr fy[kr&


;Fkk& m|esu dk;kZf.k flè;fUrA vke~
iQfyuks o`{kk% u uefUrA u
(d) fiz;okD;iznkusu losZ u rq";fUrA
([k) /herka dky% dkO;'kkL=kfouksnus xPNfrA
(x) vfHkoknu'khyL; vk;qfoZ|k ;'kks cya u o/ZUrsA
(?k) xqf.kuks tuk% uefUrA
(Ä) euksjFkS% dk;kZf.k u flè;fUrA

72
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
5- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka foHkfDar opu×p fy[kr&
;Fkk& m|esu r`rh;k ,dopue~
flagL; --------------------- ---------------------

e`xk% --------------------- ---------------------

fo|k --------------------- ---------------------

ew[kkZ.kke~ --------------------- ---------------------

funz;k --------------------- ---------------------

6- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) dk;kZf.k osQu flè;fUr\
([k) losZ tUro% osQu rq";fUr\
(x) dL; eq[ks e`xk% ufg izfo'kfUr\
(?k) osQ osQ uefUr\
(Ä) pRokfj dL; o/ZUrs\
(p) èkherka dky% dFka xPNfr\

73
uhfr'yksdk%
,dkn'k% ikB%
cdL; izrhdkj%
vO;;iz;ksx%
,dfLeu~ ous 'k`xky% cd%
p fuolr% LeA r;ks%
fe=krk vklhr~A ,dnk izkr%
'k`xky% cde~ vonr~&
¶fe=k! 'o% Roa e;k lg
Hkkstua oqQ#A¸ 'k`xkyL;
fueU=k.ksu cd% izlUu%
vHkor~A
vfxzes fnus l% Hkkstuk; 'k`xkyL; fuokla xPNfrA oqQfVyLoHkko% 'k`xky%
LFkkY;ka cdk; {khjksnua ;PNfrA
coaQ onfr p&¶fe=k! vfLeu~ ik=ks
vkoke~ v/quk lgSo [kknko%A¸
Hkkstudkys cdL; p×pq% LFkkyhr%
Hkkstuxzg.ks leFkkZ u HkofrA vr%
cd% osQoya {khjksnua i';frA
'k`xky% rq lo± {khjksnue~ vHk{k;r~A
'k`xkysu of×pr% cd% vfpUr;r~&¶;Fkk vusu e;k lg O;ogkj% Ñr%
rFkk vge~ vfi rsu lg O;ogfj";kfe¸A ,oa fpUrf;Rok l% 'k`xkye~ vonr~&¶fe=k!
Roe~ vfi 'o% lk;a e;k lg Hkkstua dfj";fl¸A cdL; fueU=k.ksu 'k`x` ky%
izlUu% vHkor~A ;nk 'k`x` ky% lk;a
cdL; fuokla Hkkstuk; xPNfr] rnk
cd% lÄïh.kZeq[ks dy'ks {khjksnua
;PNfr] 'k`xkya p onfr&¶fe=k!
vkoke~ vfLeu~ ik=ks lgSo Hkkstua
oqQoZ%¸A cd% dy'kkr~ p×Pok
{khjksnua [kknfrA ijUrq 'k`xkyL; eq[ka
dy'ks u izfo'kfrA vr% cd% lo± {khjksnua [kknfrA 'k`xky% p osQoye~ bZ";Z;k
i';frA
'k`x` ky% coaQ izfr ;kn`'ka O;ogkje~ vdjksr~ cd% vfi 'k`xkya izfr rkn`'ka
O;ogkja ÑRok izrhdkje~ vdjksrA~
mDrefi&
vkRenqO;ZogkjL; iQya Hkofr nq%[knEk~A
rLekr~ ln~O;ogrZO;a ekuosu lq[kSf"k.kkAA

'kCnkFkkZ%
'k`x` ky% & fl;kj
cd% & cxqyk
vklhr~ & Fkk@Fkh
,dnk (vO;;) & ,d ckj
vonr~ & cksyk
'o% & (vkus okyk) dy
oqQ# & djks
LFkkY;ke~ & Fkkyh esa
75
cdL; izrhdkj%
{khjksnue~ & [khj
;PNfr & nsrk gS@nsrh gS
lÄïh.kZe[q ks & laoQq fpr eq[k okys@rax eq[k okys esa
lgSo (lg$,o) & lkFk gh
p×pq% & pksp
a
LFkkyhr% & Fkkyh ls
i';fr & ns[krk gS@ns[krh gS
vHk{k;r~ & [kk;k@[kk;h
fpUrf;Rok & lkspdj
izrhdkje~ & cnyk
ln~O;ogrZO;e~ & vPNk O;ogkj djuk pkfg,
lq[kSf"k.kk & pkgus okys osQ }kjk

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
;=k ;nk vfi vgfuZ'ke~
r=k rnk v| v/quk
oqQ=k dnk 'o% ,o
v=k ,dnk á% oqQr%
vU;=k p izkr% lk;e~
2- e×tw"kkr% mfpre~ vO;;ina fpRok fjDrLFkkua iwj;r&
v| vfi izkr% dnk loZnk v/quk
(d) ---------------- Hkze.ka LokLF;k; HkofrA
([k) ---------------- lR;a onA
76
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
(x) Roa ---------------- ekrqyx`ga xfe";fl\
(?k) fnus'k% fo|ky;a xPNfr] vge~ ---------------- rsu lg xPNkfeA
(Ä) ---------------- foKkuL; ;qx% vfLrA
(p) ---------------- jfooklj% vfLrA
3- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkja fy[kr&
(d) 'k`xkyL; fe=ka d% vklhr~\
([k) LFkkyhr% d% Hkkstua u v[kknr~\
(x) cd% 'k`x` kyk; Hkkstus fde~ v;PNr~\
(?k) 'k`x` kyL; LoHkko% dhn`'k% Hkofr\
4- ikBkr~ inkfu fpRok v/ksfyf[krkuka foykseinkfu fy[kr&
;Fkk& 'k=kq% fe=ke~
(d) lq[kne~ -------------------------

([k) nqO;Zogkj% -------------------------

(x) 'k=kqrk -------------------------

(?k) lk;e~ -------------------------

(Ä) vizlUu% -------------------------

(p) vleFkZ% -------------------------

77
cdL; izrhdkj%
5- e×tw"kkr% leqfprinkfu fpRok dFkka iwj;r&
euksjFkS% fiikflr% mik;e~ LoYie~ ik"kk.kL; dk;kZf.k
mifj lUrq"V% ikrqe~ brLrr% oqQ=kkfi

,dnk ,d% dkd% ---------------------------------------- vklhr~A l% tya ikrqe~


----------------------- vHkzer~A ija -------------------------- tya u izkIuksrA~ vUrs

l% ,oaQ ?kVe~ vi';r~A ?kVs --------------------------- tye~ vklhr~A

vr% l% tye~ ----------------------- vleFkZ% vHkor~A l% ,de~


--------------- vfpUr;r~A l% ----------------------------- [k.Mkfu ?kVs vf{kir~A

,oa Øes.k ?kVL; tye~ ----------------- vkxPNr~A dkd%

tya ihRok -------------------- vHkor~A ifjJes.k ,o ---------------------------


flè;fUr u rq -----------------------A
6- rRle'kCnku~ fy[kr&
;Fkk& fl;kj 'k`xky%
dkSvk ---------------------
eD[kh ---------------------
cUnj ---------------------
cxqyk ---------------------
pksp
a ---------------------
ukd ---------------------
78
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
}kn'k% ikB%
lkse'keZfirq% dFkk
,dfLeu~ xzkes df'pr~ fu/Zu% ;qod% vklhr~A rL; uke èkuiky% vklhr~A l%
izfrfnua fHk{kk;S xzkea xzkea
izfr Hkzefr LeA fHk{kk;ka
izkIrS% lDrqfHk% rL; ?kV%
iw.kZ% vHkor~A l% ?kVa
ukxnUrs voyEC; rL;
uhpS% [kV~ok;ka 'k;ua djksfr
Le] 'k;udkys p fujUrje~
,dn`"V~;k ?kVa i';fr LeA
l% ,dnk jk=kkS ,oe~ vfpUr;r~& ee v;a ?kV% lDrqfHk% iw.kZ% vfLrA ;nk
nqfHkZ{ka Hkfo";fr rnk lDrq&foØ;s.k izpjq a /ua izkIL;kfeA rr% rsu /usu vge~
vtk};L; Ø;a dfj";kfeA vtk};L; f'k'kqfHk% vtkuka lewg% ee lehis
Hkfo";frA vtkuka foØ;s.k xoka] efg"kh.kke~] v'okuka p Ø;a dfj";kfe] rklka
f'k'kqfHk% cgo% i'ko% Hkfo";fUrA rs"kka foØ;s.k ee ik'osZ cgwfu /ukfu
vkxfe";fUr] /usu fo'kkyL; HkouL; fuekZ.ka dkjf;";kfeA rnk eka /fuoaQ
eRok dks¿fi :iorha dU;ka eáa iznkL;frA rr% ee iq=k% Hkfo";frA rL; uke
lkse'kekZ bfr dfj";kfeA dnkfpr~ ØhMu~ l% iq=k% ee lehie~ vkxfe";frA
rnk oqQfir% vga LoiRuha ofn";kfe& ¶x`gk.k ,ua ckyde~A¸ lk x`gdk;sZ
layXuk ee opua ;nk u Jks";fr rnk vga iRU;k% mifj iknsu izgfj";kfeA
,oa LoIusu izfs jr% l% iknizgkje~
vdjksrA~ rsu lDrqifw jr% ?kV% HkwekS ifrr%
HkXu% p vHkor~A HkXusu ?kVsu lg ,o
rL; euksjFkk% vfi HkXuk% vHkou~A vr%
mDre~&
m|esu fg flè;fUr
dk;kZf.k u euksjFkS% bfrA

'kCnkFkkZ%

lDrqfHk% & (cgqr) lÙkq ls


ukxnUrs & [kwV¡ h ij
voyEC; & Vk¡xdj
[kV~ok;ke~ & [kkV ij
,dn`"V~;k & ,dVd
nqfHkZ{ke~ & vdky
izpjq e~ & <sj lkjk
izkIL;kfe & izkIr d:¡xk@izkIr d:¡xh
vtk};L; & nks cdfj;ksa dk
Ø;% & [kjhn
f'k'kqfHk% & cPpksa ls
foØ;s.k & cspus ls
xoke~ & xk;ksa dk@osQ@dh
80
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
efg"kh.kke~ & HkSl
a ksa dk@osQ@dh
v'okuke~ & ?kksMk+ as dk@osQ@dh
ik'osZ & ikl esa
eRok & ekudj
eáe~ & eq>s
iznkL;fr & nsxk@nsxh
x`gk.k & xzg.k djks
dnkfpr~ & dHkh
ØhMu~ & [ksyrk gqvk
oqQfir% & Øksf/r
layXuk & yxh gqbZ
Jks";fr & lquxs h@lquxs k
mifj (vO;;) & mQij
HkXu% & VwV x;k
dkjf;";kfe & djkmQ¡xk@djkmQ¡xh

vH;kl%
1- dr`iZ nS% fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& ckydkS dUnqda ØhMr%A
(d) ---------------- iknizgkja djksfrA
([k) ---------------- ØUnqoQs u ØhMke%A
(x) ---------------- lR;a ofn";kfeA
(?k) ---------------- r=k ¯d ¯d djksf"k\
81
lkse'keZfirq% dFkk
(Ä) ---------------- dnk x`ge~ vkxfe";Fk\
(p) ---------------- Hkkstua ipfUrA
2- v/ksfyf[krkuka 'kCnkuka foykseinkfu ikBe~ vk/`R; fy[kr&
;Fkk& nwjs & lehis
Ø;s.k & ----------------

mPpS% & ----------------

fnus & ----------------

viw.kZ% & ----------------

vkdk'ks & ----------------

rnk & ----------------

/fud% & ----------------

3- funs'Z kkuqlkja ydkjifjorZua oqQ#r&


;Fkk& iz.ko% m|kus HkzefrA (y`Vy ~ dkjs) iz.ko% m|kus Hkzfe";frA
(d) l% ys[ka fy[kfrA (y`Vy
~ dkjs) ------------------------------------------------

([k) vga dFkka fpUrf;";kfeA (yV~ydkjs) ------------------------------------------------


(x) rs x`gs fr"BfUrA (y`Vy
~ dkjs) ------------------------------------------------

(?k) o`{kkr~ i=kkf.k irfUrA (y`Vy


~ dkjs) ------------------------------------------------

(Ä) Roa fp=ka nz{;flA (yV~ydkjs) ------------------------------------------------

(p) o;a nqX/a ikL;ke%A (yV~ydkjs) ------------------------------------------------

(N) r=k fde~ vfLrA (y`Vy


~ dkjs) ------------------------------------------------
82
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
4- fyÄõifjorZua oqQ#r&
;Fkk& v'o% v'ok
vt% -------------
------------- ckfydk
------------- Nk=kk
ew"kd% -------------
------------- pVdk
ys[kd% -------------

uk;d% -------------

5- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) ;qod% dhn`'k% vklhr~\
([k) ;qod% ?kVa oqQ=k voyEC; 'k;ua djksfr Le\
(x) ?kV% oqQ=k ifrr%\
(?k) dk;kZf.k osQu flè;fUr\
(Ä) LoIusu izfs jr% ;qod% fde~ vdjksr\~
6- v/ksfyf[krkfu okD;kfu ?kVukØekuqlkja fy[kr&
(d) ;qod% /uiky% izfrfnua xzkea xzkea Hkzefr LeA
([k) dk;kZf.k m|esu flè;fUrA
(x) ,dfLeu~ xzkes ,d% ;qod% vklhr~A
(?k) l% vfpUr;r~& eka /fuoaQ eRok dks¿fi :iorha dU;ka eáa iznkL;frA
(Ä) lDrqifw jr% ?kV% HkwekS ifrr%A
(p) LoIusu izfs jr% l% iknizgkje~ vdjksrA~
83
lkse'keZfirq% dFkk
=k;ksn'k% ikB%
lqHkkf"krkfu

iqLrdLFkk rq ;k fo|k ijgLrxra /ue~A


dk;Zdkys leqRiUus u lk fo|k u r¼ue~ AA1AA

gLrL; Hkw"k.ka nkua lR;a d.BL; Hkw"k.ke~A


Jks=kL; Hkw"k.ka 'kkL=ka Hkw"k.kS% ¯d iz;kstue~ AA2AA

u df'pr~ dL;fpfUe=ka u df'pr~ dL;fpn~ fjiq%A


O;ogkjs.k fe=kkf.k tk;Urs fjioLrFkk AA3AA

fo}Ùoa p u`iRoa p uSo rqY;a dnkpuA


Lons'ks iwT;rs jktk fo}ku~ loZ=k iwT;rs AA4AA

losZ HkoUrq lqf[ku% losZ lUrq fujke;k%A


losZ Hknzkf.k i';Urq ek df'pn~ nq%[kHkkXHkosr~ AA5AA
'kCnkFkkZ%

iqLrdLFkk & iqLrd esa fo|eku


ijgLrxre~ & nwljksa osQ gkFk esa x;k gqvk
dk;Zdkys leqRiUus & le; vkus ij
Jks=kL; & dku dk@osQ@dh
¯d iz;kstue~ & D;k eryc@iz;kstu
df'pr~ & dksbZ
dL;fpr~ & fdlh dk
fjiq% & 'k=kq
O;ogkjs.k & O;ogkj osQ }kjk@ls
tk;Urs & gksrs gS@a gksrh ga@S curs gS@a curh gSa
rqY;e~ & leku
loZ=k & lc txg
iwT;rs & vknj dk ik=k gksrk gS@gksrh gS@iwtk
tkrk gS@tkrh gS
HkoUrq (Hkw] yksV)~ & cusa
lUrq (vl~] yksV)~ & gksa
fujke;k% & uhjksx
Hknzkf.k & dY;k.k dks@dY;k.k
i';Urq (n`'k~] yksV)~ & ns[ksa
ek df'pr~ & u dksbZ
nq%[kHkko~Q & nq%[k dk Hkkxh
Hkosr~ & gksa
85
lqHkkf"krkfu
vH;kl%

1- ikBs nÙkkuka 'yksdkuka okpua oqQ#r&


2- 'yksdka'kku~ ;Fkksfpra ;kst;r&
d [k
ijgLrxra /ue~ dL;fpn~ fjiq%
Jks=kL; Hkw"k.ke~ uSo rqY;a dnkpu
u df'pr~ 'kkL=ke~
fo}Ùoa p u`iRoa p nq%[kHkkx~ Hkosr~
ek df'pr~ u rn~ /ua Hkofr
3- 'yksdka'ks"kq fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) dk;Zdkys leqRiUus -------------------------------------------A
([k) ------------------------------------------- lR;a d.BL; Hkw"k.ke~A
(x) O;ogkjs.k fe=kkf.k -------------------------------------------A
(?k) ------------------------------------------- fo}ku~ loZ=k iwT;rsA
(Ä) losZ HkoUrq lqf[ku% -------------------------------------------A
4- 'kq¼dFkukuka le{ke~ ^vke~*] v'kq¼dFkukuka le{ka ^u* bfr fy[kr&
(d) iqLrdLFkk fo|k dk;Zdkys fo|k HkofrA
([k) gLrL; Hkw"k.ka nkue~A
86
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
(x) jktk loZ=k iwT;rsA
(?k) fo}Ùoa p u`iRoa p rqY;a HkofrA
(Ä) losZ Hknzkf.k ek i';UrqA

5- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) iqLrdLFkk fo|k dnk fo|k u Hkofr\
([k) d.BL; Hkw"k.ka ¯d Hkofr\
(x) fe=kkf.k osQu tk;Urs\
(?k) d% loZ=k iwT;rs\
(Ä) losZ dkfu i';Urq\
6- foykse'kCnku~ ;kst;r&

fo|k fjiq%
lR;e~ fons'k%
fe=ke~ vlR;e~
Lons'k% nq%f[ku%
lqf[ku% vfo|k

87
lqHkkf"krkfu
prqn'Z k% ikB%
;equk fo"kjfgrk tkrk

,dnk "kM~o"khZ;% JhÑ".k% o`Unkous ;equkrVe~ vxPNr~A xksik% vfi rsu lg


vxPNu~A xksik% fiikl;k vkoqQyk% vHkou~A rs ;equktye~ vficu~A tya
ihRok rs ewfPZNrk% vHkou~A JhÑ".k% rku~ ewfPZNrku~ n`"V~ok O;koqQy% vHkor~A
oLrqr% ;equktys dkfy;ukxL; oqQ.Me~ vklhr~A rsu ;equktya fo"kTokykfHk%
fo"kkDra tkre~A vusosQ [kxk% i'ko% p rr~ tya ihRok e`R;qa izkIrk%A ok;q%
vfi rsu fo"k;qDr% vHkor~A rsu ok;quk o`{kk% 'kq"dk% tkrk%A
;nk JhÑ".k% ,rr~ loZe~ vi';r~ l% ,oaQ o`{ke~ vkjksgr~A rLekr~
o`{kkr~ l% fo"k;qDrs tys vowQnZr~A dkfy;ukxL; ,dkf/d'kra iQ.kk% vklu~A
l% rku~ izlk;Z Ñ".ka izgrqZe~ ,sPNr~A JhÑ".k% rL; iQ.kku~ vk#á vu`R;r~A
dkfy;ukxL; iQ.kk% 'kuS% 'kuS% fNUuk% fHkUuk% vHkou~A eq[kkr~ jDRka izkogr~A
l% gLrkS la;ksT; vonr~& ¶Hkxou~! o;a ukxk% tUer% ,o fo"k;qDrk%A v;a
u ee vijk/%A Hkoku~ ,o loZizkf.kuka izHkq%A vuqxzga djksrq fuxzga ok¸ bfrA
,oa izkfFkZr% JhÑ".k% vuqxzga oqQoZu~ vonr~ ¶js nq"V! ¯d u tkukfl Roa ;r~
ro dkj.kkr~ lo± tya fo"k;qDra HkofrA br% oqQ=kkfi vU;=k xPN¸ bfrA liZ%
rr% iykf;r%A ,oa p ;equk fo"kjfgrk tkrkA

'kCnkFkkZ%

"kM~o"khZ;% & N% o"kZ dh vk;q okyk


rVe~ & fdukjk
xksik% & Xokys@Xokycky
fiikl;k & I;kl ls
oqQ.Me~ & oqQ.M
fo"kTokykfHk% & fo"k dh Tokyk ls
fo"kkDre~ & tgj ls feyk gqvk
'kq"dk% tkrk% & lw[k x,
;nk (vO;;) & tc
vkjksgr~ & p<+ x;k@xbZ
U;irr~ & owQn x;k@xbZ@uhps fxj x;k@xbZ
,dkf/d'kre~ & ,d lkS ,d
izlk;Z & iSQykdj
izgrqeZ ~ & izgkj djus osQ fy,
,sPNr~ & bPNk dh
vk#á & p<+dj
vu`R;r~ & ukpus yxk@ukpk@ukpus yxh@ukph
89
;equk fo"kjfgrk tkrk
'kuS% 'kuS% (vO;;) & /hjs /hjs
fNUuk% fHkUuk% & VqdM+s VqdM+s
jDre~ & [kwu
izkogr~ & cgus yxk@yxh
tUer% & tUe ls
vuqxgz % & Ñik
fuxzg% & n.M@cU/u
oqQoZu~ & djrk gqvk
izkfFkZr% & izkFkZuk djus ij
br% (vO;;) & ;gk¡ ls
rr% (vO;;) & ogk¡ ls
iykf;r% & Hkkx x;k

vH;kl%
1- mnkgj.ke~ vuqlR` ; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk& izFkeiq#"k% vxPNr~ vxPNrke~ vxPNu~
eè;eiq#"k% ----------------- viBre~ -----------------

mÙkeiq#"k% ----------------- ----------------- v[kknke


izFkeiq#"k% ----------------- vglrke~ -----------------

eè;eiq#"k% ----------------- ----------------- vj{kr


mÙkeiq#"k% vuee~ ----------------- -----------------
90
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
2- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) xksik% osQu lg vxPNu~\
([k) ,dnk JhÑ".k% oqQ=k vxPNr~\
(x) JhÑ".k% fdeFk± O;koqQy% vHkor~\
(?k) [kxk% i'ko% p dFka e`R;qa izkIrk%\
(Ä) dkfy;ukxL; dfr iQ.kk% vklu~\
(p) loZikz f.kuka izHkq% d%\
3- fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) xksik% ----------------- vkoqQyk% vHkou~A
([k) JhÑ".k% rku~ ewfPZNrku~ n`"V~ok ----------------- vHkor~A
(x) ;equktys ----------------- oqQ.Me~ vklhr~A
(?k) ;equk ----------------- tkrkA
(Ä) br% oqQ=kkfi ----------------- xPNA
4- ;Fkk;ksX;a ;kst;r&
d [k
oqQ.Me~ izkogr~
o`{ke~ ,sPNr~
izgrqeZ ~ vHkou~
jDre~ vkjksgr~
vkoqQyk% vklhr~
91
;equk fo"kjfgrk tkrk
5- foykseina fy[kr&
(d) tUe -----------------------

([k) ve`re~ -----------------------

(x) vknj% -----------------------

(?k) vusde~ -----------------------

6- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok vuqPNsna iwj;r&

v;PNr~ vHkor~ vfeyr~ vklhr~ vu;u~


viBrke~ }kfjdk;k% vxPNr~ vdjksr~ r.Mqyku~

lqnkek JhÑ".kL; fe=ke~ ---------------------------A l% loZiFz kea xq#oqQys JhÑ".ksu lg


---------------------------A ,rkS fefyRok xqjks% lehie~ ,dkn'k ikBku~ ---------------------A

dkyØes.k oklqnos % --------------------------- u`i% ---------------------------A

lqnkek rq nfjnz% ,o vklhr~A l% JhÑ".kn'kZuk; }kfjdke~


---------------------------A }kjj{kdk% ra jktlHkke~ ---------------------------A

ckY;cU/q% oklqnos % rL; vkfyÄuõ e~ ---------------------------A JhÑ".k%

lqnkEu% Hkk;Z;k iznÙkku~ ---------------------------- v[kknr~A nkfjnz;~ L;


fuokj.kk; JhÑ".k% rLeS ,s'o;Ze~ ---------------------------A

92
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
i×pn'k% ikB%
ekrqypUnz!!
oqQr vkxPNfl ekrqypUnz\
oqQ=k xfe";fl ekrqypUnz\
vfr'k;foLr`ruhykdk'k%
uSo n`';rs Dofpnodk'k%
dFka iz;kL;fl ekrqypUnz\
oqQr vkxPNfl ekrqypUnz\
dFkek;kfl u Hkks! ee xsge~
ekrqy! fdjfl dFka u Lusge~
dnk xfe";fl ekrqypUnz\
oqQr vkxPNfl ekrqypUnz\
/oya ro pfUnzdkforkue~
rkjd[kfpra flrifj/kue~
eáa nkL;fl ekrqypUnz\
oqQr vkxPNfl ekrqypUnz\
Rofjresfg eka Jko; xhfre~
fiz; ekrqy! o/Z; es izhfre~
fdUuk;kL;fl ekrqypUnz\
oqQr vkxPNfl ekrqypUnz\

93
ekrqypUnz!!
'kCnkFkkZ%

ekrqypUnz! & pUnkekek!


oqQr% (vO;;) & dgk¡ ls
vfr'k;foLr`r & vfr fo'kky
n`';rs & fn[krk gS@fn[krh gS
Dofpr~ (vO;;) & dgha Hkh
iz;kL;fl & tkvksx@s tkvksxh
xsge~ & ?kj dks
fdjfl & fo[ksjrs gks@fo[ksjrh gks
/oye~ & lisQn
pfUnzdkforkue~ & iSQyh gqbZ pk¡nuh
rkjd[kfpra & rkjksa ls 'kksfHkr
flrifj/kue~ & lisQn oL=k
eáe~ & eq>s
Rofjre~ & 'kh?kz
,fg & vkvks
Jko; & lqukvks
o/Z; & c<+kvks

94
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
vH;kl%

1- ckyxhra lkfHku;a lLoja xk;rA


2- i|ka'kku~ ;kst;r&
ekrqy! fdjfl flrifj/kue~
rkjd[kfpra Jko; xhfre~
Rofjresfg eka pfUnzdkforkue~
vfr'k;foLr`r dFka u Lusge~
/oya ro uhykdk'k%
3- i|ka'ks"kq fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) fiz; ekrqy! -------------------------------- izhfre~A
([k) dFka iz;kL;fl --------------------------------A
(x) -------------------------------- Dofpnodk'k%A
(?k) -------------------------------- nkL;fl ekrqypUnz!A
(Ä) dFkek;kfl u -------------------------------- xsge~A
4- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) vfLeu~ ikBs d% ekrqy%\
([k) uhykdk'k% dhn`'k% vfLr\
(x) ekrqypUnz% ¯d u fdjfl\
95
ekrqypUnz!!
(?k) ¯d Jkof;rqa f'k'kq% pUnza dFk;fr\
(Ä) pUnzL; flrifj/kua dFke~ vfLr\
5- mnkgj.kkuqlkja fuEufyf[krinkfu lEcks/us ifjorZ;r&
;Fkk& pUnz% & pUnz!
(d) f'k";% & ------------------------

([k) xksiky% & ------------------------

;Fkk& ckfydk & ckfyosQ!


(d) fiz;oa nk & ------------------------

([k) yrk & ------------------------

;Fkk& iQye~ & iQy!


(d) fe=ke~ & ------------------------

([k) iqLrde~ & ------------------------

;Fkk& jfo% & jos!s


(d) eqfu% & ------------------------

([k) dfo% & ------------------------

96
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
;Fkk& lk/q% & lk/ks!
(d) Hkkuq% & ------------------------

([k) i'kq% & ------------------------

;Fkk& unh & ufn!


(d) nsoh & ------------------------

([k) ekfuuh & ------------------------

6- e×tw"kkr% mi;qDrkuke~ vO;;inkuka iz;ksx.s k fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


oqQr% dnk oqQ=k dFka fde~

(d) txUukFkiqjh ---------------- vfLr\


([k) Roa ---------------- iqjha xfe";fl\
(x) xÄõkunh ---------------- izogfr\
(?k) ro LokLF;a ---------------- vfLr\
(Ä) o"kkZdkys e;wjk% ---------------- oqQoZfUr\
7- rRle'kCnku~ fy[kr&
ekek] eksj] rkjk] dks;y] dcwrj A

97
ekrqypUnz!!
ifjf'k"Ve~
dkjd&foHkfDr&ifjp;%
okD;s fØ;k;k% lk{kkr~ vUo;% ;su insu@'kCnsu lg Hkofr rr~ ina dkjoaQ HkofrA
dkjdk.kke~ vFkZ± izdVf;rqa ;s"kka izR;;kuka la;kstua 'kCnS% lg Hkofr rs (izR;;k%)
dkjd&foHkDr;% HkofUrA
;Fkk& gs Nk=kk%!(11) n'kjFkL;(10) lqr%(1) jke%(2) n.Mdkj.;kr~(8) yÄïk(3)
a xRok
(9) (4) (6) (7) (5) (12)
;q¼s jko.ka ok.ksu gRok foHkh"k.kk; yÄkï jkT;e~ v;PNr~ A

Øela[;k 'kCnk%@inkfu dkjde~ foHkfDr%


1] 2 lqr%] jke% drkZ izFkek
3] 4] 5 yÄkï ]a jko.ka] deZ f}rh;k
yÄïkjkT;e~
6 ok.ksu dj.ke~ r`rh;k
7 foHkh"k.kk; lEiznkue~ prqFkhZ
8 n.Mdkj.;kr~ viknkue~ i×peh
9 ;q¼s vf/dj.ke~ lIreh

fo'ks"k%& "k"Bh&foHkDrs% vFkZ% lEcU/% vfLrA lEcU/% lEcks/ua p dkjda u


HkofrA mnkgj.ke~&^n'kjFkL;*(10) ^gs Nk=kk%* (11) bfr in;ks% lk{kkr~ vUo;% fØ;;k
^v;PNr~*(12) bR;usu insu lg ukfLrA vr% laLÑrs ,rs ins dkjosQ u Hkor%A
'kCn:ikf.k
vdkjkUr&iqf¡ YyÄ&õ 'kCn%
ckyd
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ckyd% ckydkS ckydk%
f}rh;k ckyde~ ckydkS ckydku~
r`rh;k ckyosQu ckydkH;ke~ ckyoSQ%
prqFkhZ ckydk; ckydkH;ke~ ckyosQH;%
i×peh ckydkr~ ckydkH;ke~ ckyosQH;%
"k"Bh ckydL; ckyd;ks% ckydkuke~
lIreh ckyosQ ckyd;ks% ckyosQ"kq
lEcks/ue~ gs ckyd! gs ckydkS! gs ckydk%!
,oeso u`i&nso&jke&firkeg&if.Mr&bR;knhuke~ vdkjkUr&iqf¡ YyÄõ&'kCnkuka
:ikf.k HkofUrA
vkdkjkUr&L=khfYkÄ&õ 'kCn%
ckfydk
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ckfydk ckfyosQ ckfydk%
f}rh;k ckfydke~ ckfyosQ ckfydk%
r`rh;k ckfyd;k ckfydkH;ke~ ckfydkfHk%
prqFkhZ ckfydk;S ckfydkH;ke~ ckfydkH;%
i×peh ckfydk;k% ckfydkH;ke~ ckfydkH;%
99
ifjf'k"Ve~
"k"Bh ckfydk;k% ckfyd;ks% ckfydkuke~
lIreh ckfydk;ke~ ckfyd;ks% ckfydklq
lEcks/ue~ gs ckfyosQ! gs ckfyosQ! gs ckfydk%!
,oeso yrk&jek&ekyk&dfydk&bR;knhuke~ vkdkjkUr&L=khfyÄõ&'kCnkuka
:ikf.k HkofUrA
vdkjkUr&uiql
a dfyÄ&õ 'kCn%
iq"i
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek iq"ie~ iq"is iq"ikf.k
f}rh;k iq"ie~ iq"is iq"ikf.k
r`rh;k iq"is.k iq"ikH;ke~ iq"iS%
prqFkhZ iq"ik; iq"ikH;ke~ iq"isH;%
i×peh iq"ikr~ iq"ikH;ke~ iq"isH;%
"k"Bh iq"iL; iq"i;ks% iq"ik.kke~
lIreh iq"is iq"i;ks% iq"is"kq
lEcks/ue~ gs iq"i! gs iq"is! gs iq"ikf.kA
,oeso iQy&iqLrd&uxj&fe=k&m|ku&bR;knhuke~ vdkjkUr&uiql
a dfyÄ&õ 'kCnkuka
:ikf.k HkofUrA
bdkjkUr&iqf¡ yÄ&õ 'kCn
eqfu
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek eqfu% equh equ;%
f}rh;k eqfue~ equh equhu~
100
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
r`rh;k eqfuuk eqfuH;ke~ eqfufHk%
prqFkhZ equ;s eqfuH;ke~ eqfuH;%
i×peh equ%s eqfuH;ke~ eqfuH;%
"k"Bh equ%s eqU;ks% equhuke~
lIreh equkS eqU;ks% eqfu"kq
lEcks/ue~ gs equ!s gs equh! gs equ;%!

,oeso dfo&gfj&jfo&dfi&bR;knhuke~ bdjkUr&iqf¡ YyÄ&õ 'kCnkuka :ikf.k HkofUrA

mdkjkUr&iqf¡ YyÄ&õ 'kCn%


Hkkuq
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek Hkkuq% Hkkuw Hkkuo%
f}rh;k Hkkuqe~ Hkkuw Hkkuwu~
r`rh;k Hkkuquk HkkuqH;ke~ HkkuqfHk%
prqFkhZ Hkkuos HkkuqH;ke~ HkkuqH;%
i×peh Hkkuks% HkkuqH;ke~ HkkuqH;%
"k"Bh Hkkuks% HkkUoks% Hkkuwuke~
lIreh HkkukS HkkUoks% Hkkuq"kq
lEcks/ue~ gs Hkkuks! gs Hkkuw! gs Hkkuo%!

,oeso f'k'kq&lk/q&xq#&fo".kq&bR;knhuke~ mdkjkUr&iqf¡ YyÄõ&'kCnkuka :ikf.k


HkofUrA

101
ifjf'k"Ve~
/krq&:ikf.k
yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iB~ (i<+uk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% iBfr iBr% iBfUr
eè;eiq#"k% iBfl iBFk% iBFk
mÙkeiq#"k% iBkfe iBko% iBke%
xe~&xPN~ (tkuk)
izFkeiq#"k% xPNfr xPNr% xPNfUr
eè;eiq#"k% xPNfl xPNFk% xPNFk
mÙkeiq#"k% xPNkfe xPNko% xPNke%
LFkk&fr"B (Bgjuk)
izFkeiq#"k% fr"Bfr fr"Br% fr"BfUr
eè;eiq#"k% fr"Bfl fr"BFk% fr"BFk
mÙkeiq#"k% fr"Bkfe fr"Bko% fr"Bke%
uh&u;~ (ysuk)
izFkeiq#"k% u;fr u;r% u;fUr
eè;eiq#"k% u;fl u;Fk% u;Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% u;kfe u;ko% u;ke%
102
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
fpUr~ (lkspuk)
izFkeiq#"k% fpUr;fr fpUr;r% fpUr;fUr
eè;eiq#"k% fpUr;fl fpUr;Fk% fpUr;Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% fpUr;kfe fpUr;ko% fpUr;ke%
mi;qDZ rkuqlkjs.k ,o gl~] py~] [ksy]~ [kkn~] ik] (fic)] n`'k~ (i';)] /ko~]
ir~] Hkze]~ fy[k~] b"k~ (bPN)] fey~&izHk`rhuka /krwuka :ikf.k HkofUrA

y`Vy
~ dkj% (Hkfo";r~dky%)
iB~
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% ifB";fr ifB";r% ifB";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% ifB";fl ifB";Fk% ifB";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% ifB";kfe ifB";ko% ifB";ke%
xe~
izFkeiq#"k% xfe";fr xfe";r% xfe";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% xfe";fl xfe";Fk% xfe";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% xfe";kfe xfe";ko% xfe";ke%
LFkk
izFkeiq#"k% LFkkL;fr LFkkL;r% LFkkL;fUr
eè;eiq#"k% LFkkL;fl LFkkL;Fk% LFkkL;Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% LFkkL;kfe LFkkL;ko% LFkkL;ke%
103
ifjf'k"Ve~
uh
izFkeiq#"k% us";fr us";r% us";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% us";fl us";Fk% us";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% us";kfe us";ko% us";ke%
fpUr~
izFkeiq#"k% fpUrf;";fr fpUrf;";r% fpUrf;";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% fpUrf;";fl fpUrf;";Fk% fpUrf;";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% fpUrf;";kfe fpUrf;";ko% fpUrf;";ke%
,oeso gl~] py~] [ksy]~ [kkn~] /ko~] ir~] Hkze]~ fy[k~ (ysf[k";fr)] ik (ikL;fr)]
n`'k~ (nz{;fr)] b"k~ (,f"k";fr)] fey~&izHk`rhuka èkkrwuka :ikf.k HkofUrA

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iB~
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% viBr~ viBrke~ viBu~
eè;eiq#"k% viB% viBre~ viBr
mÙkeiq#"k% viBe~ viBko viBke
xe~
izFkeiq#"k% vxPNr~ vxPNrke~ vxPNu~
eè;eiq#"k% vxPN% vxPNre~ vxPNr
mÙkeiq#"k% vxPNe~ vxPNko vxPNke
104
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
LFkk
izFkeiq#"k% vfr"Br~ vfr"Brke~ vfr"Bu~
eè;eiq#"k% vfr"B% vfr"Bre~ vfr"Br
mÙkeiq#"k% vfr"Be~ vfr"Bko vfr"Bke

uh
izFkeiq#"k% vu;r~ vu;rke~ vu;u~
eè;eiq#"k% vu;% vu;re~ vu;r
mÙkeiq#"k% vu;e~ vu;ko vu;ke
fpUr~
izFkeiq#"k% vfpUr;r~ vfpUr;rke~ vfpUr;u~
eè;eiq#"k% vfpUr;% vfpUr;re~ vfpUr;r
mÙkeiq#"k% vfpUr;e~ vfpUr;ko vfpUr;ke
,oeso gl~] py~] [ksy]~ [kkn~] ik] n`'k~] /ko~] ir~] Hkze]~ fy[k~] b"k~ (,sPNr~)]
fey~&izHk`rhuka /krwuka :ikf.k HkofUrA

yksV&~ ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)


iB~
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% iBrq iBrke~ iBUrq
eè;eiq#"k% iB iBre~ iBr
mÙkeiq#"k% iBkfu iBko iBke
105
ifjf'k"Ve~
xe~
izFkeiq#"k% xPNrq xPNrke~ xPNUrq
eè;eiq#"k% xPN xPNre~ xPNr
mÙkeiq#"k% xPNkfu xPNko xPNke

LFkk
izFkeiq#"k% fr"Brq fr"Brke~ fr"BUrq
eè;eiq#"k% fr"B fr"Bre~ fr"Br
mÙkeiq#"k% fr"Bkfu fr"Bko fr"Bke

uh
izFkeiq#"k% u;rq u;rke~ u;Urq
eè;eiq#"k% u; u;re~ u;r
mÙkeiq#"k% u;kfu u;ko u;ke

fpUr~
izFkeiq#"k% fpUr;rq fpUr;rke~ fpUr;Urq
eè;eiq#"k% fpUr; fpUr;re~ fpUr;r
mÙkeiq#"k% fpUr;kfu fpUr;ko fpUr;ke
mi;qDZ rkuqlkjeso gl~] py~] [ksy]~ [kkn~] ik] n`'k~] /ko~] ir~] Hkze]~ fy[k~] b"k~]
fey~&izHk`rhuka /krwuka :ikf.k HkofUrA

106
#fpjk & izFkeks Hkkx%
xiii

ikBkuqØef.kdk
iqjksoko~Q v
Hkwfedk ix
eXye~ 1
izFke% ikB% lqHkkf"krkfu 3
f}rh;% ikB% nqcfZq ¼% fou';fr 7
r`rh;% ikB% LokoyEcue~ 13
prqFkZ% ikB% gkL;ckydfolEesyue~ (vO;;iz;ksx%) 19
i×pe% ikB% if.Mrk jekckbZ 26
"k"B% ikB% lnkpkj% 31
lIre% ikB% lÄïYi% flf¼nk;d% (/krqi;z ksx%) 36
v"Ve% ikB% f=ko.kZ% èot% 44
uoe% ikB% foeku;kua jp;ke 49
n'ke% ikB% fo'ocU/qRoe~ (dkjdfoHkfDr% miinfoHkfDr'p) 53
,dkn'k% ikB% leok;ks fg nqt;Z % 59
}kn'k% ikB% dYiyrso fo|k 64
=k;ksn'k% ikB% ve`ra laLÑre~ (bdkjkUrL=khfyÄ%õ ) 69
prqn'Z k% ikB% vukfjdk;k% ftKklk (½dkjkUriqf¡ YyÄõ%) 75
i×pn'k% ikB% ykyuxhre~ 80
ifjf'k"Ve~ o.kZfopkj%] dkjde~] 'kCn:ikf.k /krq:ikf.k p 85
eÄõye~
fo'okfu nso lfornqZfjrkfu ijk lqo A
;n~ Hkæa rUu vk lqo AA 1 AA
&½Xosn% (5-82-5)

ijLijfojksf/U;ksjsdlaJ;nqyZHke~ A
lÄõra JhljLoR;ksHkwZr;s˘Lrq lnk lrke~ AA 2 AA

&foØeksoZ'kh;e~ (5-24)

HkkokFkZ%
gs lw;Z nso! gekjs leLr ikiksa dks nwj djsa rFkk tks gekjs fy, eXydkjd
gS mls gesa iznku djsa AA 1 AA
,d nwljs osQ fojks/ esa jgus okyh y{eh vkSj ljLorh dk ,d vkJ; esa
nqyZHk lekxe lnk lTtuksa osQ dY;k.k osQ fy, gks AA 2 AA
lqHkkf"krkfu 3

izFke% ikB%

lqHkkf"krkfu
i`fFkO;ka =khf.k jRukfu tyeÂa lqHkkf"kre~ A
ew<S% ik"kk.k[k.Ms"kq jRulaKk fo/h;rs AA 1 AA

lR;su /k;Zrs i`Foh lR;su rirs jfo% A


lR;su okfr ok;q'p lo± lR;s izfrf"Bre~ AA 2 AA

nkus rifl 'kkS;Zs p foKkus fou;s u;s A


foLe;ks u fg dÙkZO;ks cgqjRuk olqU/jk AA 3 AA

lf‰jso lgklhr lf‰% oqQohZr lÄõfre~ A


lf‰foZokna eS=kha p uklf‰% fdf×pnkpjsr~ AA 4 AA

/u/kU;iz;ksxs"kq fo|k;k% laxzgs"kq p A


vkgkjs O;ogkjs p R;DryTt% lq[kh Hkosr~ AA 5 AA

{keko'khÑfryksZosQ {ke;k ¯d u lkè;rs A


'kkfUr[kM~x% djs ;L; ¯d dfj";fr nqtuZ % AA 6 AA
4 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

'kCnkFkkZ%

i`fFkO;ke~ & /jrh ij


lqHkkf"kre~ & lqUnj opu
ew<S% & ew[kks± osQ }kjk
ik"kk.k[k.Ms"kq & iRFkj osQ VqdM+ksa esa
jRulaKk & jRu dk uke
fo/h;rs & fd;k tkrk gS
/k;Zrs & /kj.k fd;k tkrk gS
rirs & tyrk gS
okfr & cgrk gS @ cgrh gS
ok;q'p (ok;q% $ p) & iou Hkh
izfrf"Bre~ & fLFkr gS
rifl & riL;k esa
'kkS;sZ & cy esa
u;s & uhfr esa
foLe;% & vk'p;Z
cgqjRuk & vusd jRuksa okyh
olqU/jk & i`fFkoh
lf‰jso (lf‰% $ ,o) & lTtuksa osQ lkFk gh
lgklhr (lg $ vklhr) & lkFk cSBuk pkfg,
oqQohZr & djuk pkfg,
lf‰foZokne~ (lf‰% $ fookne~) & lTtuksa osQ lkFk >xM+k
lqHkkf"krkfu 5

uklf‰% (u$ vlf‰%) & vlTtu yksxksa osQ lkFk ugha


/u/kU;iz;ksxs"kq & /u/kU; osQ iz;ksx esa@O;ogkj esa
laxzgs"kq & laxzgksa esa] lap; (bdêòk) djus esa
R;DryTt% & ladksp ;k Hkh:rk dks NksM+usokyk
{keko'khÑfryksZosQ & lalkj esa {kek (lcls cM+k)
({keko'khÑfr% $ yksosQ) o'khdj.k gS
'kkfUr[kM~x% & 'kkfUr dh ryokj

vH;kl%
1- lokZu~ 'yksdku~ lLoja xk;rA
2- ;Fkk;ksX;a 'yksdka'kku~ esy;r&
d [k
/u/kU;iz;ksxs"kq uklf‰% fdf×pnkpjsrA~
foLe;ks u fg dÙkZO;% R;DryTt% lq[kh HkosrA~
lR;su /k;Zrs i`Foh cgqjRuk olqU/jkA
lf‰foZokna eS=kha p fo|k;k% laxgz "s kq pA
vkgkjs O;ogkjs p lR;su rirs jfo%A
3- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) i`fFkO;ka dfr jRukfu\
([k) ew<%S oqQ=k jRulaKk fo/h;rs\
(x) i`fFkoh osQu /k;Zr\s
(?k) oSQ% lÄõ¯r oqQohZr\
(Ä) yksoQs o'khÑfr% dk\
6 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

4- js[kkfÄïrinkfu vf/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) lR;su okfr ok;q%A
([k) lf‰% ,o lgklhrA
(x) olqU/jk cgqjRuk HkofrA
(?k) fo|k;k% laxgz "s kq R;DryTt% lq[kh HkosrA~
(Ä) lf‰% eS=kha oqQohZrA

5- iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) oqQ=k foLe;% u dÙkZO;%\
([k) i`fFkO;ka =khf.k jRukfu dkfu\
(x) R;DryTt% oqQ=k lq[kh Hkosr\~
6- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok fyÄõkuqlkja fy[kr&
jRukfu olqU/jk lR;su lq[kh vÂe~ ofÉ% jfo% i`Foh lÄõfre~

iq¡fYyÄeõ ~ L=khfyÄeõ ~ uiqaldfyÄEõ k~


-------------------- -------------------- --------------------
-------------------- -------------------- --------------------
-------------------- -------------------- --------------------

7- v/ksfyf[krins"kq /kro% osQ lfUr\


ine~ /krq%
dÙkZO;% --------------------
i'; --------------------
Hkosr~ --------------------
fLFkr% --------------------
nqcqZf¼% fou';fr 7

f}rh;% ikB%

nqcqZf¼% fou';fr
vfLr ex/ns'ks iqQYyksRiyuke lj%A r=k ladVfodVukedkS galkS fuolr%A
dEcqxhz oukek r;ks% fe=ke~ ,d% owQeZ% vfi r=kSo izfrolfr LeA
vFk ,dnk èkhojk% r=k vkxPNu~ vdFk;u~ p&o;a 'o% eRL;owQekZnhu~
ekjf;";ke%A ,rr~ JqRok
owQeZ% vonr~&^^fe=ks!
¯d ;qokH;ka èkhojk.kka
okrkZ Jqrk\ vèkquk fde~
vga djksf e\** gal kS
vonrke~& ^^izkr% ;n~
mfpra rRdÙkZO;e~A** owQeZ%
vonr~& ^^eSoe~A rn~
;Fkk¿ge~ vU;a ßna
xPNkfe rFkk oqQ#re~A**
galkS vonrke~&^^vkoka ¯d djoko\** owQeZ% vonr~&^^vga Hkon~H;ka lg
vkdk'kekxs.Z k vU;=k xUrqe~ bPNkfeA**
gaLkkS vonrke~&^^v=k d% mik;%\** dPNi% onfr&^^;qoka dk"Bn.Me~ ,oaQ
p×Pok /kj;rke~A vga dk"Bn.Meè;s voyEC; ;qokH;ka i{kcysu lq[ksu
xfe";kfeA** galkS vdFk;rke~& ^^lEHkofr ,"k% mik;%A fdUrq v=k ,d% vik;ks¿fi
orZrAs vkokH;ka uh;ekua RokeoyksD; tuk% fdf×pn~ ofn";fUr ,oA ;fn RoeqÙkja
nkL;fl rnk ro ej.ka fuf'pre~A vr% Roe~ v=kSo olA** rr~ JqRok ozQq ¼%
8 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

owQeZ% vonr~&^^fdega ew[kZ%\ mÙkja u nkL;kfeA fdf×pnfi u ofn";kfeA** vr%


vga ;Fkk mDroku~ rFkk ;qoka oqQ#re~A
,oa Ñrs dk"Bn.Ms yEcekua
owQe± n`"V~ok xksikydk% i'pkn~
vèkkou~ vonu~ p& ^^gagks!
egnk'p;Ze~A galkH;ka lg
owQeksZ¿fi mM~Mh;rsA** df'pn~
onfr& ^^;|;a owQeZ% dFkefi
fuirfr rnk v=kS o iDRok
[kkfn";kfeA** vij% vonr~&
^^ljLrhjs nXèok [kkfn";kfe**A
vU;% vdFk;r~& ^^x`ga uhRok
Hk{kf;";kfe** bfrA
rs"kka rn~ opua JqRok owQeZ% fe=k;ks% nÙka opua foLe`R; dksius vonr~&^^;w;a
HkLe [kknr** bfr onÂso owQeZ% vkdk'kkr~ ifrr% xksikyoSQ% ekfjr'pA
vr,oksDre~&
lqânka fgrdkekuka okD;a ;ks ukfHkuUnfrA
l owQeZ bo nqcfZq ¼% dk"Bkn~ Hkz"Vks fou';frAA

'kCnkFkkZ%

lj% & rkykc


owQeZ%@dPNi% & dNqvk
izfrolfr Le & jgrk Fkk
/hojk% & eNqvkjs
nqcqZf¼% fou';fr 9

eRL;owQekZnhu~ & eNyh] dNqvk vkfn dks


ekjf;";ke% & ekjsaxs
eSoe~ (ek $ ,oe~) & ,slk ugha
ßne~ & rkykc dks
/kj;rke~ & /kj.k djsa
i{kcysu & ia[kks osQ cy ls
vik;% & gkfu
uh;ekue~ & ys tkrs gq,
voyksD; & ns[kdj
yEcekue~ & yVdrs gq, (dks)
mM~Mh;rs & mM+ jgk gS
foLe`R; & Hkwy dj
HkLe & jk[k
lqânke~ & fe=kksa dk@osQ@dh
fgrdkeuke~ & dY;k.k dh bPNk j[kus okys dk@osQ@dh
vfHkuUnfr & izlÂrkiwoZd Lohdkj djrk@djrh gS
nqcqZf¼% & nq"V cqf¼ okyk

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
iqQYyksRiye~ voyEC; iDRok
dEcqxzho% vkokH;ke~ Hk{kf;";kfe
mDroku~ ßne~ lqânke~
Hkon~H;ke~ mM~Mh;rs Hkz"V%
10 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

2- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) owQeZL; ¯d uke vklhr~\
([k) ljLrhjs osQ vkxPNu~\
(x) owQeZ% osQu ekxs.Z k vU;=k xUrqe~ bPNfr\
(?k) yEcekua owQe± n`"V~ok osQ v/kou~\

3- v/ksfyf[krokD;kfu d% oaQ izfr dFk;fr bfr fy[kr&


d% dFk;fr oaQ izfr dFk;fr
;Fkk& izkr% ;n~ mfpra rRdÙkZO;e~A galkS owQe± izfr
(d) vga Hkon~H;ka lg vkdk'kekxs.Z k xUrqe~ bPNkfeA -------------------- --------------------
([k) v=k d% mik;%\ -------------------- --------------------
(x) vge~ mÙkja u nkL;kfeA -------------------- --------------------
(?k) ;w;a HkLe [kknrA -------------------- --------------------

4- e×tw"kkr% fØ;kina fpRok okD;kfu iwj;r&

vfHkuUnfr Hk{kf;";ke% bPNkfe ofn";kfe mM~Mh;rs izfrolfr Le

(d) galkH;ka lg owQeks¿Z fi --------------------A


([k) vga fdf×pnfi u --------------------A
(x) ;% fgrdkeuka lqânka okD;a u --------------------A
(?k) ,d% owQeZ% vfi r=kSo --------------------A
(Ä) vge~ vkdk'kekxs.Z k vU;=k xUrqe~ --------------------A
(p) o;a x`ga uhRok owQe± --------------------A
nqcqZf¼% fou';fr 11

5- iw.kZokD;su mÙkjr&
(d) dPNi% oqQ=k xUrqe~ bPNfr\
([k) dPNi% de~ mik;a onfr\
(x) yEcekua owQe± n`"V~ok xksikydk% fde~ vonu~\
(?k) owQeZ% fe=k;ks% opua foLe`R; fde~ vonr~\

6- ?kVukØekuqlkja okD;kfu fy[kr&


(d) owQeZ% gal;ks% lgk;r;k vkdk'kekxs.Z k vxPNr~A
([k) xksikydk% vdFk;u~&o;a ifrra owQe± [kkfn";ke%A
(x) owQeZ% galkS p ,dfLeu~ ljfl fuolfUr LeA
(?k) osQfpr~ /hojk% ljLrhjs vkxPNu~A
(Ä) owQeZ% vU;=k xUrqe~ bPNfr LeA
(p) yEcekua owQe± n`"V~ok xksikydk% v/kou~A
(N) owQeZ% vkdk'kkr~ ifrr% xksikyoSQ% ekfjr'pA
(t) ^o;a 'o% eRL;owQekZnhu~ ekjf;";ke%* bfr /hojk% vdFk;u~A

7- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&

tyk'k;e~ vfpUr;r~ o`¼% nq%f[krk% dksVjs


o`{kL; liZ% vknk; lehis

,dL; o`{kL; 'kk[kklq vusoQs dkdk% olfUr LeA rL; o`{kL; ------------------- ,d%

liZ% vfi volr~A dkdkuke~ vuqifLFkrkS ------------------- dkdkuka f'k'kwu~ [kknfr LeA

dkdk% ------------------- vklu~A rs"kq ,d% ------------------- dkd% mik;e~ -------------------A


12 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

o`{kL; ------------------- tyk'k;% vklhr~A r=k ,dk jktoqQekjh Lukrqa ------------------- vkxPNfrA

f'kyk;ka fLFkra rL;k% vkHkj.ke~ ------------------- ,d% dkd% o`{kL; mifj vLFkki;r~A

jktlsodk% dkde~ vuqlR` ; ------------------- lehie~ vxPNu~A r=k rs ra li± p vekj;u~A

vr% ,oksDre~&mik;su lo± fl¼;frA

è;krO;e~&
7 b;a dFkk ^i×prU=ke~* bfr xzUFkkr~ mn~/r` kA i×prU=kL; ys[kd% fo".kq'kekZA
i×pkuka rU=kk.kka lekgkj% i×prU=ke~ bfrA vr% i×prU=kL; i×p Hkkxk%
lfUr&fe=kHksn%] fe=kykHk%] lfU/foxzg%] yC/iz.kk'k% vijhf{kr&dkjd×pA
7 vfLeu~ ikBs vuoljs Hkk"k.ksu dFka loZuk'k% Hkorhfr nf'kZre~A Dofpr~
ekSua dk;ZlkèkoaQ HkofrA ;FkksÙkQe~&
foHkw"k.ka ekSueif.Mrkuke~A
ew[kksZ fg 'kksHkrs rkor~ ;kor~ fdf×pUu Hkk"krsA
r`rh;% ikB%

LokoyEcue~
la[;kokfp'kCnk% rn~&,rn~&'kCnkS p
Ñ".kewfrZ% Jhd.B'p fe=ks vkLrke~A Jhd.BL; firk le`¼% vklhr~A vr% rL;
Hkous loZfo/kfu lq[k&lkèkukfu vklu~A
rfLeu~ fo'kkys Hkous pRokfja'kr~ LrEHkk%
vklu~A r=k v"Vkn'k&izdks"Bs"kq i×pk'kr~
xok{kk%] prq'pRokfja'kr~ }kjkf.k p
vklu~A ija Ñ".kewr%Zs ekrk firk p
Ñ"kdnEirhA rL; oklx` g a
vkMEcjfoghua lqUnj×p vklhr~A
,dnk Jhd.B% rsu lg rL; x`ge~
vxPNr~A r=k Ñ".kewfrZ% rL; ekrk firk p
Lo'kDR;k Jhd.BL; vkfrF;e~ voqQoZuA~ rL;
x`gs dks¿fi deZdj% uklhr~A ,rr~ n`"V~ok
Jhd.B% vdFk;r~& ^^fe=k! vga Hkorke~
vkfrF;su lUrq"Vks¿fLeA osQoye~ ,rnso rF;a
eka nq%[k;fr ;r~ ro x`gs ,dks¿fi Hk`R;% ukfLr
;su ee vkfrF;k; HkoUr% d"Va oqQoZfUrA ee
x`gs rq cgo% deZdjk% lfUrA** rnk LokoyEch
Ñ".kewfrZ% vonr~&^^fe=k! eekfi v"VkS
deZdjk% lfUrA rs p }kS iknkS] }kS gLrkS] }s
14 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

us=ks] }s Jks=ks bfrA ,rs izfr{k.ka eekèkhuk%A ijUrq ro Hk`R;k% vgfuZ'ka dekZf.k drq±
u 'kDuqofUrA Roa rq Lodk;kZFk± LoHk`R;kèkhu%A ;nk ;nk rs vuqifLFkrk%] rnk
rnk Roa d"Ve~ vuqHkoflA LokoyEcus rq loZnk lq[keso] u dnkfi d"Va HkofrA**
vga ekls ekls ½rkS ½rkS p Lo&fnup;kZe~ vuqoQw y;kfeA ,rr~ JqRok Jhd.B%
vdFk;r~&^^fe=k! vga rq u tkukfe osQ eklk% HkofUr osQ p ½ro%A** ,rr~
JqRok Ñ".kewfrZ% }kn'keklkuka "k..kke~ ½rwuka p ukekfu vonr~A Jhd.B%
vi`PNr~&^^,dfLeu~ ekls dfr fnukfu HkofUr**A Ñ".kewfrZ% vonr~&^^,dfLeu~
ekls f=ka'kr~ ,df=ka'kr~ ok fnukfu HkofUrA iQjojh&ekls v"Vkfoa'kfr% fnukfu
HkofUrA ijUrq r=k izR;soQa prqFksZ o"ksZ fnukuka la[;k ,dksufoa'kfr% Hkofr**A Jhd.B%
vonr~&^^fe=k! ro opukfu JqRok ee eufl egrh izlUurk tkrkA v/quk vgefi
Lodk;kZf.k Lo;eso dfj";kfeA**

'kCnkFkkZ%

le`¼% & /uh


pRokfja'kr~ & pkyhl
v"Vkn'k & vBkjg
izdks"Bs"kq & dejksa esa
i×pk'kr~ & ipkl
xok{kk% & f[kM+fd;k¡
prq'pRokfja'kr~ & pokyhl
Ñ"kdnEirh & fdlku ifr&iRuh
vkfrF;e~ & vfrfFk&lRdkj
deZdj% & ukSdj@lsod
LokoyEcue~ 15

Hkorke~ & vkiosQ


Hk`R;% & ukSdj@lsod
vgfuZ'ke~ & jkr&fnu
f=ka'kr~ & rhl
,d¯=k'kr~ & bdÙkhl
v"Vkfoa'kfr% & vV~Bkbl

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
foa'kfr% f=ka'kr~ pRokfja'kr~
}kfoa'kfr% }kf=ka'kr~ f}pRokfja'kr~
prqfo±'kfr% =k;fL=ka'kr~ =k;'pRokfja'kr~
i×pfoa'kfr% prqfL=ka'kr~ prq'pRokfja'kr~
v"Vkfoa'kfr% v"Vkf=ka'kr~ lIrpRokfja'kr~
uofoa'kfr% uof=ka'kr~ i×pk'kr~
2- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) dL; Hkous loZfo/kfu lq[klk/ukfu vklu~\
([k) dL; x`gs deZdj% uklhr~\
(x) Jhd.BL; vkfrF;e~ osQ vdqouZ \~
(?k) izR;soQa prqFkZo"ksZ iQjojh&ekls dfr fnukfu HkofUr\
(Ä) dfr ½ro% HkofUr\
(p) Ñ".kewr%Zs dfr deZdjk% lfUr\
16 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

3- fp=kkf.k x.kf;Rok rnxzs la[;kokpd'kCna fy[kr&

-------------------------------- --------------------------------

-------------------------------- --------------------------------

-------------------------------- --------------------------------

4- e×tw"kkr% vÄïkuka Ñrs inkfu fpuqr&

pRokfja'kr~ lIrfoa'kfr% ,df=ka'kr~ i×pk'kr~ v"Vkfoa'kfr% f=ka'kr~ prqfo±'kfr%

28 -------------------------- 27 --------------------------

30 -------------------------- 31 --------------------------
LokoyEcue~ 17

24 -------------------------- 40 --------------------------

50 --------------------------

5- fp=ka n`"V~ok e×tw"kkr% inkfu p iz;Tq ; okD;kfu jp;r&

Ñ"kdk% Ñ"kdkS ,rs /kU;e~ ,"k% Ñ"kd%


,rkS {ks=ke~ d"kZfr oqQ#r% [kuudk;Ze~ jksi;fUr

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6- js[kkfÄrï kfu inkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


;Fkk& vga LokoyEcuL; lq[ka izfrfnue~ vuqHkokfeA
vga dL; lq[ka izfrfnue~ vuqHkokfe\
(d) Ñ".kewfrZ% lkekU;Ñ"kdL; iq=k% vklhr~A
([k) v/quk x`gs dks¿fi deZdj% ukfLrA
(x) u{k=kk.kke~ vkokxeua Lo;eso HkofrA
(?k) ,dfLeu~ oxsZ lIrn'k Nk=kk% viBu~A
18 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

7- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&

"kM~ f=ka'kr~ ,df=ka'kr~ }kS }kn'k v"Vkfoa'kfr%

(d) ----------------- ½ro% HkofUrA


([k) eklk% ----------------- HkofUrA
(x) ,dfLeu~ ekls ----------------- vFkok ----------------- fnolk% HkofUrA
(?k) iQjojh&ekls lkekU;r% ----------------- fnukfu HkofUrA
(Ä) ee 'kjhjs ----------------- gLrkS Lr%A

è;krO;e~&
oSfndijEijkuqlkja Hkkjrh;eklkuka ½rwuka p ukekfu&
1- pS=k% 7- vkf'ou%
1- olUr% 4- 'kjn~
2- oS'kk[k% 8- dkfrZd%
3- T;s"B% 9- ekxZ'kh"kZ%
2- xzh"e% 5- gseUr%
4- vk"kk<% 10- ikS"k%
5- Jko.k% 11- ek?k%
3- o"kkZ 6- f'kf'kj%
6- Hkknzin% 12- iQkYxqu%
gkL;ckydfolEesyue~ 19

prqFkZ% ikB%

gkL;ckydfolEesyue~
vO;;iz;ksx%

(fofo/&os'kHkw"kk/kfj.k% pRokj% ckydo;% e×pL; mifj mifo"Vk% lfUrA v/% Jksrkj%


gkL;dforkJo.kk; mRlqdk% lfUr dksykgya oqQoZfUr p)

l×pkyd% & vya dksykgysuA v| ija g"kZL; volj% ;r~ vfLeu~ dfolEesyus
dkO;gUrkj% dky;kidk'p HkkjrL; gkL;dfo/qjU/jk% lekxrk%
lfUrA ,fg] djryèofuuk o;e~ ,rs"kka Lokxra oqQeZ%A
xtk/j% & losHZ ;ks¿jflosQH;ks ueks ue%A izFkea rkon~ vge~ vk/qfuda oS|e~
mfí'; Lodh;a dkO;a Jko;kfe&
20 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

oS|jkt! ueLrqH;a ;ejktlgksnj A


;eLrq gjfr izk.kku~ oS|% izk.kku~ /ukfu p AA
(losZ mPpS% glfUr)
dkykUrd% & vjs! oS|Lrq loZ=k ijUrq u rs ekn`'kk% oqQ'kyk% tula[;kfuokj.ksA
eekfi dkO;e~ bna Ük`.oUrq HkoUr%&
fprka izTTofyrka n`"V~ok oS|ks foLe;ekxr% A
ukga xrks u es Hkzkrk dL;sna gLryk?koe~ AA
(losZ iqu% glfUr)
rqfUny% & (rqUnL; mifj gLre~ vkorZ;u~) rqfUnyks¿ga Hkks%A eekfi bna dkO;a
Jw;rke~] thous /k;Zrka p&
ijkÂa izkI; nqc¼
Zq !s ek 'kjhjs n;ka oqQ# A
ijkÂa nqyZHka yksds 'kjhjkf.k iqu% iqu% AA
(losZ iqu% vV~Vgkla oqQoZfUr)
/qU/% & vjs! HkoUr% tkufUr ,o ;n~ vk/qfudk% oSKkfudk% IywVks&xzga u
LohOkqQoZfUrA rs"kka ers v"V ,o xzgk%] fdUrq eUersu n'k xzgk%
lfUrA
Jksrkj% & vf;! dfo/qjU/j! dLrkor~ n'keks xzg%\ vLekfHk% dnkfi u
Jqre~A rL; p d% izHkko%\
/qU/% & lko/kueulk Ük`.oUrq HkoUr% n'kexzgL; oSf'k"V~;e~μ
lnk oØ% lnk ozQw j% lnk eku/ukig% A
dU;kjkf'kfLFkrks fuR;a tkekrk n'keks xzg% AA
(dkO;ikBJo.ksu mRizfs jr% ,d% ckydks¿fi vk'kqdforka jp;fr lgkla
Jko;fr p)
gkL;ckydfolEesyue~ 21

ckyd% & Jw;rke~] Jw;rka Hkks%! eekfi dkO;e~&


xtk/ja ;ea ukSfe rqfUnya pkÂyksyiq e~ A
n'kea p xzga /qU/a dkykUroaQ rFkSo p AA
(dkO;a Jkof;Rok ^gk gk gk* bfr ÑRok glfrA vU;s pk¿fi glfUrA
cfg% fu"ØE; losZ x`ga p xPNfUrA)

'kCnkFkkZ%

v/% & uhps


dksykgye~ & 'kksj
dkO;gUrkj% & dkO; dks u"V djus okys
dky;kidk% & le; cCkkZn djus okys
/qjU/jk% & vxz.kh] Js"B
,fg & vk;sa] vkb,
djryèofuuk & rkfy;ksa ls
vjflosQH;% & uhjl tuksa dks
Lodh;e~ & vius
ekn`'kk% & esjs tSls
gLryk?koe~ & gkFk dh liQkbZ
rqUnL; & rksan osQ
vkorZ;u~ & isQjrk gqvk
èkk;Zrke~ & /kj.k djsa
22 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

ijkÂe~ & nwljksa osQ vUu dks


eUersu (ee $ ersu) & esjs er ls
oØ% & Vs<+k
ozwQj% & funZ;h] fu"Bqj
eku/ukig% & lEeku vkSj /u dk
vigj.k djusokyk
tkekrk & tekbZ] nkekn
mRizsfjr% & izsj.kk ls
vk'kqdforke~ & rkRdkfyd dfork dks
lgkle~ & g¡lh osQ lkFk
ukSfe & iz.kke djrk gw¡
vÂyksyqie~ & vukt dk yksHkh
fu"ØE; & fudy dj

vH;kl%

1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
mifj v/% mPpS%
uhpS% cfg% vye~
dnkfi vUr% iqu%
oqQ=k dnk ,dnk
gkL;ckydfolEesyue~ 23

2- e×tw"kkr% vO;;inkfu fpRok okD;kfu iwj;r&

vye~ vUr% cfg% v/% mifj

(d) o`{kL; ----------------- [kxk% olfUrA


([k) ----------------- fooknsuA
(x) o"kkZdkys x`gkr~ ----------------- ek xPNA
(?k) e×pL; ----------------- Jksrkj% mifo"Vk% lfUrA
(Ä) Nk=kk% pyfPp=kx`gL; ----------------- izfo'kfUrA

3- v'kq¼a ina fpuqr&


(d) xefUr] ;PNfUr] i`PNfUr] /kofUrA ----------------------
([k) jkes.k] x`g.s k] lis.Z k] xts.kA ----------------------
(x) yr;k] lqfiz;k] je;k] fu'k;kA ----------------------
(?k) yrs] jes] ekrs] fiz;As ----------------------
(Ä) fy[kfr] xtZfr] iQyfr] lsofrA ----------------------

4- e×tw"kkr% lekukFkZdinkfu fpRok fy[kr&

izlÂrk;k% fpfdRlde~ yCèok oqQfVy% n{kk%

izkI; -----------------
oqQ'kyk% -----------------
g"kZL; -----------------
oØ% -----------------
oS|e~ -----------------
24 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(d) e×ps dfr ckydo;% mifo"Vk% lfUr\


([k) osQ dksykgya oqQoZfUr\
(x) xtk/j% de~ mfí'; dkO;a izLrkSfr\
(?k) rqfUny% dL; mifj gLre~ vkoÙkZ;fr\
(Ä) yksoQs iqu% iqu% dkfu HkofUr\
(p) n'ke% xzg% d%\

ukfldk;keso okjaokje~ [kM~xsu nwje~ fe=krk ef{kdk


O;tusu mikfo'kr~ fNUuk lqIr% fiz;%

iqjk ,dL; u`iL; ,d% -------------- okuj% vklhr~A ,dnk u`i% -------------- vklhr~A okuj%
-------------- re~ voht;r~A rnSo ,dk

-------------- u`iL; ukfldk;ke~ --------------- A

;|fi okuj% -------------- O;tusu rka fuokj;fr

Le rFkkfi lk iqu% iqu% u`iL; -------------

mifo'kfr LeA vUrs l% ef{kdka gUraq


-------------- izgkje~ vdjksrA~ ef{kdk rq mM~Mh; -------------- xrk] fdUrq [kM~xizgkjs.k u`iL;

ukfldk -------------- vHkor~A vr,oksP;rs&^^ew[kZtuS% lg -------------- uksfprkA**


gkL;ckydfolEesyue~ 25

7- foykseinkfu ;kst;r&

v/% uhpS%
vUr% lqyHke~
nqcqZ¼s! mifj
mPpS% cfg%

nqyZHke~ lqcq¼s!

è;krO;e~&
vfLeu~ ikBs v/%] vUr%] cfg%] uhpS%] iqu% bR;knhfu vO;;inkfu lfUrA
,"kka f=k"kq fyÄ"õs kq] f=k"kq opus"kq lokZlq foHkfDr"kq p ,deso :ia Hkofr] fodkjks
u tk;rsA
mDr×p&
ln`'ka f=k"kq fyÄ"õs kq lokZlq p foHkfDr"kq A
opus"kq p los"Z kq ;Â O;sfr rnO;;e~ AA
26 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

i×pe% ikB%

if.Mrk jekckbZ
jekckbZ laLÑroSn"q ;s.k ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh* bfr mikfèkH;ka
foHkwf"krkA lk 1858 res f[kz"VkCns tUe vyHkrA rL;k% firk
vuUr'kkL=kh Mksxa js ekrk p y{eh ckbZ vkLrke~A rfLeu~ dkys
L=khf'k{kk;k% fLFkfr% fpUruh;k vklhr~ A L=kh.kka Ñrs
laLÑrf'k{k.ka izk;% izpfyra uklhr~A fdUrq if.Mr% vuUr'kkL=kh
Mksxa js :f<c¼ka èkkj.kka ifjR;T; LoiRuha LkaLÑreè;ki;r~A
,rnFk± jek;k% firk lektL; izrkj.kke~ vfi vlgrA vuUrja
jek vfi Loekrq% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorhA
dkyØes.k jek;k% firk foiÂ% l×tkr%A rL;k% firjkS T;s"Bk Hkfxuh p
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% fnoÄrõ k%A rnuUrja jek Lo&T;s"BHkzk=kk lg in~H;ka lexzs Hkkjrs
Hkze.ka oqQoZrh dksydkrka izkIrkA r=k lk czãlektsu izHkkfork osnkè;;ue~ vdjksrA~
i'pkr~ lk ckfydkuka L=kh.kka p Ñrs laLÑrL; osn'kkL=kkfndL; p f'k{kk;S
vkUnksyua izkjC/orhA 1880 res f[kz"VkCns lk fofiufcgkjhnklsu lg U;k;ky;s
fookge~ vdjksrA~ lk¼Sd Z o"kkZuUrja rL;k% ifr% fnoÄõr%A
rnuUrja lk iq=;k euksje;k lg egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A ukjh.kka leqfprlEekuk;
f'k{kk;S p lk Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorhA loZdkjs.k la?kfVrs mPpf'k{kk&vk;ksxs
jekckbZ ukjhf'k{kkfo"k;s Loera izLrqrorhA lk mPpf'k{kkFkZe~ baXyS.Mns'ka xrorhA
r=k bZlkbZ/eZL; L=khfo"k;oSQ% mÙkefopkjS% izHkkfork tkrkA
if.Mrk jekckbZ 27

baXyS.Mns'kkr~ jekckbZ vejhdkns'ke~ vxPNr~A r=k lk HkkjrL; foèkokL=kh.kka


lgk;rkFkZe~ vFkZl×p;e~ vdjksrA~ Hkkjra izR;kxR; eqEcbZuxjs lk ^'kkjnk&lnue~*
vLFkki;r~A ije~ bna lnua
iq.ksuxjs LFkkukUrfjra tkre~A
vfLeu~ vkJes fuLlgk;k%
fL=k;% fuolfUr LeA r=k fL=k;%
eqn.z k&VÄï.k&dk"Bdyknhuk×p
izf'k{k.kefi yHkUrs LeA rnuUrja
iq.ksuxjL; lehis osQMxk¡o&ukfEu
LFkkus ^eqfDrfe'ku* uke laLFkkua
r;k LFkkfire~A v=k v/quk vfi
fujkfJrk% fL=k;% llEekua
thoua ;ki;fUrA
1922 res f[kz"VkCns jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A fdUrq L=khf'k{kk;ka
lektlsok;k×p rL;k% dk;Ze~ vfoLej.kh;e~ vfLrA lektlsok;k% vfrfjDra
ys[ku{ks=ks vfi rL;k% egÙoiw.kZe~ vonkue~ vfLrA ^L=kh/eZuhfr* ^gkbZ dkLV
fgUnw foesu* bfr rL;k% izfl¼a jpuk};a orZrAs

'kCnkFkkZ%

laLÑroSnq";s.k & laLÑr dh fo}Ùkk ls


mikf/H;ke~ & mikf/;ksa ls
ifjR;T; & NksM+dj
vè;ki;r~ & i<+k;k
izrkj.kke~ & rkM+uk
vlgr & lgu fd;k
28 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

Loekrq% & viuh ekrk ls


uohuksiØeL; (uohu $ miØeL;) & u, iz;kl dk
foiÂ% & fu/Zu
fnoÄõrk% & e`R;q dks izkIr gks x,
oqQoZrh & djrh gqbZ
izkjC/orh & vkjEHk fd;k
izR;kxPNr~ (izfr $ vkxPNr~) & ykSV vkbZ
la?kfVrs & laxfBr
vFkZl×p;e~ & /u l×p;
izR;kxR; (izfr $ vkxR;) & ykSVdj
eqnz.ke~ & NikbZ
VÄï.ke~ & Vkbi
fujkfJrk% (fuj~ $ vkfJrk%) & cslgkjk
;ki;fUr & fcrkrs@fcrkrh gSa
vonkue~ & ;ksxnku

vH;kl%
1- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh* bfr mikf/H;ka dk foHkwf"krk\
([k) jek oqQr% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorh\
(x) jekckbZ osQu lg fookge~ vdjksr\~
(?k) dklka f'k{kk;S jekckbZ Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorh\
(Ä) jekckbZ mPpf'k{kkFk± oqQ=k vxPNr~\
if.Mrk jekckbZ 29

2- js[kkfÄïrinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) jek;k% firk lektL; izrkj.kke~ vlgrA
([k) iR;q% ej.kkuUrja jekckbZ egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A
(x) jekckbZ eqEcbZuxjs ^'kkjnk&lnue~* vLFkki;r~A
(?k) 1922 res f–"VkCns jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A
(Ä) fL=k;% f'k{kka yHkUrs LeA

3- iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) jekckbZ fdeFkZe~ vkUnksyua izkjC/orh\
([k) fu%lgk;k% fL=k;% vkJes ¯d yHkUrs Le\
(x) dfLeu~ fo"k;s jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% ;ksxnkue~ vfLr\
(?k) osQu jpuk};su jekckbZ iz'kaflrk orZr\s

4- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka funs'Z kkuqlkja inifjp;a fy[kr&


inkfu ewy'kCn% fyÄõe~ foHkfDr% opue~
;Fkk&osnkuke~ osn iq¡fYyÄõe~ "k"Bh cgqopue~
firk ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
f'k{kk;S ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
dU;k% ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
in~H;ke~ ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
euksje;k ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

5- v/ksfyf[krkuka /krwuka ydkja iq#"ka opu×p fy[kr&


/krq% ydkj% iq#"k% opue~
;Fkk&vklhr~ vl~ yÄ~ izFkeiq#"k% ,dopue~
oqQoZfUr ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
30 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

vkxPNr~ ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------


fuolfUr ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
xfe";fr ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
vdjksr~ ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

6- v/ksfyf[krkfu okD;kfu ?kVukØekuqlkja fy[kr&


(d) jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fofiufcgkjhnklsu lg fookg% vHkor~A
([k) 1858 res f–"VkCns jekckbZ tUe vyHkrA
(x) lk mPpf'k{kkFk± baXyS.Mns'ka xrorhA
(?k) 1922 res f–"VkCnss jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A
(Ä) lk eqEcbZuxjs 'kkjnk&lnue~ vLFkki;r~A
(p) lk Loekrq% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorhA
lnkpkj% 31

"k"B% ikB%

lnkpkj%
;fLeu~ ns'ks ; vkpkj% ikjEi;ZØekxr% A
o.kkZuka lkUrjkykuka l lnkpkj mP;rs AA1AA

izkr%dkys R;tsPNÕ;keh'oja izFkea Lejsr~ A


fuR;dekZf.k ÑRok p oqQ;kZnè;;ua rr% AA2AA

lR;a cz;
w kr~ fiz;a cz;
w kr~ u cz;
w kr~ lR;efiz;e~ A
fiz;a p uku`ra cz; w kr~ ,"k /eZ% lukru% AA3AA

loZnk O;ogkjs L;kr~ vkSnk;± lR;rk rFkk A


½tqrk e`nrq k pkfi dkSfVY;a u dnkpu AA4AA

Js"Ba tua xq#a pkfi ekrja firja rFkk A


eulk deZ.kk okpk lsors lrra lnk AA5AA

fe=ks.k dyga ÑRok u dnkfi lq[kh tu% A


bfr KkRok iz;klsu rnso ifjotZ;sr~ AA6AA
32 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

'kCnkFkkZ%

vkpkj% & O;ogkj


ikjEi;ZØekxr% & ijEijkØe ls vk;k gqvk@izkIr
o.kkZuke~ & leLr oxks± dk
lkUrjkykuke~ & oxks± osQ eè; vk;s leLr mioxks± dk
R;tsr~ & NksMu+ k pkfg,] R;kxuk pkfg,
oqQ;kZr~ & djuk pkfg,
czw;kr~ & cksyuk pkfg,
vu`re~ & >wB
lukru% & lnk ls pyk vk jgk gks
L;kr~ & gks
vkSnk;Ze~ & mnkjrk
½tqrk & ljyrk
e`nqrk & dkseyrk
dkSfVY;e~ & oqQfVyrk] Vs<k+ iu
okpk & ok.kh ls
lsosr & lsok djuh pkfg,
ifjotZ;sr~ & NksM+ nsuk pkfg,
lnkpkj% 33

vH;kl%

1- lokZu~ 'yksdku~ lLoja xk;rA

2- mi;qDrdFkukuka le{ke~ ^vke~* vuqi;qDrdFkukuka le{ka ^u* bfr fy[kr&


(d) izkr% dkys bZ'oja LejsrA~
([k) vu`ra cz;w kr~A
(x) eulk Js"Btua lsors A
(?k) fe=ks.k dyga ÑRok tu% lq[kh HkofrA
(Ä) izkr%dkys 'kÕ;ka u R;tsrA~

3- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) dnk 'kÕ;ka R;tsr\~
([k) dkfu ÑRok vè;;ua oqQ;kZr\~
(x) ¯d cz;w kr~\
(?k) osQu lg dyga ÑRok uj% lq[kh u Hkosr\~

4- js[kkfÄïrinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) izFkee~ bZ'oja LejsrA~
([k) dyga ÑRok uj% nq%[kh HkofrA
(x) firja deZ.kk lsors A
(?k) O;ogkjs e`nrq k Js;lhA
(Ä) loZnk O;ogkjs ½tqrk fo/s;kA
34 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

5- iz'ueè;s =khf.k fØ;kinkfu lfUrA rkfu iz;Tq ; lkFkZd&okD;kfu jp;rA

p
firja
z;a p

ekrja
fi
k;±
a
vu`r

eulk
vkSn
oZnk l
gkjs
p
fiz;a
O;o
czw;kr~ lR;a
lsosr
Js"B L;kr~ okp
tua k xq#
deZ. a
O;og

kk
lR;e
kjs d

~ vfi
n k p u

z;a p
dkSfVY

u
;a u

(d) ------------------------------------------------A ([k) ------------------------------------------------A

(x) ------------------------------------------------A (?k) ------------------------------------------------A

(Ä) ------------------------------------------------A (p) ------------------------------------------------A

(N) ------------------------------------------------A (t) ------------------------------------------------A

6- e×tw"kkr% vO;;inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


rFkk u dnkpu lnk p vfi

(d) HkDr% --------------- bZ'oja LejfrA


([k) vlR;a --------------- oDrO;e~A
lnkpkj% 35

(x) fiz;a --------------- lR;a onsrA~


(?k) yrk es/k --------------- fo|ky;a xPNr%A
(Ä) --------------- oqQ'kyh Hkoku~\
(p) egkRekxkU/h --------------- v¯glka u vR;tr~A

7- fp=ka n`"V~ok e×tw"kkr% inkfu p iz;Tq ; okD;kfu jp;r&

fy[kfr d{kk;ke~ ';kei^s fy[kfUr l% iqfLrdk;ke~


f'k{kd% Nk=kk% mÙkjkf.k iz'ue~ rs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
36 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

lIre% ikB%

lÄïYi% flf¼nk;d%
/krqi;z ksx%
ukjnopuizHkkokr~ ikoZrh f'koa ifr:is.k bPNUrh riL;ka dÙkqeZ ~ bPNfr LeA lk
LolÄïYia ek=ks U;osn;r~A rPNªRq ok ikoZR;k% ekrk fpUrkoqQyk vHkor~A
iq=;k% dkseyruqa n`"V~ok tuuh vkfn'kr~&^oRls! Do dfBua ri% Do p ro
dkseya 'kjhje~\ dFke~ vkrikr~ 'khrkr~ ok vkRekua jf{k";fl\ rfgZ ri% ek
pjA lq[ksu Lox`gs ,o olA v=kSo ozrkfnoaQ oqQ#A ,rsuoS ro euksjFkiwfrZ% Hkfo";frA*
ijUrq ikoZrh vdFk;r~&^^vEc! f'koa ifr:is.k izkIrqa riL;keso dfj";kfe
bfr es lÄYï i%A bZ'oj% ee j{kka
dfj";frA riL;kFk± dks¿fi u x`gs
olfrA** ,oeqDRok n`<fu'p;k lk
fir`x`ga ifjR;T; dkuus fufeZrka
Loi.kZoQq Vhe~ vxPNr~ f'koa p
vuU;eulk viwt;r~] fpja riL;ka
p lekpjr~A dkuus ¯gÏk% i'ko%
fopjfUr LeA rFkkfi ikoZrh fuHkZ;k olfr LeA ;rks fg fuHkZ;a tue~ bZ'oj%
Lo;eso j{kfrA
dfrfpr~ eklk% xrk%A ,dnk df'pr~ oVq% riksoua izkfo'kr~A oVqa n`"V~ok
ikoZrh vklukr~ mRFkk; reqixE; lknje~ vonr~&^^oVks] Lokxra rsA mifo'krq
Hkoku~A**
lÄYï i% flf¼nk;d% 37

oVq% oqQ'kya i`"V~ok dkSrgw ysu vi`PNr~&^^gs rifLofu! fdeFk± dfBua ri%
lekpjfl\ Lodh;ka ruqa p efyuka djksf"k\** ikoZrh u fdf×pr~ onfr LeA
rRl[kh ,o rL;k% lÄïYiL; iz;kstua oVos fuosn;fr LeA
rr~ JqRok oVq% vi`PNr~&^^vf; ikoZfr! ¯d lR;eso Roa f'koa ifrfePNfl
;ks fg vf'koa pjfr] 'e'kkus olfr\ ;L; =khf.k us=kkf.k] ;L; olua xtpeZ]
;L; vÄjõ kx% fprkHkLe] ;L; ifjtukÜp Hkwrx.kk%] ¯d reso f'koa ifre~
bPNfl\**
f'kofuUnka JqRok ikoZrh ozQq ¼k tkrkA lk vonr~&^^vilj vjs okpky! Roa
egs'ojL; ijekFkZLo:ieso u tkukflA tuk% vukfndkykr~ lÄYï ifl¼;s f'koeso
iwt;fUrA rr~ uksfpra Ro;k lg lEHkk"k.ke~A**

,oeqDRok ;nk lk izLFkkuk; m|rk] rkonso f'ko% oVks% :ia ifjR;T;


rL;k% ekxZe~ vo#è; vonr~&^^ikoZfr! izhrks¿fLe ro lÄYï isu riL;;k pA**
38 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

'kCnkFkkZ%

bPNUrh & bPNk djrh gqbZ


dÙkqZe~ & djus osQ fy,
bPNfr Le & bPNk dh
ek=ks & ekrk ls@ekrk dks
rPNªRok
q (rr~ $ JqRok) & ;g lqudj
iq=;k% & iq=kh dk@osQ@dh
vkfn'kr~ & vkns'k fn;k
Do & dgk¡
vkrikr~ & /wi ls
vkRekue~ & Lo;a dks
ozrkfnde~ (ozr $ vkfnde~) & miokl vkfn dks
vEc! & gs ek¡!
izkIrqe~ & izkIr djus osQ fy,
riL;kFkZe~ (riL;k $ vFkZe)~ & riL;k osQ fy,
dks¿fi (d% $ vfi) & dksbZ
ifjR;T; & NksM+dj
dkuus & ou es@a tÄyõ esa
Loi.kZoqQVhe~ & vius iÙkksa dh oqQfV;k esa
vuU;eulk & ,dkxz fpÙk ls
fpje~ & cgqr le; rd
lekpjr~ & djus yxh@djus yxk
;rks fg & D;ksafd
lÄYï i% flf¼nk;d% 39

dfrfpr~ & oqQN


oVq% & czãpkjh
izkfo'kr~ & izo's k fd;k@vk;k
mRFkk; & mBdj
reqixE; (re~ $ mixE;) & mlosQ ikl tkdj
mifo'krq & cSBks@cSBs
i`"V~ok & iwNdj
lekpjfl & djrh gks@djrs gks
onfr Le & cksyrh Fkh@cksyrk Fkk
vf'koe~ & veÄõy
olue~ & diM+k@oL=k
xtpeZ & gkFkh dk peM+k
vÄõjkx% & lkSUn;Z lkexzh
ifjtuk'p (ifjtuk% $ p) & lsod vkfn
Hkwrx.kk% & Hkwrizrs vkfn
vilj & nwj gVks
ijekFkZLo:ieso & fnO; :i dks gh@;FkkFkZ Lo:i
(ije $ vFkZLo:ie~ $ ,o) dks gh
lÄïYifl¼;s & lÄïYi dks iwjk djus osQ fy,
uksfpre~ (u $ mfpre~) & mfpr (Bhd) ugha gS
izLFkkuk; & tkus osQ fy,
m|rk & rS;kj gqbZ
rkonso (rkor~ $ ,o) & rHkh
vo#è; & jksddj
izhrks¿fLe (izhr% $ vfLe) & izlUu gw¡
40 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
vHkor~ vdFk;r~ vxPNr~
U;osn;r~ viwt;r~ lekpjr~
vkfn'kr~ izkfo'kr~ vonr~
onfr Le olfr Le j{kfr Le
fuosn;fr Le pjfr Le djksfr Le
xPNfr Le iwt;fr Le iBfr Le

2- mnkgj.ke~ vuqlR` ; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk& olfr Le olr% Le olfUr Le
iwt;fr Le ----------------- -----------------
----------------- j{kr% Le -----------------

pjfr Le ----------------- -----------------


----------------- ----------------- oqQoZfUr Le

([k) iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~


;Fkk& izFkeiq#"k% vdFk;r~ vdFk;rke~ vdFk;u~
izFkeiq#"k% ----------------- viwt;rke~ viwt;u~
izFkeiq#"k% vj{kr~ ----------------- -----------------
lÄYï i% flf¼nk;d% 41

(x) iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~


;Fkk& eè;eiq#"k% vol% volre~ volr
eè;eiq#"k% ----------------- viwt;re~ -----------------

eè;eiq#"k% ----------------- ----------------- vpjr

(?k) iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~


;Fkk& mÙkeiq#"k% viBe~ viBko viBke
mÙkeiq#"k% vfy[ke~ ----------------- -----------------

mÙkeiq#"k% ----------------- vjp;ko -----------------

3- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k ,dinsu fy[kr&


(d) fuHkZ;a tua d% Lo;eso j{kfr\
([k) ikoZrh riL;kFk± oqQ=k vxPNr~\
(x) d% vf'koa pjfr\
(?k) f'kofuUnka JqRok dk ozQq ¼k tkrk\
(Ä) oVq:is.k riksoua d% izkfo'kr~\

4- d%@dk oaQ@dka izfr dFk;fr& d%@dk de~@dke~


;Fkk& oRls! Do dfBua ri%\ ekrk ikoZrhe~
(d) vEc! ifr:is.k f'koa izkIrqa riL;ka dfj";kfeA ------------- -------------

([k) v=kSo ozrkfnoaQ oqQ#A ------------- -------------

(x) vf; ikoZfr! lR;eso Roa f'koa ifrfePNfl\ ------------- -------------

(?k) vilj] vjs okpky! ------------- -------------

(Ä) ikoZfr! izhrks¿fLe ro riL;;kA ------------- -------------


42 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

5- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) oVqa n`"V~ok ikoZrh lknja fde~ vonr~\
([k) oVq% ikoZrha fde~ vi`PNr~\
(x) ukjnopuizHkkokr~ ikoZrh ¯d dÙkZeq ~ ,sPNr~\

6- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok lekukFkZdkfu inkfu fy[kr&

ekrk n`"V~ok dkuus tUro% us=kkf.k

ous -----------------

i'ko% -----------------

tuuh -----------------

u;ukfu -----------------

foyksD; -----------------

7- mnkgj.kkuqlkja injpuka oqQ#r&


;Fkk & olfr Le ¾ volr~
(d) i';fr Le ¾ ---------------------

([k) fy[kfr Le ¾ ---------------------

(x) fpUr;fr Le ¾ ---------------------

(?k) onfr Le ¾ ---------------------

(Ä) xPNfr Le ¾ ---------------------


lÄYï i% flf¼nk;d% 43

;Fkk& vfy[kr~ ¾ fy[kfr LeA


(d) ----------------- ¾ dFk;fr LeA
([k) ----------------- ¾ u;fr LeA
(x) ----------------- ¾ iBfr LeA
(?k) ----------------- ¾ /kofr LeA
(Ä) ----------------- ¾ glfr LeA

è;krO;e~&
^Le* bR;L; iz;ksx%A
;nk orZekudkfyoSQ% /krqfHk% lg ^Le* bR;L; iz;ksx% Hkofr rnk rs /kro%
HkwrdkfydfØ;k.kke~ vFk± izdV;fUrA
;Fkk& iBfr Le & i<+rk FkkA
xPNfr Le & tkrk FkkA
44 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

v"Ve% ikB%

f=ko.kZ% èot%
(osQpu ckydk% dk'pu ckfydk'p LorU=krk&fnolL; èotkjksg.klekjksgs lksRlkga
xPNUr% ijLija layifUrA)
nso's k% & v| LorU=krk&fnol%A vLekoaQ fo|ky;L; izkpk;Z% èotkjksg.ka
dfj";frA Nk=kk'p lkaLÑfrddk;ZØeku~ izLrks";fUrA vUrs p eksndkfu
fefy";fUrA
MsfoM% & 'kq p s ! tkukfl Roe~ \
vLekoaQ èotL; ¯d uke\
'kqfp% & vjs! d% ,rkn`'k% Hkkjrh;%
;% vL; èotL; fo"k;s u
tkukfr\ vLekoaQ ns'kL;
èot% f=ko.kZ% bfrA
lyhe% & #ps! vL; uke f=ko.kZ%
dFke~\
#fp% & vfLeu~ èots =k;% o.kkZ%
lfUr] vr% f=ko.kZ%A ¯d Roe~
,rs"kka o.kkZuka ukekfu tkukfl\
lyhe% & vjs! osQ'kjo.kZ%] 'osr%] gfjr% p ,rs =k;% o.kkZ%A
nso's k% & vLekoaQ èots ,rs =k;% ,o o.kkZ% dFka x`ghrk%\
f=ko.kZ% èot% 45

lyhe% & ,rs"kka =k;k.kka o.kkZuke~ v=k fo'ks"k% vfHkizk;%A


nso's k% & d% fo'ks"k%\
lyhe% & 'k`.kq] osQ'kjo.kZ% 'kkS;LZ ;] 'osr% 'kkUrs%] gfjr'p le`¼%s lwpdk%
lfUrA Lo;a p v;a èot% vusdRos ,dRoL; |ksrd%A
'kqfp% & fde~ ,rklka if^dkuke~ vU;nfi egÙoe~\
MsfoM% & vke~! dFka u\ èotL; mifj fLFkrk osQ'kjif^dk vfXuf'k[kk bo
ÅtZfLork;k% mRlkgL; p lwfpdkA eè;s fLFkrk 'osrif^dk
lkfÙodrk;k% fueZyrk;k% p |ksfrdkA vèk% fLFkrk gfjrif^dk
le`¼%s izxrs'p lÄfsï rdkA
rsftUnj% & 'kqp!s èotL; eè;s fLFkrL; pØL; fdefi egÙoe~ vfLr\
'kqfp% & vFk fde~ bne~ v'kksdpozQa lR;L;] /eZL; v¯glk;k'p |ksrde~A
iz.ko% & ¯d u tkukfl\ LorU=krk;k% vkUnksyus vL; èotL; egrh Hkwfedk
vklhr~A
'kqfp% & dk lk èotL; Hkwfedk\
nso's k% & ,ua èote~ vkfJR; ,o LorU=krk;k% vkUnksyue~ vHkor~A
MsfoM% & ns'kL; LorU=krk;S y{ehckbZ] egkRekxkU/h] ia- tokgjykyusg:]
lqHkk"kpUnzcksl%] vktkn% pUnz'ks[kj%] Hkxr¯lg%] ljksftuh uk;Mw]
v#.kk vkliQ vyh bR;kn;% vkthoua la?k"kZe~ voqQoZuA~ y{kkfèkdk%
p tuk% Loku~ izk.kku~ vfi vR;tu~A
rsftUnj% & vLekoaQ f=ko.kZ% èot% LokfHkekuL; izrhd%A loS%Z vfi Hkkjrh;S%
vL; lEeku% dj.kh;%A vr% vLekoaQ lVYi% L;kr~ ;r~ vL;
jk"VªèotL; lEekuj{kkFk± o;a losZ Lo&Lo&drZO;s rRijk% HkoseA
t;rq f=ko.kZ% èot%] t;rq Hkkjre~A
46 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

'kCnkFkkZ%

f=ko.kZ% èot% & rhu jaxksa okyk >aMk (frjaxk >aMk)


layifUr & okrkZyki djrs gS@a djrh gSa
izLrks";fUr & izLrqr djrs gS@a djrh gSa
eksndkfu & yM~Mw
'kkS;ZL; & ohjrk dk@osQ@dh
ÅtZfLork;k% & ÅtkZ dh
vkfJR; & lgkjk ysdj
y{kkf/dk% & yk[kksa ls vf/d

vH;kl%

1- 'kq¼dFkuL; le{ke~ ^vke~* v'kq¼dFkuL; le{ka ^u* bfr fy[kr&


(d) vLekoaQ jk"VªL; èots =k;% o.kkZ% lfUrA
([k) èots gfjro.kZ% 'kkUrs% izrhd% vfLrA
(x) èots osQ'kjo.kZ% 'kDR;k% lwpd% vfLrA
(?k) LorU=krk;k% vkUnksyus y{kkf/dk% tuk% Loizk.kku~ vR;tu~A
(Ä) vLekoaQ èot% vusdRos ,dRoL; lwpd%A
f=ko.kZ% èot% 47

2- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq iz;Dq rka foHkfDra opua p fy[kr&


inkfu foHkfDr% opue~
;Fkk& =k;k.kke~ "k"Bhcgqopue~
le`¼%s ----------------- -----------------
o.kkZuke~ ----------------- -----------------
mRlkgL; ----------------- -----------------
ukxfjoSQ% ----------------- -----------------
if^dkuke~ ----------------- -----------------
izk.kkuke~ ----------------- -----------------

3- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) vLekoaQ èots dfr o.kkZ% lfUr\
([k) f=ko.ksZ èots 'kDR;k% lwpd% d% o.kZ%\
(x) v'kksdpozQa dL; |ksrde~ vfLr\
(?k) f=ko.kZ% èot% dL; izrhd%\

4- ,dokD;su mÙkjr&
(d) vLekoaQ èotL; 'osro.kZ% dL; lwpd% vfLr\
([k) LorU=krk;k% vkUnksyus dL; egrh Hkwfedk vklhr~\
(x) vLekfHk% dL; ekulEekuj{kk dj.kh;k\
(?k) èotL; 'osrif^dk dL;k% lwfpdk vfLr\

5- vèkksfyf[krokD;s"kq js[kkfVrinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) vLekoaQ f=ko.kZèot% fo'ofot;h HkosrA~
([k) Lo/ekZr~ izekna o;a u oqQ;kZeA
48 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(x) ,rr~ loZe~ vLekoaQ usr`.kka ln~c¼


q %s lRiQye~A
(?k) 'k=kw.kka le{ka fot;% lqfuf'pr% HkosrA~

6- mnkgj.kkuqlkja leqfprS% inS% fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


'kCnk% foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk& if^dk "k"Bh if^dk;k% if^d;ks% if^dkuke~
vfXuf'k[kk lIreh vfXuf'k[kk;ke~ ----------------- -----------------

ÅtkZ prqFkhZ ----------------- ÅtkZH;ke~ -----------------

v¯glk f}rh;k v¯glke~ ----------------- -----------------

liQyrk i×peh ----------------- liQyr;ks% -----------------

lwfpdk r`rh;k lwfpd;k ----------------- -----------------

7- leqfpresyua ÑRok fy[kr&


d [k
osQ'kjo.kZ% ÅtZfLork;k% mRlkgL; p lwfpdk
v'kksdpØe~ le`¼%s lwpd%
'osro.kZ% lkfÙodrk;k% fueZyrk;k% p lwfpdk
'osrif^dk lR;L;] /eZL; v¯glk;k'p |ksrde~
gfjro.kZ% 'kkS;LZ ; lwpd%
osQ'kjif^dk le`¼%s xrs% p laoQs frdk
gfjrif^dk 'kkUrs% lwpd%
foeku;kua jp;ke 49

uoe% ikB%

foeku;kua jp;ke
jk?ko! ek/o! lhrs! yfyrs!
foeku;kua jp;ke A
uhys xxus foiqys foeys
ok;qfogkja djoke AA1AA

mÂro`{ka rqÄaõ Hkoua


ØkURokdk'ka [kyq ;ke A
ÑRok fgeoUra lksikua
pfUnjyksoQa izfo'kke AA2AA

'kqØ'pUnz% lw;ksZ xq#fjfr


xzgku~ fg lokZu~ x.k;ke A
fofo/k% lqUnjrkjkf'pRok
ekSfDrdgkja jp;ke AA3AA

vEcqnekyke~ vEcjHkw"kke~
vknk;So fg izfr;ke A
nq%f[kr&ihfMr&Ñf"kdtukuka
x`gs"kq g"k± tu;ke AA4AA
& fo'okl%
50 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

'kCnkFkkZ%

foeku;kue~ & gokbZ tgkt


jp;ke & (ge) cuk,¡
foiqys & foLr`r (vkdk'k) esa
foeys & fueZy (vkdk'k) esa
ok;qfogkje~ & ok;q;k=kk (vkdk'k esa ;k=kk)
djoke & (ge) djsa
mÂro`{ke~ & Å¡ps o`{k dks
rqÄõe~ & Å¡pk
ØkURok & ikj djosQ
;ke & (ge) pysa
fgeoUra lksikue~ & ciZQ dh lh<+h dks
pfUnjyksde~ & pUnzyksd dks
izfo'kke & (ge) izo's k djsa
x.k;ke & (ge) fxusa
fpRok & pqudj
ekSfDrdgkje~ & eksfr;ksa osQ gkj dks
vEcqnekyke~ & cknyksa dh ekyk dks
vEcjHkw"kke~ & vkdk'k dh 'kksHkk dks
vknk; & ysdj
izfr;ke & (ge) ykSVas
tu;ke & (ge) mRi djsa
foeku;kua jp;ke 51

vH;kl%
1- ikBs nÙka xhra lLoja xk;r&
2- dks"BdkUrxZr"s kq 'kCns"kq r`rh;k&foHkfDra ;kstf;Rok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& uHk% pUnzs.k 'kksHkrsA (pUnz)
(d) lk ------------------- tysu eq[ka iz{kky;frA (foey)
([k) jk?ko% ------------------- fogjfrA (foeku;ku)
(x) d.B% ------------------- 'kksHkrsA (ekSfDrdgkj)
(?k) uHk% ------------------- izdk'krsA (lw;)Z
(Ä) ioZrf'k[kje~ ------------------- vkd"kZoQa n`';rsA (vEcqnekyk)
3- fHkÂoxZL; ina fpuqr& fHkÂoxZ%
;Fkk& lw;%Z ] pUnz%] vEcqn%] 'kqØ%A vEcqn%
(d) i=kkf.k] iq"ikf.k] iQykfu] fe=kkf.kA -------------------
([k) typj%] [kspj%] Hkwpj%] fu'kkpj%A -------------------
(x) xko%] ¯lgk%] dPNik%] xtk%A -------------------
(?k) e;wjk%] pVdk%] 'kqdk%] e.Mwdk%A -------------------
(Ä) iqLrdky;%] ';kei^%] izkpk;Z%] lkSfpd%A -------------------
(p) ys[kuh] iqfLrdk] vè;kfidk] vtkA -------------------
4- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) osQ ok;q;kua jp;fUr\
([k) ok;q;kua dhn`'ka o`{ka dhn`'ka Hkoua p ØkURok mifj xPNfr\
(x) o;a dhn`'ka lksikua jp;ke\
(?k) o;a dfLeu~ yksoQs izfo'kke\
(Ä) vkdk'ks dk% fpRok ekSfDrdgkja jp;ke\
(p) osQ"kka x`g"s kq g"k± tu;ke\
52 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

5- foykseinkfu ;kst;r&
mÂr% i`fFkO;ke~
xxus vlqUnj%
lqUnj% vour%
fpRok 'kksd%
nq%[kh fodh;Z
g"kZ% lq[kh
6- leqfprS% inS% fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek Hkkuq% Hkkuw ------------
f}rh;k ------------ ------------ xq:u~
r`rh;k ------------ i'kqH;ke~ ------------
prqFkhZ lk/os ------------ ------------
i×peh oVks% ------------ ------------
"k"Bh ------------ foHoks% ------------
lIreh f'k'kkS ------------ ------------
lEcks/u gs fo".kks! ------------ ------------

7- i;kZ;&inkfu ;kst;r&
xxus tyn%
foeys fu'kkdj%
pUnz% vkdk'ks
lw;Z% fueZys
vEcqn% fnokdj%
fo'ocU/qRoe~ 53

n'ke% ikB%

fo'ocU/qRoe~
dkjdfoHkfDr% miinfoHkfDr p
Ü
mRlos] O;lus] nqfHkZ{ks] jk"VªfoIyos] 'k=kqld
a Vs p ;% lgk;rka djksfr l% cUèkq%
HkofrA ;fn fo'os loZ=k ,rkn`'k% Hkko% Hkosr~ rnk fo'ocU/qRoa lEHkofrA
ijUrq v/quk fuf[kys lalkjs dygL; v'kkUrs% p okrkoj.ke~ vfLrA ;su
ekuok% ijLija u fo'olfUrA rs ijL; d"Va Lodh;a d"Va u x.k;fUrA vfi p
leFkkZ% ns'kk% vleFkkZu~ ns'kku~ izfr mis{kkHkkoa izn'kZ;fUr] rs"kke~ mifj Lodh;a
izHkqRoa p LFkki;fUrA rLekr~ dkj.kkr~ lalkjs loZ=k fo}s"kL;] 'k=kqrk;k%] ¯glk;k%
p Hkkouk n`';rsA ns'kkuka fodkl% vfi vo#¼% HkofrA
,rs"kka los"Z kka dkj.ka fo'ocU/qRoL; vHkko ,oA b;e~ egrh vko';drk
orZrs ;r~ ,d% ns'k% vijs.k ns'ksu lg fueZyus ân;su cUèkqrk;k% O;ogkja oqQ;kZrA~
;fn b;a Hkkouk fo'oL; tus"kq cyorh L;kr~ rnk fodflrkfodflrns'k;ks%
eè;s LoLFkk Li/kZ Hkfo";frA ;su losZ ns'kk% KkufoKku;ks% {ks=ks eS=khHkkou;k
lg;ksxus p le`f¼a izkIrqa leFkkZ% Hkfo";fUrA
vLekfHk% vo';a è;krO;a ;r~ fo'oL; los"Z kq izkf.k"kq lekua #f/ja izljfrA
lw;LZ ; pUnzL; p izdk'k% loZ=k leku:is.k izljfrA vusu Kk;rs ;r~ izÑfr%
vfi los"Z kq leRosu O;ogjfr] rLekr~ vLekfHk% loS%Z ijLija oSjHkkoe~ vigk;
fo'ocU/qRoa LFkkiuh;e~A
54 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

vr% fo'oL; dY;k.kk; ,rkn`'kh Hkkouk Hkosr&~


v;a fut% ijks osfr x.kuk y?kqprs lke~ A
mnkjpfjrkuka rq olq/o S oqQVqEcde~ AA

'kCnkFkkZ%

O;lus & ladV osQ le; ij


nqfHkZ{ks & vdky iM+us ij
jk"VªfoIyos & jk"Vª@ns'k ij vkink vkus ij
fo'ocU/qRoe~ & fo'o osQ izfr HkkbZ&pkjk
fo'olfUr & fo'okl djrs gSa
Lodh;e~ & viuk
mis{kkHkkoe~ & vuknj dh Hkkouk
fo}s"kL; & 'k=kqrk dk
vo#¼% & ckf/r
LIk/kZ & gksM]+ eqdkcyk
è;krO;e~ & è;ku nsuk pkfg,
#f/je~ & [kwu] jDr
izljfr & iSQyrk gS
Kk;rs & tkuk tkrk gS
leRosu & leku Hkkouk
vigk; & NksM+dj
fo'ocU/qRoe~ 55

ijks osfr & vFkok ijk;k


y?kqpsrlke~ & {kqnz ân; okyksa dk
olq/o
S (olq/k $ ,o) & /jrh gh
oqQVqEcde~ & ifjokj

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
nqfHkZ{ks jk"VªfoIyos fo'ocU/qRoe~
fo'olfUr mis{kkHkkoe~ fo}s"kL;
è;krO;e~ nq%[kHkko~Q izn'kZ;fUr

2- e×tw"kkr% lekukFkZdinkfu fpRok fy[kr&

ijL; nq%[ke~ vkRekue~ ckf/r% ifjokj% lEiÂe~ R;DRok lEiw.ksZ

Lodh;e~ ------------------
vo#¼% ------------------
oqQVqEcde~ ------------------
vU;L; ------------------
vigk; ------------------
le`¼e~ ------------------
d"Ve~ ------------------
fuf[kys ------------------
56 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

3- js[kkfÄïrkfu inkfu la'kksè; fy[kr&

(d) Nk=kk% ØhMk{ks=ks dUnqdkr~ ØhMfUrA


([k) rs ckfydk% e/qja xk;fUrA
(x) vga iqLrdky;su iqLrdkfu vku;kfeA
(?k) Roa ¯d uke\
(Ä) xq#a ue%A

4- e×tw"kkr% foykseinkfu fpRok fy[kr&


v/quk fe=krk;k% y?kqprs lke~ x`ghRok nq%f[ku% nkuok%

'k=kqrk;k% --------------------

iqjk --------------------

ekuok% --------------------

mnkjpfjrkuke~ --------------------

lqf[ku% --------------------

vigk; --------------------

5- v/ksfyf[krinkuka fyÄ]aõ foHkfDra opu×p fy[kr&


inkfu fyÄõe~ foHkfDr% opue~
cU/q% -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

ns'kku~ -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

?k`.kk;k% -------------------- -------------------- --------------------


fo'ocU/qRoe~ 57

oqQVqEcde~ -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

j{kk;ke~ -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

#f/je~ -------------------- -------------------- --------------------

6- dks"BosQ"kq nÙks"kq 'kCns"kq leqfprka foHkfDra ;kstf;Rok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&

(d) fo|ky;e~ mHk;r% o`{kk% lfUrA (fo|ky;)


------------------------ mHk;r% xksikfydk%A (Ñ".k)

([k) xzkea ifjr% xkspkj.kHkwfe%A (xzke)


------------------------ ifjr% HkDrk%A (efUnj)

(x) lw;kZ; ue%A (lw;)Z


------------------------ ue%A (xq#)

(?k) o`{kL; mifj [kxk%A (o`{k)


------------------------ mifj lSfud%A (v'o)

7- dks"Bdkr~ leqfpra ina fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) ------------------- ue%A (g¯j@gj;s)
([k) ------------------- ifjr% Ñf"k{ks=kkf.k lfUrA (xzkeL;@xzkee~)
(x) ------------------- ue%A (vEck;k%@vEck;S)
(?k) ------------------- mifj vfHkusrk vfHku;a djksfrA (e×pL;@e×pe~)
(Ä) ------------------- mHk;r% iq=kkS Lr%A (firje~@firq%)
58 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

è;krO;e~&
7 fØ;keknk; ;=k f}rh;kr`rh;k|k% foHkDr;% HkofUr] rk% ^dkjdfoHkDr;%*
bR;qP;UrsA ;Fkk&jke% xzkea xPNfrA ckydk% ;kusu ;kfUr bR;kn;%AA
7 inekfJR; iz;Dq rk foHkfDr% ^miinfoHkfDr%* bR;qP;rsA
;Fkk&xzkea ifjr% oue~A jkes.k lg y{e.k% xPNfrA v=k ^ifjr%* bfr ;ksxs
xzkeinkr~ f}rh;k rFkk p ^lg* bfr ;ksxs jkeinkr~ iz;Dq rk r`rh;k miinfoHkfDr%
vfLrA
leok;ks fg nqtZ;% 59

,dkn'k% ikB%

leok;ks fg nqtZ;%
iqjk ,dfLeu~ o`{ks ,dk pVdk izfrolfr LeA dkysu rL;k% lUrfr% tkrkA
,dnk df'pr~ izeÙk% xt% rL; o`{kL; v/% vkxR; rL; 'kk[kka 'kq.Msu v=kksV;r~A
pVdk;k% uhMa Hkqfo virr~A rsu v.Mkfu fo'kh.kkZfuA vFk lk pVdk O;yir~A
rL;k% foykia JqRok dk"BowQV% uke [kx% nq%[ksu rke~ vi`PNr~&^^Hknz]s fdeFk±
foyifl\** bfrA
pVdkonr~&^^nq"Vsuo S Qs u xtsu ee lUrfr% ukf'krkA rL; xtL; o/suo S ee
nq%[ke~ viljsrA~ ** rr% dk"BowQV% rka oh.kkjok&ukEU;k% ef{kdk;k% lehie~ vu;r~A
r;ks% okrk± JqRok ef{kdkonr~&^^eekfi fe=ka e.Mwd% es?kukn% vfLrA 'kh?kza reqiRs ;
;Fkksfpra dfj";ke%A** rnkuha rkS ef{kd;k lg xRok es?kuknL; iqj% lo± o`ÙkkUra
U;osn;rke~A
es?kukn% vonr~&
^^;Fkkga dFk;kfe rFkk
oqQ#re~A ef{kosQ! izFkea
Roa eè;kÉs rL; xtL;
d.ksZ 'kCna oqQ#] ;su l%
u;us fuehY; LFkkL;frA
rnk dk"BowQV% p×Pok
rL; u;us LiQksVf;";frA
,oa l% xt% vUèk%
Hkfo";frA r`"kkrZ% l%
tyk'k;a xfe";frA ekxsZ
60 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

egku~ xÙkZ% vfLrA rL; vfUrosQ vga LFkkL;kfe 'kCna p dfj";kfeA ee 'kCnsu
ra xr± tyk'k;a eRok l rfLeUuso xrsZ ifr";fr efj";fr pA** vFk rFkkÑrs l%
xt% eè;kÉs e.MwdL; 'kCne~ vuqlR` ; egr% xrZL; vUr% ifrr% e`r% pA rFkk
pksDre~&
^cgwukeI;lkjk.kka leok;ks fg nqt;
Z %*A

'kCnkFkkZ%

iqjk & igys] iqjkus le; esa


'kq.Msu & lwM¡ ls
uhMe~ & ?kksl
a ys dks
fo'kh.kkZfu & u"V gks x,
reqiRs ; (re~ $ misR;) & mlosQ ikl tkdj
eè;kÉs & nksigj esa
fuehY; & cUn djosQ
LFkkL;fr & #d tk,xk
LiQksVf;";fr & iQksM+ nsxk
r`"kkrZ% (r`"kk $ vkrZ%) & I;kl ls ihfM+r
xrZ% & xM~<k
rFkk Ñrs & oSlk djus ij
e.MwdL; & es<a d dk
vuql`R; & vuqlj.k djosQ
ifrr% & fxj x;k
e`r% & ej x;k
leok;ks fg nqtZ;% 61

pksDre~ (p $ mDre~) & vkSj dgk x;k gS


cgwukeI;lkjk.kke~ & vusd fucZyksa dk
(cgwuke~ $ vfi $ vlkjk.kke~)
leok;% & lewg] laxBu
nqtZ;% & dfBurk ls thrus ;ksX;

vH;kl%
1- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkkf.k ,dinsu fy[kr&
(d)o`{ks dk izfrolfr Le\
([k)o`{kL; v/% d% vkxr%\
(x) xt% osQu 'kk[kke~ v=kksV;r~\
(?k) dk"BowQV% pVdka dL;k% lehie~ vu;r~\
(Ä) ef{kdk;k% fe=ka d% vklhr~\

2- js[kkfÄrï kfu inkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d)dkysu pVdk;k% lUrfr% tkrkA
([k)pVdk;k% uhMa Hkqfo virr~A
(x) xtL; o/suoS ee nq%[ke~ viljsrA~
(?k) dk"BowQV% p×Pok xtL; u;us LiQksVf;";frA

3- e×tw"kkr% fØ;kinkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&

dfj";kfe xfe";fr vu;r~ ifr";fr LiQksVf;";fr =kksV;fr

(d)dk"BowQV% p×Pok xtL; u;us --------------------- A


62 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

([k)ekxsZ fLFkr% vgefi 'kCna --------------------- A


(x) r`"kkrZ% xt% tyk'k;a --------------------- A
(?k) xt% xrsZ --------------------- A
(Ä) dk"BowQV% rka ef{kdk;k% lehia --------------------- A
(p) xt% 'kq.Msu o`{k'kk[kk% --------------------- A

4- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k ,dokD;su fy[kr&


(d)pVdk;k% foykia JqRok dk"BowQV% rka fde~ vi`PNr~\
([k)pVdk;k% dk"BowQVL; p okrk± JqRok ef{kdk fde~ vonr~\
(x) es?kukn% ef{kdka fde~ vonr~\
(?k) pVdk dk"BowQVa fde~ vonr~\

5- mnkgj.keuqlR` ; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk&izFkeiq#"k% ifB";fr ifB";r% ifB";fUr
izFkeiq#"k% ----------------- ifr";r% -----------------

izFkeiq#"k% ----------------- ----------------- efj";fUr

([k) iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~


;Fkk&eè;eiq#"k% xfe";fl xfe";Fk% xfe";Fk
eè;eiq#"k% ----------------- /kfo";Fk% -----------------

eè;eiq#"k% ----------------- ----------------- ØhfM";Fk


leok;ks fg nqtZ;% 63

(x) iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~


;Fkk& mÙkeiq#"k% ysf[k";kfe ysf[k";ko% ysf[k";ke%
mÙkeiq#"k% ----------------- gfl";ko% -----------------

mÙkeiq#"k% ----------------- ----------------- nz{;ke%

6- mnkgj.kkuqlkja ^Le* 'kCna ;kstf;Rok HkwrdkfydfØ;ka jp;r&


;Fkk&volr~ & olfr LeA
viBr~ & --------------------A
v=kksV;r~ & --------------------A
virr~ & --------------------A
vi`PNr~ & --------------------A
vonr~ & --------------------A
vu;r~ & --------------------A

7- dks"Bdkr~ mfpra ina fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) ---------------------- ckfydk e/qja xk;frA (,de~] ,dk] ,d%)
([k) ---------------------- Ñ"kdk% Ñf"kdekZf.k oqQoZfUrA (pRokj%] prÏ%] pRokfj)
(x) ---------------------- i=kkf.k lqUnjkf.k lfUrA (rs] rk%] rkfu)
(?k) /suo% nqX/a ---------------------- A (nnkfr] nnfr] nnfUr)
(Ä) o;a laLÑre~ ---------------------- A (viBe~] viBu~] viBke)
64 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

}kn'k% ikB%

dYiyrso fo|k
u pkSjgk;± u p jktgk;±
u Hkzkr`HkkT;a u p Hkkjdkfj A
O;;s Ñrs o/Zr ,o fuR;a
fo|k/ua loZ/uiz/kue~ AA 1 AA
fo|k uke ujL; :ief/oaQ izPNÂxqIra /ue~
fo|k Hkksxdjh ;'k% lq[kdjh fo|k xq:.kka xq#% A
fo|k cU/qtuks fons'kxeus fo|k ijk nsork
fo|k jktlq iwT;rs u fg /ua fo|k&foghu% i'kq% AA 2 AA
osQ;wjk% u foHkw"k;fUr iq#"ka gkjk u pUæksTToyk
u Lukua u foysiua u oqQlqea ukyÄ` ïrk ew/t Z k% A
ok.;sdk leyÄïjksfr iq#"ka ;k laLÑrk /k;Zrs
{kh;Urss¿f[kyHkw"k.kkfu lrra okXHkw"k.ka Hkw"k.ke~ AA 3 AA
ekrso j{kfr firso fgrs fu;qÄ~Drs
dkUrso pkfHkje;R;iuh;[ksne~ A
y{eha ruksfr foruksfr p fn{kq dhfrZe~
¯d ¯d u lk/;fr dYiyrso fo|k AA 4 AA
dYiyrso fo|k 65

'kCnkFkkZ%

pkSjgk;Ze~ & pksjksa osQ }kjk pqjkus ;ksX;


jktgk;Ze~ & jktk osQ }kjk Nhuus ;ksX;
Hkzkr`HkkT;e~ & Hkkb;ksa osQ }kjk ck¡Vus ;ksX;
Hkkjdkfj & Hkkj c<+kus okyh
izPNÂxqIre~ & futh (vkReh;) xqIr
Hkksxdjh & Hkksx dk lk/u miyC/ djkus okyh
ijk & lcls cM+h
jktlq & jktkvksa esa
osQ;wjk% & cktwcUn
pUæksTToyk (pUæ $ mTToyk) & pUæek osQ leku pednkj
foysiue~ & 'kjhj ij ysi djus ;ksX; lqxfU/r&æO;
(pUnu] osQlj vkfn)
ukyÄ~Ñrk (u $ vyÄ~Ñrk) & ugha ltk;k gqvk
ew/Ztk% & os.kh] pksVh
ok.;sdk (ok.kh $ ,dk) & ,dek=k ok.kh
leyÄïjksfr & vPNh rjg lq'kksfHkr djrh gS
laLÑrk & laLdkj;qDr (ifj"Ñr)
/k;Zrs & /kj.k dh tkrh gS
{kh;Urss¿f[kyHkw"k.kkfu & lEiw.kZ vkHkw"k.k u"V gks tkrs gSa
({kh;Urs $ vf[kyHkw"k.kkfu)
fgrs & dY;k.k esa
fu;qÄ~Drs & yxkrk@yxkrh gS
dkUrso (dkUrk $ bo) & iRuh osQ leku
66 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

pkfHkje;R;iuh;[ksne~ & d"V dks nwjdj vkufUnr djrh gS


(p $ vfHkje;fr $ viuh;[ksne~)
ruksfr & iSQykrh gS (o`f¼ djrh gS)
fn{kq & fn'kkvksa esa
lk/;fr & liQy cukrh gS] fl¼ djrh gS
dYiyrso (dYiyrk $ bo) & dYiyrk dh rjg

vH;kl%
1- mi;qDrdFkukuka le{ke~ ^vke~*] vuqi;qDrdFkukuka le{ka ^u* bfr fy[kr&
(d) fo|k jktlq iwT;rsA
([k) okXHkw"k.ka Hkw"k.ka uA
(x) fo|k/ua loZ/us"kq iz/kue~A
(?k) fons'kxeus fo|k cU/qtu% u HkofrA
(Ä) fo|k loZ=k dhfr± ruksfrA

2- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka fyÄaõ] foHkfDra opu×p fy[kr&


inkfu fyÄeõ ~ foHkfDr% opue~
ujL; --------------- --------------- ---------------

xq:.kke~ --------------- --------------- ---------------

osQ;wjk% --------------- --------------- ---------------

dhfrZe~ --------------- --------------- ---------------

Hkw"k.kkfu --------------- --------------- ---------------


dYiyrso fo|k 67

3- 'yksdka'kku~ ;kst;r&
d [k
fo|k jktlq iwT;rs u fg /ue~ gkjk u pUæksTToyk%
osQ;wjk% u foHkw"k;fUr iq#"ke~ u Hkzkr`HkkT;a u p Hkkjdkfj
u pkSjgk;± u p jktgk;Ze~ ;k laLÑrk /k;Zrs
ekrso j{kfr firso fgrs fu;qÄD~ rs fo|k&foghu% i'kq%
ok.;sdk leyÄïjksfr iq#"ke~ dkUrso pkfHkje;R;iuh;[ksne~

4- ,dinsu iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) d% i'kq%\
([k) dk Hkksxdjh\
(x) osQ iq#"ka u foHkw"k;fUr\
(?k) dk ,dk iq#"ka leyÄïjksfr\
(Ä) dkfu {kh;Urs\

5- js[kkfÄïrinkfu vf/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) fo|kfoghu% uj% i'kq% vfLrA
([k) fo|k jktlq iwT;rsA
(x) pUæksTToyk% gkjk% iq#"ka u vyÄoZïq fUrA
(?k) firk fgrs fu;qÄD~ rsA
(Ä) fo|k/ua loZi/
z kua /uefLrA
(p) fo|k fn{kq dhfr± ruksfrA
68 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

6- iw.kZokD;su iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) xq:.kka xq#% dk vfLr\
([k) dhn`'kh ok.kh iq#"ka leyÄïjksfr\
(x) O;;s Ñrs ¯d o/Zr\s
(?k) fo|k oqQ=k dhfr± foruksfr\
(Ä) ekrk firk bo fo|k ¯d ¯d djksfr\

7- e×tw"kkr% iqf¡ YyÄõ&L=khfyÄõ&uiql


a dfyÄõinkfu fpRok fy[kr&

fo|k /ue~ laLÑrk lrre~ oqQlqee~ ew/Ztk% i'kq% xq#% dkUrk


;Fkk& iq¡fYyÄõe~ L=khfyÄõe~ uiqaldfyÄõe~
gkjk% vyÄ` ïrk Hkw"k.ke~
------------------ ------------------ ------------------
------------------ ------------------ ------------------
------------------ ------------------ ------------------
ve`ra laLÑre~ 69

=k;ksn'k% ikB%

ve`ra laLÑre~
bdkjkUrL=khfyÄõ%
fo'oL; lokZlq Hkk"kklq laLÑrHkk"kk izkphurek Hkk"kkfLrA Hkk"ks;a càhuka Hkk"kk.kka
tuuh erkA vL;keso Hkk"kk;ka KkufoKku;ks% fuf/% lqjf{krks¿fLrA ;FkksDre~&
^HkkjrL; izfr"Bs }s laLÑra laLÑfrLrFkk*A
vL;k% Hkk"kk;k% oSKkfudrka fopk;Z ,o lÄõ.kdfo'ks"kKk% dFk;fUr ;r~
laLÑreso lÄõ.kdL; Ñrs loksÙZ kek Hkk"kk fo|rsA vL;k% okÄ~e;a osn%S ] iqjk.kS%]
uhfr'kkL=kS% fpfdRlk'kkL=kkfnfHk'p le`¼efLrA dkfynklln`'kkuka fo'odohuka
dkO;lkSUn;Ze~ vuqiee~A pk.kD;jfpre~ vFkZ'kkL=ka txfr izfl¼efLrA xf.kr'kkL=ks
'kwU;L; izfriknua loZiFz kea HkkLdjkpk;Z% fl¼kUrf'kjkse.kkS vdjksrA~ fpfdRlk'kkL=ks
pjdlqJrq ;ks% ;ksxnkua foÜoizfl¼e~A laLÑrs ;kfu vU;kfu 'kkL=kkf.k fo|Urs
rs"kq [kxksyfoKkua] okLrq'kkL=ka] jlk;u'kkL=ka] T;ksfr"k'kkL=ka] foeku'kkL=ka p
mYys[kuh;e~A
laLÑrL; bna oSf'k"V~;a orZrs ;r~ vL;k% okÄ~e;s
fo|ekuk% lwDr;% vH;qn;k; izjs ;fUrA ofj"Bku~ dfu"Bku~
p izfr vLekfHk% dFka O;ogrZO;e~ bR;L; O;kogkfjoaQ Kkua
laLÑreso nnkfrA HkkjrloZdkjL; fofHkÂs"kq foHkkxs"kq laLÑrL;
lwDr;% è;s;okD;:is.k LohÑrk% lfUrA HkkjrloZdkjL;
jktfpÉs iz;Dq rka lwfDra ^lR;eso t;rs* losZ tkufUrA ,oeso
jkf"Vª;'kSf{kdkuqlUèkkuizf'k{k.kifj"kn% è;s;okD;a ^fo|;k¿e`re'uqr*s
orZrAs
70 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

osQpu dFk;fUr ;r~ laLÑrHkk"kk;ka osQoya /kfeZoQa lkfgR;e~ orZr&s ,"kk


èkkj.kk lehphuk ukfLrA laLÑrxzUFks"kq ekuothouk; fofo/k% fo"k;k% lekfo"Vk%
lfUrA egkiq#"kk.kka efr%] mÙketukuka /`fr% lkekU;tukuka thoui¼fr% p of.kZrk%
lfUrA vr% vLekfHk% laLÑre~ vo';eso iBuh;a ;su euq";L; lektL; p
ifj"dkj% HkosrA~ mDr×p&
ve`ra laLÑra fe=k !
ljla ljya op% A
,drkewyoaQ jk"Vªs
KkufoKkuiks"kde~ AA

'kCnkFkkZ%

Hkk"ks;e~ (Hkk"kk $ b;e~) & ;g Hkk"kk


erk & ekuh xbZ gS
fuf/% & [ktkuk
fopk;Z & fopkj dj
lÄõ.kdfo'ks"kKk% & dEI;wVj osQ fo'ks"kK
okÄ~e;e~ & lkfgR;
vuqiee~ & vrqyuh;
txfr & lalkj esa
[kxksyfoKkue~ & vUrfj{kfoKku
jlk;u'kkL=ke~ & osQfeLVªh
ofj"Bku~ & vius ls cM+ksa dks
ve`ra laLÑre~ 71

dfu"Bku~ & vius ls NksVksa dks


dFka O;ogrZO;e~ & fdl izdkj O;ogkj djuk pkfg,
è;s;okD;:is.k & è;ku j[kus ;ksX; (egÙoiw.kZ) okD;
osQ :i esa
èk`fr% & /S;Z
,drkewyde~ & ,drk dk ewy

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
càhuke~ lÄõ.kdL;
fpfdRlk'kkL=ke~ oSf'k"V~;e~
Hkwxksy'kkL=ke~ okÄ~e;s
fo|ekuk% vFkZ'kkL=ke~

2- iz'ukuke~ ,dinsu mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) dk Hkk"kk izkphurek \
([k) Hkkjrh;laLÑrs% j{k.ka osQu lEHkofr \
(x) pk.kD;su jfpra 'kkL=ka fde~ \
(?k) dL;k% Hkk"kk;k% dkO;lkSUn;Ze~ vuqiee~\
(Ä) 'kwU;L; izfriknua d% vdjksr\~

3- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k ,dokD;su fy[kr&


(d) HkkjrloZdkjL; jktfpÉs ¯d fyf[kre~ vfLr \
([k) laLÑrL; okÄ~e;a oSQ% le`¼efLr \
72 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(x) laLÑrL; lwDr;% osQu :is.k LohÑrk% lfUr\


(?k) vLekfHk% laLÑra fdeFk± iBuh;e~ \

4- bdkjkUr&L=khfyÄ'õ kCn:ie~ vf/ÑR; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


xfr (izFkek) xfr% xrh xr;%

efr (izFkek) -------- -------- er;%

cqf¼ (f}rh;k) cqf¼e~ cq¼h cq¼h%

izhfr (f}rh;k) -------- izhrh --------

uhfr (r`rh;k) uhR;k uhfrH;ke~ uhfrfHk%

'kkfUr (r`rh;k) -------- -------- 'kkfUrfHk%

efr (prqFkhZ) eR;S@er;s efrH;ke~ efrH;%

izÑfr (prqFkhZ) --------@-------- izÑfrH;ke~ --------

dhfrZ (i×peh) dhR;kZ%@dhrs%Z dhfrZH;ke~ dhfrZH;%

xhfr (i×peh) --------@-------- xhfrH;ke~ --------

lwfDr ("k"Bh) lwDrs%@lwDR;k% lwDR;ks% lwDrhuke~

Ñfr ("k"Bh) --------@-------- -------- Ñrhuke~

/`fr (lIreh) /`rkS@/`R;ke~ /`R;ks% /`fr"kq

Hkhfr (lIreh) HkhrkS@------- -------- --------

efr (lEcks/u) gs ers! gs erh! gs er;%!


ve`ra laLÑre~ 73

5- js[kkfÄïrkfu inkfu vf/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) laLÑrs KkufoKku;ks% fuf/% lqjf{krks¿fLrA
([k) laLÑreso lÄõ.kdL; Ñrs loksÙZ kek Hkk"kkA
(x) 'kY;fØ;k;k% o.kZua laLÑrlkfgR;s vfLrA
(?k) ofj"Bku~ izfr vLekfHk% fiz;a O;ogÙkZO;e~A

6- mnkgj.kkuqlkja inkuka foHkfDra opu×p fy[kr&


inkfu foHkfDr% opue~
;Fkk&laLÑrs% "k"Bh ,dopue~
xfr% -------------- --------------
uhfre~ -------------- --------------
lwDr;% -------------- --------------
'kkUR;k -------------- --------------
izhR;S -------------- --------------
efr"kq -------------- --------------

7- ;Fkk;ksX;a la;ksT; fy[kr&


d [k
nwjn'kZuL; vkn'kZokD;e~ uHk% Li`'ka nhIre~A
pk.kD;su ;ksx{ksea ogkE;ge~A
thouchekfuxeL; vkn'kZokD;e~ HkkLdjkpk;Z%A
'kwU;L; vkfo"drkZ lR;a f'koa lqUnje~A
ok;qlus k;k% vkn'kZokD;e~ vFkZ'kkL=ka jfpre~A
74 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

è;krO;e~&
7 vfLeu~ ikBs laLÑfr&Le`fr&uhfr&lwfDr&ifjfLFkfr&i¼fr&n`f"V&èk`fr&'kkfUr&
izhfr&bR;kn;% 'kCnk% iz;Dq rk% lfUrA ,rs 'kCnk% xfr&efr&'kCnor~ L=khfyX
iz;Dq rk% HkofUrA
7 ,rs"kka 'kCnkuka prqFkhZ&i×peh&"k"Bh&lIreh&foHkfDrhukesdopus }s }s :is
Hkor%A ;Fkk&xR;S&xr;s] xR;k%&xrs%] xR;ke~&xrkSA

7 xf.kr'kkL=ke~ & Mathematics; Comprises Arithmetic, Algebra


and Geometry
fpfdRlk'kkL=ke~ & Medical Science (Administering remedies or
medicine)
okLrq'kkL=ke~ & Architecture

jlk;u'kkL=ke~ & Chemistry

T;ksfr"k'kkL=ke~ & Astronomy

foeku'kkL=ke~ & Aeronautics


vukfjdk;k% ftKklk 75

prqnZ'k% ikB%

vukfjdk;k% ftKklk
½dkjkUriqf¡ YyÄõ%
ckfydk;k% vukfjdk;k% eufl loZnk egrh ftKklk HkofrA vr% lk cgwu~
iz'uku~ i`PNfrA rL;k% iz'uS% los"Z kka cqf¼% pØor~ HkzefrA
izkr% mRFkk; lk vUoHkor~ ;r~ rL;k% eu% izlÂa ukfLrA euksfouksnk; lk
Hkzferqa x`gkr~ cfg%
vxPNr~ fpja p
vHkzer~A Hkze.kdkys
lk vi';r~ ;r~ ekxkZ%
lqlfTtrk% lfUrA ¯d
dkj.ke~ v=k bfr
fpUr;Urh lk vLejr~
;r~ v| rq eU=kh
vkxfe";frA l%
fdeFkZe~ vkxfe";fr
bfr fo"k;s rL;k%
ftKklk% izkjCèkk%A rk% ftKklk% 'kef;rqe~ lk x`ga izR;kxPNr~ firja p
vi`PNr~&^^fir%! eU=kh fdeFkZe~ vkxPNfr\** firk vonr~&^^iqf=k! u|k% mifj
;% uohu% lsr%q fufeZr% rL; mn~?kkVukFk± eU=kh vkxPNfrA** vukfjdk iqu%
vi`PNr~&^^fir%! ¯d eU=kh lsrks% fuekZ.ke~ vdjksr\~ ** firk vdFk;r~&^^u fg
76 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

iqf=k] lsrks% fuekZ.ka deZdjk% voqQoZuA~ ** iqu% vukfjdk;k% iz'u% vklhr~&^^;fn


deZdjk% lsrks% fuekZ.ke~ voqQoZu~] rnk eU=kh fdeFkZe~ vkxPNfr\** firk
vonr~&^^;rksfg l% vLekoaQ ns'kL; eU=khA** ^^fir%] lsrks% fuekZ.kk; izLrjkf.k
oqQr% vk;kfUr\ ¯d rkfu eU=kh nnkfr\**
fojDrHkkosu firk mnrjr~&^^vukfjosQ! izLrjkf.k tuk% ioZrHs ;% vku;fUrA**
^^fir%! rfgZ fde~\ ,rnFk± eU=kh /ua nnkfr\ rL; ik'osZ /ukfu oqQr% vkxPNfUr\**
,rku~ iz'uku~ JqRok firk¿onr~&^^vjs! iztk% loZdkjk; /ua iz;PNfUrA** fofLerk
vukfjdk iquji`PNr~&^^fir%! ;fn deZdjk% ioZrHs ;% izLrjkf.k vkuh; lsraq fuekZfUr]
iztk% loZdkjk; /ua nnfr] rfgZ eU=kh lsrks% mn~?kkVukFk± fdeFkZe~ vkxPNfr\**
cgwu~ iz'uku~ mÙkju~ firk vonr~&^^izFkeeso vge~ vdFk;e~ ;r~ l% ,o
ns'kL; eU=kh vfLrA cgqi'z uku~ djksf"kA py] lqlfTtrk HkwRok fo|ky;a xPNA**
bnkuhe~ vfi vukfjdk;k% eufl cgo% iz'uk% lfUrA

'kCnkFkkZ%

egrh & cM+h


vUoHkor~ & vuqHko fd;k
euksfouksnk; & eu izlUu djus osQ fy,
fpUr;Urh & lksprh gqbZ
vLejr~ & ;kn fd;k
'kef;rqe~ & 'kkUr djus osQ fy,
lsrq% & iqy
mnrjr~ & mÙkj fn;k
izLrjkf.k & iRFkj
loZdkjk; & ljdkj osQ fy,
vukfjdk;k% ftKklk 77

fuekZfUr & fuekZ.k djrs gSa@cukrs gSa


nnfr & nsrs gSa
mÙkju~ & mÙkj nsrk gqvk

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
eU=kh fuekZ.ke~ Hkzk=kk
deZdjk% ftKklk fi=ks
HkzkrÏ.kke~ mn~?kkVukFkZe~ fir`H;ke~
usrfj vi`PNr~ fpUr;Urh

2- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuka mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) dL;k% egrh ftKklk orZr\s
([k) eU=kh fdeFkZe~ vkxPNfr\
(x) lsrks% fuekZ.ka osQ voqQoZu\~
(?k) lsrks% fuekZ.kk; deZdjk% izLrjkf.k oqQr% vku;fUrA
(Ä) osQ loZdkjk; /ua iz;PNfUr\

3- js[kkfÄïrinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) vukfjdk;k% iz'uS% los"Z kka cqf¼% pØor~ HkzefrA
([k) eU=kh lsrks% mn~?kkVukFkZe~ vkxPNfrA
(x) deZdjk% lsrks% fuekZ.ke~ oqQoZfUrA
(?k) ioZrHs ;% izLrjkf.k vkuh; lsrks% fuekZ.ka HkofrA
(Ä) tuk% loZdkjk; ns'kL; fodklkFk± /ua nnfrA
78 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

4- mnkgj.kkuqlkja :ikf.k fy[kr&


foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek firk firjkS firj% (fir`)
---------- HkzkrjkS ---------- (Hkzkr`)

f}rh;k nkrkje~ nkrkjkS nkrÏu~ (nkr`)


---------- /krkjkS ---------- (/kr`)

r`rh;k /k=kk --------- /kr`fHk% (/kr`)


---------- drZ̀H;ke~ ---------- (drZ̀)

prqFkhZ us=ks usr`H;ke~ usr`H;% (usr`)


fo/k=ks ---------- ---------- (fo/kr`)

i×peh drq%Z drZ̀H;ke~ drZ̀H;% (drZ̀)


---------- ---------- grZH` ;% (gr`)Z
"k"Bh firq% fi=kks% firÏ.kke~ (fir`)
---------- Hkzk=kks% ---------- (Hkzkr`)

lIreh lforfj lfo=kks% lfor`"kq (lfor`)


vfHkusrfj ---------- ---------- (vfHkusr)`

lEcks/ue~ gs tkekr%! gs tkekrjkS! gs tkekrj% (tkekr`)


gs uIr%! ---------- ---------- (uIr`)

5- dks"BosQH;% leqfprinkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) vga izkr% ------------------ lg Hkze.kk; xPNkfeA (fi=kk@firq%)
([k) ckyk vki.kkr~ ------------------ iQykfu vku;frA (Hkzkrq%@Hkzk=ks)
vukfjdk;k% ftKklk 79

(x) deZdjk% lsrks% fuekZ.kL; ------------------ HkofUrA (drkZje~@dÙkkZj%)


(?k) ee ------------------ rq ,rs"kka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k vnnkr~A (firk@firj%)
(Ä) ro ------------------ oqQ=k thfodksiktZua oqQ#r%\ (Hkzkrj%@HkzkrjkS)

6- fp=ka n`"V~ok e×tw"kkr% inkfu p iz;Tq ; okD;kfu jp;r&

/kj;fUr ckyk% ol;kue~ N=ke~ rs vkjksgfUr o"kkZ;ke~


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu vk/`R; okD;kfu jp;r&


iz'uk% ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------
uohu% ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------
izkr% ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------
vkxPNfr ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------
izlUu% ¾ ---------------------------------------------------------
80 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

i×pn'k% ikB%

ykyuxhre~
mfnrs lw;sZ /j.kh foglfr A
i{kh owQtfr deya fodlfr AA1AA
unfr efUnjs mPpS<ZDdk A
lfjr% lfyys lsyfr ukSdk AA2AA
iq"is iq"is ukukjXk% A
rs"kq M;Urs fp=kirXk% AA3AA
o`{ks o`{ks uwrui=ke~ A
fofo/So.Z kSfZ oZHkkfr fp=ke~ AA4AA
/suq% izkr;ZPNfr nqX/e~ A
'kq¼a LoPNa e/qja fLuX/e~ AA5AA
xgus fofius O;k?kzks xtZfr A
mPpSLr=k p flag% unZfr AA6AA
gfj.kks¿;a [kknfr uo?kkle~ A
loZ=k p i';fr lfoykle~ AA7AA
m"Vª% rqX% eUna xPNfr A
i`"Bs izpjq a Hkkja fuogfr AA8AA
?kksVdjkt% f{kiza /kofr A
/koule;s fdefi u [kknfr AA9AA
i';r HkYyqdfeea djkye~ A
u`R;fr FkFkFkS oqQ# djrkye~ AA10AA
&lEinkuUnfeJ%
ykyuxhre~ 81

'kCnkFkkZ%

mfnrs & mxus ij] fudyus ij


unfr & vkokt@èofu djrk gS
mPpS% & Å¡ph vkokt es]a tksj ls
<Ddk & uxkM+k
lsyfr & Mxexkrh gS] fgyrh Mqyrh gS
M;Urs & mM+rs gSa
fp=kirXk% & frrfy;k¡
o.kSZ% & jaxks ls
foHkkfr & lq'kksfHkr gksrk gS
fLuX/e~ & eqyk;e] fpduk
xgus & ?kus
fofius & taxy esa
unZfr & ngkM+rk gS
rqX% & Å¡pk
fuogfr & <ksrk gS
f{kize~ & tYnh ls] rsTkh ls
HkYyqd% (HkYywd%) & Hkkyw
djkye~ & Hk;kud
djrkye~ & rkyh
82 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

vH;kl%
1- xhre~ lLoja xk;rA

2- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) dk foglfr\
([k) fde~ fodlfr\
(x) O;k?kz% oqQ=k xtZfr\
(?k) gfj.k% fda [kknfr\
(Ä) eUna d% xPNfr\

3- js[kkfÄïrinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) lfyys ukSdk lsyfrA
([k) iq"is"kq fp=kirXk% M;UrsA
(x) m"Vª% i`"Bs Hkkja ogfrA
(?k) /koule;s v'o% fdefi u [kknfrA
(Ä) mfnrs lw;Zs /j.kh foglfrA

4- e×tw"kkr% lekukFkZdinkfu fpRok fy[kr&

i`fFkoh nsoky;s tys ous e`x% Hk;Äïje~

/j.kh ----------------------- fofius -----------------------

djkye~ ----------------------- gfj.k% -----------------------

lfyys ----------------------- efUnjs -----------------------


ykyuxhre~ 83

5- foykseinkfu esy;r&
eUne~ uwrue~

uhpS% fLuX/e~

dBksj% izpqje~

iqjkrue~ mPpS%

vi;kZIre~ f{kize~

6- mfprdFkukuka le{ke~ ^vke~* vuqfprdFkukuka le{ka ^u* bfr fy[kr&


(d) /koule;s v'o% [kknfrA
([k) m"Vª% i`"Bs Hkkja u ogfrA
(x) flag% uhpS% Øks'kfrA
(?k) iq"is"kq fp=kirÄõk% M;UrsA
(Ä) ous O;k?kz% xtZfrA
(p) gfj.k% uo?kkle~ u [kknfrA

7- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu funs'Z kkuqlkja ifjorZ;r&


;Fkk& fp=kirÄõ% (izFkek&cgqopus) & fp=kirÄõk%
HkYyqd% (r`rh;k&,dopus) & -------------------
m"Vª% (i×peh&f}opus) & -------------------
gfj.k% (lIreh&cgqopus) & -------------------
O;k?kz% (f}rh;k&,dopus) & -------------------
?kksVdjkt% (lEcks/u&,dopus) & -------------------
84 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

8- fp=ka n`"V~ok e×tw"kkr% inkfu p iz;Tq ; okD;kfu jp;r&

[kxk% fodlfUr deykfu mnsfr ØhMfUr


M;Urs lw;Z% fp=kirÄõk% owQtfUr ckyk%

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~ 85

ifjf'k"Ve~
o.kZfopkj%
1- o.kkZ%
laLÑrs bnkuha 48 o.kkZuka iz;ksx% HkofrA rs eq[;r;k Hkkx=k;s.k foHkDrk% lfUr]
1&Lojk% 2&O;×tukfu 3&v;ksxokgk'psfr] ;Fkk&
Lojk%&13

gªLoLojk%&5 nh?kZLojk%&8

O;×tukfu&33

oxhZ;O;×tukfu&25 voxhZ;O;×tukfu&8
o~Q] [k~] x~] ?k~] Ä~]
p~] N~] t~] >~] ×k~] vUrLFkk%&4 Å"ek.k%&4
V~] B~] M~] <+]~ .k~]
r~] Fk~] n~] /~] u~]
i~] i~Q~ ] c~] Hk~] e~]
v;ksxokgkS&2

vuqLokj% folxZ%
86 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

2- mPpkj.kLFkkukfu
o.kkZfHkO;fDrizns'k% LFkkua dF;rsA 'kCniz;ksxle;s dk;kfXuuk izsfjr% ok;q%
d.BkfnLFkkus"kq l×pju~ o.kkZu~ vfHkO;ufDrA ;FkksDra ikf.kuh;f'k{kk;ke~&
vkRek cqnè~ ;k lesR;FkkZu~ euks ;qÄD~ rs foo{k;k A
eu% dk;kfXuekgfUr l izjs ;fr ek#re~ AA
ek#rLrwjfl pju~ eUnza tu;fr Loje~ AA
v"VkS LFkkukfu o.kkZukeqj% d.B% f'kjLrFkk A
ftàkewya p nUrk'p ukfldkS"BkS p rkyq p AA
,oe~ o.kkZuke~ mPpkj.kLFkkukfu v"VkS lfUrA (i) mj% (ii) d.B% (iii) f'kj%
(iv) ftàkewye~ (v) nUrk% (vi) ukfldk (vii) vks"BkS (viii) rkyq%A r|Fkk&
o.kkZ% mRifÙkLFkkukfu o.kkZuka laKk
v] vk] d~] [k~] x~] ?k~] Ä~] g~] folxZ% d.B% d.B~;%
b] bZ] p~] N~] t~] >~] ×k~] ;~] 'k~ rkyq% rkyO;%
½] ½`] V~] B~] M~] <~] .k~] j~] "k~ ew/kZ ew/ZU;%
y`] r~] Fk~] n~] /~] u~] y~] l~ nUrk% nUR;%

m] Å] i~] iQ~] c~] Hk~] e~ vks"BkS vks"B~;%

Ä~] ×k~] .k~] u~] e~ ukfldk $ d.Bknhfu ukflD;%


,] ,s d.Brkyw d.BrkyO;%

vks] vkS d.Bks"Be~ d.Bks"B~;%


o nUrks"Be~ nUR;ks"B~;%
vuqLokj% ukfldk ukflD;%
ifjf'k"Ve~ 87

dkjde~
(lkekU;ifjp;%)
lkekU;r% "kV~dkjdkf.k HkofUrA ;Fkk&
dÙkkZ deZ p dj.ka lEiznkua rFkSo p A
viknkukf/dj.ke~ bR;kgq% dkjdkf.k "kV~ AA
(i) dÙk`d
Z kjde~ (ii) deZdkjde~ (iii) dj.kdkjde~
(iv) lEiznkudkjde~ (v) viknkudkjde~ (vi) vf/dj.kdkjde~
dÙkZd
` kjde~ & LorU=k% dÙkkZA fØ;k;ka ;% LorU=k% iz/kuks ok Hkofr l% dÙkkZA
;Fkk&jke% xzkea xPNfrA v=k xeufØ;k;ka jke% LorU=k% orZr]s vr% l% dÙk`d Z kjde~
vfLrA okD;s eq[;s drZfj izFkek] xkS.ks drZfj p r`rh;k foHkfDr% HkofrA ;Fkk&
(d) jke% xzkea xPNfrA
([k) jkes.k xzke% xE;rsA
deZdkjde~ & dÙkZjq hfIlrrea deZA dÙkkZ LofØ;;k ;e~ vFkZe~ vfr'k;su izkIrqe~
bPNfr rr~ deZ HkofrA ;Fkk&ckyd% fo|ky;a xPNfrA v=k okD;s ckyd% dÙkkZ
Hkofr] xeufØ;;k fo|ky;% rL; bZfIlrrea orZr]s vr% fo|ky; bfr deZdkjoaQ
orZr]s deZf.k f}rh;k foHkfDr%] (deZokP;s) eq[;s p izFkek foHkfDr% Hkofr] ;Fkk&
(d) ckyd% fo|ky;a xPNfrA
([k) ckyosQu fo|ky;% xE;rsA
dj.kdkjde~ & lk/drea dj.ke~A fØ;kfl¼kS ;r~ vfr'k;su lgk;oaQ Hkofr] rr~
dj.ka Hkofr] ;Fkk&';ke% dyesu fy[kfrA v=k dÙkq%Z ';keL; ys[ku fØ;k;ka dye%
vfr'k;su lgk;d% vr% dye bfr dj.kdkjoaQ HkofrA dj.ks r`rh;k&foHkfDr% HkofrA
lEiznkudkjde~ & deZ.kk ;efHkizfS r l lEiznkue~A dÙkkZ nkufØ;;k ;e~ lEc¼qe~
bPNfr] rr~ lEiznkua HkofrA ;Fkk&nsonÙk% fHk{kqdk; fHk{kka nnkfrA v=k dÙkkZ nsonÙk%
88 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

nkufØ;;k fHk{kqde~ vfHkizfS r ¾ lEcU¼qe~ bPNfrA vr% fHk{kqdina lEiznkudkjde~A


lEiznkus prqFkhZ&foHkfDr% HkofrA
viknkudkjde~~ & /zoq eik;s¿iknkue~A vik;s ¾ foHkkxs] ;r~ /zoq e~ ¾ vofèkHkwre~
rr~ viknkua Hkofr] ;Fkk& o`{kkr~ iQya irfrA v=k iQyL; foHkkx% o`{kkr~ Hkofr]
vr% o`{k% /zoq % bfr viknkudkjde~A viknkus i×peh&foHkfDr% HkofrA
vf/dj.kdkjde~ & vkèkkjks¿f/dj.ke~A dr`d Z eZfu"BfØ;k;k% vk/kjHkwra ;r~ orZr]s
rr~ vf/dj.ka Hkofr] ;Fkk& fo|ky;s Nk=kk% iBfUrA v=k dÙkq%Z iBufØ;k;k% vk/kj%
fo|ky; vfèkdj.kdkjde~A vf/dj.ks lIreh&foHkfDr% HkofrA
miinfoHkfDr%
ine~ vkfJR; ;k foHkfDr% lk miinfoHkfDr%A ;Fkk&
mHk;r% ¾ nksuksa rjiQ (f}rh;k) unhe~ mHk;r% o`{kk% lfUrA
ifjr% ¾ pkjksa rjiQ (f}rh;k) fo|ky;a ifjr% izkphje~ vfLrA
loZr% ¾ lHkh rjiQ (f}rh;k) xzkea loZr% Ñf"k{ks=kkf.k lfUrA
izfr ¾ dh vksj (f}rh;k) Nk=k% fo|ky;a izfr xPNfrA
fud"kk ¾ lehi esa (f}rh;k) fo|ky;a fud"kk m|kue~ vfLrA
f/o~Q ¾ fuUnk (f}rh;k) ew[k± f/o~QA
lg ¾ lfgr (r`rh;k) ckfydk ckyosQu lg [ksyfrA
fouk ¾ vfrfjDr (r`rh;k@i×peh@f}rh;k) Kkusu fouk thoua o`FkkA
vye~ ¾ okj.k (r`rh;k) fooknsu vye~A
leFkZ (prqFkhZ) eYy% eYyk; vye~A
ue% ¾ ueLdkj (prqFkhZ) fir`no s k; ue%A
cfg% ¾ ckgj (i×peh) fo|ky;kr~ cfg% ckydk% [ksyfUrA
mifj% ¾ Åij ("k"Bh) o`{kL; mifj eoZQVk% ØhMfUrA
v/% ¾ uhsps ("k"Bh) o`{kL; v/% ifFkd% mifo'kfrA
vUr% ¾ Hkhrj ("k"Bh) fo|ky;L; vUr% Nk=kk% iBfUrA
ifjf'k"Ve~ 89

'kCn:ikf.k
loZuke&'kCn%
,rr~ (iqf¡ YyX)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ,"k% ,rkSS ,rs
f}rh;k ,re~ ,rkS ,rku~
r`rh;k ,rsu ,rkH;ke~ ,rS%
prqFkhZ ,rLeSs ,rkH;ke~ ,rsH;%
i×peh ,rLekr~ ,rkH;ke~ ,rsH;%
"k"Bh ,rL; ,r;kss% ,rs"kke~
lIreh ,rfLeu~ ,r;kss% ,rs"kq
,rr~ (L=khfyX)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ,"kk ,rs ,rk%
f}rh;k ,rke~ ,rs ,rk%
r`rh;k ,r;k ,rkH;ke~ ,rkfHk%
prqFkhZ ,rL;Ss ,rkH;ke~ ,rkH;%
i×peh ,rL;k% ,rkH;ke~ ,rkH;%
"k"Bh ,rL;k% ,r;kss% ,rklke~
lIreh ,rL;ke~ ,r;kss% ,rklq
,rr~ (uiql
a dfyX)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ,rr~ ,rs ,rkfu
f}rh;k ,rr~ ,rs ,rkfu
90 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

r`rh;k ,rsu ,rkH;ke~ ,rS%


prqFkhZ ,rLeSs ,rkH;ke~ ,rsH;%
i×peh ,rLekr~ ,rkH;ke~ ,rsH;%
"k"Bh ,rL; ,r;kss% ,rs"kke~
lIreh ,rfLeu~ ,r;kss% ,rs"kq

fo'ks"k%& loZuke'kCnkuka lEcks/us :ikf.k u HkofUrA

rr~ (iqf¡ YyX)


foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek l% rkS rs
f}rh;k re~ rkS rku~
r`rh;k rsu rkH;ke~ rS%
prqFkhZ rLeSs rkH;ke~ rsH;%
i×peh rLekr~ rkH;ke~ rsH;%
"k"Bh rL; r;kss% rs"kke~
lIreh rfLeu~ r;kss% rs"kq

rr~ (L=khfyX)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek lk rs rk%
f}rh;k rke~ rs rk%
r`rh;k r;k rkH;ke~ rkfHk%
prqFkhZ rL;Ss rkH;ke~ rkH;%
i×peh rL;k% rkH;ke~ rkH;%
"k"Bh rL;k% r;kss% rklke~
lIreh rL;ke~ r;ks% rklq
ifjf'k"Ve~ 91

rr~ (uiql
a dfyX)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek rr~ rs rkfu
f}rh;k rr~~ rs rkfu
r`rh;k rsu rkH;ke~ rS%
prqFkhZ rLeSs rkH;ke~ rsH;%
i×peh rLekr~ rkH;ke~ rsH;%
"k"Bh rL; r;kss% rs"kke~
lIreh rfLeu~ r;kss% rs"kq

fde~ (iqf¡ YyX)


foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek d% dkS osQ
f}rh;k de~ dkS dku~
r`rh;k osQu dkH;ke~ oSQ%
prqFkhZ dLeS dkH;ke~ osQH;%
i×peh dLekr~ dkH;ke~ osQH;%
"k"Bh dL; d;ks% osQ"kke~
lIreh dfLeu~ d;ks% osQ"kq

fde~ (L=khfyX)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek dk osQ dk%
f}rh;k dke~ osQ dk%
r`rh;k d;k dkH;ke~ dkfHk%
prqFkhZ dL;S dkH;ke~ dkH;%
92 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

i×peh dL;k% dkH;ke~ dkH;%


"k"Bh dL;k% d;ks% dklke~
lIreh dL;ke~ d;ks% dklq

fde~ (uiql
a dfyX)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek fde~ osQ dkfu
f}rh;k fde~ osQ dkfu
r`rh;k osQu dkH;ke~ oSQ%
prqFkhZ dLeS dkH;ke~ osQH;%
i×peh dLekr~ dkH;ke~ osQH;%
"k"Bh dL; d;ks% osQ"kke~
lIreh dfLeu~ d;ks% osQ"kq

bdkjkUr&L=khfyÄõ&'kCn%
efr
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek efr% erh er;%
f}rh;k efre~ erh erh%
r`rh;k eR;k efrH;ke~ efrfHk%
prqFkhZ eR;S@er;s efrH;ke~ efrH;%
i×peh eR;k%@ers% efrH;ke~ efrH;%
"k"Bh eR;k%@ers% eR;ks% erhuke~
lIreh eR;ke~@erkS eR;ks% efr"kq
lEcks/ue~ gs ers! gs erh! gs er;%!

,oeso xfr&fLFkfr&'kfDr&izhfr&Ñfr&bR;knhuke~ bdkjkUr&L=khfyÄõ&'kCnkuka :ikf.k HkofUrA


ifjf'k"Ve~ 93

bZdkjkUr&L=khfyÄ&õ 'kCn%
unh
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek unh u|kS u|%
f}rh;k unhe~ u|kS unh%
r`rh;k u|k unhH;ke~ unhfHk%
prqFkhZ u|S unhH;ke~ unhH;%
i×peh u|k% unhH;ke~ unhH;%
"k"Bh u|k% u|ks% unhuke~
lIreh u|ke~ u|ks% unh"kq
lEcks/ue~ gs ufn! gs u|kS! gs u|%!

,oes o Hkfxuh&ys s [ kuh&ekfuuh&iBUrh&bR;knhuke~ bZ d kjkUr&L=khfyÄ õ& 'kCnkuka :ikf.k


HkofUrA

bdkjkUr&uiql
a dfyÄõ&'kCn%
okfj
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek okfj okfj.kh okjhf.k
f}rh;k okfj okfj.kh okjhf.k
r`rh;k okfj.kk okfjH;ke~ okfjfHk%
prqFkhZ okfj.ks okfjH;ke~ okfjH;%
i×peh okfj.k% okfjH;ke~ okfjH;%
"k"Bh okfj.k% okfj.kks% okjh.kke~
lIreh okfjf.k okfj.kks% okfj"kq
lEcks/ue~ gs okfj! gs okjs! gs okfj.kh! gs okjhf.k!
94 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

½dkjkUr&iqf¡ yÄõ&'kCn%
fir`
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek firk firjkS firj%
f}rh;k firje~ firjkS firÏu~
r`rh;k fi=kk fir`H;ke~ fir`fHk%
prqFkhZ fi=ks fir`H;ke~ fir`H;%
i×peh firq% fir`H;ke~ fir`H;%
"k"Bh firq% fi=kks% firÏ.kke~
lIreh firfj fi=kks% fir`"kq
lEcks/ue~ gs fir%! gs firjkS! gs firj%!
,oeso Hkzkr`&tkekr`&nso` (nsoj)&bR;knhuke~ ½dkjkUr&iq¡fyÄõ&'kCnkuka :ikf.k HkofUrA
r`u~&r`p~&izR;;kUrkuka nkr`&oDr`&/kr`&usr`&bR;knhuka rFkk Lol`&uIr`&{k=k`&gksr`&iksr`&'kCnkuka
izFkek&f}rh;k&foHkDR;ks% :is"kq nh?kZ% HkofrA ;Fkk&nkrk] nkrkjkS nkrkj%A ekr`'kCnL; f}rh;k
cgqopus ekrÏ% Hkofr] vU;kfu :ikf.k lekukfu ,oA
mdkjkUr&uiql
a dfyÄõ&'kCn%
e/q
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek e/q e/quh e/wfu
f}rh;k e/q e/quh e/wfu
r`rh;k e/quk e/qH;ke~ e/qfHk%
prqFkhZ e/qus e/qH;ke~ e/qH;%
i×peh e/qu% e/qH;ke~ e/qH;%
"k"Bh e/qu% e/quks% e/wuke~
lIreh e/qfu e/qukss% e/q"kqq
lEcks/ue~ gs e/q] gs e/ks! gs e/quh! gs e/wfu!
,oeso tkuq&rkyq&oLrq&bR;knhuke~ mdkjkUr&uiqald'kCnkuka :ikf.k HkofUrA
ifjf'k"Ve~ 95

/krq&:ikf.k
pj~ (pyuk] pjuk)
yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% pjfr pjr% pjfUr
eè;eiq#"k% pjfl pjFk% pjFk
mÙkeiq#"k% pjkfe pjko% pjke%

y`Vy
~ dkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% pfj";fr pfj";r% pfj";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% pfj";fl pfj";Fk% pfj";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% pfj";kfe pfj";ko% pfj";ke%

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vpjr~ vpjrke~ vpju~
eè;eiq#"k% vpj% vpjre~ vpjr
mÙkeiq#"k% vpje~ vpjko vpjke

yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% pjrq pjrke~ pjUrq
eè;eiq#"k% pj pjre~ pjr
mÙkeiq#"k% pjkf.k pjko pjke
96 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% pjsr~ pjsrke~ pjs;q%
eè;eiq#"k% pjs% pjsre~ pjsr
mÙkeiq#"k% pjs;e~ pjso pjse

,oeso gl~] py~] [ksy~] [kkn~] /ko~] j{k~] iwt~] owQnZ~] ir~] Hkze~] fy[k~] xe~ (xPN)] iB~]
ØhM~&bR;knhuka /krwuka :ikf.k HkofUrA

Ñ (djuk)
yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% djksfr oqQ#r% oqQoZfUr
eè;eiq#"k% djksf"k oqQ#Fk% oqQ#Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% djksfe oqQoZ% oqQeZ%

y`Vy
~ dkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% dfj";fr dfj";r% dfj";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% dfj";fl dfj";Fk% dfj";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% dfj";kfe dfj";ko% dfj";ke%

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vdjksr~ voqQ#rke~ voqQoZu~
eè;eiq#"k% vdjks% voqQ#re~ voqQ#r
mÙkeiq#"k% vdjoe~ vdjoko vdjoke
ifjf'k"Ve~ 97

yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% djksrq oqQ#rke~ oqQoZUrq
eè;eiq#"k% oqQ# oqQ#re~ oqQ#r
mÙkeiq#"k% djokf.k djoko djoke

fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% oqQ;kZr~ oqQ;kZrke~ oqQ;Zq%
eè;eiq#"k% oqQ;kZ% oqQ;kZre~ oqQ;kZr
mÙkeiq#"k% oqQ;kZe~ oqQ;kZo oqQ;kZe

ol~ (jguk)
yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% olfr olr% olfUr
eè;eiq#"k% olfl olFk% olFk
mÙkeiq#"k% olkfe olko% olke%

y`Vy
~ dkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% oRL;fr oRL;r% oRL;fUr
eè;eiq#"k% oRL;fl oRL;Fk% oRL;Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% oRL;kfe oRL;ko% oRL;ke%
98 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% volr~ volrke~ volu~
eè;eiq#"k% vol% volre~ volr
mÙkeiq#"k% vole~ volko volke
yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% olrq olrke~ olUrq
eè;eiq#"k% ol olre~ olr
mÙkeiq#"k% olkfu olko olke
fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% olsr~ olsrke~ ols;q%
eè;eiq#"k% ols% olsre~ olsr
mÙkeiq#"k% ols;e~ olso olse

n`'k~ (i';) ns[kuk


yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% i';fr i';r% i';fUr
eè;eiq#"k% i';fl i';Fk% i';Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% i';kfe i';ko% i';ke%
y`Vy
~ dkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% nz{;fr nz{;r% nz{;fUr
eè;eiq#"k% nz{;fl nz{;Fk% nz{;Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% nz{;kfe nz{;ko% nz{;ke%
ifjf'k"Ve~ 99

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vi';r~ vi';rke~ vi';u~
eè;eiq#"k% vi';% vi';re~ vi';r
mÙkeiq#"k% vi';e~ vi';ko vi';ke

yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% i';rq i';rke~ i';Urq
eè;eiq#"k% i'; i';re~ i';r
mÙkeiq#"k% i';kfu i';ko i';ke

fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% i';sr~ i';srke~ i';s;q%
eè;eiq#"k% i';s% i';sre~ i';sr
mÙkeiq#"k% i';s;e~ i';so i';se

LFkk (fr"B) Bgjuk


yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% fr"Bfr fr"Br% fr"BfUr
eè;eiq#"k% fr"Bfl fr"BFk% fr"BFk
mÙkeiq#"k% fr"Bkfe fr"Bko% fr"Bke%
100 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

y`Vy
~ dkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% LFkkL;fr LFkkL;r% LFkkL;fUr
eè;eiq#"k% LFkkL;fl LFkkL;Fk% LFkkL;Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% LFkkL;kfe LFkkL;ko% LFkkL;ke%

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vfr"Br~ vfr"Brke~ vfr"Bu~
eè;eiq#"k% vfr"B% vfr"Bre~ vfr"Br
mÙkeiq#"k% vfr"Be~ vfr"Bko vfr"Bke

yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% fr"Brq fr"Brke~ fr"BUrq
eè;eiq#"k% fr"B fr"Bre~ fr"Br
mÙkeiq#"k% fr"Bkfu fr"Bko fr"Bke

fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% fr"Bsr~ fr"Bsrke~ fr"Bs;q%
eè;eiq#"k% fr"Bs% fr"Bsre~ fr"Bsr
mÙkeiq#"k% fr"Bs;e~ fr"Bso fr"Bse
ifjf'k"Ve~ 101

ip~ (idkuk)
yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% ipfr ipr% ipfUr
eè;eiq#"k% ipfl ipFk% ipFk
mÙkeiq#"k% ipkfe ipko% ipke%

y`Vy
~ dkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% i{;fr i{;r% i{;fUr
eè;eiq#"k% i{;fl i{;Fk% i{;Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% i{;kfe i{;ko% i{;ke%

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vipr~ viprke~ vipu~
eè;eiq#"k% vip% vipre~ vipr
mÙkeiq#"k% vipe~ vipko vipke

yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% iprq iprke~ ipUrq
eè;eiq#"k% ip ipre~ ipr
mÙkeiq#"k% ipkfu ipko ipke
102 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% ipsr~ ipsrke~ ips;q%
eè;eiq#"k% ips% ipsre~ ipsr
mÙkeiq#"k% ips;e~ ipso ipse

ik (fic~) ihuk
yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% ficfr ficr% ficfUr
eè;eiq#"k% ficfl ficFk% ficFk
mÙkeiq#"k% fickfe ficko% ficke%

y`Vy
~ dkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)

iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~


izFkeiq#"k% ikL;fr ikL;r% ikL;fUr
eè;eiq#"k% ikL;fl ikL;Fk% ikL;Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% ikL;kfe ikL;ko% ikL;ke%

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vficr~ vficrke~ vficu~
eè;eiq#"k% vfic% vficre~ vficr
mÙkeiq#"k% vfice~ vficko vficke
ifjf'k"Ve~ 103

yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% ficrq ficrke~ ficUrq
eè;eiq#"k% fic ficre~ ficr
mÙkeiq#"k% fickfu ficko ficke

fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% ficsr~ ficsrke~ fics;q%
eè;eiq#"k% fics% ficsre~ ficsr
mÙkeiq#"k% fics;e~ ficso ficse

la[;kokpd'kCnk%
1 ,d% 11 ,dkn'k%
2 }kS 12 }kn'k%
3 =k;% 13 =k;ksn'k%
4 pRokj% 14 prqn'Z k%
5 i×p 15 i×pn'k%
6 "kV~ 16 "kksM'k%
7 lIr 17 lIrn'k%
8 v"V@v"VkS 18 v"Vkn'k%
9 uo 19 uon'k%@,dksu¯o'kfr%@Åu¯o'kfr%
10 n'k 20 ¯o'kfr%
104 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

21 ,d¯o'kfr% 41 ,dpRok¯j'kr~
22 }k¯o'kfr% 42 f}pRok¯j'kr~
23 =k;ks¯o'kfr% 43 =k;'pRok¯j'kr~@f=kpRok¯j'kr~
24 prqfo±'kfr% 44 prq'pRok¯j'kr~
25 i×p¯o'kfr% 45 i×ppRok¯j'kr~
26 "kM~¯o'kfr% 46 "kV~pRok¯j'kr~
27 lIr¯o'kfr% 47 lIrpRok¯j'kr~
28 v"Vk¯o'kfr% 48 v"VpRok¯j'kr~@v"VkpRok¯j'kr~
29 uo¯o'kfr%@,dksu¯=k'kr~ 49 uopRok¯j'kr~@,dksui×pk'kr~
30 f=k'kr~ 50 i×pk'kr~
31 ,d¯=k'kr~ 51 ,di×pk'kr~
32 }k¯=k'kr~ 52 }ki×pk'kr~@f}i×pk'kr~
33 =k;¯L=k'kr~ 53 =k;%i×p'kr~@f=ki×pk'kr~
34 prq¯L=k'kr~ 54 prq%i×pk'kr~
35 i×p¯=k'kr~ 55 i×pi×pk'kr~
36 "kV~¯=k'kr~ 56 "kV~i×pk'kr~
37 lIr¯=k'kr~ 57 lIri×pk'kr~
38 v"Vk¯=k'kr~ 58 v"Vki×pk'kr~@v"Vi×pk'kr~
39 uo¯=k'kr~@,dksupRok¯j'kr~ 59 uoi×pk'kr~@,dksu"kf"V%
40 pRok¯j'kr~ 60 "kf"V%
ifjf'k"Ve~ 105

61 ,d"kf"V% 81 ,dk'khfr%
62 }k"kf"V%@f}"kf"V% 82 }Ô'khfr%
63 =k;""kf"V%@f=k"kf"V% 83 =k;'khfr%
64 prq""kf"V% 84 prqj'khfr%
65 i×p"kf"V% 85 i×pk'khfr%
66 "kV~"kf"V% 86 "kM'khfr%
67 lIr"kf"V% 87 lIrk'khfr%
68 v"Vk"kf"V%@v"V"kf"V% 88 v"Vk'khfr%
69 uo"kf"V%@,dksulIrfr% 89 uok'khfr%@,dksuuofr%
70 lIrfr% 90 uofr%
71 ,dlIrfr% 91 ,duofr%
72 }klIrfr%@f}lIrfr% 92 }kuofr%@f}uofr%
73 f=klIrfr%@=k;LlIrfr% 93 =k;ksuofr%@f=kuofr%
74 prqLlIrfr% 94 prquoZ fr%
75 i×plIrfr% 95 i×puofr%
76 "kV~lIrfr% 96 "k..kofr%
77 lIrlIrfr% 97 lIruofr%
78 v"VklIrfr%@v"VlIrfr% 98 v"Vkuofr%@v"Vuofr%
79 uolIrfr%@,dksuk'khfr% 99 uouofr%@,dksu'kre~
80 v'khfr% 100 'kre~
106 #fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%

iwj.kokpd'kCnk%
iq¡fyX L=khfyX uiq¡ldfyX
1 izFke% izFkek izFkee~
2 f}rh;% f}rh;k f}rh;e~
3 r`rh;% r`rh;k r`rh;e~
4 prqFkZ% prqFkhZ prqFkZe~
5 i×pe% i×peh i×pee~
6 "k"B% "k"Bh "k"Be~
7 lIre% lIreh lIree~
8 v"Ve% v"Veh v"Vee~
9 uoe% uoeh uoee~
10 n'ke% n'keh n'kee~
ikBkuqØef.kdk
i`"BkÄïk%
iqjksoko~Q iii
Hkwfedk vii
eXye~ xii
izFke% ikB% lqHkkf"krkfu 1
f}rh;% ikB% fcyL; ok.kh u dnkfi es Jqrk 6
r`rh;% ikB% HkxonTtqde~ 13
prqFkZ% ikB% lnSo iqjrks fu/sfg pj.ke~ 23
i×pe% ikB% /esZ /eua ikis iq.;e~ 29
"k"B% ikB% izes yL; izes Y;k'p dFkk 37
lIre% ikB% tyokfguh 43
v"Ve% ikB% lalkjlkxjL; uk;dk% 50
uoe% ikB% lIrHkfxU;% 59
n'ke% ikB% v'kksdofudk 68
,dkn'k% ikB% lkfo=kh ckbZ iqQys 74
}kn'k% ikB% d% j{kfr d% jf{kr% 80
=k;ksn'k% ikB% fgeky;% 88
prqn'Z k% ikB% vk;ZHkV% 94
i×pn'k% ikB% izgfs ydk% 102
ifjf'k"Ve~ lfU/%] dkjde~] 'kCn:ikf.k /krq:ikf.k p 107
xi
eÄõye~
;Ttkxzrks nwjeqnfS r nSoa
rnq lqIrL; rFkSofS rA
nwjxa ea T;ksfr"kka T;ksfrjsoQa
rUes eu% f'kolÄïYieLrq AA1AA
&'kqDy;tqosZn%(34-1)
lq"kkjfFkj'okfuo ;Ueuq";k&
Uusuh;rs¿Hkh'kqfHkokZftu boA
âRizfr"Ba ;nftja tfo"Ba
rUes eu% f'kolÄYï ieLrqq AA2AA
&'kqDy;tqosZn%(34-6)

:ikUrje~
tks jgrk gS tkxzr vkSj nwj nwj rd tkrk gS]
lks;k jg dj Hkh ,sls gh tk dj okil vkrk gSA
nwj nwj og tkus okyk lc rstksa dk T;ksfrfu/ku
lnk lefUor 'kqHklÄïYiksa ls og eu esjk cus egku~ AA1AA
tks tu tu dks ckxMksj ls b/j m/j ys tkrk gS]
prqj lkjFkh T;ksa ?kksM+ksa dks bfPNr pky pykrk gSA
lnk izfrf"Br ân;ns'k esa vtj vkSj vfr'k; xfreku~
lnk lefUor 'kqHklÄïYiksa ls og eu esjk cus egku~ AA2AA
izFke% ikB%

lqHkkf"krkfu
¹^lqHkkf"kr* 'kCn ^lq $ Hkkf"kr* bu nks 'kCnksa osQ esy ls lEi gksrk gSA lq dk vFkZ
lqUnj] e/qj rFkk Hkkf"kr dk vFkZ opu gSA bl rjg lqHkkf"kr dk vFkZ lqUnj@eèkqj
opu gSA izLrqr ikB esa lwfDre×tjh] uhfr'krde~] euqLe`fr%] f'k'kqikyoèke~] i×prU=ke~
ls jkspd vkSj fopkjksÙkstd 'yksdksa dks laxg` hr fd;k x;k gSAº

xq.kk xq.kKs"kq xq.kk HkofUr


rs fuxq.Z ka izkI; HkofUr nks"kk%A
lqLoknqrks;k% izHkofUr u|%
leqnzeklk| HkoUR;is;k% AA1AA
lkfgR;lÄhõ rdykfoghu%
lk{kkRi'kq%iqPNfo"kk.kghu%A
r`.ka u [kknÂfi thoeku%
rn~Hkkx/s;a ijea i'kwuke~ AA2AA
yqC/L; u';fr ;'k% fi'kquL; eS=kh
u"VfØ;L; oqQyeFkZijL; /eZ%A
fo|kiQya O;lfuu% Ñi.kL; lkS[;a
jkT;a izeÙklfpoL; ujkf/iL; AA3AA

lqHkkf"krkfu
1
ihRok jla rq dVqoQa e/qja lekua
ek/q;Zeso tu;sUe/qef{kdklkSA
lUrLrFkSo lelTtunqtZukuka
JqRok op% e/qjlwDrjla l`tfUr AA4AA
egrka izÑfr% lSo of/Zrkuka ijSjfiA
u tgkfr futa Hkkoa la[;klq ykÑfr;ZFkk AA5AA
fÏ;ka jkspekuk;ka lo± rn~ jksprs oqQye~A
rL;ka Rojkspekuk;ka loZeso u jksprs AA6AA

'kCnkFkkZ%

xq.kKs"kq & xqf.k;ksa esa


lqLoknqrks;k% & Lokfn"V ty
izHkofUr & fudyrh gSa@mRiUu gksrh gSa
leqnzeklk| (leqnze~$vklk|) & leqnz esa feydj@igq¡pdj
HkoUR;is;k% (HkofUr$vis;k%) & ihus ;ksX; ugha gksrh
fo"kk.kghu% & lhax osQ fcuk
[kknUufi ([kknu~$vfi) & [kkrs gq, Hkh
thoeku% & ftUnk jgrk gqvk
fi'kquL; & pqxy[kksj@pqxyh djus okys dh
O;lfuu% & cqjh yr okyksa dh
ujkf/iL; (uj$vf/iL;) & jktk dk@osQ@dh

#fpjk
2 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
tu;sUe/qef{kdklkS & ;g e/qeD[kh iSnk djrh@
(tu;sr~$e/qef{kdk$vlkS) fuekZ.k djrh gS
lUrLrFkSo (lUr%$rFkk$,o) & oSls gh lTtu
l`tfUr & fuekZ.k djrs gSa
izÑfr% & LoHkko@vknr
of/Zrkuke~ & c<+k;s x,@iz'kaflr
ijSjfi (ijS%$vfi) & nwljksa ls Hkh@ijk;ksa ls Hkh
tgkfr & NksM+rk gS
ykÑfr;ZFkk (y`$vkÑfr%$;Fkk) & tSls ukS dk vkdkj@LoHkko
jkspekuk;ke~ & vPNh yxus ij

vH;kl%
vH;kl%

1- ikBs nÙkkuka i|kuka lLojokpua oqQ#rA


2- 'yksdka'ks"kq fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) leqnez klk| ------------------------------ A
([k) -------------------- op% e/qjlwDrjla l`tfUrA
(x) rn~Hkkx/s;a -------------------------------- i'kwuke~A
(?k) fo|kiQya -------------------- Ñi.kL; lkS[;e~A
(Ä) fL=k;ka ----------------- lo± rn~ ----------------- oqQye~A

3- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k ,dinsu fy[kr&


(d) O;lfuu% ¯d u';fr\
([k) dL;ka jkspekuk;ka lo± oqQya jksprs\

lqHkkf"krkfu
3
(x) dL; ;'k% u';fr\
(?k) dfLeu~ yÜ ksoQs lRlÄõr%s izHkkoks of.kZr%\
(Ä) e/qjlwDrjla osQ l`tfUr\
4- v/ksfyf[kr&rn~Hko&'kCnkuka Ñrs ikBkr~ fpRok laLÑrinkfu fy[kr&
;Fkk&oaQtwl Ñi.k%
dM+ok --------------------
iw¡N --------------------
yksHkh --------------------
e/qeD[kh --------------------
frudk --------------------

5- v/ksfyf[krs"kq okD;s"kq drZ̀ina fØ;kina p fpRok fy[kr&


okD;kfu dÙkkZ fØ;k
;Fkk&lUr% e/qjlwDrjla l`tfUrA lUr% l`tfUr
(d) fuxZ.q ka izkI; HkofUr nks"kk%A -------------------- --------------------
([k) xq.kKs"kq xq.kk% HkofUrA -------------------- --------------------
(x) e/qef{kdk ek/q;± tu;srA~ -------------------- --------------------
(?k) fi'kquL; eS=kh ;'k% uk'k;frA -------------------- --------------------
(Ä) u|% leqnez klk| vis;k% HkofUrA -------------------- --------------------

6- js[kkfÄïrkfu inkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) xq.kk% xq.kKs"kq xq.kk% HkofUrA
([k) u|% lqLoknqrks;k% HkofUrA
(x) yqC/L; ;'k% u';frA
(?k) e/qef{kdk ek/q;eZ os tu;frA
(Ä) egrka izÑfr% lqfLFkjk HkofrA
#fpjk
4 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
7- mnkgj.kkuqlkja inkfu i`Fko~Q oqQq #r&
;Fkk&leqnez klk| μ leqnez ~ $ vklk|
ek/q;Zeso μ --------------- $ ---------------
vYieso μ --------------- $ ---------------
loZeso μ --------------- $ ---------------
lekuefi μ --------------- $ ---------------
egkReukeqfDr% μ --------------- $ ---------------

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%
izLrqr ikB esa egkiq#"kksa dh izÑfr] xqf.k;ksa dh iz'kalk] lTtuksa dh ok.kh]
lkfgR;&laxhr&dyk dh egÙkk] pqxy[kksjksa dh nksLrh ls gksus okyh gkfu] fL=k;ksa osQ
izlUu jgus esa lcdh [kq'kgkyh dks vkyÄïkfjd Hkk"kk esa izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA
ikB osQ 'yksdksa osQ leku vU; lqHkkf"krksa dks Hkh Lej.k j[ksa rFkk thou esa
mudh mikns;rk@laxfr ij fopkj djsAa
(d) ;s"kka u fo|k u riks u nkue~
Kkua u 'khya u xq.kks u /eZ%A
rs eR;ZyksoQs Hkqfo HkkjHkwrk%
euq";:is.k e`xk'pjfUrAA
([k) xq.kk% iwtkLFkkua xqf.k"kq u p fyÄõa u p o;%A
(x) izkjH; pksÙketuk% u ifjR;tfUrA
(?k) nqtuZ % ifjgrZO;ks fo|;k¿yÄ` rï ks¿fi lu~A
(Ä) u izk.kkUrs izÑfrfoÑfrtkZ;rs pksÙkekuke~A
(p) mn;s lfork jDrks jDr'pkLrÄõrs rFkkA
lEiÙkkS p foiÙkkS p egrkesd:irkAA
mi;ZDq r lqHkkf"krksa osQ va'kksa dks i<+dj Lo;a le>us dk iz;Ru djsa rFkk laLÑr
,oa vU; Hkkjrh;&Hkk"kkvksa osQ lqHkkf"krksa dk laxgz djsAa
^xq.kk xq.kKs"kq xq.kk HkofUr*μbl iafDr esa folxZ lfU/ osQ fu;e esa ^xq.kk%* osQ folxZ
dk nksuksa ckj yksi gqvk gSA lfU/ osQ fcuk iafDr ^xq.kk% xq.kKs"kq xq.kk% HkofUr* gksxhA

lqHkkf"krkfu
5
f}rh;% ikB%

fcyL; ok.kh u dnkfi es Jqrk


¹izLrqr ikB laLÑr osQ izfl¼ dFkkxzUFk ^i×prU=ke~* osQ r`rh; rU=k ^dkdksyd
w h;e~*
ls ladfyr gSA i×prU=k osQ ewy ys[kd fo".kq'kekZ gSAa blesa ik¡p [k.M gSa ftUgsa
^rU=k* dgk x;k gSA buesa x|&i| :i esa dFkk,¡ nh x;h gSa ftuosQ ik=k eq[;r%
i'kq&i{kh gSAa º
vO;;iz;ksx%

d¯Lef'pr~ ous [kju[kj% uke ¯lg% izfrolfr LeA l% dnkfpr~ brLrr% ifjHkzeu~
{kq/krZ% u fdf×pnfi vkgkja izkIroku~A rr%
lw;kZLrle;s ,dka egrha xqgka n`"V~ok l%
vfpUr;r~&¶uwue~ ,rL;ka xqgk;ka jk=kkS dks¿fi
tho% vkxPNfrA vr% v=kSo fuxw<ks HkwRok
fr"Bkfe¸ bfrA
,rfLeu~ vUrjs xqgk;k% Lokeh nf/iqPN%
uke 'k`xky% lekxPNr~A l p ;kor~ i';fr
rkor~ ¯lgini¼fr% xqgk;ka izfo"Vk n`';rs] u
p cfgjkxrkA 'k` x ky% vfpUr;r~ & ¶vgks
fou"Vks¿fLeA uwue~ vfLeu~ fcys ¯lg% vLrhfr
roZQ;kfeA rr~ ¯d djokf.k\¸ ,oa fofpUR;
#fpjk
6 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
nwjLFk% joa drqeZ kjC/%&¶Hkks fcy! Hkks fcy! ¯d u
Lejfl] ;Ue;k Ro;k lg le;% Ñrks¿fLr ;r~ ;nkga
ckár% izR;kxfe";kfe rnk Roa eke~ vkdkjf;";fl\
;fn Roa eka u vkà;fl rfgZ vga f}rh;a fcya ;kL;kfe
bfrA¸
vFk ,rPNqRz ok ¯lg% vfpUr;r~&¶uwues"kk xqgk
Lokfeu% lnk lekàkua djksfrA ijUrq en~Hk;kr~ u
fdf×pr~ onfrA¸
vFkok lkfèone~ mP;rs&
Hk;lU=kLreulka gLriknkfndk% fØ;k%A
izorZUrs u ok.kh p osiFkq'pkf/dks HkosrA~ A
rnge~ vL; vkàkua djksfeA ,oa
l% fcys izfo'; es HkksT;a Hkfo";frA
bRFka fopk;Z ¯lg% lglk 'k` x kyL;
vkàkuedjks r ~ A ¯lgL; mPpxtZ u &
iz f rèofuuk lk xq g k mPpS % 'k` x kye~
vkà;r~A vusu vU;s¿fi i'ko% Hk;Hkhrk%
vHkou~A 'k`xkyks¿fi rr% nwja iyk;eku%
beeiBr~&
vukxra ;% oqQ#rs l 'kksHkrs
l 'kksP;rs ;ks u djksR;ukxre~A
ous¿=k laLFkL; lekxrk tjk
fcyL; ok.kh u dnkfi es JqrkAA

fcyL; ok.kh
u dnkfi es 7
Jqrk
'kCnkFkkZ%

dfLe¯'pr~ (dfLeu~$fpr~) & fdlh (ou esa)


{kq/krZ% ({kq/k$vkrZ%) & Hkw[k ls O;koqQy
vUrjs & chp esa
fuxw<ks HkwRok & fNidj
¯lgini¼fr% & 'ksj osQ iSjksa osQ fpÉ
jo% & 'kCn@vkokt
;kor~&rkor~ & tcrd] rcrd
le;% & 'krZ
ckár% & ckgj ls
;fn&rfgZ & vxj] rks
rPNzqRok (rr~$JqRok) & og lqudj
Hk;lU=kLreulke~ & Mjs gq, eu okyksa dk
gLriknkfndk% & gkFk&iSj vkfn ls lEcfU/r
(gLrikn$vkfndk%)
osiFkq% & dEiu
HkksT;e~ & Hkkstu ;ksX; (inkFkZ)
lglk & ,dk,d
vukxre~ & vkus okys (nq%[k) dks
'kksP;rs & fpUruh; gksrk gS
laLFkL; & jgrs gq, dk@osQ@dh
tjk & cq<+kik
oqQ#rs@djksfr & (fujkdj.k) djrk gS
fcyL; & fcy dk (xqiQk dk)

#fpjk
8 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
vH;kl%

1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
dfLeaf'pr~ fofpUR; lkfèone~
{kq/krZ% ,rPNzqRok Hk;lU=kLreulke~
¯lgini¼fr% lekàkue~ izfrèofu%

2- ,dinsu mÙkja fy[kr&


(d) ¯lgL; uke fde~\
([k) xqgk;k% Lokeh d% vklhr~\
(x) ¯lg% dfLeu~ le;s xqgk;k% lehis vkxr%\
(?k) gLriknkfndk% fØ;k% osQ"kka u izorZUrs\
(Ä) xqgk osQu izfrèofurk\

3- e×tw"kkr% vO;;ina fpRok okD;kfu iwj;r&

lnk cfg% nwja rkor~ rfgZ rnk

(d) ;nk n'koknua Hkofr ------------------ Nk=kk% fo|ky;a xPNfUrA


([k) lw;%Z iwofZ n'kk;ka ------------------ mnsfrA
(x) 'k`xky% xqgk;k% ------------------ vklhr~A
(?k) l p ;kor~ i';fr] ------------------ ¯lgini¼fr% xqgk;ka izfo"Vk n`';rsA
(Ä) 'k`xkyks¿fi rr% ------------------ iyk;eku% viBr~A
(p) ;fn liQyrke~ bPNfl ------------------ vkyL;a R;tA

fcyL; ok.kh
u dnkfi es 9
Jqrk
4- iw.kZokD;su mÙkjr&
(d) [kju[kj% oqQ=k izfrolfr Le\
([k) egrha xqgka n`"V~ok ¯lg% fde~ vfpUr;r~\
(x) 'k`xky% fde~ vfpUr;r~\
(?k) 'k`xky% oqQ=k iykf;r%\
(Ä) ¯d fopk;Z ¯lg% 'k`xkyL; vkàkuedjksr\~
(p) vL;ka dFkk;ka dL; pkrq;± fu:fira ¯lgL; 'k`xkyL; ok\

5- e×tw"kkr% vO;;inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&

lglk nwjs Øe'k% ;nk rnk ijUrq ;fn rfgZ

,dfLeu~ ous d'Pku O;k/% tkya foLrh;Z ------------------ fLFkr%A ------------------


vkdk'ks lifjokj% diksr jkt% fp=kxzho% fuxZr %A
------------------ r.Mqyd.kkukeqifj diksrkuka yksHkks tkr%A
-------------------------- jktk r=k lger% uklhr~A rL; ;qfDr%

vklhr~ ------------------ futZus ous dks¿fi euq";ks ukfLr


----------------------- oqQrks ok r.Mqyd.kkuka lEHko%\
------------------ jkK% mins'keLohÑR; rs uhpS% vkxrk]
------------------ tkys fuifrrk%A vr% mDre~ ^--------------

fonèkhr u fØ;ke~*A

#fpjk
10 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
6- ?kVukØekuqlkja okD;kfu fy[kr&
(d) xqgk;k% Lokeh nf/iqPN% uke 'k`xky% lekxPNr~A
([k) ¯lg% ,dka egrha xqgke~ vi';r~A
(x) ifjHkzeu~ ¯lg% {kq/krksZ tkr%A
(?k) nwjLFk% 'k`xky% joa dÙkqeZ kjC/%A
(Ä) ¯lg% 'k`xkyL; vkàkuedjksrA~
(p) nwja iyk;eku% 'k`xky% 'yksdeiBr~A
(N) xqgk;ka dks¿fi vfLr bfr 'k`xkyL; fopkj%A

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

xzUFk&ifjp; & fo".kq'kekZ us jktk vej'kfDr osQ ew[kZ iq=kksa dks oqQ'ky jktuhfrK
cukus osQ mís'; ls dFkkvksa osQ ladyu osQ :i esa i×prU=k dh jpuk dh FkhA blesa
fe=kHksn] fe=klEizkfIr] dkdksyd
w h;] yC/iz.kk'k rFkk vijhf{kr&dkjd_ bu ik¡p [k.Mksa
esa oqQy 70 dFkk,¡ rFkk 900 'yksd gSAa 'yksdksa esa izk;% roZQiw.kZ uhfr'yksd iz;Dq r
gSAa i×prU=k dk vuqokn prqFkZ 'krkCnh osQ vklikl bZjku dh igyoh Hkk"kk esa gqvk
FkkA blh osQ vk/kj ij fons'kh Hkk"kkvksa esa blosQ vusd vuqokn gq,A
^dkdksydw h;e~* i×prU=k dk r`rh; rU=k gSA bldk uke dkd vkSj mywd dh
eq[; dFkk osQ dkj.k iM+k gSA
O;kdj.ke~
vO;; & vO;; laLÑr esa nks izdkj osQ 'kCn gS&a fodkjh rFkk vfodkjhA fodkjh
'kCn ifjorZu'khy gSAa laKk] loZuke] fo'ks"k.k vkSj fØ;k 'kCn fodkjh gSAa tSl&s ckyd%]
l%] 'kqDy%] xPNfrA vfodkjh 'kCn vO;; dgykrs gSAa buosQ :i dHkh ugha cnyrsA
tSl&s v=k] v/quk] vfiA

fcyL; ok.kh
u dnkfi es 11
Jqrk
vO;;ksa osQ Hkh :< vkSj ;kSfxd nks :i feyrs gSAa :< vO;;ksa osQ [k.M ugha
gksrs tSl&s p] vfi] ok] rq] [kyq] u bR;kfnA ;kSfxd vO;;ksa osQ [k.M gksrs gSa ;s Ñr~]
rf¼r ;k lekl osQ :i esa gksrs gSAa Ñr~ ls cus vO;; gS&a xRok] xUrqe~ bR;kfnA rf¼r
ls cus vO;; gS&a loZFkk] ,dnk] r=k] bRFke~] dFke~ bR;kfnA lekl osQ :i esa vO;;
gS&a izfrfnue~] ;Fkk'kfDr bR;kfnA
izLrqr ikB esa dnkfpr~] brLrr% (br% $ rr%)] u] n`"V~ok] uwue~] vfi] rfgZ]
v=k] ,o (v=kSo)] HkwRok] bfr] p] cfg%] vgks] ,oe~] fofpUR;] lg] rnk] ;fn] vFk]
JqRok] lnk] ijUrq (ije~ $ rq)] izfo';] lglk] dnkfi (dnk $ vfi) ;s vO;; gSAa
budh mi;ZDq r dksfV;ksa esa igpku dh tk ldrh gSA

#fpjk
12 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
r`rh;% ikB%

HkxonTtqde~
¹HkxonTtqde~ laLÑr dk ,d izfl¼ izglu gSA blosQ jpf;rk cks/k;u dgs x;s gSAa
blesa olUrlsuk uked xf.kdk viuh lsfodk ijHk`frdk osQ lkFk m|ku esa fogkj osQ
fy, vkrh gSA mldk izes h jkfeyd mlls feyus ogk¡ vkrk gSA blh chp ;e osQ }kjk
Hkstk x;k nwr ftls olUrlsuk uke dh fdlh vU; L=kh osQ izk.k ys tkuk gS] liZ
cudj xyrh ls bl olUrlsuk dks Ml ysrk gS vkSj mldk tho ysdj ;eyksd pyk
tkrk gSA
blh m|ku esa ,d ifjozktd (laU;klh) vius f'k"; osQ lkFk vk;s gq, gSAa
olUrlsuk dks e`r ns[kdj f'k"; 'kkf.MY; nq%[kh gks tkrk gSA rc ifjozktd ;ksx ls
viuk tho xf.kdk dh dk;k esa izo's k djk nsrs gSAa xf.kdk thfor gks tkrh gSA mèkj
xyr tho ykus ij ;ejkt ;eiq#"k dks Mk¡V&MiVdj okil Hkstrs gSAa m|ku esa
okil vkdj ;eiq#"k ns[krk gS fd ftl xf.kdk osQ izk.k og ys x;k Fkk og laU;klh
dh rjg lcdks mins'k ns jgh gSA rc ;eiq#"k laU;klh osQ [ksy dks vkxs c<+kus osQ
fy, xf.kdk dk tho laU;klh osQ nsg esa Mky nsrk gSA xf.kdk laU;klh dh rjg
cksyrh gS] laU;klh xf.kdk dh rjg& bl myV isQj ls bl ukVd esa ,d folaxr
gkL;iw.kZ ,oa jkspd fLFkfr cu tkrh gSAº
udkjkUriqf¡ YyÄ%õ

(rr% izfo'kfUr ,dr% ifjozktdL; thosu vkfo"Vk olUrlsuk] psVh] jkfeyd'p_


ifjozktdL; futhZonsgus lg f'k";% 'kkf.MY;% vijr% vU;;k psV~;k lg oS|%)
oS|% & oqQ=k lk\
psVh & ,"kk [kyq vTtqdk u rkor~ lÙofLFkrkA

HkxonTtqde~ 13
12
oS|% & vjs b;a lis.Z k n"VkA
psVh & dFkek;ksZ tkukfr\
oS|% & egkUra fodkja djksrhfrA
fo"krU=ke~ vkjHks A
oq Q .My&oq Q fVyxkfefu!
e.Mya iz f o'k iz f o'kA
oklqfdiq=k! fr"B fr"BA
Jw JwA vga rs fljkosèka
dfj";kfeA oqQ=k oqQBkfjdkA
xf.kdk & ew[kZ oS|! vya ifjJes.kA
oS|% & fiÙkeI;fLrA vga rs fiÙka okra
diaQ p uk'k;kfeA
jkfeyd% & Hkks%! fØ;rka ;Ru%A u
[kYoÑrKk o;e~A
oS|% & xqfydk% vku;kfeA
(fu"ØkUr%)
(rr% izfo'kfr ;eiq#"k%)
;eiq#"k% & Hkks%! HkfRlZrks¿ga ;esuA
u lk olUrlsus;a f{kiza r=kSo uh;rke~A
vU;k olUrlsuk ;k {kh.kk;qLrkfegk¿u;AA
;konL;k''kjhjefXula;ksxa u Lohdjksfr rkoRlizk.kkesuka djksfeA
(foyksD;) v;s! mfRFkrk [kfYo;e~A Hkks! fdUuq [kfYone~A
vL;k thoks ee djs mfRFkrS"kk ojkÄõukA
vk'p;± ijea yksoQs Hkqfo iwo± u n`';rsAA
(loZrks¿oyksD;)
#fpjk
14 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
v;s! v;e=kHkoku~ ;ksxh ifjozktd% ØhMfrA fdfenkuha dfj";sA Hkorq]
n`"Ve~A vL;k xf.kdk;k vkRekua ifjozktd'kjhjs U;L; voflrs deZf.k
;FkkLFkkua fofu;kst;kfeA
(rFkk ÑRok fu"ØkUr%)
ifjozktd%& (mRFkk; xf.kdk;k% Lojs.k) ijHk`frosQ! ijHk`frosQ!
'kkf.MY;% & vjs! izR;kxrizk.k% [kyq Hkxoku~A
ifjozktd%& oqQ=k oqQ=k jkfeyd%A
jkfeyd% & HkxoUu;efLeA
'kkf.MY;% & Hkxou~ fdfene~\ #nzk{kxzg.kksfpr% okegLr% 'kÄ~[koy;iwfjr bo
es izfrHkkfrA uSo uSoA
ifjozktd%& jkfeyd! vkfyÄõ eke~A
(rr% izfo'kfr oS|%)

HkxonTtqde~ 15
14
oS|% & xqfydk% e;k vkuhrk%A mnde~ mnde~A
psVh & bne~ mnde~A
oS|% & xqfydk% vo?k^;kfeA

xf.kdk & (laU;kflu% Lojs.k) ew[kZ oS|! tkukfl dresu lis.Z k b;a L=kh
n"Vk\
oS|% & vjs] b;a izrs us vkfo"VkA
xf.kdk & 'kkL=ka tkukfl\
oS|% & vFk fde~\
xf.kdk & czfw g oS|'kkL=ke~A
oS|% & 'k`.kksrq HkorhA
okfrdk% iSfÙkdk'pSo 'ySf"edk'p egkfo"kk%A
=khf.k likZ HkoUR;s r s prq F kks Z ukf/xE;rs A A
#fpjk
16 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
xf.kdk & v;ei'kCn%A =k;% likZ bfr oDrO;e~A ^=khf.k* uiql a oaQ HkofrA
oS|% & vjs] vjs! b;a oS;kdj.klis.Z k [kkfnrk HkosrA~
xf.kdk & fd;Urks fo"kosxk%\
oS|% & fo"kosxk% 'kre~A
xf.kdk & u u] lIr rs fo"kosxk%A r|FkkA
jksek×pks eq[k'kks"k'p oSo.;± pSo osiFkq%A
fgDdk oÜ kl'p laeksg% lIrSrk fo"kfofØ;k%AA
oS|% & u [kYoLekoaQ fo"k;%A ueks HkxoR;SA xPNkfe rkonge~A
(fu"ØkUr%)
(izfo';)
;eiq#"k% & HkxoUeqP;rka xf.kdk;k% 'kjhje~A
xf.kdk & vLrqA
;eiq#"k% & ;Fkk vL;k% thofofue;a ÑRok ;kongefi Lodk;Zeuqfr"BkfeA
(rFkk ÑRok fu"ØkUr%)
ifjozktd%& f'koeLrq loZtxrka ijfgrfujrk HkoUrq Hkwrx.kk%A
nks"kk% iz;kUrq uk'ka loZ=k lq[kh Hkorq yksd%AA

'kCnkFkkZ%

vTtqdk & lEekU; efgyk@xf.kdk osQ


fy;s laKk vkSj lacks/u
,dr% & ,d vksj
ifjozktdL; & laU;klh dk
thosu & izk.k osQ lkFk
vkfo"Vk & izfo"V gqbZ
vijr% & nwljh vksj

HkxonTtqde~ 17
16
psVh & nklh] ukSdjkuh
lÙofLFkrk & izk.k esa fLFkr
n"Vk & Ml yh x;h
fo"krU=ke~ & >kM+&iw¡Qd dks@fo"k Hkxkus dh fo|k dks
vkjHks & vkjEHk djrk gw¡@'kq: djrk gw¡
oqQ.MyoqQfVyxkfefu! & gs oqQ.My osQ leku Vs<+h pky okyh
e.Mye~ & vks>kvksa osQ }kjk lk¡i idM+us osQ fy;s
i`Fohry ij cuk;h tkus okyh o`Ùkkdkj
vkÑfr
fljkos/e~ & ukM+h dkVuk
oqQBkfjdk & NksVh oqQYgkM+h
fiÙke~] okre~ & fiÙk ,oa okr (ok;q) ls mRiUu gksus
okys jksx
fØ;rke~ & djsa
;Ru% & Je] ifjJe] esgur
vÑrKk & Ñr?u
xqfydk% & nokbZ dh xksfy;k¡
fu"ØkUr% & fudy x;k
HkfRlZr% & Mk¡Vk x;k
f{kize~ & 'kh?kz
uh;rke~ & ys tk;sa
{kh.kk;q% ({kh.k$vk;q%) & ftldh vk;q lekIr gks x;h gS
bg & ;gk¡
vfXula;ksxe~ & vkx ls la;ksx
lizk.kke~ & izk.k lfgr dks
#fpjk
18 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
mfRFkrk & mB x;h
ojkÄõuk (oj$vÄõuk) & Js"B ukjh
Hkqfo & i`Foh ij
U;L; & j[kdj
voflrs & lekIr gksus ij
izR;kxrizk.k% & ftldk izk.k ykSV vk;k gS
'kÄ~[koy;iwfjr & 'kÄ~[k fufeZr dM+k ls ;qDr
vo?k^;kfe & ?kksaVrk gw¡@ihlrk gw¡
dresu & fdl
fd;Ur% & fdrus
eq[k'kks"k% & eq¡g dk lw[kuk
oSo.;Ze~ & psgjs dk jax mM+uk
osiFkq% & dk¡iuk@d¡id¡ih
fgDdk & fgpdh
laeksg% & csgks'kh] ewPNkZ
fo"kosxk% & fo"k osQ izHkko
fo"kfofØ;k% & fo"k osQ fodkj
eqP;rke~ & NksM+ nsa
mixE; & ikl tkdj
thofofue;e~ & izk.k dh vnyk&cnyh
Hkwrx.kk% & izkf.kx.k
iz;kUrq & tk;sa

HkxonTtqde~ 19
18
vH;kl%

1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k ,dinsu fy[kr&


(d) xf.kdk;k% uke fde~\
([k) ifjozktdL; f'k";% d% vklhr~\
(x) ;enwr% xf.kdk;k% thoa dL; 'kjhjs fun/kfr\
(?k) ijfgrfujrk osQ HkoUrq\

2- lfU/foPNsna oqQ#r&
;Fkk & r=kSo r=k $ ,o
HkxoUu;e~ ---------------- $ ----------------
'okl'p ---------------- $ ----------------
[kYoÑrKk% ---------------- $ ----------------
lIrSrk% ---------------- $ ----------------
djksrhfr ---------------- $ ----------------

3- mnkgj.kkuqlkja vO;;inkfu fpuqr&


;Fkk & jk/k vfi u`R;frA vfi
(d) Roa dnk x`ga xfe";flA ----------------
([k) v/quk d% le;%A ----------------
(x) egkRekxkU/h lnk lR;a onfr LeA ----------------
(?k) vga oÜ % fo|ky;a xfe";kfeA ----------------
(Ä) bnkuha Roa 'yksoQa iBA ----------------

#fpjk
20 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
4- v/ksfyf[krkfu dFkukfu d%@dk oaQ@dka izfr dFk;kfr\
d%@dk oaQ@dka izfr
(d) ew[kZ oS|! vya ifjJes.kA ---------------- ----------------
([k) oqQ=k oqQ=k jkfeyd%A ---------------- ----------------
(x) fo"kosxk% 'kre~A ---------------- ----------------
(?k) xqfydk% e;k vkuhrk%A ---------------- ----------------
(Ä) bne~ mnde~A ---------------- ----------------
(p) vjs! izR;kxrizk.k% [kyq Hkxoku~A ---------------- ----------------

5- foijhrkFkZdk% 'kCnk% ys[kuh;k%&


xq.kk% ----------------

Lohdkj% ----------------

nf{k.kgLr% ----------------

vuU;k ----------------

ÑrK% ----------------

6- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu iz;Tq ; okD;kfu jp;r&


xqfydk% & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
oqQBkfjdk & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
f{kize~ & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
;Ru% & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
yksosQ & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

HkxonTtqde~ 21
20
7- mnkgj.kkuqlkjs.k infuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
ewy'kCnk% opue~ inkfu
;Fkk& f'kfYiu~ izFkek&,dopus f'kYih
/fuu~ f}rh;k&,dopus ---------------------
Kkfuu~ r`rh;k&,dpus ---------------------
egÙokdkaf{ku~ f}rh;k&cgqopus ---------------------
cgqHkkf"ku~ r`rh;k&cgqopus ---------------------
nf.Mu~ f}rh;k&cgqopus ---------------------

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%
i;kZ;okfpu% 'kCnk%
liZ% & Hkqtx%] O;ky%] fo"k/j% pØh] vfg%] iouk'ku%] HkksxhA
yksd% & lalkj%] txr~] Hkqoue~] fo'oe~A
'kjhje~ & nsg%] ruq%] xk=ke~] oiq%] dk;%] foxzg%A
Hkw% & /jk] i`Foh] /j.kh] vpyk] vuUrk] /fj=kh] olq/k] olqU/jk] olqerhA
f{kize~ & nzrq e~] 'kh?kze]~ Rofjre~] lRoje~] piye~] rw.kZe]~ vfoyfEcre~A
* izglu :id dk Hksn gS tks gkL;jl iz/ku gksrk gSA HkxonTtqde~ laLÑr ukV~;
lkfgR; dk izfl¼ izglu gSA ;g gekjs ns'k esa rFkk fons'kksa esa Hkh ewy laLÑr
rFkk vU; Hkk"kkvksa esa vuwfnr gks dj fo'o osQ Js"B ukV~;funs'Z kdksa osQ funs'Z ku
esa eap ij vusd ckj [ksyk x;k gSA
bl izglu dk vfHku; osQjy osQ eafnjksa esa izkphu dky ls gh ikjaifjd :i ls
gksrk jgk gSA bldh nk'kZfud o vkè;kfRed O;k[;k Hkh dh tkrh jgh gSA
* jkf"Vª; ukV~; fo|ky; (,u~-,l~-Mh)] fnYyh osQ ikB~;Øe esa ;g LohÑr gSA
* nwjn'kZu /kjkokfgd osQ :i esa (lkr dfM+;ksa es)a Hkh bldk izlkj.k gks pqdk gSA

#fpjk
22 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
prqFkZ% ikB%

lnSo iqjrks fu/sfg pj.ke~


¹Jh/jHkkLdj o.ksd Z j osQ }kjk fojfpr izLrqr xhr esa pqukSfr;ksa dks Lohdkj djrs gq,
vkxs c<+us dk vkàku fd;k x;k gSA blosQ iz.ksrk jk"Vªoknh dfo gSa vkSj bl xhr osQ
}kjk mUgksua s tkxj.k rFkk deZBrk dk lUns'k fn;k gSAº

yksV&~ fof/fyÄ~&iz;ksx%

py py iqjrks fu/sfg pj.ke~A


lnSo iqjrks fu/sfg pj.ke~AA
fxfjf'k[kjs uuq futfuosQrue~A
fouSo ;kua uxkjksg.ke~AA
cya Lodh;a Hkofr lk/ue~A
lnSo iqjrks -----------------------AA
ifFk ik"kk.kk fo"kek% iz[kjk%A
¯gÏk% i'ko% ifjrks ?kksjk%AA
lqn"q dja [kyq ;|fi xeue~A
lnSo iqjrks -----------------------AA
tghfg Hkh¯r Hkt Hkt 'kfDre~A
fo/sfg jk"Vªs rFkk¿uqjfDre~AA
lnSo iqjrks oqQ# oqQ# lrra è;s;&Lej.ke~A
fuèksfg pj.ke~ 23
22
lnSo iqjrks -----------------------AA
'kCnkFkkZ%

iqjrks (iqjr%) & vkxs


fu/sfg & j[kks
fxfjf'k[kjs & ioZr dh pksVh ij
futfudsrue~ & viuk fuokl
fouSo (fouk$,o) & fcuk gh
uxkjksg.ke~ (ux$vkjksg.ke~) & ioZr ij p<+uk
Lodh;e~ & viuk
ifFk & ekxZ esa
ik"kk.kk% & iRFkj
fo"kek% & vlkekU;
iz[kjk% & rh{.k] uqdhys
¯glzk% & ¯gld
ifjrks (ifjr%) & pkjksa vksj
?kksjk% & Hk;Äïj] Hk;kud
lqnq"dje~ & vR;Ur dfBurkiwoZd lkè;
tghfg & NksM+ks@NksM+ nks
Hkt & Hktks] tiks
fo/sfg & djks
vuqjfDre~ & izse] Lusg
lrre~ & yxkrkj
è;s;Lej.ke~ & mís'; (y{;) dk Lej.k

#fpjk
24 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
vH;kl%

1- ikBs nÙka xhra lLoja xk;rA

2- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k ,dinsu fy[kr&


(d) Lodh;a lk/ua ¯d Hkofr\
([k) ifFk osQ fo"kek% iz[kjk%\
(x) lrra ¯d dj.kh;e~\
(?k) ,rL; xhrL; jpf;rk d%\
(Ä) l% dhn`'k% dfo% eU;rs\

3 e×tw"kkr% fozQ;kinkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&

fu/sfg fo/sfg tghfg nsfg Hkt py oqQ#

;Fkk&Roa iqjr% pj.ka fu/sfgA


(d) Roa fo|ky;a -----------------A
([k) jk"Vsª vuqjfDra -----------------A
(x) eg~;a tya -----------------A
(?k) ew<! ----------------- /ukxer`".kke~A
(Ä) ----------------- xksfoUne~A
(p) lrra è;s;Lej.ka ----------------- A

lnSo iqjrks
fuèksfg pj.ke~ 25
24
4- e×tw"kkr% vO;;inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
,o [kyq rFkk ifjr% iqjr% lnk fouk

(d) fo|ky;L; ----------------- ,de~ m|kue~ vfLrA

([k) lR;e~ ----------------- t;rsA

(x) ¯d Hkoku~ Lukua Ñroku~ ----------------- \

(?k) l% ;Fkk fpUr;fr ----------------- vkpjfrA

(Ä) xzkea ----------------- o`{kk% lfUrA

(p) fo|ka ----------------- thoua o`FkkA

(N) ----------------- HkxoUra HktA

5- foykseinkfu ;kst;r&

iqjr% fojfDr%

Lodh;e~ vkxeue~

Hkhfr% i`"Br%

vuqjfDr% ijdh;e~

xeue~ lkgl%

#fpjk
26 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
6- yV~ydkjinsH;% yksV&~ fof/fyÄ~ydkjinkuka fuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
yV~ydkjs yksV~ydkjs fof/fyÄ~ydkjs
;Fkk&iBfr iBrq iBsr~
[ksyfl --------------- ---------------
[kknfUr --------------- ---------------
fickfe --------------- ---------------
glr% --------------- ---------------
u;ke% --------------- ---------------

7- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu funs'Z kkuqlkja ifjorZ;r&


;Fkk & fxfjf'k[kj (lIreh&,dopus) & fxfjf'k[kjs
ifFku~ (lIreh&,dopus) & ------------------
jk"Vª (prqFkhZ&,dopus) & ------------------
ik"kk.k (lIreh&,dopus) & ------------------
;ku (f}rh;k&cgqopus) & ------------------
'kfDr (izFkek&,dopus) & ------------------
i'kq (lIreh&cgqopus) & ------------------

8- mfprdFkukuka le{ke~ ^vke~*] vuqfprdFkukuka le{ka ^u* bfr fy[kr&


;Fkk&iqjr% pj.ka fu/sfgA vke~
(d) futfudsrua fxfjf'k[kjs vfLrA
([k) Lodh;a cya ck/oaQ HkofrA

lnSo iqjrks
fuèksfg pj.ke~ 27
26
(x) ifFk ¯gÏk% i'ko% u lfUrA
(?k) xeua lqdje~ vfLrA
(Ä) lnSo vxzs ,o pyuh;e~A
9- okD;jpu;k vFkZHksna Li"VhoqQ#r&
ifjr% μ iqjr%
ux% μ ukx%
vkjksg.ke~ μ vojksg.ke~
fo"kek% μ lek%

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

u xPNfr bfr ux%A iru~ xPNrhfr iUux%A


mjlk xPNrhfr mjx%A olq /kj;rhfr olq/kA
[ks (vkdk'ks) xPNfr bfr [kx%A ljrhfr liZ%A
MkW- Jh/jHkkLdj o.ksd Z j (1918&2005 bZ-) ukxiqj fo'ofo|ky; esa laLÑr foHkkx
osQ vè;{k FksA mUgksua s laLÑr Hkk"kk esa dkO;] ukVd] xhr bR;kfn fo/kvksa dh vusd
jpuk,¡ dhaA rhu [k.Mksa esa laLÑr&okÄ~e;&dks'k dk Hkh mUgksua s lEiknu fd;kA mudh
jpukvksa esa ^f'kojkT;ksn;e~* egkdkO; ,oa ^foosdkuUnfot;e~* ukVd lqifz l¼ gSAa
izLrqr xhr esa iT>fVdk NUn dk iz;ksx gSA bl NUn osQ izR;sd pj.k esa 16
ek=kk,¡ gksrh gSAa fgUnh esa bls pkSikbZ dgk tkrk gSA

#fpjk
28 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
i×pe% ikB%

/esZ /eua ikis iq.;e~


¹^/esZ /eua ikis iq.;e~* (/je esa /Ddk] iki esa iq.;) eè;izn's k osQ fM.Mksjh f”kys
esa ij/kuksa osQ chp izpfyr yksddFkk gSA ;g dFkk i×prU=k dh 'kSyh esa jfpr gSA
bl dFkk esa ;g Li"V fd;k x;k gS fd ladV esa iM+us ij Hkh prqjkbZ ,oa izR;qRiUUkefrRo
ls mlls fudyk tk ldrk gSAº
½dkjkUr&L=khfyÄõ%
vklhr~ df'pr~ p×pyks uke O;k/%A if{ke`xknhuka xzg.ksu l% Loh;ka thfodka
fuokZ g ;fr LeAA ,dnk l% ous tkya foLrh;Z
x`ge~ vkxroku~A vU;fLeu~ fnols
izkr%dkys ;nk p×py% oua xroku~
rnk l% n`"Voku~ ;r~ rsu foLrkfjrs
tkys nkSH kkZ X ;kn~ ,d% O;k?kz %
c¼% vklhr~A lks¿fpUr;r~] ^O;k?kz%
eka [kkfn";fr vr,o iyk;ua
dj.kh;e~A* O;k?kz% U;osn;r~&^Hkks
ekuo! dY;k.ka Hkorq rsA ;fn Roa
eka ekspf;";fl rfgZ vga ROkka u
gfu";kfeA* rnk l% O;k/% O;k?kza
tkykr~ cfg% fujlkj;r~A O;k?kz%
DykUr% vklhr~A lks¿onr~] ^Hkks
/esZ /eua ikis
iq.;e~ 29
ekuo! fiiklq% vge~A u|k% tyekuh; ee fiiklka 'ke;A
O;k?kz% tya ihRok iqu% O;kèkeonr~] ^'kkUrk es fiiklkA
lkEizra cqHkqf{krks¿fLeA bnkuhe~ vga Roka [kkfn";kfeA*
p×py% mDroku~] ^vga RoRÑrs èkeZe~ vkpfjroku~A
Ro;k feF;k Hkf.kre~A Roa eka [kkfnrqe~ bPNfl\
O;k?kz% vonr~] ^vjs ew[kZ! /esZ /eua ikis iq.;a
Hkofr ,oA i`PN defiA*
p×py% unhtye~ vi` P Nr~ A
unhtye~ vonr~] ^,oeso Hkofr] tuk%
ef; Lukua oqQoZfUr] oL=kkf.k iz{kky;fUr
rFkk p ey&ew=kkfnoaQ fol`T; fuorZUrs]
vr% /esZ /eua ikis iq.;a Hkofr ,oA*
p×py% o`{ke~ mixE; vi`PNr~A
o`{k% vonr~] ^ekuok% vLekoaQ Nk;k;ka
fojefUrA vLekoaQ iQykfu [kknfUr] iqu%
oqQBkjS% izâR; vLeH;a loZnk d"Va nnfrA
;=k oqQ=kkfi Nsnua oqQoZfUrA /esZ /eua ikis
iq.;a Hkofr ,oA*
lehis ,dk yksef'kdk cnjh&xqYekuka
i`"Bs fuyhuk ,rka okrk± J`.kksfr LeA lk lglk p×pyeqil`R;
dFk;fr&¶dk okrkZ\ eke~ vfi foKki;A¸ l% vonr~&¶vgg ekr`Lol%! voljs
Roa lekxrorhA e;k vL; O;k?kzL; izk.kk% jf{krk%] ije~ ,"k% ekeso [kkfnrqe~
bPNfrA¸ rnuUrja l% yksef'kdk;S fuf[kyka dFkka U;osn;r~A

#fpjk
30 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
yksef'kdk p×pye~ vdFk;r~&ck<e~] Roa tkya izlkj;A iqu% lk O;k?kze~
vonr~&osQu izdkjs.k Roe~ ,rfLeu~ tkys c¼% bfr vga izR;{ka nz"VqfePNkfeA
O;k?kz% rn~ o`ÙkkUra izn'kZf;rqa rfLeu~
tkys iz k fo'kr~ A yks e f'kdk iq u %
vdFk;r~&lEizfr iqu% iqu% owQnZua
ÑRok n'kZ;A l% rFkSo lekpjr~A
vukjra owQnZuus l% JkUr% vHkor~A
tkys c¼% l% O;k?kz % DykUr%
lu~ fu%lgk;ks HkwRok r=k virr~
izk.kfHk{kkfeo p v;kprA yksef'kdk
O;k?kze~ vonr~ ^lR;a Ro;k Hkf.kre~*
/esZ /eua ikis iq.;e~ rq Hkofr ,oA* tkys iqu% ra c¼a n`"V~ok l% O;k/% izlUuks
HkwRok x`ga izR;korZrA
'kCnkFkkZ%

/eue~ & /kSd


a uk] /Ddk] ozQw jrkiw.kZ dk;Z
O;k/% & f'kdkjh] cgsfy;k
Loh;ke~ & Lo;a dh
nkSHkkZX;kr~ & nqHkkZX; ls
c¼% & c¡/k gqvk
iyk;ue~ & iyk;u djuk] Hkkx tkuk
U;osn;r~ (fu$vosn;r~) & fuosnu fd;k
ekspf;";fl & eqDr djksx@s NqMk+ vksxs

/esZ /eua ikis


iq.;e~ 31
fujlkj;r~ (fu%$vlkj;r~) & fudkyk
DykUr% & Fkdk gqvk
fiiklq% & I;klk
'ke; & 'kkUr djks@feVkvks
cqHkqf{kr% & Hkw[kk
Hkf.kre~ & dgk
iz{kky;fUr & /ksrs gSa
fol`T; & NksM+dj
fuorZUrs & pys tkrs gS@a ykSVrs gSa
mixE; & ikl tkdj
fojefUr & foJke djrs gSa
oqQBkjS% & oqQYgkfM+;ksa ls
izâR; & izgkj djosQ
Nsnue~ & dkVuk
yksef'kdk & ykseM+h
fuyhuk & Nqih gqbZ
mil`R; & lehi tkdj
ekr`Lol%! & gs ekSlh
lekxrorh & i/kjh@vkbZ
fuf[kyke~ & lEiw.kZ] iwjh
ck<e~ & Bhd gS] vPNk

#fpjk
32 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
izR;{ke~ & vius (le{k) lkeus
o`ªÙkkUre~ & iwjh dgkuh
izn'kZf;rqe~ & izn'kZu djus osQ fy,
izkfo'kr~ (iz$vfo'kr~) & izo's k fd;k
owQnZue~ & mNy&owQn
vukjre~ & yxkrkj
JkUr% & Fkdk gqvk
izR;korZr (izfr$vk$vorZr) & ykSV vk;k

vH;kl%

1- ,dinsu mRrja fy[kr&


(d) O;k/L; uke fde~ vklhr~\
([k) p×py% O;k?kza oqQ=k n`"Voku~\
(x) foLr`rs tkys d% c¼% vklhr~A
(?k) cnjh&xqYekuka i`"Bs dk fuyhuk vklhr~\
(Ä) vukjra owQnZuus d% JkUr% vHkor~\

2- laLÑrsu mÙkjr&
(d) p×pysu ous ¯d Ñre~\
([k) O;k?kzL; fiiklk dFka 'kkUrk vHkor~\
(x) tya ihRok O;k?kz% fde~ vonr~\
(?k) p×py% ^ekr`Lol%!* bfr dka lEcksf/roku~\
(Ä) tkys iqu% c¼a O;k?kza n`"V~ok O;k/% fde~ vdjksr\~

/esZ /eua ikis


iq.;e~ 33
3- v/ksfyf[krkfu okD;kfu d%@dk oaQ@dka izfr dFk;fr&
d%@dk oaQ@dka
;Fkk & bnkuhe~ vga Roka [kkfn";kfeA O;k?kz% O;k/e~
(d) dY;k.ka Hkorq rsA ------------ ------------
([k) tuk% ef; Lukua oqQoZfUrA ------------ ------------
(x) vjs ew[kZ! /esZ /eua ikis iq.;a Hkofr ,oA ------------ ------------
(?k) ;=k oqQ=kkfi Nsnua oqQoZfUrA ------------ ------------
(Ä) lEizfr iqu% iqu% owQnZua ÑRok n'kZ;A ------------ ------------
4- lfU/a ÑRok fy[kr&
e`x $ vknhuke~ ¾ ----------------------------
rFkk $ ,o ¾ ----------------------------
oqQ=k $ vfi ¾ ----------------------------
cqHkqf{kr% $ vfLe ¾ ----------------------------
izfr $ vk $ vorZr ¾ ----------------------------

5- mnkgj.kkuqlkja fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
;Fkk& ekr` (izFkek) ekrk ekrjkS ekrj%
Lol` (izFkek) ----------- ----------- -----------
ekr` (r`rh;k) ek=kk ekr`H;ke~ ekr`fHk%
Lol` (r`rh;k) ----------- ----------- -----------
Lol` (lIreh) Lolfj LoÏks% Lol`"k`
ekr` (lIreh) ----------- ----------- -----------

#fpjk
34 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
Lol` ("k"Bh) Lolq% LoÏks% Lol.kke~
Ï
ekr` ("k"Bh) ----------- ----------- -----------

6- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok dFkka iwj;r&

n`"V~ok Lodh;S% Ñroku~ drZue~ o`¼%


lk^gkle~ rfgZ {kqnz% ekspf;rqe~ vdLekr~

,dfLeu~ ous ,d% ------------------- O;k?kz% vklhr~A l% ,dnk O;kèksu foLrkfjrs tkys

c¼% vHkor~A l% cgqi;z kla ------------------- fdUrq tkykr~ eqDr%

ukHkor~A ------------------- r=k ,d% ew"kd% lekxPNr~A c¼a O;k?kza


------------------- l% re~ vonr~&vgks! Hkoku~ tkys c¼%A vga

ROkka ------------------- bPNkfeA rPNRqz ok O;k?kz% --------------vonr~&vjs!

Roa {kqn%z tho% ee lgkÕ;a dfj";flA ;fn Roa eka ekspf;";fl


-------------------vga Roka u gfu";kfeA ew"kd% ------------------- y?kqnUrS%

rTtkya ------------------- ÑRok ra O;k?kza cfg% Ñroku~A


7- /kraq izR;;a p fy[kr&
inkfu ¾ /krq% izR;;%
;Fkk& xUrqe~ ¾ xe~ $ rqeuq ~
nz"Vqe~ ¾ -------------- $ -------------

/esZ /eua ikis


iq.;e~ 35
dj.kh; ¾ -------------- $ -------------
ikrqe~ ¾ -------------- $ -------------
[kkfnrqe~ ¾ -------------- $ -------------
ÑRok ¾ -------------- $ -------------

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

ij/ku vkSj mudh dykijEijk&ij/ku eq[;r% xkSMa jktkvksa dh oa'kkoyh vkSj


dFkk osQ xk;d FksA xkSMa jkT; osQ lekIr gksus ij ;s xk;d viuh xk;h tkus okyh
dFkkvksa ij fp=k cukus yxsA bl leqnk; dh dFkkvksa vkSj fp=kdyk osQ ckjs esa vkSj
vf/d tkuus osQ fy, iqLrd ^tux<+ dye* (oU;k izdk'ku] Hkksiky) ns[kh
tk ldrh gSA izLrqr dFkk osQ ladyu&drkZ fgUnh osQ lqifz l¼ ys[kd Jh mn;u
oktis;h gSAa
yksddFkkvksa esa thou dh jax&fcjaxh rLohj feyrh gSA fnypLi ckr ;g gS fd
yksddFkk,¡ fdlh ,d Hkk"kk ;k bykosQ rd lhfer ugha jgrhaA mUgsa dgus okys
txg&txg ?kwers gSa blfy, :i vkSj o.kZu esa gsjisQj osQ lkFk nwljh txgksa esa Hkh
fey tkrh gSAa {ks=k fo'ks"k dh laLÑfr dh >yd mudks vuwBk cukrh gSA LFkku vkSj
dky osQ vuqlkj yksddFkkvksa dh ubZ&ubZ O;k[;k,¡ gksrh jgrh gSAa bl Øe esa muesa
ifjorZu Hkh gksrk gSA

#fpjk
36 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
"k"B% ikB%

izseyL; izseY;k'p dFkk


¹izLrqr dgkuh f'k{kkfon~ fxtq HkkbZ (1885&1939) dh jpuk ^iseyk iseyh dh
dgkuh* dk vuqokn gSA xqtjkr osQ Hkkouxj osQ fo|ky; esa i<+krs gq, mUgksua s cky
f'k{k.k osQ {ks=k esa vusd iz;ksx fd,A yEck le; xqtj tkus osQ ckotwn muosQ fopkj
izklfÄdõ gaAS bl dgkuh esa ,d efgyk ?kjsyw dkeksa dks iwjk djus dh viuh ikjEifjd
Hkwfedk dks oko~Q pkrq;Z ls cnyus dh dksf'k'k djrh gSAº
milxZ% izR;;Üp
,d% vklhr~ izes y% ,dk pklhr~ izes yhA dk"BPNsnus JkUr% izes y% lk;adkys
x`gekxPNr~] izseyha pkonr~& izsefy! v| [kyq Hk`'ka JkUrks¿fLeA eáa tye~
m".ka ÑRok nsfgA vga LukRok rfLeu~ tys pj.kkS LFkki;kfeA rsu ee JkfUr%
vixfe";frA
izes yh vonr~& rokuqjks/a dFkege~ vLohoqQ;kZe\~ i';] r=k g.Mh mifj LFkkfirkA
rke~ vorkj;A izes y% g.Mheokrkj;r~A rr% l vonr~& v/quk ¯d djksfe\ izes yh
vonr~& fudVs owQi% orZrAs r=k xRok tya Hk`Rok vku;A izes y% ?kVs tya lEiw;Z
vkxPNr~A iqu% izes yhe~ vi`PNr~& bnkuha fde~\
izes yh vonr~& v/quk pqY;ka dk"Bkfu izTToky;A izes y% dk"Bkfu izTTokY;
vi`PNr~& vxsz ¯d djokf.k\ izes yh vdFk;r~& ;kor~ pqYyh lE;o~Q u Toyfr]
rkor~ iwQRoqQ#] fdeU;r~\ izes ysu pqYyh lE;o~Q izTokfyrkA vFk p vi`PNr~& vèkquk
fde~ djokf.k\ izes yh vonr~& ?kVkr~ g.M~;ka tya iwj;A rr% g.Mha pqY;ke~ mifj
LFkki;A
izseyL;
izseY;k'p 37
36
dFkk
izsey% g.Mha pqY;ke~ vLFkki;r~A fdf×pr~ dkykuUrja p iqu% izseyhe~
vi`PNr~& bnkuha ¯d djokf.k\ izseyh vonr~μ fdeU;r~] g.Mhe~ vorkj;A

g.Mheork;Z izes y% i`PNfr& v/quk\ izes yh onfr&v/quk g.Mha Lukux`gs LFkki;A


izes y% g.Mha Lukux`gs fu/k; i`PNfr& v/quk\ izes yh fujfn'kr~&lEizfr Lukua oqQ#A
izes y% LUkkRok vi`PNr~&vèkquk ¯d dj.kh;e~\
izes yh vonr~& bnkuha g.Mha ;FkkLFkkua fu/sfgA izes y% g.Mha laLFkkI; 'kjhja
gLrsu laLi`'; vdFk;r~& vjs] dhn`'ka iq"ifeo 'kjhja y?kq tkre~A ;fn Roa izfrfnua
,oeso tye~ m".ka ÑRok eáa nnkfl rfgZ fd;r~ 'kksHkua HkosrA~ izes yh vonr~& fdega
u bfr dFk;kfe\ ijUrq v=k dL; vkyL;e~\ izes y% vonr~& vkyL;a rq eeSoA
ije~ vxzs vkYkL;a u dfj";kfeA
izes yh vonr~& vLrq! lEizfr vkoka Hkkstua oqQoZ%A
#fpjk
38 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
'kCnkFkkZ%

dk"BPNsnsu & ydfM+;k¡ dkVus ls


[kyq & vo'; gh (vO;;)
LukRok & Luku djosQ
JkfUr% & Fkdku
vixfe";fr & nwj gks tk,xh
vLohoqQ;kZe~ & vLohdkj d:¡
g.Mh & gfM+;k
vokrkj;r~ (vo$vrkj;r~) & mrkj fy;k
Hk`Rok & Hkjdj
pqY;ke~ & pwYgs esa] ij
dk"Bkfu & ydfM+;ksa dks
izTToky; & tykvks
lE;o~Q & vPNh rjg ls
iwQRoqQ# & iw¡Qdks
dkykuUrje~ (dky$vuUrje~) & le; osQ ckn
fu/k; & j[kdj
fujfn'kr~ (fu%$vfn'kr~) & funsZ'k fd;k
laLFkkI; & j[kdj
LkaLi`'; & Nwdj
dhn`'ke~ & oSQlk
y?kq & gYdk
fd;r~ & fdruk
izseyL;
izseY;k'p 39
38
dFkk
vH;kl%
1- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) izes y% oQFka JkUr% vklhr~\
([k) izes y% dnk x`ge~ vkxPNr~\
(x) izes y% dkfu izkToky;r~\
(?k) pqYyha izTokyf;rqa izes y% ¯d Ñroku~\
(Ä) izes yh dL; iRuh vklhr~\

2- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq milx± fpRok i`Fko~Q oqQ#r&


;Fkk&vixfe";kfr ¾ vi $ xfe";fr
vorkj; ¾ -------------- $ --------------
izTTokY; ¾ -------------- $ --------------

izgkj% ¾ -------------- $ --------------

ijkt;% ¾ -------------- $ --------------


migkj% ¾ -------------- $ --------------

3- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq mnkgj.kkuqlkjs.k /krqa izR;;a p i`Fko~Q oqQ#r&


inkfu /krq% izR;;%
(d) ;Fkk & xRok ¾ xe~ $ DRok
ÑRok ¾ -------------- $ --------------
Hk`Rok ¾ -------------- $ --------------
LukRok ¾ -------------- $ --------------

#fpjk
40 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
([k) ;Fkk & ifBrqe~ ¾ iB~ $ rqequ~
drqZe~ ¾ -------------- $ --------------

[kkfnrqe~ ¾ -------------- $ --------------

nz"Vqe~ ¾ -------------- $ --------------

inkfu milxZ% /krq% izR;;%


(x) ;Fkk & vkuh; ¾ vk $ uh $ Y;i~
vkxR; ¾ -------------- $ -------------- $ --------------

fu/k; ¾ -------------- $ -------------- $ --------------

vknk; ¾ -------------- $ -------------- $ --------------

laLi`'; ¾ -------------- $ -------------- $ --------------

4- e×tw"kkr% lekukFkZdinkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


fudVs v/quk dFk;fr nnkfl gLrsu laLFkkI; iq"ie~ ruq%
djs.k ¾ --------------
oqQlqee~ ¾ --------------
;PNfl ¾ --------------
LFkkif;Rok ¾ --------------
onfr ¾ --------------
lkEizre~ ¾ --------------
'kjhje~ ¾ --------------
ik'osZ ¾ --------------

izseyL;
izseY;k'p 41
40
dFkk
5- funs'Z kkuqlkja milx± fØ;kina p i`Fko~Q oqQ#r&
;Fkk & izkpyr~ ¾ iz $ vpyr~
fujfn'kr~ ¾ -------------- $ --------------
vkxPNr~ ¾ -------------- $ --------------
vokrkj;r~ ¾ -------------- $ --------------
ijkHkor~ ¾ -------------- $ --------------
izk{kky;r~ ¾ -------------- $ --------------

6- v/ksfyf[krkfu okD;kfu ?kVukØekuqlkja fy[kr&


(d) l% g.Mheokrkj;r~A
([k) l% pqYyheToky;r~A
(x) l% g.Mha Lukux`gs vLFkki;r~A
(?k) l% ?kVs tyeHkjr~A
(Ä) izes y% x`gekxPNr~A
(p) l% tyeq".kedjksrA~
(N) l% HkkstuedjksrA~
(t) l% LukuedjksrA~

7- v/ksfyf[krkuka rn~Hkoinkuka rRleinkfu fpuqr&


dkB & --------------
gk¡Mh & --------------
pwYgk & --------------
owQvk¡ & --------------
iw¡Qduk & --------------

#fpjk
42 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
lIre% ikB%

tyokfguh
¹izLrqr xhr Hkkstiqjh yksdxhr dk vuqokn gSA vuqoknd yC/&izfr"B ,oa
vUrkjkf"Vª;[;kfr&izkIr izk-s jkedj.k 'kekZ gSAa blesa xk¡o dh ikuh Hkjus okyh L=kh dk
fp=k.k fd;k x;k gSA og oqQ,¡ ls ?kM+s esa ty Hkjdj ykrh gSA ty ykrs le; mlosQ
eu esa vkus okys vusdHkkoksa dk o.kZu fd;k x;k gSAº

fo'ks";&fo'ks"k.kiz;ksx%
Hkfj";kE;kgfj";kfe p
lfyyoqQEHka fd;Rdkye~A Hkfj";k--------
'kuS;fZ n ;kfe fpjjk=kk;
foyfi";fr x`gs cky%A
nzrq a ;fn ;kfe olua es
Hkosnknz± lfyyosx%S AA Hkfj";k---------
beku~ uwijq joku~ #u>qu&
e;ku~ vkd.;Z ukxfjdk%A
lq[ka 'kÕ;kef/'k;kuk
bfVfr rs tkxfj";fUrAA Hkfj";k---------

ruq% owQiks egkyEc&


Lrys rL;kfLr ikuh;e~A
Ñ"kUR;k es ?kVa jTTok
tyokfguh djs¿I;kLrs egkLiQksV%AA Hkfj";k--------- 43
42
'kCnkFkkZ%

tyokfguh & ifugkju


Hkfj";kE;kgfj";kfe & Hk:¡xh] ykÅ¡xh
(Hkfj";kfe$vkgfj";kfe)
lfyyoqQEHke~ & ikuh osQ ?kM+s dks
'kuS;Zfn('kuS%$;fn) & ;fn /hjs ls
;kfe & tkrh gw¡
fpjjk=kk; & cgqr le; rd
foyfi";fr & jks,xk@foyki djsxk
nzqre~ & tYnh] 'kh?kz
HkosnknzZe~ & xhyk gks tk,xk
(Hkosr~$vknzZe~)
uwiqjjoku~ & ik;y dh èofu
vkd.;Z & lqu dj
bfVfr & 'kh?kz
egkyEcLrys & ry esa dkiQh xgjk
(egkyEc%$rys)
rL;kfLr & mldk gS
(rL;$vfLr)
Ñ"kUR;k & [khapus ls
jTTok & jLlh ls
djs¿I;kLrs & gkFk esa gksrk gS
(djs$vfi$vkLrs)
egkLiQksV% & iQiQksyk
ruq% & NksVk
#fpjk
44 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
vH;kl%
1- izLrqra xhra lLoja xk;rA
2- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) owQi% dhn`'k% vfLr\
([k) egkLiQksV% oqQ=k vkLrs\
(x) cky% oqQ=k foyfi";fr\
(?k) tyokfguh ;fn nzrq a xPNsr~ rfgZ ¯d L;kr~\
3- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq ;Fkkisf{kra l¯U/@foPNsna oqQ#r&
(d) rL; $ vfLr ¾ -------------------
([k) -------------- $ -------------- ¾ vI;kLrs
(x) egkyEc% $ rys ¾ -------------------
(?k) -------------- $ -------------- ¾ Hkfj";kE;kgfj";kfe
(Ä) lq $ mfDr% ¾ -------------------

4- fo'ks"k.kS% lg fo'ks";kf.k ;kst;r&


fo'ks"k.k&inkfu fo'ks";&inkfu
fd;r~ owQi%

xHkhj% olue~

LFkwy% uwiqjjoku~

vknzZe~ dkye~

beku~ foMky%
tyokfguh 45
44
5- lekukFkZdkfu inkfu esy;r&

lfyye~ oqQEHk%

x`ge~ f'k'kqe~

nzqre~ tye~

?kV% 'kh?kze~

ckye~ Hkoue~

6- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka fyÄaõ foHkfDra opua p fy[kr&

inkfu fyÄõe~ foHkfDr% opue~

;Fkk& jkf=ke~ L=khfyÄõe~ f}rh;k ,dopue~

x`gs ------------------- ------------------- -------------------

lokZu~ ------------------- ------------------- -------------------

jTTok ------------------- ------------------- -------------------

osxS% ------------------- ------------------- -------------------

dksykgyk% ------------------- ------------------- -------------------

rys ------------------- ------------------- -------------------

#fpjk
46 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
7- fp=ka n`"V~ok e×tw"kkr% inkfu p fpRok okD;kfu jp;r&

fpfdRlky;% fpfdRld% #X.kku~ fpfdRlkFkZe~ uxjs ifjpjfr


tuk% vkxPNfUr ifjpkfjdk nnkfr djksfr vkS"k/e~

(d) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
([k) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(x) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(?k) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(Ä) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

tyokfguh 47
46
8- vUo;a oqQ#r&
(d) nzrq a ;fn ;kfe olua es
Hkosnknz± lfyyosx%S A
([k) Ñ"kUR;k es ?kVa jTTok
djs¿I;kLrs egkLiQksV%A

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

v/ksfyf[kr ewy Hkkstiqjh yksd&xhr dk vuqokn osQ lkFk vH;kl dhft;s&


dr fnu jke Hkjc ge xxjhA dr fnu-
/hjs pyw¡ r ckyd ?kj jksos
>Vdh pyw¡ r Hkhats eksjk pqujhA dr fnu-
#u>qu #u>qu ik;y ckts
ik;y osQ lcn lqfu tkxs lkjh uxjhAA dr fnu-
ikrj oqQb;k¡ irkys esa ikuh
[khafp [khafp xxjh gFksyh iM+s iQiQjhAA dr fnu-

fuEufyf[kr xhr dk vH;kl dj ifBr xhr ls blosQ HkkolkE; dks lef>;s&


iUFkk% fifPNy%
?kVhHkkjs.k iUFkk% fifPNyLRoj;k u pyuh;%A
v;a y?kqy?kqinSe;Zs ks¿uqu;s !s uSo oyuh;%AA

b;a ifÄy ï k ohFkh Hk;Äjï h ro ukfLr ;krO;k]


l`tUrh njelkS efUnjl`freZf; lk¿fi gkrO;k]
vekxZ'pkcySyksd Z ks onfr df'pUu J;.kh;%A
?kVhHkkjs.k iUFkk% fifPNyLRoj;k u pyuh;%A

#fpjk
48 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
ins LFkx;fr fojefojesfr dFk;fr n`';efHkrks ;r~]
izrh;r vkfy! ¯d uq onkfu ân;a p×pqja fopyr~]
fu/s;fena o'ks¿oljks u gs;ks¿;a u oj.kh;%A
?kVhHkkjs.k iUFkk% fifPNyLRoj;k u pyuh;%A

eufl u`R;Lojks en;fr Nfefr Nwe~ Nwe~ Nuu&Nwfefr]


r`"kk ;k;kprs eq[kjk iz'kferk ukfLe uk¿Hkwfefr]
foe`'k ¯d ¯deo/h;ZeFkks uq d% d'pkuqlj.kh;%A
?kVhHkkjs.k iUFkk% fifPNyLRoj;k u pyuh;%A
egkjktnhuik.Ms;%
fifPNy% & fiQlyus okyk p×pqje~ & vR;Ur prqj (vFkok fo'ks"kK)
oyuh;% & bBykdj pyus yk;d ;k;kprs & ckj&ckj ek¡x jgh gS

tyokfguh 49
48
v"Ve% ikB%

lalkjlkxjL; uk;dk%
¹izLrqr ikB vuqie feJ dh Ñfr vkt Hkh [kjs gSa rkykc osQ lalkj lkxj osQ
uk;d uked vè;k; ls fy;k x;k gSA blesa foyqIr gksrs tk jgs ikjEifjd Kku]
dkS'ky ,oa f'kYi osQ /uh xt/j osQ lEcU/ esa ppkZ dh x;h gSA ikuh osQ fy,
ekuo fufeZr rkykc] ckoM+h tSls fuekZ.kksa dks ys[kd us ;gk¡ lalkj lkxj osQ :i
esa fpf=kr fd;k gSAº

osQ vklu~ rs vKkrukeku%\


'kr'k% lgÏ'k% rMkxk% lglSo 'kwU;kr~ u izdVhHkwrk%A bes ,o rMkxk% v=k
lalkjlkxjk% bfrA ,rs"kke~ vk;kstuL; usiF;s
fuekZif;rÏ.kke~ ,dde~] fuekZr Ï.kka p
n'kde~ vklhr~A ,rr~ ,doaQ n'koaQ p
vkgR; 'kroaQ lgÏa ok jp;r% LeA
ija foxrs"kq f}'kro"ks"Z kq uwrui¼R;k lektsu
;fRdf×pr~ ifBre~A ifBrsu rsu lektsu
,doaQ n'koaQ lgÏoQ×p bR;srkfu 'kwU;s
,o ifjofrZrkfuA vL; uwrulektL;
eufl b;efi ftKklk uSo mn~Hkwrk ;n~
vLekRiwoeZ ~ ,rkor% rMkxku~ osQ jp;fUr
LeA ,rkn`'kkfu dk;kZf.k dr±q KkuL; ;ks
#fpjk
50 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
uwru% izfofèk% fodflr%] rsu izfof/uk¿fi iwo± lEikfnre~ ,rRdk;± ekif;raq u
osQukfi iz;frre~A
v| ;s vKkrukeku% orZUrs] iqjk rs cgqifz Fkrk% vklu~A v'ks"ks fg ns'ks rMkxk%
fuehZ;Urs Le] fuekZrkjks¿fi v'ks"ks ns'ks fuolfUr LeA
xt/j% bfr lqUnj% 'kCn% rMkxfuekZr.Ï kka lknja Lej.kkFkZeA~ jktLFkkuL; osQ"kqfpn~
Hkkxs"kq 'kCnks¿;e~ v|kfi izpyfrA d% xt/j%\ ;% xtifjek.ka èkkj;fr l xtèkj%A
xtifjek.ke~ ,o ekiudk;sZ mi;qT;rsA lekts
f=kgLr& ifjek.kkfRedha ykSg;f"Va gLrs x`ghRok
pyUr% xt/jk% bnkuha f'kfYi:is.k uSo
lekn`rk% lfUrA xt/j%] ;% lektL; xkEHkh;±
eki;sr~ bR;fLeu~ :is ifjfpr%A
xt/jk% okLrq d kjk% vklu~ A dkea
xzkeh.klektks Hkorq ukxjlektks ok rL;
uo&fuekZ.kL; lqj{kkizcU/uL; p nkf;Roa
xt/jk% fuHkky;fUr LeA uxjfu;kstukr~
y?kqfuekZ.ki;ZUra lokZf.k dk;kZf.k ,rs"oso
vkèk`rkfu vklu~A rs ;kstuka izLrqUofUr Le]
HkkfoO;;e~ vkdy;fUr Le] midj.kHkkjku~
laxÊ` fUr LeA izfrnkus rs u rn~ ;kpUrs Le ;n~ nkrqa rs"kka Lokfeu% vlEkFkkZ%
Hkos;%q A dk;ZlekIrkS osrukfu vfrfjP; xtèkjsH;% lEekuefi iznh;rs LeA
ue% ,rkn`'ksH;% f'kfYiH;%A

lalkjlkxjL;
51
uk;dk%
'kCnkFkkZ%

lglSo (lglk$,o) & vdLekr~] vpkud


izdVhHkwrk% & izdV gq,] fn[kkbZ fn,
usiF;s & insZ osQ ihNs
rMkxk% & rkykc
fuekZif;rÏ.kke~ & cuokus okyksa dh
fuekZrÏ.kke~ & cukus okyksa dh
,dde~ & bdkbZ
n'kde~ & ngkbZ
'krde~ & lSdM+k
lgÏde~ & gtkj
ftKklk & tkuus dh bPNk
mn~Hkwrk & mRiUu gqbZ] tkx`r gqbZ
vLekRiwoZe~ & blls igys
ekif;rqe~ & ekius@ukius osQ fy;s
iz;frre~ & iz;Ru fd;k
cgqizfFkrk% & cgqr izfl¼
v'ks"ks & lEiw.kZ
fuehZ;Urs Le & cuk, tkrs Fks

#fpjk
52 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
fuekZrkj% & cukus okys
xt/j% & xt (yackbZ] pkSM+kbZ] xgjkbZ] eksVkbZ
ekius dh yksgs dh NM+) dks /kj.k
djus okyk O;fDr
rMkxfuekZrÏ.kke~ & rkykc cukus okyksa osQ
f=kgLrifjek.kkfRedhe~ & rhu gkFk osQ uki dh
ykSg;f"Ve~ & yksgs dh NM+
lekn`rk% & vknj dks izkIr
xkEHkh;Ze~ & xgjkbZ
okLrqdkjk% & Hkou vkfn dk fuekZ.k djus okys
dkee~ & pkgs] Hkys gh
fuHkky;fUr Le & fuHkkrs Fks
vk/`rkfu & vk/kfjr
vkdy;fUr Le & vuqeku djrs Fks
midj.klEHkkjku~ & lk/u lkexzh dks
lax`g~.kfUr Le & laxzg djrs Fks
izfrnkus & cnys esa
;kpUrs Le & ek¡xrs Fks
vfrfjP; & vfrfjDr

lalkjlkxjL;
53
uk;dk%
vH;kl%
1- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) dL; jkT;L; Hkkxs"kq xt/j% 'kCn% iz;Tq ;rs\
([k) xtifjek.ka d% /kj;fr\
(x) dk;ZlekIrkS osrukfu vfrfjP; xt/jsH;% ¯d iznh;rs Le\
(?k) osQ f'kfYi:is.k u lekn`rk% HkofUr\
2- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) rMkxk% oqQ=k fuehZ;Urs Le\
([k) xt/jk% dfLeu~ :is ifjfprk%\
(x) xt/jk% ¯d oqQoZfUr Le\
(?k) osQ lEekuuh;k%\
3- js[kkfÄrï kfu inkfu vk/`R; iz'u&fuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) lqj{kkizcU/uL; nkf;Roa xt/jk% fuHkky;fUr LeA
([k) rs"kka Lokfeu% vleFkkZ% lfUrA
(x) dk;ZlekIrkS osrukfu vfrfjP; lEekuefi izkIuqofUrA
(?k) xt/j% lqUnj% 'kCn% vfLrA
(Ä) rMkxk% lalkjlkxjk% dF;UrsA
4- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ;Fkkisf{kra l¯U/@foPNsna oqQ#r&
(d) v| $ vfi ¾ ---------------
([k) ---------- $ ---------- ¾ Lej.kkFkZe~
(Xk) bfr $ vfLeu~ ¾ ---------------
(?k) ---------- $ ---------- ¾ ,rs"oso
(Ä) lglk $ ,o ¾ ---------------
#fpjk
54 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
5- e×tw"kkr% leqfprkfu inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
jp;fUr x`ghRok lglk ftKklk lg

(d) Nk=kk% iqLrdkfu -------------------- fo|ky;a xPNfUrA


([k) ekykdkjk% iq"iS% ekyk% --------------------------------A
(x) ee eufl ,dk ------------------------------- orZrAs
(?k) jes'k% fe=kS% ----------------- fo|ky;a xPNfrA
(Ä) ---------------------- ckfydk r=k vglrA

6- infuekZ.ka oqQq #r&


/krq% izR;;% ine~
;Fkk& Ñ $ rqequ~ ¾ drZqe~
â $ rqequ~ ¾ -------------
r` $ rqequ~ ¾ -------------
;Fkk& ue~ $ DRok ¾ uRok
xe~ $ DRok ¾ -------------
R;t~ $ DRok ¾ -------------
Hkqt~ $ DRok ¾ -------------
milxZ% /krq% izR;;% ¾ ine~
;Fkk& mi xe~ Y;i~ ¾ mixE;
le~ iwt~ Y;i~ ¾ -----------------
vk uh Y;i~ ¾ -----------------
iz nk Y;i~ ¾ -----------------

lalkjlkxjL;
55
uk;dk%
7- dks"BosQ"kq nÙks"kq 'kCns"kq leqfprka foHkfDra ;kstf;Rok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& fo|ky;a ifjr% o`{kk% lfUrA (fo|ky;)
(d) -------------------- mHk;r% xzkek% lfUrA (xzke)
([k) -------------------- loZr% v^kfydk% lfUrA (uxj)
(x) f/o~Q --------------------A (dkiq#"k)
;Fkk& e`xk% e`x%S lg /kofUrA (e`x)
(d) ckydk% -------------------- lg iBfUrA (ckfydk)
([k) iq=k -------------------- lg vki.ka xPNfrA (fir`)
(x) f'k'kq% -------------------- lg ØhMfrA (ekr`)

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

vuqie feJ&ty laj{k.k osQ ikjaifjd Kku dks lekt osQ lkeus ykus dk Js; ftu
yksxksa dks gS Jh vuqie feJ (tUe 1948) muesa vxzx.; gSAa ^vkt Hkh [kjs gSa
rkykc* vkSj ^jktLFkku dh jtr cwn¡ *sa ikuh ij mudh cgqi'z kaflr iqLroaQs gSAa

Hkk"kk&foLRkkj%
dkjd
lkekU; :i ls nks izdkj dh foHkfDr;k¡ gksrh gSAa
1- dkjd foHkfDr 2- miin foHkfDrA
dkjd fpg~uksa osQ vk/kj ij tgk¡ inksa dk iz;ksx gksrk gS mls dkjd foHkfDr dgrs
gSAa fdUrq fdUgha fo'ks"k inksa osQ dkj.k tgk¡ dkjd fpÉksa dh mis{kk dj fdlh fo'ks"k

#fpjk
56 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
foHkfDr dk iz;ksx gksrk gS mls miin foHkfDr dgrs gS]a tSl&s
loZr% vfHkr%] ifjr%] f/o~Q vkfn inksa osQ ;ksx esa f}rh;k foHkfDr gksrh gSA
mnk & (d) fo|ky;a ifjr% iq"ikf.k lfUrA
([k) f/o~Q ns'knzkfs g.ke~A
lg] lkde~] lk¼Ze]~ lea osQ ;ksx esa r`rh;k foHkfDr gksrh gSA
mnk & (d) tuosQu lg iq=k% xr%A
([k) nqtuZ us lea l[;e~A
ue%] LofLr] Lokgk] Lo/k osQ ;ksx esa prqFkhZ foHkfDr iz;Dq r gksrh gS&
mnk & (d) ns'kHkDrk; ue%A
([k) ue% ,rkn`'ksH;% f'kfYiH;%A
(x) tusH;% LofLrA
vye~ 'kCn osQ nks vFkZ gS&a i;kZIr ,oa er (okj.k osQ vFkZ es)a A i;kZIr osQ vFkZ esa
prqFkhZ foHkfDr gksrh gS tSl&s ns'knzkfs g.ks vya ns'kj{kdk%A
euk djus osQ vFkZ esa r`rh;k foHkfDr gksrh gS] tSl&s vya fooknsuA
fouk osQ ;ksx esa f}rh;k] r`rh;k ,oa i×peh foHkfDr;k¡ gksrh gSa] tSls&ifjJea@
ifjJes.k@ifjJekr~ fouk u xfr%A
fuEufyf[kr fØ;kvksa osQ ,dopu cukus dk iz;kl djs&a
vkdy;fUr] lax`ÊfUr] izLrqUofUrA
ftKklk&tkuus dh bPNkA blh izdkj osQ vU; 'kCn gS&a fiiklk] ftfXe"kk] foo{kk] cqHkw{kkA

Hkko&foLrkj%
vxj ge è;ku ls ns[ksa rks gekjs pkjksa rjiQ Kku ,oa dkS'ky osQ fofo/ :i fn[kkbZ
nsrs gSAa blesa oqQN Kku vkSj dkS'ky iQyrs&iwQyrs gSa vkSj dbZ fujarj {kh.k gksrs gSAa

lalkjlkxjL;
57
uk;dk%
blosQ dbZ mnkgj.k gekjs lkeus gSAa ikuh dk O;oLFkkiu laj{k.k vkSj [ksrh&ckM+h dk
ikjaifjd rkSj&rjhdk] f'kYi rFkk dkjhxjh dk Kku nqyHZ k vkSj foyqIr gksus osQ dxkj
ij gSA ogha vfHk;kfU=kdh ,oa lapkj ls lacfa /r Kku u, mHkkj ij gSAa njvly fdl
rjg dk Kku vkSj dkS'ky vkxs fodflr vkSj izxfq .kr gksxk vkSj fdl rjg dk Kku
,oa dkS'ky fiNM+xs k] foyqIr gksus osQ fy, foo'k gksxk ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrk
gS fd ns'k vkSj lekt fdl rjg osQ Kku ,oa dkS'ky osQ fodkl esa viuk Hkfo";
lqjf{kr ,oa lq[ke; ekurk gSA
ifj;kstuk&dk;Ze~
vkus okyh Nqf^;ksa esa vius vkl&ikl osQ {ks=k osQ mu ikjaifjd Kku ,oa dkS'kyksa dk
irk yxk,¡ ftudk LFkku lekt esa vc fujarj ?kV jgk gSA mUgsa dksbZ mfpr izkRs lkgu
ugha fey jgk gS ;k os foyqIr gksus osQ dxkj ij gSAa mudh ,d lwph Hkh rS;kj djsa
vkSj muosQ fy, iz;Dq r gksus okys laLÑr 'kCn fy[ksAa vius vkSj vius fe=kksa }kjk
rS;kj dh xbZ vyx&vyx lwfp;ksa dks lkeus j[krs gq, bu ikjaifjd dkS'kyksa osQ
foyqIr gksus osQ dkj.kksa dk irk yxk,¡A

#fpjk
58 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
uoe% ikB%

lIrHkfxU;%
¹^lIrHkfxuh* ;g ,d miuke gSA mÙkj&iwoZ osQ lkr jkT; fo'ks"k dks mDr mikf/ nh
x;h gSA bu jkT;ksa dk izkÑfrd lkSUn;Z vR;Ur foy{k.k gSA bUgha osQ lkaLÑfrd vkSj
lkekftd oSf'k"V~; dks è;ku esa j[kdj izLrqr ikB dk l`tu fd;k x;k gSAº
izR;;%
vè;kfidk & lqiHz kkre~A
Nk=kk% & lqiHz kkre~A lqiHz kkre~A
vè;kfidk & HkorqA v| ¯d iBuh;e~\
Nk=kk% & o;a losZ Lons'kL; jkT;kuka fo"k;s KkrqfePNke%A
vè;kfidk & 'kksHkue~A onrA vLekoaQ ns'ks dfr jkT;kfu lfUr\
lk;jk & prqfo±'kfr% egksn;s!
flYoh & u fg u fg egkHkkxs! i×p¯o'kfr% jkT;kfu lfUrA
vè;kfidk & vU;% dks¿fi----\
Lojk & (eè;s ,o) egksn;s! es Hkfxuh dFk;fr ;nLekoaQ ns'ks
v"Vk¯o'kfr% jkT;kfu lfUrA ,rnfrfjP; lIr osQUnz'kkflrizn's kk%
vfi lfURkA
vè;kfidk & lE;Xtkukfr rs HkfxuhA Hkorq] vfi tkuhFk ;w;a ;nsr"s kq jkT;s"kq
lIrjkT;kuke~ ,d% leok;ks¿fLr ;% lIrHkfxU;% bfr ukEuk
izfFkrks¿fLrA

lIrHkfxU;% 59
losZ & (lk'p;Ze~ ijLija i';Ur%) lIrHkfxU;%\ lIrHkfxU;%\
fudksyl% & bekfu jkT;kfu lIrHkfxU;% bfr fdeFk± dF;Urs\
vè;kfidk & iz;ksxks¿;a izrhdkRedks orZrAs dnkfpr~ lkekftd&lkaLÑfrd&
ifjn`';kuka lkE;kn~ bekfu mDrksikf/uk izfFkrkfuA
leh{kk & dkSrgw ya es u [kyq 'kkfUra xPNfr] Jko;rq rkon~ ;r~ dkfu
rkfu jkT;kfu\
vè;kfidk & kÜ .` kqr!
v};a e=k;a pSo u&f=k&;qDra rFkk };e~A
lIrjkT;lewgks¿;a HkfxuhlIroaQ eue~AA
bRFka Hkfxuh lIrosQ bekfu jkT;kfu lfUr&v#.kkpyizn's k%] vle%]
ef.kiqje~] fetksje%] es?kky;%] uxkyS.M%] f=kiqjk psfrA ;|fi
{ks=kifjek.kS% bekfu y?kwfu orZUrs rFkkfi xq.kxkSjon`"V~;k c`gÙkjkf.k
izrh;UrsA
losZ & dFke~\ dFke~\
vè;kfidk & bek% lIrHkfxU;% Loh;s izkphusfrgkls izk;% Lok/huk% ,o
n`"Vk%A u osQukfi 'kklosQu bek% Lok;ÙkhÑrk%A vusd&
laLÑfr&fof'k"Vk;ka HkkjrHkwekS ,rklka Hkfxuhuka laLÑfr%
egÙokèkkf;uh bfrA
rUoh & v;a 'kCn% loZiFz kea dnk iz;Dq r%\
vè;kfidk & Jqre/qj'kCnks¿;a loZizFkea foxr'krkCnL; f}lIrfrres o"ksZ
f=kiqjkjkT;L;ksn?~ kkVuØes osQukfi izofrZr%A vfLeUuso dkys ,rs"kka
jkT;kuka iqu% lÄ~?kVua fofgre~A
Lojk & vU;r~ fdefi oSf'k"V~;efLr ,rs"kke~\

#fpjk
60 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
vè;kfidk & uwue~ vfLr ,oA ioZr&o`{k&iq"i&izHk`frfHk% izkÑfrdlEif‰%
lqle`¼kfu lfUr bekfu jkT;kfuA Hkkjro`{ks p iq"i& Lrcdln`'kkfu
fojktUrs ,rkfuA
jktho% & Hkofr! x`gs ;Fkk lokZf/dk jE;k euksjek p Hkfxuh Hkofr rFkSo
Hkkjrx`g¿s fi lokZf/dk% jE;k% bek% lIrHkfxU;% lfUrA
vè;kfidk & euL;kxrk rs b;a Hkkouk ijedY;k.ke;h ija losZ u rFkk
voxPNfUrA vLrq] vfLr rkonsr"s kka fo"k;s fdf×pn~ oSf'k"V~;efi
dFkuh;e~A lkofgreulk kÜ .` kqr&
tutkfrcgqyizn's kks¿;e~A xkjks&[kklh&uxk&fetks&izHk`r;% cgo%
tutkrh;k% v=k fuolfUrA 'kjhjs.k ÅtZfLou% ,rRizknsf'kdk%
cgqHkk"kkfHk% lefUork%] ioZijEijkfHk% ifjiwfjrk%] Loyhyk&
dykfHk'p fu".kkrk% lfUrA
ekyrh & egksn;s! r=k rq oa'ko`{kk vfi izkI;Urs\
vè;kfidk & vke~A izn's ks¿fLeu~ gLrf'kYikuka ckgqY;a orZrAs vk oL=kkHkw"k.ksH;%
x`gfuekZ.ki;ZUra izk;% oa'ko`{kfufeZrkuka oLrwuke~ mi;ksx% fØ;rsA
;rks fg v=k oa'ko`{kk.kka izkpq;± fo|rsA lkEizra oa'kks|ksxks¿;a
vUrkjkf"Vª;[;kfre~ vokIrks¿fLrA
vfHkuo% & Hkfxuhizn's kks¿;a càkd"kZd% Kk;rsA
lyhe% & ¯d Hkze.kk; Hkfxuhizn's kks¿;a lehphu%\
losZ Nk=kk% & (mPpS%) egksn;s! vkxkfefu vodk'ks o;a r=kSo xUrqfePNke%A
Lojk & HkoR;fi vLekfHk% lk¼± pyrqA
vè;kfidk & jksprs es¿;a fopkj%A ,rkfu jkT;kfu rq Hkze.kkFk± LoxZln`'kkfu
bfrA

lIrHkfxU;% 61
'kCnkFkkZ%%

ck<e~ & cgqr vPNk


iBuh;e~ & i<+uk gS
Kkrqe~ & tkuus osQ fy,
dfr & fdrus
prqfo±'kfr% & pkSchl
i×p¯o'kfr% & iphl
Hkfxuh & cgu
v"Vk¯o'kfr% & vBkbZl
osQUnz'kkflrizns'kk% & osQUnz }kjk 'kkflr izns'k
vfrfjP; & vfrfjDr
Hkorq & vPNk
leok;% & lewg
izfFkr% & izfl¼
izrhdkRed% & lkÄsïfrd
(izrhd$vkRed%)
dnkfpr~ & lEHkor%
lkE;kn~ & lekurk osQ dkj.k
mDrksikf/uk & dgh x;h mikf/ ls@osQ dkj.k
(mDr$mikf/uk)
ukfEu & uke esa
la'k;% & lUnsg

#fpjk
62 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
vijr% & nwljh vksj
{ks=kifjek.kS% & {ks=kiQy ls
y?kwfu & NksVs
xq.kxkSjon`"V~;k & xq.k ,oa xkSjo dh n`f"V ls
c`gÙkjkf.k & cM+s
Lok/huk% (Lo$v/huk%) & LorU=k
Lok;ÙkhÑrk% & vius v/hu fd;s x;s
egÙok/kf;uh & egÙo dks j[kus okyh] egÙoiw.kZ
(egÙo$vk/kf;uh)
Jqre/qj'kCn% & lquus esa e/qj 'kCn
izHk`frfHk% & vkfn ls
fofgre~ & fof/iwoZd fd;k x;k
izkÑfrdlEif‰% & izkÑfrd lEinkvksa ls
lqle`¼kfu & cgqr le`¼
Hkkjro`{ks & Hkkjr :ih o`{k esa@ij
iq"iLrcdln`'kkfu & iq"i osQ xqPNs osQ leku
â|k & fiz; (ân; dks fiz; yxus okyh)
euksje
jE;k & je.kh;
lkofgreulk & lko/ku eu ls
ÅtZfLou% & ÅtkZ ;qDr
ioZijEijkfHk% & ioks± dh ijEijk ls
ifjiwfjrk% & iw.kZ] Hkjs&iwjs
lefHkuUnuh;e~ & Lokxr ;ksX;

lIrHkfxU;% 63
lehphu% & cgqr vPNk
LoyhykdykfHk% & viuh fØ;k ,oa dykvksa ls
fu".kkrk% & ikjÄõr] fuiq.k
oa'ko`{kfufeZrkuke~ & ck¡l osQ o`{kksa ls fufeZr
vokIr% & izkIr
càkd"kZd% (cgq$vkd"kZd%) & vR;Ur vkd"kZd@vR;f/d vkd"kZd

vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#r&
lqiHz kkre~ egÙok/kf;uh ioZijEijkfHk%
prqfo±'kfr% f}lIrfrres oa'ko`{kfufeZrkuke~
lIrHkfxU;% izkÑfrdLkEif‰% oa'kks|ksxks¿;e~
xq.kxkSjon`"V~;k iq"iLrcdln`'kkfu vUrkjkf"Vª;[;kfre~

2- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k ,dinsu fy[kr&


(d) vLekoaQ ns'ks dfr jkT;kfu lfUr\
([k) izkphusfrgkls dk% Lok/huk% vklu~\
(x) osQ"kka leok;% ^lIrHkfxU;%* bfr dF;rs\
(?k) vLekoaQ ns'ks dfr osQUnz'kkflrizn's kk% lfUr\
(Ä) lIrHkfxuh&izn's ks d% m|ksx% loZiez [q k%\

3- v/ksfyf[krins"kq izÑfr&izR;;foHkkxa oqQ#r&


inkfu izÑfr% izR;;%
;Fkk&xUrqe~ xe~ $ rqequ~
Kkrqe~ ------------- $ -------------

#fpjk
64 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
xzghrqe~ ------------- $ -------------
ikrqe~ ------------- $ --------------
Jksreq ~ ------------- $ -------------
Hkzferqe~ ------------- $ -------------

4- ikBkr~ fpRok rn~Hkoinkuka Ñrs laLÑrinkfu fy[kr&


rn~Hko&inkfu laLÑr&inkfu
;Fkk&lkr lIr
cfgu --------------
laxBu --------------
ck¡l --------------
vkt --------------
[ksr --------------

5- fHkUuizÑfroaQ ina fpuqr&


(d) xPNfr] iBfr] /kofr] vglr~] ØhMfrA
([k) Nk=k%] lsod%] f'k{kd%] ysf[kdk] ØhMd%A
(x) i=ke~] fe=ke~] iq"ie~] vkez%] u{k=ke~A
(?k) O;k?kz%] HkYywd%] xt%] diksr%] o`"kHk%] ¯lg%A
(Ä) i`fFkoh] olqU/jk] /fj=kh] ;kue~] olq/kA

6- e×tw"kkr% fØ;kinkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&

lfUr vfLr izrh;Urs orZrs bPNkfe fuolfUr orZUrs


(d) v;a iz;ksx% izrhdkRed% --------------A
([k) lIr osQUnz'kkflrizn's kk% --------------A

lIrHkfxU;% 65
(x) v=k cgo% tutkrh;k% --------------A
(?k) vga fdefi Jksreq ~ --------------A
(Ä) r=k gLrf'kfYiuka ckgqY;a --------------A
(p) lIrHkfxuhizn's kk% jE;k% â|k p --------------A
(N) xq.kxkSjon`"V~;k bekfu o`gÙkjkf.k --------------A

7- fo'ks";&fo'ks"k.kkuke~ mfpra esyue~ oqQ#r&


fo'ks";&inkfu fo'ks"k.k&inkfu
v;e~ laLÑfr%
laLÑfrfof'k"Vk;ke~ bfrgkls
egÙok/kf;uh izn's k%
izkphus leok;%
,d% HkkjrHkwekS

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

* v};a e=k;a pSo u&f=k&;qDra rFkk };e~A


lIrjkT;lewgks¿;a HkfxuhlIroaQ ere~AA
;g jkT;ksa osQ ukeksa dks ;kn j[kus dk ,d ljy rjhdk gSA bldk vFkZ gS v ls
vkjEHk gksus okys nks] e ls vkjEHk gksus okys rhu] u ls uxkyS.M vkSj f=k ls
f=kiqjk dk cks/ gksrk gSA blh izdkj vBkjg iqjk.kksa osQ uke ;kn j[kus osQ fy;s
;g 'yksd izfl¼ gS&
e};a Hk};a pSo cz=k;a oprq"V;e~A
v&uk&i&¯yx&owQLdkfu iqjk.kkfu izp{krsAA
* ^lIrHkfxuh* bl miuke dk loZiFz ke iz;ksx 1972 esa Jh T;ksfr izlkn lSfd;k
us vkdk'kok.kh osQ lkFk HksVa okrkZ osQ Øe esa fd;k FkkA

#fpjk
66 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
* buosQ vUrxZr vkus okys jkT;ksa dk mYys[k izkphu xzUFkksa esa Hkh izkIr gksrk gS
;Fkk&egkHkkjr] jkek;.k] iqjk.k vkfnA
* bu jkT;ksa dh jkt/kuh Øe'k% bl izdkj gS&
v#.kkpy izn's k & bVkuxj
vle & fnliqj
ef.kiqj & bEiQky
fetksje & ,stksy
es?kky; & f'kykÄõ
uxkyS.M & dksfgek
f=kiqjk & vxjrYyk
* fcgw] ef.kiqjh] ukuØe vkfn bl izn's k osQ ize[q k u`R; gSAa
* uxk] fetks] [kklh] vleh] ckaXyk] ine] cksMks] xkjks] t;fUr;k vkfn ;gk¡ dh
ize[q k Hkk"kk,¡ gSAa
lIrla[;k ij oqQN vU; izpfyr uke gS&a
lIrflU/q &^lIrHkfxuh* osQ leku lIrflU/q Hkh gSAa ;s lIrflU/q gS&a flU/q] 'kqrnq hz
(lryt)] bjkorh (bjkonh)] forLrk (>sye)] foik'kk (O;kl)] vflDuh (fpukc)
vkSj ljLorhA
lIrioZr & egsUnz] ey;] fgeoku~] vcqnZ ] foUè;] lg~;kfnz] Jh'kSyA
lIrf"kZ & ejhfp] iqyLR;] vafxjk] Ørq] vf=k] iqyg] ofl"BA
Ñ".kukFk dh iqLrd v#.kkpy ;k=kk (okXnsoh izdk'ku] chdkusj 2002) iBuh; gSA

ifj;kstuk&dk;Ze~
ikB esa fLFkr v};a ----- okyh igsyh ls lkrksa jkT;ksa osQ uke dks le>ksA

lIrHkfxU;% 67
n'ke% ikB%

v'kksdofudk
¹izLrqr ikB vkfndfo okYehfdÑr jkek;.k osQ lqUnjdk.M osQ iUnzgosa lxZ ls laxg` hr
gSA lhrk dh [kkst esa guqeku yÄïk esa izfo"V gksrs gSa rFkk ogha jko.k osQ izfl¼ m|ku
v'kksd&ofudk dh 'kksHkk dk vkg~yknd n'kZu djrs gSAa ;g v'kksdofudk fnO;@vf}rh;
lkSjHk] Lokn] lkSUn;Z ,oa fofo/ o.kks± ls ;qDr oqQlqeks]a yrkvksa o`{kksa vkfn ls lqHkksfHkr
gSA blh dk o.kZu izLrqr ikB esa gSAº
loZuke] rr~] ,rr~&iz;ksx%
loZrqZoqQlqeS jE;S% iQyon~fHk'p ikniS%A
iqf"irkuke'kksdkuka fJ;k lw;ksnZ ;izHkke~ AA1AA
df.kZdkjS% oqQlqferS% ¯d'kqoQS 'p lqifq "irS%A
l ns'k% izHk;k rs"kka iznhIr bo loZr% AA2AA
iqua kxk% lIri.kkZ'p pEidksnn~ kydkLrFkkA
foo`¼ewyk cgo% 'kksHkUrs Le lqifq "irk% AA3AA
uUnua focq/ks|kua fp=ka pS=kjFka ;FkkA
vfro`ÙkfeokfpUR;a fnO;a jE;fJ;ko`re~ AA4AA
loZrZqiq"iSfuZfpra ikniSeZ/qxfU/fHk%A
ukukfuuknS#|kua jE;a e`xx.kf}tS% AA5AA
vusdxU/izoga iq.;xU/a euksgje~A
'kSyUs nzfeo xU/k<~;a f}rh;a xU/eknue~ AA6AA
v'kksdofudk;ka rq rL;ka okujiqxa o%A #fpjk
68 l nn'kkZfonwjLFka pSR;izklknewftZre~ AA7AA r`rh;ks Hkkx%
'kCnkFkkZ%

loZrqZoqQlqeS% (loZ$½rqoqQlqeS%) & lHkh ½rqvksa osQ iwQyksa ls


ikniS% & o`{kksa ls
lw;ksZn;izHkke~ (lw;Z$mn;izHkke~) & lw;ksZn; dh NVk
fJ;k & 'kksHkk ls
df.kZdkjS% & dusj osQ iwQyksa ls
¯d'kqoSQ% & Vslw@iyk'k osQ iwQyksa@isM+ksa ls
izHk;k & NVk ls
iqaukxk & lisQn dey@ukxosQlj uke
dk o`{kA
lIri.kkZ'p% (lIri.kkZ%$p) & vkSj ^lIri.kZ* uke dk ,d
o`{k fNrou
pEidksn~nkydk% & pEik ,oa míkyd uked
(pEid$míkydk%) ikSèkk@iQwy
focq/ks|kue~ (focq/$m|kue~) & nsorkvksa dk m|ku
pS=kjFke~ & oqQcsj osQ m|ku dk uke
uUnue~ & LoxZ dk m|ku
ukukfuuknS% & vusd izdkj dh èofu;ksa ls
e`xx.kf}tS% & i'kqvksa ,oa fpfM+;ksa ls

v'kksdofudk 69
iq.;xU/e~ & ifo=k@'kq¼ xU/ okyk
'kSysUnze~ ('kSy$bUnze~) & igkM+ksa dk jktk (fgeky;)
xU/eknue~ & ^xU/eknu* uke dk ,d igkM+
v'kksdofudk;ke~ & v'kksd ofudk esa
okujiqaxo% & cUnjksa esa Js"B (guqeku)
ÅftZre~ & pdkpkSa/ ls ;qDr

vH;kl%

1- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu mPpkj;r&


loZroZq Qq lqe%S loZriZq "q iS% df.kZdkjS%
e`xx.kf}tS% iQyof‰'p ikniSe/
Z xq fU/fHk%
lIri.kkZ'p pEidksíkydk% focq/ks|kue~
nn'kkZfonwjLFke~ izklknewftZre~ ¯d'kqoQS 'p

2- ikBkUrxZrku~ lokZu~ 'yksdku~ lLoja xk;rA


3- 'yksoQs "kq fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) v'kksd ----------------------- rq rL;ka okuj -----------------------A
l nn'kkZfonwjLFka ----------------------------------- izklknewftZre~AA
([k) df.kZdkjS% ¯d'kqoQS 'p -----------------------------------------------------A
l ns'k% ----------------------- rs"kka iznhIr bo -----------------------A

#fpjk
70 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
4- 'yksdka'kku~ ;kst;r&
d [k
uUnua focq/ks|kua iq.;xU/a euksgje~A
vusdxU/izoga iznhIr bo loZr%A
l ns'k% izHk;k rs"kka fp=ka pS=kjFka ;FkkA
iqua kxk% lIri.kkZ'p jE;a e`xx.kf}tS%A
ukukfuuknS#|kua pEidksn~nkydkLrFkkA

5- funs'Z kkuqlkja ^rr~* bfr 'kCn:iS% fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


fofHkDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
(d) ;Fkk& iqf¡ YyXss izFkek l% ------------- -------------
"k"Bh rL; ------------- -------------
lIreh ------------- ------------- rs"kq

([k) ;Fkk& L=khfyXss "k"Bh ------------- r;ks% -------------


f}rh;k rke~ ------------- -------------
r`rh;k ------------- rkH;ke~ -------------

(x) ;Fkk& uiql


a dfyXss izFkek rr~ ------------- rkfu
f}rh;k ------------- ------------- -------------
prqFkhZ rLeS ------------- -------------

6- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) ikBs¿fLeu~ ns'k% bfr 'kCnL; dks¿FkZ%\
([k) osQ"kkf×pr~ i×p iq"ik.kka ukekfu fy[krA

v'kksdofudk 71
(x) okujiqxa o% ¯oQ nn'kZ\
(?k) v=k okujiqÄoõ % d%\
(Ä) m|kue~ oSQ% fuuknS% jE;e~\

7- pØLFkinkfu iz;Tq ; okD;kfu jp;r& bfr


kt! fr
yad cks/;

fLr
Uuks¿
j
lE

izl
;k%
k;

ksè;k

ksfr
Hkjr

gfUr a dj
v;

oUnu
"k.ka r
foHkh guqef
jko.
jke%
ka fi=kk
s%
lhrk
lqxzh

lg
fl¼
y {e

oua
os.k

xPN kJe
a xP
.kkH;

fr
Nfr
ka
ikn

eS=kha
qosQ
iz;

LFkki
PNf

;fr
r

;Fkk&jke% lhrky{e.kkH;ka lg oua xPNfrA


(d) jke% -----------------------------------------A
([k) ----------------------------------------- A
(x) ----------------------------------------- A
(?k) ----------------------------------------- A
(Ä) ----------------------------------------- A
(p) ----------------------------------------- A
(N) ----------------------------------------- A
#fpjk
72 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
8- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
,rke~ ,"kk ,rs ,rkfu ,"k% ,rk%
;Fkk&vè;;us ,"k% cky% vf}rh;% vfLrA
(d) ------------ ckyk fo|ky;kr~ x`ga xPNfrA
([k) m|kus ------------ iq"ikf.k fodflrkfu lfUrA
(x) firk ------------ ys[kuha eáe~ vki.kkr~ vku;r~A
(?k) vge~ ------------ iQys rqH;a nnkkfeA
(Ä) ------------ ckfydk% e/qjkf.k xhrkfu xk;fUrA

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

xzUFk ifjp;&^jkek;.k* osQoy ykSfdd laLÑr dk gh ugha vfirq fo'o dk vkfn


dkO; gSA ^jkek;.ke~ vkfndkO;e~ loZons kFkZlEere~A* blesa lkr dk.M gSa rFkk ;g
pkSchl gtkj 'yksdksa ls ;qDr gSA ^prqfo±'k lglzkf.k 'yksdkukeqDroku`f"k%A*
* jkek;.k dk lcls vPNk dk.M lqUnjdk.M ekuk tkrk gSA dbZ izn's kksa esa bl
dk.M osQ fu;fer ikB dh ijEijk gSA lqUnjdk.M osQ fo"k; esa ,d yksd
izpfyr dFku izkIr gksrk gS] tks bl izdkj gS&
lqUnjs lqUnjks jke% lqUnjs lqUnjh dFkkA
lqUnjs lqUnjh lhrk lqUnjs ¯d u lqUnje~A
* v'kksd&ofudk n'kkuu jko.k dk m|ku Fkk ftlesa vigj.k osQ ckn lhrk dks
fNik dj j[kk x;k FkkA
ifj;kstuk&dk;Ze~
Hkkjro"kZ osQ oqQN izfl¼ ckxksa vFkok m|kuksa dh lwph cuk,¡] ;Fkk&'kkyhekj ,oa
fu'kkrA

v'kksdofudk 73
,dkn'k% ikB%

lkfo=kh ckbZ iqQys


¹f'k{kk gekjk vf/dkj gSA gekjs lekt eas dbZ leqnk; blls yEcs le; rd of×pr
jgs gSAa mUgsa bl vf/dkj dks ikus osQ fy, yEck la?k"kZ djuk iM+k gSA yM+fd;ksa dks
rks vkSj T;knk vojks/ >syuk iM+rk jgk gSA izLrqr ikB bl la?k"kZ dk usrR` o djus
okyh lkfo=kh ckbZ iqQys osQ ;ksxnku ij osQfUnzr gSAº

mifj fufeZra fp=ka i';rA bna fp=ka dL;kf'pr~ ikB'kkyk;k% orZrAs b;a lkekU;k
ikB'kkyk ukfLrA b;efLr egkjk"VªL; izFkek dU;kikB'kkykA ,dk f'kf{kdk x`gkr~
iqLrdkfu vknk; pyfrA ekxsZ df'pr~ rL;k% mifj /wfya df'pr~ p izLrj[k.Mku~
f{kifrA ija lk Lon`<fu'p;kr~ u fopyfrA Lofo|ky;s dU;kfHk% lfouksne~ vkyiUrh
lk vè;kius layXuk HkofrA rL;k% Lodh;e~ vè;;uefi lgSo izpyfrA osQ;a
#fpjk
74 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
efgyk\ vfi ;w;feeka efgyka tkuhFk\ b;eso egkjk"VªL; izFkek efgyk f'kf{kdk
lkfo=kh ckbZ iqQys ukeèks;kA
tuojh eklL; r`rh;s fnols 1831 res f[kzLrkCns
egkjk"VªL; uk;xkao&ukfEu LFkkus lkfo=kh vtk;rA
rL;k% ekrk y{ehckbZ firk p [kaMksth bfr vfHkfgrkSA
uoo"kZn's kh;k lk T;ksfrck iqQys egksn;su ifj.khrkA
lks¿fi rnkuha =k;ksn'ko"kZdYi% ,o vklhr~A ;rksfg
l% L=khf'k{kk;k% izcy% leFkZd% vklhr~ vr%
lkfo=;k% eufl fLFkrk vè;;ukfHkyk"kk mRla izkIrorhA
br% ija lk lkxzge~ vkÄ~XyHkk"kk;k vfi vè;;ua
ÑrorhA
1848 res f[kz L rkCns iq . ks uxjs lkfo=kh
T;ksfrckegksn;su lg dU;kuka o`Qrs izn's kL; izFkea fo|ky;e~ vkjHkrA rnkuha lk
osQoya lIrn'ko"khZ;k vklhr~A 1851 res f[kzLrkCns vLi`';Rokr~ frjLÑrL; leqnk;L;
ckfydkuka o`Qrs i`Fko~Qr;k r;k vij% fo|ky;% izkjC/%A
lkekftdoqQjhrhuka lkfo=kh eq[kja fojks/e~ vdjksrA~ fo/okuka f'kjkse.q MuL;
fujkdj.kk; lk lk{kkr~ ukfirS% fefyrkA iQyr% osQpu ukfirk% vL;ka :<kS lgHkkfxrke~
vR;tu~A ,dnk lkfo=;k ekxsZ n`"Va ;r~ owQia fud"kk 'kh.kZoL=kko`rk% rFkkdfFkrk%
fuEutkrh;k% dkf'pr~ uk;Z% tya ikrqa ;kpUrs LeA mPpoxhZ;k% migkla oqQoZUr%
owQikr~ tyksn/~ j.ka vokj;u~A lkfo=kh ,rr~ viekua lks<aq uk'kDuksrA~ lk rk% fL=k;%
futx`ga uhrorhA rMkxa n'kZf;Rok vdFk;r~ p ;r~ ;Fks"Va tya u;rA lkoZtfudks¿;a
rMkx%A vLekr~ tyxzg.ks ukfLr tkfrcUèkue~A r;k euq";k.kka lekurk;k% LorU=krk;k'p
i{k% loZnk loZFkk lefFkZr%A
^efgyk lsoke.My* ^f'k'kqgR;k izfrcU/d x`g* bR;knhuka laLFkkuka LFkkiuk;ka
iqQysnEiR;ks% vonkue~ egRoiw.kZeA~ lR;'kks/de.MyL; xfrfofèk"kq vfi lkfo=kh

lkfo=kh
75
ckbZ iqQys
vrho lfØ;k vklhr~A vL; e.MyL; mís';e~ vklhr~ mRihfMrkuka leqnk;kuka
Lokf/dkjku~ izfr tkxj.ke~ bfrA
lkfo=kh vusdk% laLFkk% iz'kkludkS'kysu l×pkfyrorhA nqfHkZ{kdkys Iysx&dkys
p lk ihfMrtukuke~ vJkUre~ vfojra p lsoke~ vdjksrA~ lgk;rk& lkexzh&O;oLFkk;S
loZFkk iz;kle~ vdjksrA~ egkjksxizlkjdkys lsokjrk lk Lo;e~ vlkè;jksx.s k xzLrk 1897
res f[kzLrkCns fu/ua xrkA
lkfgR;jpu;k vfi lkfo=kh egh;rsA rL;k% dkO;lÄïyu};a orZrs ^dkO;iqQys*
^lqcksèkjRukdj* psfrA Hkkjrns'ks efgyksRFkkuL; xgukocks/k; lkfo=khegksn;k;k%
thoupfjre~ vo';e~ vè;srO;e~A

'kCnkFkkZ%

vknk; & ysdj


izLrj[k.Mku~ & iRFkj osQ VqdM+kas dks
lfouksne~ & g¡lh etkd osQ lkFk
vkyiUrh & ckr djrh gqbZ
vtk;r & iSnk gqbZ
vfHkfgrkS & dgs x;s gSa
ifj.khrk & C;kgh x;h
vLi`';r;k & NqvkNwr osQ dkj.k
izkjC/% & vkjEHk fd;k
izrkMu'khykuke~ & izrkfM+r djusokyh

#fpjk
76 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
fujkdj.kk; & nwj djus osQ fy,
:<kS & :f<+ es]a fjokt esa
'kh.kZ & iQVk&iqjkuk] fpFkM+k
ikrqe~ & ihus osQ fy,
lks<eq ~ & lgus esa
mRihfMrkuke~ & lrk, x, dk
vJkUre~ & fcuk FkosQ gq,
egh;rs & c<+&p<+dj gSa
i|c¼e~ & dfork osQ :i esa
xgukocks/k; & xgjkbZ ls le>us osQ fy,
(xgu$vocks/k;)

vH;kl%

1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[kr&


(d) egkjk"VªL; izFkek efgyk f'kf{kdk dk vklhr~\
([k) dL; leqnk;L; ckfydkuka Ñrs lkfo=kh vija fo|ky;a izkjC/orh\
(x) dhn`'khuka oqQjhrhuka lkfo=kh fojks/e~ vdjksrA~
(?k) fdeFk± 'kh.kZoL=kko`rk% uk;Z% owQikr~ tya xzghraq okfjrk%\
(Ä) lkfo=;k% e`R;q% dFke~ vHkor~\
(p) rL;k% };ks% dkO;lÄïyu;ks% ukeuh osQ\

lkfo=kh
77
ckbZ iqQys
2- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu vk/`R; okD;kfu jp;r&
Lodh;e~ & -----------------------------------------------------------------------
lfouksne~ & -----------------------------------------------------------------------
lfØ;k & -----------------------------------------------------------------------
izns'kL; & -----------------------------------------------------------------------
eq[kje~ & -----------------------------------------------------------------------
loZFkk & -----------------------------------------------------------------------
3- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka foykseinkfu fy[kr&
mifj ----------------------
vknkue~ ----------------------
ijdh;e~ ----------------------
fo"kerk ----------------------
O;fDrxre~ ----------------------
vkjksg% ----------------------
4- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka fyÄ]aõ foHkfDra] opua p fy[kr&
inkfu fyÄõe~ foHkfDr% opue~
/wfye~ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------
ukfEu ------------------ ------------------ ------------------
vij% ------------------ ------------------ ------------------
dU;kuke~ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------
lgHkkfxrke~ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------
ukfirS% ------------------ ------------------ ------------------

#fpjk
78 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
5- mnkgj.keuqlR` ; ydkjifjorZua oqQ#r&
orZekudky% vrhrdky%
;Fkk & lk f'kf{kdk vfLrA lk f'kf{kdk vklhr~A
(d) lk vè;kius layXuk HkofrA
([k) l% =k;ksn'ko"kZdYi% vfLrA
(x) efgyk% rMkxkr~ tya u;fUrA
(?k) o;a izfrfnua ikBa iBke%A
(Ä) ;w;a ¯d fo|ky;a xPNFk\
(p) rs ckydk% fo|ky;kr~ x`ga xPNfUrA

lkfo=kh
79
ckbZ iqQys
}kn'k% ikB%

d% j{kfr d% jf{kr%
¹izLrqr ikB i;kZoj.k ij osQfUnzr gSA gekjs thou esa IykfLVd dk bl lhek rd izo's k
gks pqdk gS fd ge blosQ fcuk nSfud thou pykus dh dYiuk Hkh ugha dj ikrs
tcfd IykfLVd i;kZoj.k osQ fy, ?kkrd gSA IykfLVd osQ c<+rs gq, mi;ksx ij
iz'ufpÉ yxkrs gq, bl ikB esa i;kZoj.k rFkk izn"w k.k dh leL;k osQ izfr laons u'khy
le> fodflr djus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gSAº
(dk'pu Ckkfydk% Hkze.kk; fuxZrk% ijLijekyifUr)
fji×ph & ijfeUnj~! ijfeUnj~! ,fg vkxPN] mioua izfo'kke%A
ijfeUnj~ & vjs! miouL; }kjs ,o IykfLVdL;wrdkfu f{kIrkfu brLrr%
fodh.kkZfuA

#fpjk
80 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
dpukj~ & tuk% izekna oqQoZfUrA IykfLVdiqVosQ"kq [kk|oLrwfu x`ghRok Hk{k;fUr]
ija rkfu iqVdkfu ekxsZ ;=k oqQ=kkfi f{kifUrA
jkstfyu~ & egrh b;a leL;kA vfi izfo'kke%\
fji×ph & vLrq izfo'kke%A
(lokZ% mious izfo'kfUrA)
dpukj~ & oqQ=k mifo'kke%\
fji×ph & vfLeu~ dk"BihBs mifo'kke%A
(lokZ% mifo'kfUr)

fji×ph & vfi i';Fk] o;a ;=kksifo"Vk% r=k dkfu oLrwfu lfUr\
ijfeUnj~ & vke~A vke~A cgwfu oLrwfu ifjrks fodh.kkZfuA
dpukj~ & ;Fkk L;wr%] tyowQih] oQUnqde~ bR;knhfuA

d% j{kfr
d% jf{kr% 81
jkstfyu~ & gyk] vkRekuefi i';A
psuEek & vke~A vke~A i';kfe ,oA ee lfo/s dÄrï e~] oqQ.Mye~]
osQ'kcUèk%] ?kfVif^dk] dÄ.ï ke~ bR;knhfu lokZf.k fojktUrsA
fdefl oDrqdkek\
fji×ph & bna è;krO;a ;n~ ,rkfu lokZf.k oLrwfu izk;% IykfLVosQu fufeZrkfu
lfUrA
dpukj~ & iwo± rq izk;% dkikZlus ] peZ.kk] ykSgus ] yk{k;k] e`fÙkd;k dk"Bsu
ok fufeZrkfu oLrwfu ,o izkI;Urs LeA v/quk rr~ LFkkus
IykfLVoQ&fufeZrkfu oLrwfu ifjr% fodh.kkZfu lfUrA ,rkfu
vYiewY;kfu vfi lfUrA
psuEek & vgks! dyeLrq foLe`r%A dks¿fi ,rr~ vuqekrqa 'kDuksfr ;r~
,dfLeu~ dyes dfr efl;"V;% iz;Tq ;UrsA
ijfeUnj~ & vuqeh;rs ;r~ izR;soQa Nk=kk izfrlIrkga Lodyes ,dka efl;f"Va
iwj;frA rkRi;Ze~ bnefLr ;r~ ,dfLeUuso o"ksZ U;wukUU;wua izk;%
i×pk'kr~ efl;"V;% r;k iz;Dq rk% HkofUrA
psuEek & ija ¯d o;e~ ,dfLeu~ o"ksZ ,dL;So dyeL; iz;ksxa oqQeZ%\
lkewfgdLoj% & ufg ufgA o"ksZ rq izk;'k% cgo% dyek% foyqI;UrsA
fji×ph & ,dk Nk=kk f=k"kq ekls"kq ,oaQ dyea Øh.kkfrA vFkkZr~ ,dfLeu~
o"ksZ prqj% dyeku~ Øh.kkfrA
jkstfyu~ & vija p dyesu lg efl;f"V% vfi IykfLVdkoj.ks lekos';rsA
rfgZ vkgR; izfro"kZe~ ,dk Nk=kk izk;% i×pk'kUefl;"Vhuka prqfHZk%
dyeS% prq%i×pk'kf‰% vkoj.kS% iz;ksxa djksfrA

#fpjk
82 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
dpukj~ & Hkorq] cgq/k iz;Dq rL; IykfLVdL; nwjxkfeu% ?kkrdk% ifj.kkek%
o;a u nz"Vqa 'kDuqe%A IykfLVoaQ dnkfi u xyfr] u p vi{kh;rsA
;Fkk&vU;kfu oLrwfu fou'; e`fÙkdk;ka foyh;UrsA
psuEek & IykfLVdL; e`fÙkdk;ka y;kHkkokr~ vLekoaQ i;kZoj.kL; Ñrs egrh
{kfr% HkofrA
fji×ph & ,osQu inkFksuZ vij% inkFkZ% l`T;rs] vFkok fou"Va oLrq e`fÙkdk;ka
feyfrA ija IykfLVosQ b;a izfØ;k vlEHkok ,oA
ijfeUnj~ & dYi;rq] ;fn 'kra o"kkZf.k ;kor~ IykfLVd&fufeZrkuka inkFkkZuka
fuekZ.kizfØ;k i`fFkO;ka izpfy";fr rfgZ fda L;kr~\ (lokZ% l[ksna
foe`'kfUrA)
jkstfyu~ & v=k fo"kknsu fde~\ loZiFz kea rq f'k{kdk.kka lg;ksxus IykfLVdL;
fofo/i{kk% fopkj.kh;k%A vLekoaQ iz;klks¿fi i;kZoj.kL; j{k.ks
visf{kr%A

'kCnkFkkZ%

dk'pu & oqQN


ppZ;fUr & ppkZ djrs gSa
iqVosQ"kq & NksVh FkSyh (ikmp)
L;wr% & FkSyk@FkSyh
tyowQih & ikuh dh cksry
gyk & l[kh osQ fy, lEcks/u

d% j{kfr
d% jf{kr% 83
dÄïre~ & oaQ?kk@oaQ?kh
dÄï.ke~ & oaQxu
dkikZlus & dikl ls
yk{k;k & yk[k ls
e`fÙkd;k & fe^h ls
fodh.kkZfu & fc[kjh gqb@Z iSQyh gqbZ
izekne~ & vkyL;
dk"BihBs & ydM+h dh cSp
a ij
vkgR; & oqQy feykdj
efl;"V~;k & fjfiQy ls
U;wukUU;wue~ (U;wukr~$U;wue~) & de ls de
izk;'k% & izk;%] yxHkx
foyqI;Urs & yqIr gks tkrs gSa
vi{kh;rs & u"V gks tkrk gS
foyh;Urs & foyhu gks tkrs gSa
y;kHkkokr~ (y;$vHkkokr~) & yhu@u"V u gksus osQ dkj.k
l`T;rs & fufeZr fd;k tkrk gS
dYi;rq & dYiuk dhft,
foe`'kfUr & fopkj djrs gSa

#fpjk
84 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
vH;kl%
1- mPpkj.ka oqQ#rμ
i×pk'kr~ "kf"V% lIrfr% v'khfr% uofr%
f=ki×pk'kr~ }k"kf"V% prqLlIrfr% }Ô'khfr% f=kuofr%
i×pi×pk'kr~ prq""kf"V% i×plIrfr% prqj'khfr% i×puofr%
lIri×pk'kr~ i×p"kf"V% lIrlIrfr% i×pk'khfr% "k..kofr%
v"Vki×pk'kr~ uo"kf"V% v"VklIrfr% uok'khfr% 'kre~
2- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq iz;Dq rka foHkfDra opua p fy[krμ
inkfu foHkfDr% opue~
;Fkk& Hkze.kk; prqFkhZ ,dopue~
oLrwfu ---------------- ----------------
IykfLVosQu ---------------- ----------------
fodh.kkZfu ---------------- ----------------
efl;"V~;k ---------------- ----------------
L;wrosQ"kq ---------------- ----------------
dk"BihBs ---------------- ----------------
i`fFkO;ke~ ---------------- ----------------
3- ,dinsu mÙkjrμ
(d) efl;"Vh&tyowQih&izHk`frfu oLrwfu osQu inkFksuZ fufeZrkfu\
([k) miouL; }kjs dkfu f{kIrkfu lfUr\
(x) e`fÙkdk;ka ¯d oLrq u dnkfi fou';fr\
(?k) vLekoaQ iz;kl% dL; j{k.ks visf{kr%\

d% j{kfr
d% jf{kr% 85
4- iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k fy[krμ
(d) psuEek;k% lfo/s dkfu oLrwfu vklu~\
([k) iwo± izk;% osQu inkFksuZ fufeZrkfu oLrwfu izkI;Urs Le\
(x) dkfu dkfu oLrwfu i;kZoj.ka nw"k;fUr\
(?k) IykfLVdL; e`fÙkdk;ka y;kHkkokr~ ¯d Hkofr\
5- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka ydkja iq#"ka opu×p fy[kr&
inkfu /krq% ydkj% iq#"k% opue~
;Fkk& lfUr vl~ yV~ydkj% izFkeiq#"k% cgqopue~
oqQeZ% ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------

Øh.kkfr ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------

i'; ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------

vkxPN ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------

izpfy";fr ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------

6- e×tw"kkr% vÄkï uka Ñrs inkfu fpuqr&


prq%i×pk'kr~ lIr"kf"V% }klIrfr% "kM'khfr%
puquoZ fr% lIruofr% i×plIrfr% v"Vkuofr%
67 --------------------- 86 ---------------------
98 --------------------- 97 ---------------------
54 --------------------- 72 ---------------------
94 --------------------- 75 ---------------------
#fpjk
86 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
;ksX;rk&foLrkj%
laLÑr esa vdkjkUr L=khfyÄõ 'kCn osQ :i izkIr ugha gksrs gSAa ysfdu yM+fd;ksa osQ
vdkjkUr uke gksrs gSAa buosQ mnkgj.k gS&a ijfeUnj] jkstfyu] dpukj vkfnA ;gk¡ iz'u
mBrk gS fd fdl :i esa bu ukeksa dks laLÑr esa fy[kk tk,A blfy;s bl ikB esa
O;×tukUr (ijfeUnj~) :i esa j[kk x;k gSA laLÑr esa bUgsa O;×tukUr (ijfeUnj~]
jkstfyu~] dpukj~) ekudj :i pyk;s tkus pkfg,A
ifj;kstuk&dk;Ze~
pfy,] vkxkeh vodk'k esa ,d vH;kl djrs gSAa lqcg txus ls ysdj jkr lksus osQ
le; rd cktkj ls vkusokyh vkSj izfrfnu dke esa vkus okyh oLrqvksa dks è;kuiwod Z
ns[ksa vkSj budh ,d lwph cuk,¡A muosQ fy, laLÑr esa D;k iz;ksx gksrk gS ;g tkuus
dk iz;kl djsAa lwph esa gj oLrq osQ uke osQ vkxs ;g fy[ksa fd og fdl ph”k dh
cuh gSA blesa IykfLVd dh cuh gqbZ ph”kksa dks Nk¡Vdj ,d txg fy[ksa vkSj ;g
vkdyu djus dk iz;Ru djsa fd izfrfnu ge fdruh ek=kk esa IykfLVd dk mi;ksx
djrs gSAa
laLÑr esa okD; esa igys ^vfi* yxkus ls okD; iz'u okpd gks tkrk gSA
tSl&s vfi izfo'kke%\ D;k ge Hkhrj pys\a
/krq&la;Dq r rqeuq ~ izR;; osQ vuqLokj dk yksi djosQ mlosQ vkxs dkek@dke%
tksMu+ s ls veqd dk;Z djuk pkgus okyh@pkgus okyk&;g eqgkojsnkj iz;ksx gksrk gSA
tSl&s xUrqdkek] oDrqdkek] dÙkZd q ke% bR;kfnA bl izfØ;k osQ vk/kj ij uhps fy[ks
okD;ksa dk laLÑr esa vuqokn djs&a
(d) jke D;k dguk pkgrk gS\
([k) fØLrhuk dgk¡ tkuk pkgrh gS\
(x) og djuk D;k pkgrk gS\

d% j{kfr
d% jf{kr% 87
=k;ksn'k% ikB%

fgeky;%
¹izLrqr ikB egkdfo dkfynkl iz.khr ^oqQekjlEHkoe~* uked egkdkO; osQ izFke lxZ
ls laxg` hr gSA bu i|ksa esa fgeky; dh izkÑfrd lq"kek dk o.kZu gSAº

lfU/%

vLR;qÙkjL;ka fnf'k nsorkRek fgeky;ks uke uxkf/jkt%A


iwokZijkS rks;fu/h oxkg~; fLFkr% i`fFkO;k bo ekun.M% AA1AA

vuUrjRuizHkoL; ;L; fgea u lkSHkkX;foyksfi tkre~A


,dks fg nks"kks xq.klfUuikrs fueTtrhUnks% fdj.ksf"ookÄ%ï AA2AA

vkes[kya l×pjrka ?kukuka Nk;ke/% lkuqxrka fu"ksO;A


m}sftrk o`f"VfHkjkJ;Urs 'k`Äõkf.k ;L;kriofUr fl¼k% AA3AA

diksyd.Mw% dfjfHkfoZusrqa fo?kf^rkuka ljynzqek.kke~A


;=k Ïqr{khjr;k izlwr% lkuwfu xU/% lqjHkhdjksfr AA4AA

fnokdjknz{kfr ;ks xqgklq yhua fnokHkhrfeokU/dkje~A


{kqnzs¿fi uwua 'kj.ka iziUus eeRoeqPpS%f'kjlka lrho AA5AA
#fpjk
88 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
'kCnkFkkZ%

uxkf/jkt% (ux$vf/jkt%) & ioZrjkt


iwokZijkS (iwo$Z vijkS) & iwoZ vkSj if'pe esa fLFkr (nksuks)a
rks;fu/h & nksuksa leqnkz as dks
oxkg~; & izfo"V gksdj] /¡l dj
ekun.M% & ekid] iSekuk] ukius osQ fy, iz;Dq r
midj.k
izHkoL; & mRiUu djus okys dk
lkSHkkX;foyksfi & lkSUn;Z] efgek] cM+Iiu dks yqIr
djus okyk
lfUuikrs & bdV~Bk gksus ij
fueTtfr & foyhu gks tkrk gS] ux.; gksrk gS
vÄï% & dyad] /Cck
vkes[kye~ & eè; Hkkx rd
l×pjrke~ & fopj.k djrs gq,
lkuqxrke~ & pksfV;ksa ij x;h gqbZ
fu"ksO; & lsou djosQ] lq[k ikdj
m}sftrk & ?kcjk, gq,] ijs'kku
vkJ;Urs & vkJ; ysrs gSa
vkriofUr & /wi ls ;qDr ij
diksyd.Mw% & duiVh dh [kqtyh

fgeky;% 89
dfjfHk% & gkfFk;ksa osQ }kjk
fousreq ~ & nwj djus osQ fy,
fo?kf^rkuke~ & jxM+s gqvksa dk
ljynzeq k.kke~ & nsonk# osQ o`{kkas dk
lzrq {khjr;k & nw/ fudyus ls
izlrw % & mRiUu
lkuwfu & ioZr dh pksfV;k¡
lqjHkhdjksfr & lqxfU/r dj nsrk gS
xqgklq & xqiQkvksa esa
yhue~ & fNis gq,
fnokHkhre~ & fnu ls Mjs gq,] mYyw
{kqn¿sz fi ({kqn$sz vfi) & v/e ;k uhp dks Hkh
'kj.ka iziUus & 'kj.k esa vk;s gq,
eeRoe~ & viukiu
lrho (lfr$bo) & ekuksa gksus ij

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ ,dinsu mÙkjkf.k fy[krµ
(d) i`fFkO;k% ekun.M% d%\
([k) fgeky;% HkkjrL; dL;ka fnf'k orZr\s
(x) bUnks% fdj.ks"kq d% fueTtfr\
(?k) oqQekjlEHkoegkdkO;L; jpf;rk d%\
(Ä) fgeky;% xqgklq oaQ j{kfr\
#fpjk
90 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
2- v/ksj[s kkfÄïrHs ;% insH;% iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#rµ
(d) fgeky;% mÙkjL;ka fnf'k orZrAs
([k) i`fFkO;k% ekun.M% fgeky;% vfLrA
(x) oqQekjlEHkoegkdkO;a dkfynklsu fojfpre~A
(?k) vfLeu~ ikBs dfo% fgeky;L; o.kZua djksfrA
3- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq lfU/foPNsna oqQ#rµ
vLR;qÙkjL;ke~ ¾ ------------------------ $ ------------------------
uxkf/jkt% ¾ ------------------------ $ ------------------------
iwokZijkS ¾ ------------------------ $ ------------------------
fdj.ksf"oo ¾ ------------------------ $ ------------------------
;L;kriofUr ¾ ------------------------ $ ------------------------

4- e×tw"kkr% 'kCnku~ fpRok fufnZ"VLrEHks"kq fy[krµ


uxkf/jkt% fnf'k bUnks% fl¼k% dfjfHk%
fdj.kS% nzeq k.kke~ lzrq {khjr;k {kqnsz Nk;k;ke~
xqgklq egkdkO;s kÜ Ä
` kõ f.k fo?kf^rkuke~ ekun.M%
izHkoL; ;% ?kukuke~ o`f"VfHk% dkfynklsu
izFkekfoHkfDr% r`rh;kfoHkfDr% "k"BhfoHkfDr% lIrehfoHkfDr%
;Fkk& ;% dfjfHk% bUnks% xqgklq
--------------- --------------- --------------- ---------------
--------------- --------------- --------------- ---------------
--------------- --------------- --------------- ---------------
--------------- --------------- --------------- ---------------

fgeky;% 91
5- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu vk/`R; okD;kfu jp;r&
i`fFkO;k% & -----------------------------------------------------------------
fgeky;s & -----------------------------------------------------------------
xqgklq & -----------------------------------------------------------------
bUnks% & -----------------------------------------------------------------
Nk;k;ke~ & -----------------------------------------------------------------

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

 ^ekun.M*© 'kCn ekius osQ fy;s iz;ksx esa yk;h tkus okyh rjktw osQ ydM+h
osQ M.Ms dks dgk tkrk gSA ;g 'kCn vc vkn'kZ dlkSVh] fud"k] ijkdk"Bk]
Js"Brk dk iSekuk vkfn vFkks± esa iz;Dq r gksrk gSA

 ^iwokZijkS rks;fu/h* osQ ekè;e ls ;gk¡ Øe'k% caxky dh [kkM+h rFkk vjclkxj
dh vksj laoQs r fd;k x;k gSA

 ^ljynze
q * nsonk# osQ isM+ dks dgk tkrk gSA bldh Nky cgqr dksey gksrh
gSA ?k"kZ.kek=k ls gh bldh Nky fNy tkrh gS rFkk mlls nw/ dh /kj cgus
yxrh gSA

 fgeky; dh efgek dk o.kZu nwljs xzUFkksa esa Hkh izkIr gksrk gSA rqyuh;&
oSQyklks fgeoka'pSo nf{k.ks o"kZioZrkSA
iwoiZ f'pexkosrko.kZokUr#ifLFkrkSAA (czãk.Miqjk.ke~)

#fpjk
92 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
 dkfynkl }kjk izfrikfnr fl¼kUr osQ fo#¼ esa ,d ;g Hkh dFku ik;k
tkrk gS&
,dks fg nks"kks xq.klfUuikrs fueTtrhUnksfjfr ;ks cHkk"ksA
u rsu n`"Va dfouk leLra nkfjnz; ~ esoQa xq.kdksfVgkfjAA

 lwfDr dk vFkZ gS lqUnj dFkuA dkfynkl osQ dkO; esa cgqr ,slh lwfDr;k¡
gSa ftuls euq"; dks cgqr lh lh[k feyrh gSA uhps nh x;h oqQN vU;
lwfDr;ksa dk vè;;u djsAa

 dkfynkl us es?knwr esa jkefxfj ioZr dks ys dj fy[kk gS&


u {kqnkz ¿s fi izFkelqÑrkis{k;k laJ;k;A
izkIrs fe=ks Hkofr foeq[k% ¯d iqu;ZLrFkksPpS%AA
dkfynkl dh vU; izfl¼ lwfDr;k¡
 'kjhjek|a [kyq /eZlk/ue~A
 u jRuefUo";fr e`X;rs fg rr~A

 fiz;"s kq lkSHkkx;iQyk fg pk#rkA


 iqjk.kfeR;so u lk/q loZeA~
 fjDr% loksZ Hkofr fg y?kq% iw.kZrk xkSjok;A

ifj;kstuk&dk;Ze~
* bl ikB esa lwfDr;k¡ [kkstAas
* vU; Hkk"kkvksa esa izkIr fgeky; o.kZu dks i<+as vkSj mldh lwph cuk;sAa

fgeky;% 93
prqnZ'k% ikB%

vk;ZHkV%
¹Hkkjro"kZ dh vewY; fuf/ gS Kku&foKku dh lqnh?kZ ijEijkA bl ijEijk dks lEiksf"kr
fd;k izc¼ q euhf"k;ksa usA bUgha euhf"k;ksa esa vxzx.; Fks vk;ZHkVA n'keyo i¼fr vkfn
osQ izkjfEHkd iz;ksDrk vk;ZHkV us xf.kr dks u;h fn'kk nhA bUgsa ,oa buosQ izofrZr
fl¼kUrksa dks rRdkyhu :f<okfn;ksa dk fojks/ >syuk iM+kA oLrqr% xf.kr dks foKku
cukus okys rFkk xf.krh; x.kuk i¼fr osQ }kjk vkdk'kh; fi.Mksa dh xfr dk izorZu
djus okys ;s izFke vkpk;Z FksA vkpk;Z vk;ZHkV osQ blh oSn"q ; dk mn~?kkVu izLrqr
ikB esa gSAº

iwofZ n'kk;ke~ mnsfr lw;%Z if'pefn'kk;ka p vLra xPNfr bfr n`';rs fg yksoQs A ija
u vusu vocksè;efLr ;Rlw;ksZ xfr'khy bfrA lw;ks¿Z py% i`fFkoh p pyk ;k Lodh;s
v{ks ?kw.kZfr bfr lkEizra lqLFkkfir% fl¼kUr%A fl¼kUrks¿;a izkFkE;su ;su izofrZr%] l
vklhr~ egku~ xf.krK% T;ksfrfoZPp vk;ZHkV%A i`fFkoh fLFkjk orZrs bfr ijEij;k
izpfyrk :f<% rsu izR;kfn"VkA rsu mnkâra ;n~ xfr'khyk;ka ukSdk;ke~ mifo"V%
ekuo% ukSdka fLFkjkeuqHkofr] vU;ku~ p inkFkkZu~ xfr'khyku~ voxPNfrA ,oeso
xfr'khyk;ka i`fFkO;ke~ vofLFkr% ekuo% i`fFkoha fLFkjkeuqHkofr lw;kZfnxzgku~ p xfr'khyku~
osfÙkA

476 res f[kLz rkCns ("kV~lIrR;f/dprq%'krres o"ks)Z vk;ZHkV% tUe yCèkokfufr


rsuoS fojfprs ^vk;ZHkVh;e~* bR;fLeu~ xzUFks mfYyf[kre~A xzUFkks¿;a rsu =k;ks¯o'kfrres

#fpjk
94 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
o;fl fojfpr%A ,sfrgkfldÏksrksfHk% Kk;rs ;r~ ikVfyiq=ka fud"kk vk;ZHkVL; osèk'kkyk
vklhr~A vusu bne~ vuqeh;rs ;r~ rL; deZHkwfe% ikVfyiq=keso vklhr~A

vk;Z H kVL; ;ks x nkua xf.krT;ks f r"kk lEc¼a orZ r s ;=k la [ ;kuke~
vkdyua egÙoe~ vkn/kfrA vk;Z H kV% iQfyrT;ks f r"k'kkL=ks u fo'oflfr
LeA xkf.krh;i¼R;k Ñre~
vkdyuekèk` R ; ,o rs u
iz f rikfnra ;n~ xz g .ks jkgq &
os Q rq u kedkS nkuokS ukfLr
dkj.ke~A r=k rq lw;p Z Unzif` Fkoh
bfr =khf.k ,o dkj.kkfuA lw;±
ifjr% HkzeUR;k% i`fFkO;k%] pUnzL;
ifjØekiFksu la;ksxkn~ xzg.ka HkofrA
;nk i`fFkO;k% Nk;kikrsu pUnzL;
izdk'k% vo#è;rs rnk pUnzxgz .ka HkofrA rFkSo i`Fohlw;;Z ks% eè;s lekxrL; pUnzL;
Nk;kikrsu lw;xZ gz .ka n`';rsA
lekts uwrukuka fopkjk.kka Lohdkjs izk;% lkekU;tuk% dkfBU;euqHkofUrA
Hkkjrh;T;ksfr%'kkL=ks rFkSo vk;ZHkVL;kfi fojks/% vHkor~A rL; fl¼kUrk% misf{krk%A
l if.MrEeU;kuke~ migklik=ka tkr%A iqujfi rL; n`f"V% dkykfrxkfeuh n`"VkA
vk/qfuoSQ% oSKkfuoSQ% rfLeu~] rL; p fl¼kUrs leknj% izdfVr%A vLeknso dkj.kkn~
vLekoaQ izFkeksixzgL; uke vk;ZHkV bfr Ñre~A
oLrqr% Hkkjrh;k;k% xf.krijEijk;k% vFk p foKkuijEijk;k% vlkS ,d%
f'k[kjiq#"k% vklhr~A

vk;ZHkV% 95
'kCnkFkkZ%

yksoQs & lalkj esa


vocksè;e~ & le>us ;ksX;] tkuus ;ksX;] tkuuk
pkfg,
vpy% & fLFkj] xfrghu
pyk & vfLFkj] xfr'khy
Lodh;s & vius
v{ks & /qjh ij
?kw.kZfr & ?kwerh gS
lqLFkkfir% & Hkyh&Hkk¡fr LFkkfir
izkFkE;su & loZiFz ke
T;ksfrfoZn~ & T;ksfr"kh
:f<% & izpfyr izFkk] fjokt
izR;kfn"Vk & [k.Mu fd;k
(izfr$vkfn"Vk)
f[kzLrkCns (f[kzLr$vCns) & bZLoh esa
"kV~lIrfr% & fNgÙkj
o;fl & vk;q es]a voLFkk es]a mez esa
fud"kk & fudV
os/'kkyk & xzg] u{k=kksa dks tkuus dh iz;ksx'kkyk
vkdyue~ & x.kuk

#fpjk
96 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
vkn/kfr & j[krk gS
HkzeUR;k% & ?kweus okyh dh] ?kwerh gqbZ dh
Nk;kikrsu & Nk;k iM+us ls
vo#è;rs & #d tkrk gS
vij=k & nwljh vksj
vofLFkr% & fLFkr
fo'oflfr Le & fo'okl djrk Fkk
izfrjks/L; & jksdus dk
if.MrEeU;kuke~ & Lo;a dks Hkkjh fo}ku~ ekuus okyksa dk
dkykfrxkfeuh & le; dks yk¡?kus okyh

vH;kl%
1- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) lw;%Z dL;ka fn'kk;ke~ mnsfr\
([k) vk;ZHkVL; os/'kkyk oqQ=k vklhr~\
(x) egku~ xf.krK% T;ksfrfoZPp d% vfLr\
(?k) vk;ZHkVsu d% xzUFk% jfpr%\
(Ä) vLekoaQ izFkeksixzgL; uke fde~ vfLr\

2- lfU/foPNsna oqQ#r&
xzUFkks¿;e~ & ------------------- $ -------------------
lw;kZpy% & ------------------- $ -------------------
rFkSo & ------------------- $ -------------------

vk;ZHkV% 97
dkykfrxkfeuh & ------------------- $ -------------------
izFkeksixzgL; & ------------------- $ -------------------

3- v/ksfyf[krinkuka foijhrkFkZdinkfu fy[kr&


mn;% -------------------
vpy% -------------------
vU/dkj% -------------------
fLFkj% -------------------
leknj% -------------------

4- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu vk/`R; okD;kfu jp;r&


lkEizre~ & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
fud"kk & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
ifjr% & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
mifo"V% & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
deZHkwfe% & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
oSKkfud% & ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5- e×tw"kkr% inkfu fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


ukSdke~ i`fFkoh rnk pyk vLra
(d) lw;%Z iwofZ n'kk;ke~ mnsfr if'pefnf'k p ------------------- xPNfrA
([k) lw;%Z vpy% i`fFkoh p -------------------A
(x) ------------- Lodh;s v{ks ?kw.kZfrA
(?k) ;nk i`fFkO;k% Nk;kikrsu pUnzL; izdk'k% vo#è;rs ------------------- pUnzxgz .ka
HkofrA
(Ä) ukSdk;ke~ mifo"V% ekuo% ------------------- fLFkjkeuqHkofrA
#fpjk
98 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
6- mnkgj.kkuqlkja inifjp;a nnr&
inkfu fyÄõe~ foHkfDr% opue~
;Fkk & pUnzL; iq¡fYyÄõ% "k"Bh ,dopue~
os/'kkyk;ke~ -------------- -------------- --------------

i`fFkoh -------------- -------------- --------------

ijEij;k -------------- -------------- --------------

=khf.k -------------- -------------- --------------

Nk;kikrsu -------------- -------------- --------------

7- ^efr* 'kCnL; :ikf.k iwj;r&


foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek efr% erh er;%
f}rh;k efre~ ------------ erh%
r`rh;k eR;k efrH;ke~ ------------

prqFkhZ ------------ efrH;ke~ efrH;%


i×peh eR;k%] ers% ------------ ------------

"k"Bh ------------ eR;ks% erhuke~


lIreh eR;ke~ eR;ks% efr"kq
lEcks/ue~ ------------! gs erh! gs er;%!

vk;ZHkV% 99
;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

vk;ZHkV dks v'edkpk;Z uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd buosQ tUeLFkku
osQ fo"k; esa fookn gSA dksbZ bUgsa ikVfyiq=k dk dgrs gSa rks dksbZ egkjk"Vª dkA
vk;ZHkV us n'keyo i¼fr dk iz;ksx djrs gq, π (ikbZ) dk eku fu/kZfjr
fd;kA mUgksua s n'keyo osQ ckn osQ pkj vadksa rd π osQ eku dks fudkykA mudh
n`f"V esa π dk eku gS 3-1416 A vk/qfud xf.kr esa π dk eku] n'keyo osQ ckn
lkr vadksa rd tkuk tk ldk gS] rnuqlkj π ¾ 3-1416926 A

Hkkjrh;T;ksfr"k'kkL=kµoSfnd ;qx esa ;K osQ dky vFkkZr~ 'kqHk eqgrw Z osQ Kku osQ
fy, T;ksfr"k'kkL=k dk mn~Hko gqvkA dkykUrj esa blosQ vUrxZr xzgksa dk lapkj] o"kZ]
ekl] i{k] okj] frfFk] ?kaVk vkfn ij xgu fopkj fd;k tkus yxkA yx/] vk;ZHkV]
ojkgfefgj] czãxqIr] HkkLdjkpk;Z] ckyxaxk/j fryd] jkekuqtu~ vkfn gekjs ns'k osQ
ize[q k T;ksfr"k'kkL=kh gSAa vk;ZHkVh;e~] lkSjfl¼kUr%] c`gRlafgrk] yhykorh] i×pfl¼kfUrdk
vkfn T;ksfr"k osQ ize[q k laLÑr xzUFk gSAa

vk;ZHkVh;e~µvk;ZHkV us 499 bZ- esa bl xzUFk dh jpuk dh FkhA ;g xzUFk


20 vk;kZNUnksa esa fuc¼ gSA bleas xzgksa dh x.kuk osQ fy, dfy laor~ (499 bZ- esa
3600 dfy laor~) dks fuf'pr fd;k x;k gSA

xf.krT;ksfr"kµla[;k osQ }kjk tgk¡ dky dh x.kuk gks] og xf.krT;ksfr"k gSA


T;ksfr"k'kkL=k dh rhu fo/kvksa ;Fkkµfl¼kUr] iQfyr ,oa xf.kr esa ;g lokZfèkd
ize[q k gSA

#fpjk
100 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
iQfyrT;ksfr"kµblosQ vUrxZr xzg u{k=kksa vkfn dh fLFkfr osQ vk/kj ij HkkX;]
deZ vkfn dk foospu fd;k tkrk gSA

os/'kkykµxzg] u{k=k vkfn dh xfr] fLFkfr dh tkudkjh tgk¡ x.kuk rFkk ;kfU=kd
fof/ osQ vk/kj ij yh tk;s og os/'kkyk gSA ;Fkk&tUrj&eUrjA

ifj;kstuk&dk;Ze~
* ;ksX;rk foLrkj esa mYysf[kr fo}kuksa dh Ñfr;ksa osQ uke dk lÄy
ï u djsAa
* ;ksX;rk foLrkj esa m¼`r iqLrdksa osQ ys[kd dk uke crk,¡A
* vk;ZHkV osQ vfrfjDr oqQN vU; xf.krKksa osQ uke rFkk muosQ dk;ks± dh
lwph rS;kj djsAa

vk;ZHkV% 101
i×pn'k% ikB%

izgfs ydk%
¹igsfy;k¡ euksj×tu dh izkphu fo/k gSA ;s izk;% fo'o dh lkjh Hkk"kkvksa esa miyC/
gSAa laLÑr osQ dfo;ksa us bl ijEijk dks vR;Ur le`¼ fd;k gSA igsfy;k¡ tgk¡ gesa
vkuUn nsrh gS]a ogha le>&cw> dh gekjh ekufld o ckSf¼d izfØ;k dks rhozrj
cukrh gaAS bl ikB esa laLÑr izgfs ydk (igsyh) cw>us dh ijEijk osQ oqQN jkspd
mnkgj.k izLrqr fd, x, gSAa º
dLrwjh tk;rs dLekr~\
dks gfUr dfj.kka oqQye~\
¯d oqQ;kZr~ dkrjks ;q¼\s
e`xkr~ ¯lg% iyk;rs AA1AA
lhefUruh"kq dk 'kkUrk\
jktk dks¿Hkwr~ xq.kksÙke%\
fo}n~fHk% dk lnk oU|k\
v=kSoksDra u cqè;rs AA2AA
oaQ l×t?kku Ñ".k%\
dk 'khryokfguh xÄkõ \
osQ nkjiks"k.kjrk%\
oaQ cyoUra u ck/rs 'khre~ AA3AA
o`{kkxzoklh u p if{kjkt%
f=kus=k/kjh u p 'kwyikf.k%A
Rox~oL=k/kjh u p fl¼;ksxh
tya p fcHkzUu ?kVks u es?k% AA4AA
#fpjk
102 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
HkkstukUrs p ¯d is;e~\
t;Ur% dL; oS lqr%\
dFka fo".kqina izkDs re~\
rØa 'kØL; nqyHZ ke~ AA5AA
izgsfydkukeqÙkjkUos"k.kk; lÄïsrk%
izFkek izgsfydk & vfUres pj.ks Øe'k% =k;k.kka iz'ukuka f=kfHk%
inS% mÙkja nÙke~A
f}rh;k izgsfydk & izFke&f}rh;&r`rh;&pj.ks"kq izFkeL; o.kZL;
vfUreo.ksZu la;ksxkr~ mÙkja izkI;rsA
r`rh;k izgsfydk & izR;soaQ pj.ks izFkef}rh;;ks% izFke=k;k.kka
ok o.kkZuka la;ksxkr~ rfLeu~ pj.ks izLrqrL;
iz'uL; mÙkja izkI;rsA
prqFkZizgsfydk;k% mÙkje~ & ukfjosQyiQye~A
i×peizgsfydk;k% mÙkje~ & izFke&izgsfydkor~A

'kCnkFkkZ%

gfUr & ekjrk@ekjrh gS


dkrj% & detksj
lhefUruh"kq & ukfj;ksa esa
dks¿Hkwr~ (d%$vHkwr~) & dkSu gqvk
l×t?kku & ekjk
oaQl×t?kku (oaQla$t?kku) & oaQl dks ekjk
'khryokfguh & BaMh /kjk okyh
dk'khryokfguh & dk'kh dh Hkwfe ij cgus okyh
izgsfydk% 103
nkjiks"k.kjrk% & iRuh osQ iks"k.k esa layXu
osQnkjiks"k.kjrk% & [ksr osQ dk;Z esa layXu
oaQcyoUre~ & og O;fDr ftlosQ ikl oaQcy gS
o`{kkxzoklh & isM+ osQ mQij jgus okyk
(o`{k$vxzoklh)
if{kjkt% & if{k;ksa dk jktk (x#M+)
f=kus=k/kjh & rhu us=kksa okyk (f'ko)
'kwyikf.k% & ftuosQ gkFk esa f=k'kwy gS ('kadj)
Rox~ & Ropk] Nky
fcHkzu~ & /kj.k djrk gqvk
fo".kqine~ & LoxZ] eks{k
rØe~ & NkN] eBk
'kØL; & bUnz dk

vH;kl%
1- 'yksdka'ks"kq fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) lhefUruh"kq dk ------------------ jktk -------------------- xq.kksÙke%A
([k) oaQ l×t?kku ------------------ dk ------------------------------ xÄkõ \
(x) osQ -------------------------- oaQ ---------------------- u ckèkrs 'khre~AA
(?k) o`{kkxzoklh u p ------------------- ------------------ u p 'kwyikf.k%A
2- 'yksdka'kku~ ;kst;r&
d [k
¯d oqQ;kZr~ dkrjks ;q¼s v=kSoksDra u cqè;rsA
fo}n~fHk% dk lnk oU?kk rØa 'kØL; nqyHZ ke~A
oaQ l×t?kku Ñ".k% e`xkr~ ¯lg% iyk;rsA
dFka fo".kqina izkDs ra dk'khryokfguh xÄkõ A
#fpjk
104 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
3- mi;qDrdFkukuka le{ke~ ^vke~* vuqi;qDrdFkukuka le{ka u bfr fy[kr&

;Fkk& ¯lg% dfj.kka oqQya gfUrA vke~


(d) dkrjks ;q¼s ;qnè~ ;rsA

([k) dLrwjh e`xkr~ tk;rsA

(x) e`xkr~ ¯lg% iyk;rsA

(?k) oaQl% t?kku Ñ".ke~A

(Ä) rØa 'kØL; nqyHZ ke~A

(p) t;Ur% Ñ".kL; iq=k%A

4- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka fyÄaõ foHkfDra opu×p fy[kr&


inkfu fyÄõe~ foHkfDr% opue~
;Fkk&dfj.kke~ iq¡fYyÄõe~ "k"Bh cgqopue~
dLrwjh ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

;q¼s ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

lhefUruh"kq ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

cyoUre~ ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

'kwyikf.k% ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

'kØL; ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

izgsfydk% 105
5- dks"BdkUrxZrkuka inkukeqi;qDrfoHkfDriz;ksxus vuqPNsna iwj;r&
,d% dkd% ---------------- (vkdk'k) M;eku% vklhr~A r`"kkrZ% l% ---------------- (ty)
vUos"k.ka djksfrA rnk l% ---------------- (?kV) vYia ---------------- (ty) i';frA
l% ---------------- (miy) vkuh; ---------------- (?kV) ikr;frA tya ----------------
(?kV) mifj vkxPNfrA ---------------- (dkd) lkuUna tya ihRok r`I;frA

;ksX;rk&foLrkj%

izLrqr ikB esa nh x;h igsfy;ksa osQ vfrfjDr oqQN vU; igsfy;k¡ v/ksfyf[kr gSaA
mUgsa i<+dj Lo;a le>us dh dksf'k'k djsa vkSj Kkuo/Zu djsa ;fn u le> ik;sa rks
mÙkj ns[ksaA
(d) pØh f=k'kwyh u gjks u fo".kq%A
egku~ cfy"Bks u p Hkhelsu%A
LoPNUnxkeh u p ukjnks¿fi
lhrkfo;ksxh u p jkepUnz%AA
([k) u rL;kfnuZ rL;kUr% eè;s ;LrL; fr"BfrA
rokI;fLr eekI;fLr ;fn tkukfl rn~onAA
(x) vinks nwjxkeh p lk{kjks u p if.Mr%A
veq[k% LiqQVoDrk p ;ks tkukfr l if.Mr%AA
mÙkj&(d) o`"kHk%] ([k) u;ue~] (x) i=ke~

#fpjk
106 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
ifjf'k"Ve~
lfU/%
iwoiZ nL; vfUreo.ksuZ lee~ mÙkjinL; iwooZ .kZL; esyusu ;RifjorZua Hkofr rRlfUèk%
bfrA
;Fkk& fo|k $ vky;%
¾ fon~;~ vk $ vk y;%
¾ fo|ky;%
,oeso ;fn $ vfi ¾ ;|fi dfo $ bUnz% ¾ dohUnz%
lkekU;r% lfU/% f=kfo/%] r|Fkk&
(d) LojlfU/% vp~lfU/% ok
([k) O;×tulfU/% gy~lfU/% ok
(x) folxZlfU/%
(d) LojlfU/% & Lojo.ksuZ lg Lojo.kZL; esyua Loj&lfU/% dF;rsA laLÑrHkk"kk;ka
LohÑrk% Lojo.kkZ% bes lfUr&v] vk] b] bZ] m] Å] ½] y`] y`] ,] ,s] vks]
vkSA LojlU/kS ,rs"kka ijLijesyua HkofrA v=k osQfpn~ fof'k"Vk% lU/;%
mYys[kuh;k%&
(i) nh?kZlfU/% & v] b] m] ½ gLosH;ks nh?ksHZ ;ks osfr o.ksHZ ;% ije~ v] b]
m] ½ osfr Loj% nh?kkZ% ok o.kkZ% HkofUr psr]~ r;ks% esyusu nh?kZ%
HkofrA (lw=ke~&vd% lo.ksZ nh?kZ%)
mnkgj.kkfu& eqj $ vfj% ¾ eqjkfj%
ikB $ vkjEHk% ¾ ikBkjEHk%
nf{k.k $ v;ue~ ¾ nf{k.kk;ue~
LojkT; $ vkUnksyue~ ¾ LojkT;kUnksyue~
dfo $ bUnz% ¾ dohUnz%
ifjf'k"Ve~ 107
eqfu $ bZ'oj% ¾ equh'oj%
egh $ bUnz% ¾ eghUnz%
egh $ bZ'oj% ¾ egh'oj%
Hkkuq $ mn;% ¾ Hkkuwn;%
y?kq $ mfeZ% ¾ y?kwfeZ%
o/w $ mn;% ¾ o/wn;%
fir` $ ½.ke~ ¾ firÏ.ke~

lkekU;&izfØ;k
v $ v ¾ vk b $ b ¾ bZ m $ m ¾ Å ½ $ ½ ¾ ½Ï
v $ vk ¾ vk b $ bZ ¾ bZ m $ Å ¾ Å y` $ y` ¾ yÏ
vk $ v ¾ vk bZ $ b ¾ bZ Å $ m ¾ Å
vk $ vk ¾ vk bZ $ bZ ¾ bZ Å $ Å ¾ Å

(ii) ;.k~lfU/% & b] m] ½] y` osfr o.kZL; i'pkr~ fHkUuLojo.kZ% Hkofr


psr~ b] m] ½] y` bR;s"kka LFkkus Øe'k% ;~] o~] j~] y~ vkns'k% HkofrA
(lw=ke~&bdks ;.kfp)
mnkgj.kkfu&
;fn $ vfi ¾ ;|fi
e/q $ vfj ¾ eèofj%
o/w $ vkxeue~ ¾ oèokxeue~
fir` $ vkns'k% ¾ fi=kkn'k%
y` $ vkÑfr% ¾ ykÑfr%
#fpjk
108 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
lkekU;&izfØ;k
b@bZ $ v] vk] m] Å] ½] y`] ,] ,s] vks] vkS ¾ ;~
m@Å $ v] vk] b] bZ] ½] y`] ,] ,s] vks] vkS ¾ o~
½@½ $ v] vk] b] bZ] m] Å] ½] y`] ,] ,s] vks] vkS ¾ j~~
y`@y` $ v] vk] b] bZ] m] Å] ½] Í] y`] ,] ,s] vks] vkS ¾ y~

(iii) xq.klfU/% & v] vk bR;u;ks% i'pkr~ b] m] ½] Æ osfr o.kZ% vkxPNfr


psr]~ Øe'k% ,] vks] vj~] vy~ ok HkofrA (lw=ke~&vkn~x.q k%)
mnkgj.kkfu&
nso $ bUnz% ¾ nsoUs nz%
lkekU;&izfØ;k
nso $ bZ'k% ¾ nso's k%
v@vk $ b] bZ ¾ ,
ij $ midkj% ¾ ijksidkj%
v@vk $ m] Å ¾ vks
,d $ Åu% ¾ ,dksu%
v@vk $ ½ ¾ vj~
egk $ ÅfeZ% ¾ egksfeZ%
v@vk $ y` ¾ vy~
nso $ ½f"k% ¾ nsof"kZ%
ro $ y`dkj% ¾ roYdkj%

(iv) o`f¼lfU/% & v@vk bR;u;ks% i'pkr~ ,@,s] vks@vkS osfr o.kZ% vkxPNfr
psr]~ Øe'k% ,s] vkS ok HkofrA (lw=ke~&o`f¼jsfp)
mnkgj.kkfu&
,d $ ,de~ ¾ ,oSQde~
nso $ ,s'o;Ze~ ¾ nso'S o;Ze~ lkekU;&izfØ;k
xÄõk $ vks?k% ¾ xÄõk?S k% v@vk $ ,] ,s ¾ ,s
egk $ vks"kf/% ¾ egkS"kf/% v@vk $ vks] vkS ¾ vkS

ifjf'k"Ve~ 109
(v) v;kfnlfU/% & ,] ,s] vks] vkS osfr o.kZL; i'pkr~ dks¿fi Lojo.kZ%
vkxPNfr psr]~ rRLFkkus Øe'k% v;~] vk;~] vo~] vko~ ok vkns'k% HkofrA
(lw=ke~&,pks¿;ok;ko%)
mnkgj.kkfu&
us $ vue~ ¾ u;ue~ lkekU;&izfØ;k
xS $ vd% ¾ xk;d% , $ Lojo.kkZ% ¾ v;~
iks $ vue~ ¾ ioue~ ,s $ Lojo.kkZ% ¾ vk;~
ikS $ vd% ¾ ikod% vks $ Lojo.kkZ% ¾ vo~
vkS $ Lojo.kkZ% ¾ vko~

dkjde~
okD;s fØ;k;k% l|% vUo;% ;su insu 'kCnsu ok lg Hkofr rRina dkjoaQ HkofrA
dkjdk.kke~ vFk± izdk'kf;rqa ;s"kka izR;;kuka la;kstua 'kCnS% lg Hkofr rs (izR;;k%)
dkjdfoHkDr;% HkofUrA
lkekU;r% foHkfDr% f}fo/k&
(i) dkjdfoHkfDr% (ii) miinfoHkfDr%
dkjdfoHkfDr% & dkjd}kjk iz;Dq rfoHkfDr% dkjdfoHkfDr% HkofrA ;Fkk&ckyd%
fo|ky;a xPNfrA v=k ckyd% bR;=k dÙkZd ` kjdfefr izFkek foHkfDr%A fo|ky;e~
bR;=k deZdkjdfefr f}rh;k foHkfDr%A

miinfoHkfDr% & ine~ vkfJR; ;k foHkfDr% lk miin&foHkfDr%A ;Fkk&xqjos ue%A


v=k ^ue%* bfr inL; iz;ksx.s k prqFkhZ foHkfDr%A
vfHkr% & xzkee~ vfHkr% ioZrk% lfUrA
ifjr% & xzkea ifjr% m|kue~ vfLrA
#fpjk
110 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
mHk;r% & fo|ky;e~ mHk;r% iq"iokfVdkA
loZr% & iq"iokfVdka loZr% o`{kk% lfUrA
lg & 'k'kkÄï.s k lg jksfg.kh x`ga xrorhA
lkoaQ & e;k lkoaQ Roa xPNflA
lee~ & Ro;k lee~ vga xPNkfeA
lk/± & iz/kuefU=k.kk lk/± efU=k.k% vfi xroUr%A
vye~ & vye~ fooknsuA vya Jes.kA jke% jko.kk; vye~A
ue% & xqjos ue%A
Lokgk & vXu;s LokgkA
Lo/k & fir`H;% Lo/kA
o"kV~ & nsork;S o"kV~A

milxZ%
/krks% iwoeZ ~ milxkZu~ ;kstf;Rok o;a uwrufØ;kinkuka fuekZ.ka oqQeZ%A milxkZ% lkèkkj.kr%
}k¯o'kfr% (22) la[;dk% lfUr] r|Fkk&iz] ijk] vi] le~] vuq] vo] fuj~] ful~]
nqj]~ nql]~ fo] vkÄ~] fu] vf/] vfi] vfr] lq] mr~] vfHk] izfr] ifj] miA milxZ;ksxus
/kRoFkZ% Dofpr~ ifjorZrAs vr% dF;rs&
milxs.Z k /kRoFkksZ cyknU;=k uh;rsA
fogkjgkjlagkjizgkjifjgkjor~AA
;Fkk& fo $ â ¾ fogjfr
le~ $ â ¾ lagjfr
mi $ â ¾ migjfr
ifj $ â ¾ ifjgjfr

ifjf'k"Ve~ 111
izR;;%
foHkfDrjfgrL; ewy'kCnL; vUrs] vFkZ;rq a 'kCna izfriknf;raq ;% 'kCn% o.kksZ ok iz;Tq ;rs
l% izR;;% dF;rsA foHkfDrjfgr% ewy'kCn% laLÑrO;kdj.ks izÑfr% mP;rsA izÑfrfj;a
f}fo/k] r|Fkk&/krq% izkfrifnd×pA
,oa /krks% izkfrifndkr~ p vuUrja ;% o.kZ% iz;Tq ;rs l% izR;;% HkofrA ;Fkk&^jke%*
bfr 'kCns ^jke* izkfrifnd% vfLr] folxZ% (lq) p izR;;ks orZrAs rFkSo ^ifBRok*
bfr 'kCns iB~ bfr /krq% orZrs DRok p izR;;% bfrA
izR;;k% i×pfo/k% HkofUr] r|Fkk&foHkfDr%] Ñr~] rf¼r%] L=khizR;;%]
èkkRoo;o'pA v=k bes izR;;k% vfi vocks/uh;k%A
(d) foHkfDr% & /krwuke~ vuUrja ^fr] r%] fUr*&izHk`r;% izR;;k% izkfrifndkuka p
vuUrja lq&vkS&tl~&izHk`Rk;% izR;;k% foHkfDr&izR;;k% HkofUrA
;Fkk& jke $ lq ¾ jke% (izkfrifnosQu fu"iÂ%)
xe~ $ fr ¾ xPNfr (/krqfHkfu"iÂ%)
iB~ $ fUr ¾ iBfUr (/krqfHkfu"iÂ%)
([k) Ñr~ & /krks% i'pkr~ iz;Dq rk% izR;;k% Ñr~iRz ;;k% HkofUrA
;Fkk& iB~ $ Y;qV~ ¾ iBue~
(x) rf¼r% & laKk;k% loZukEu'p i'pkr~ iz;Dq rk% izR;;k% rf¼rk% HkofUrA
;Fkk& f'ko $ v.k~ ¾ 'kSo%A
(?k) L=khizR;;% & iqfa yÄõ'kCnku~ L=khfyÄ"õs kq ifjofrZraq ;s izR;;k% iz;ksxs O;ofgz;Urs
rs L=khizR;;k% lfUrA
;Fkk& prqj $ Vki~ ¾ prqjk
nkr` $ Ähi~ ¾ nk=kh

#fpjk
112 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
(Ä) /kRoo;o% & /krks% foHkDrs'p eè;s lu~&'ki~&f.kp~&izHk`r;% izR;;k% èkkRoo;ok%
HkofUrA
;Fkk& iB~ $ f.kp~ $ fri~ ¾ ikB;fr
vkÄ~yHkk"kk;ka izR;;% bfr 'kCnL; Ñrs Suffix bfr 'kCnks orZrAs osQpu ize[q kk%
O;kogkfjdk'p izR;;k% lfUr & DRok] rqeuq ]~ 'kr`] 'kkup~] rO;r~] vuh;j~] Dr]
Drorq] ?k×k~] Vki~] Y;qV]~ f.kp~] Y;i~] bR;kn;%A

dkfupu mnkgj.kkfu
DRok & xe~ $ DRok ¾ xRok ¾ tkdj
vga iqLroaQ ifBRok
iB~ $ DRok ¾ ifBRok ¾ i<+dj x`ga xfe";kfeA
gl~ $ DRok ¾ gflRok ¾ g¡ldj
Y;i~ & ifj $ R;t~ $ Y;i~ ¾ ifjR;T; ¾ NksMd
+ j
';ke% x`ga ifjR;T;
fo $ gl~ ¾ Y;i~ ¾ fogL; ¾ g¡ldj oua xroku~A
mi $ xe~ $ Y;i~ ¾ mixE; ¾ lehi tkdj

rqeuq ~ & uh $ rqeuq ~ ¾ usreq ~ ¾ ykus osQ fy;s yrk iqLroaQ ifBrqa
xe~ $ rqeuq ~ ¾ xUrqe~ ¾ tkus osQ fy;s iqLrdky;a xPNfrA
iB~ $ rqeuq ~ ¾ ifBrqe~ ¾ i<+us osQ fy;s vga iQya usreq ~
py~ $ rqeuq ~ ¾ pfyrqe~ ¾ pyus osQ fy;s vki.ak xfe";kfeA

ifjf'k"Ve~ 113
'kCn:ikf.k
loZuke&'kCn%
vLen~
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek vge~ vkoke~ o;e~
f}rh;k eke~] ek vkoke~] ukS vLeku~] u%
r`rh;k e;k vkokH;ke~ vLekfHk%
prqFkhZ eáe~] es vkokH;ke~] ukS vLeH;e~] u%
i×peh er~ vkokH;ke~ vLer~
"k"Bh ee] es vko;ks%] ukS vLekde~] u%
lIreh ef; vko;ks% vLeklq

;q"en~
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek Roe~ ;qoke~ ;w;e~
f}rh;k Roke~] Rok ;qoke~] oke~ ;q"eku~] o%
r`rh;k Ro;k ;qokH;ke~ ;q"ekfHk%
prqFkhZ rqH;e~] rs ;qokH;ke~] oke~ ;q"eH;e~] o%
i×peh Ror~ ;qokH;ke~ ;q"er~
"k"Bh ro] rs ;qo;ks% oke~ ;q"ekde~] o%
lIreh Rof; ;qo;ks% ;q"eklq

#fpjk
114 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
;r~
iqf¡ YyXs
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ;% ;kS ;s
f}rh;k ;e~ ;kS ;ku~
r`rh;k ;su ;kH;ke~ ;S%
prqFkhZ ;LeS ;kH;ke~ ;sH;%
i×peh ;Lekr~ ;kH;ke~ ;sH;%
"k"Bh ;L; ;;ks% ;s"kke~
lIreh ;fLeu~ ;;ks% ;s"kq

L=khfyXss
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ;k ;s ;k%
f}rh;k ;ke~ ;s ;k%
r`rh;k ;;k ;kH;ke~ ;kfHk%
prqFkhZ ;L;S ;kH;ke~ ;kH;%
i×peh ;L;k% ;kH;ke~ ;kH;%
"k"Bh ;L;k% ;;ks% ;klke~
lIreh ;L;ke~ ;;ks% ;klq

ifjf'k"Ve~ 115
uiql
a dfyXss
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ;r~ ;s ;kfu
f}rh;k ;r~ ;s ;kfu
r`rh;k ;su ;kH;ke~ ;S%
prqFkhZ ;LeS ;kH;ke~ ;sH;%
i×peh ;Lekr~ ;kH;ke~ ;sH;%
"k"Bh ;L; ;;ks% ;s"kke~
lIreh ;fLeu~ ;;ks% ;s"kq

bne~
iqf¡ YyXss
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek v;e~ bekS bes
f}rh;k bee~] ,ue~ bekS] ,ukS beku~] ,uku~
r`rh;k vusu] ,usu vkH;ke~ ,fHk%
prqFkhZ vLeS vkH;ke~ ,H;%
i×peh vLekr~ vkH;ke~ ,H;%
"k"Bh vL; vu;ks%] ,u;ks% ,"kke~
lIreh vfLeu~ vu;ks%] ,u;ks% ,"kq

#fpjk
116 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
L=khfyXss
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek b;e~ bes bek%
f}rh;k beke~ bes bek%
r`rh;k vu;k vkH;ke~ vkfHk%
prqFkhZ vL;S vkH;ke~ vkH;%
i×peh vL;k% vkH;ke~ vkH;%
"k"Bh vL;k% vu;ks% vklke~
lIreh vL;ke~ vu;ks% vklq

uiql
a d¯yXss
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek bne~ bes bekfu
f}rh;k bne~] ,ur~ bes] ,us bekfu] ,ukfu
r`rh;k vusu] ,usu vkH;ke~ ,fHk%
prqFkhZ vLeS vkH;ke~ ,H;%
i×peh vLekr~ vkH;ke~ ,H;%
"k"Bh vL; vu;ks%] ,u;ks% ,"kke~
lIreh vfLeu~ vu;ks%] ,u;ks% ,"kq

fo'ks"k% & loZuke'kCnkuka lEcks/us :ikf.k u HkofUrA

ifjf'k"Ve~ 117
½dkjkUr&L=khfyÄ%õ
ekr` (ekrk)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek ekrk ekrjkS ekrj%
f}rh;k ekrje~ ekrjkS ekrÏ%
r`rh;k ek=kk ekr`H;ke~ ekr`fHk%
prqFkhZ ek=ks ekr`H;ke~ ekr`H;%
i×peh ekrq% ekr`H;ke~ ekr`H;%
"k"Bh ekrq% ek=kks% ekrÏ.kke~
lIreh ekrfj ek=kks% ekr`"kq
lEcks/u! gs ekr%! gs ekrjkS! gs ekrj%!
Lol` (cgu)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek Lolk LolkjkS Lolkj%
f}rh;k Lolkje~ LolkjkS LolÏ%
r`rh;k LoÏk Lol`H;ke~ Lol`fHk%
prqFkhZ LoÏs Lol`H;ke~ Lol`H;%
i×peh Lolq% Lol`H;ke~ Lol`H;%
"k"Bh Lolq% LoÏks% LolÏ.kke~
lIreh Lolfj LoÏks% Lol`"kq
lEcks/u! gs Lol%! gs LolkjkS! gs Lolkj%!

#fpjk
118 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
udkjkUr&iqf¡ YyÄ%õ
jktu~ (jktk)
foHkfDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek jktk jktkukS jktku%
f}rh;k jktkue~ jktkukS jkK%
r`rh;k jkKk jktH;ke~ jktfHk%
prqFkhZ jkKs jktH;ke~ jktH;%
i×peh jkK% jktH;ke~ jktH;%
"k"Bh jkK% jkKks% jkKke~
lIreh jkfK] jktfu jkKks% jktlq
lEcks/u! gs jktu~! gs jktkukS! gs jktku%!

/krq&:ikf.k

[kkn~ ([kkuk)
yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% [kknfr [kknr% [kknfUr
eè;eiq#"k% [kknfl [kknFk% [kknFk
mÙkeiq#"k% [kknkfe [kknko% [kknke%

ifjf'k"Ve~ 119
y`V~ydkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% [kkfn";fr [kkfn";r% [kkfn";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% [kkfn";fl [kkfn";Fk% [kkfn";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% [kkfn";kfe [kkfn";ko% [kkfn";ke%

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% v[kknr~ v[kknrke~ v[kknu~
eè;eiq#"k% v[kkn% v[kknre~ v[kknr
mÙkeiq#"k% v[kkne~ v[kknko v[kknke

yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% [kknrq [kknrke~ [kknUrq
eè;eiq#"k% [kkn [kknre~ [kknr
mÙkeiq#"k% [kknkfu [kknko [kknke

fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% [kknsr~ [kknsrke~ [kkns;q%
eè;eiq#"k% [kkns% [kknsre~ [kknsr
mÙkeiq#"k% [kkns;e~ [kknso [kknse

,oeso /ko~] [ksy]~ xe~ (xPN)] iB~] j{k~] Hkze]~ ik (fic~)]


gl~] fey~] ØhM~]&bR;knhuka /krwuka :ikf.k HkofUrA
#fpjk
120 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
b"k~ (bPNk djuk)
yV~ydkj% (orZekudky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% bPNfr bPNr% bPNfUr
eè;eiq#"k% bPNfl bPNFk% bPNFk
mÙkeiq#"k% bPNkfe bPNko% bPNke%

y`V~ydkj% (Hkfo";Rdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% ,f"k";fr ,f"k";r% ,f"k";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% ,f"k";fl ,f"k";Fk% ,f"k";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% ,f"k";kfe ,f"k";ko% ,f"k";ke%

yÄ~ydkj% (vrhrdky%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% ,sPNr~ ,sPNrke~ ,sPNu~
eè;eiq#"k% ,sPN% ,sPNre~ ,sPNr
mÙkeiq#"k% ,sPNe~ ,sPNko ,sPNke

yksV~ydkj% (vuqKk@vkns'k%)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% bPNrq bPNrke~ bPNUrq
eè;eiq#"k% bPN bPNre~ bPNr
mÙkeiq#"k% bPNkfu bPNko bPNke

ifjf'k"Ve~ 121
fof/fyÄ~ydkj% (fof/%@lEHkkouk)
iq#"k% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% bPNsr~ bPNsrke~ bPNss;q%
eè;eiq#"k% bPNs% bPNssre~ bPNsr
mÙkeiq#"k% bPNs;e~ bPNso bPNse

la[;kokpdk% 'kCnk% (51 r% 100)

51 ,di×pk'kr~ 62 }k"kf"V%@f}"kf"V%
52 }ki×pk'kr~@f}i×pk'kr~ 63 =k;""kf"V%@f=k"kf"V%
53 =k;%i×pk'kr~@f=ki×pk'kr~ 64 prq""kf"V%
54 prq%i×pk'kr~ 65 i×p"kf"V%
55 i×pi×pk'kr~ 66 "kV~"kf"V%
56 "kV~i×pk'kr~ 67 lIr"kf"V%
57 lIri×pk'kr~ 68 v"Vk"kf"V%@v"V"kf"V%
58 v"Vki×pk'kr~@v"Vi×pk'kr~ 69 uo"kf"V%@,dksulIrfr%
59 uoi×pk'kr~@,dksu"kf"V% 70 lIrfr%
60 "kf"V% 71 ,dlIrfr%
61 ,d"kf"V% 72 }klIrfr%@f}lIrfr%

#fpjk
122 r`rh;ks Hkkx%
73 f=klIrfr%@=k;LlIrfr% 87 lIrk'khfr%
74 prqLlIrfr% 88 v"Vk'khfr%
75 i×plIrfr% 89 uok'khfr%@,dksuuofr%
76 "kV~lIrfr% 90 uofr%
77 lIrlIrfr% 91 ,duofr%
78 v"VklIrfr%@v"VlIrfr% 92 }kuofr%@f}uofr%
79 uolIrfr%@,dksuk'khfr% 93 =k;ksuofr%@f=kuofr%
80 v'khfr% 94 prquoZ fr%
81 ,dk'khfr% 95 i×puofr%
82 }Ô'khfr% 96 "k..kofr%
83 =k~;'khfr% 97 lIruofr%
84 prqj'khfr% 98 v"Vkuofr%@v"Vuofr%
85 i×pk'khfr% 99 uouofr%@,dksu'kre~
86 "kM'khfr% 100 'kre~

ifjf'k"Ve~ 123
fo"k;kuqØef.kdk
i`"BkÄïk%
iqjksoko~Q v
Hkwfedk ix

eÄõye~ 1&1

1- HkkjrholUrxhfr% 2&6

2- Lo.kZdkd% 7&16

3- lkseizHke~ 17&25

4- dYir#% 26&31

5- lwfDrekSfDrde~ 32&37

6- HkzkUrks cky% 38&44

7- izR;fHkKkue~ 45&55

8- ykSgrqyk 56&62

9- fldrklsrq% 63&70

10- tVk;ks% 'kkS;Ze~ 71&77

11- i;kZoj.ke~ 78&84

12- okÄ~eu%izk.kLo:ie~ 85&90


eÄy
õ e~
;L;ka leqnz mr flU/qjkiks ;L;keUua Ñ"V;% la cHkwoq%A
;L;kfEkna ftUofr izk.knstr~ lk uks Hkwfe% iwoZis;s n/krq AA1AA
;L;k'prÏ% izfn'k% i`fFkO;k ;L;keUua Ñ"V;% la cHkwoq%A
;k fcHkfrZ cgq/k izk.knstr~ lk uks Hkwfexks"Z oI;Uus n/krq AA2AA
tua fcHkzrh cgq/k fookpla ukuk/ekZ.ka i`fFkoh ;FkkSdle~A
lgÏaa /kjk nzfo.kL; es nqgka /zoq os /sujq uiLiqQjUrh AA3AA
1- ftl (Hkwfe) esa egklkxj] ufn;k¡ vkSj tyk'k; (>hy] ljksoj vkfn) fo|eku gSa] ftlesa
vusd izdkj osQ HkksT; inkFkZ mitrs gSa rFkk Ñf"k] O;kikj vkfn djus okys yksx lkekftd
laxBu cuk dj jgrs gSa (Ñ"V;% la cHkwoq%)] ftl (Hkwfe) esa ;s lk¡l ysrs (izk.kr~) izk.kh
pyrs&fiQjrs gSa_ og ekr`Hkwfe gesa izFke HkksT; inkFkZ ([kk|&is;) iznku djs AA1AA

2- ftl Hkwfe esa pkj fn'kk,¡ rFkk mifn'kk,¡ vusd izdkj osQ HkksT; inkFkZ (iQy] 'kkd vkfn)
mitkrh gSa_ tgk¡ Ñf"k&dk;Z djus okys lkekftd laxBu cukdj jgrs gSa (Ñ"V;% la
cHkwoq%)_ tks (Hkwfe) vusd izdkj osQ izkf.k;ksa (lk¡l ysus okyksa rFkk pyus&fiQjus okys
thoksa) dks /kj.k djrh gS] og ekr`Hkwfe gesa xkS&vkfn ykHkizn i'kqvksa rFkk [kk| inkFkks± osQ
fo"k; esa lEiUu cuk ns AA2AA

3- vusd izdkj ls fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa dks cksyus okys rFkk vusd èkeks± dks ekuus okys tu&leqnk;
dks] ,d gh ?kj esa jgus okys yksxksa osQ leku] /kj.k djus okyh rFkk dHkh u"V u gksus
nsus okyh (vuiLiqQjUrh) fLFkj&tSlh ;g i`Foh gekjs fy, /u dh lgÏksa /kjkvksa dk mlh
izdkj nksgu djs tSls dksbZ xk; fcuk fdlh ck/k osQ nw/ nsrh gks AA3AA
izFke% ikB%
HkkjrholUrxhfr%
izLrqr xhr vk/qfud laLÑr&lkfgR; osQ iz[;kr dfo ia- tkudh oYyHk 'kkL=kh dh jpuk
^dkdyh* uked xhrlaxgz ls ladfyr gSA blesa ljLorh dh oUnuk djrs gq, dkeuk dh xbZ gS
fd gs ljLorh! ,slh oh.kk ctkvks] ftlls e/qj e×tfj;ksa ls ihr iafDrokys vke osQ o`{k] dks;y
dk owQtu] ok;q dk /hjs&/hjs cguk] vejkb;ksa esa dkys Hkzejksa dk xq×tkj vkSj ufn;ksa dk (yhyk
osQ lkFk cgrk gqvk) ty] olUr Írq esa eksgd gks mBsA Lok/hurk laxzke dh i`"BHkwfe esa fy[kh
x;h ;g xhfrdk ,d uohu psruk dk vkokgu djrh gS rFkk ,sls oh.kkLoj dh ifjdYiuk djrh
gS tks Lok/hurk izkfIr osQ fy, tuleqnk; dks izsfjr djsA

fuukn; uohuke;s okf.k! oh.kke~


e`naq xk; xhfra yfyr&uhfr&yhuke~ A
e/qj&e×tjh&fi×tjh&Hkwr&ekyk%
olUrs ylUrhg ljlk jlkyk%
dykik% yfyr&dksfdyk&dkdyhuke~ AA1AA
fuukn;---AA
ogfr eUneUna luhjs lehjs
dfyUnkRetk;kLlokuhjrhjs]
urka ifƒekyksD; e/qek/ohuke~ AA2AA
fuukn;---AA
yfyr&iYyos iknis iq"iiq×ts
ey;ek#rksPpqfEcrs e×tqoQq ×ts]
LouUrhUrfrEiz{s ; efyukeyhuke~ AA3AA
fuukn;---AA
HkkjrholUrxhfr% 3

yrkuka furkUra lqea 'kkfUr'khye~


pysnPq NysRdkUrlfyya lyhye~]
rokd.;Z oh.kkenhuka unhuke~ AA4AA fuukn;---AA

'kCnkFkkZ%
fuukn; furjka okn; xqaftr djks@ctkvks
e`nqa pk#] e/qja dksey
yfyruhfryhuke~ lqUnjuhfrlayXuke~ lqUnj uhfr esa yhu
e×tjh vkezoqQlqee~ vkeziq"i
fi×tjhHkwrekyk% ihriÄ~Dr;% ihys o.kZ ls ;qDr iafDr;k¡
ylfUr 'kksHkUrs lq'kksfHkr gks jgh gSa
bg v=k ;gk¡
ljlk% jliw.kkZ% e/qj
jlkyk% vkezk% vke osQ isM+
dykik% lewgk% lewg
dkdyh dksfdykuka èofu% dks;y dh vkokt
luhjs ltys ty ls iw.kZ
lehjs ok;kS gok esa
dfyUnkRetk;k% ;equk;k% ;equk unh osQ
lokuhjrhjs osrl;qDrs rVs csar dh yrk ls ;qDr rV ij
urke~ ufrizkIrke~ >qdh gqbZ
e/qek/ohuke~ e/qek/ohyrkuke~ e/qj ekyrh yrkvksa dk
yfyriYyos euksgjiYyos eu dks vkdf"kZr djus okys iÙks
iq"iiq×ts iq"ilewgs iq"iksa osQ lewg ij
ey;ek#rksPpqfEcrs ey;kfuylaLi`"Vs pUnu o`{k dh lqxfU/r ok;q ls Li'kZ
fd;s x;s
e×tqoqQ×ts 'kksHkuyrkforkus lqUnj yrkvksa ls vkPNkfnr LFkku
LouUrha èofua oqQoZUrhe~ èofu djrh gqbZ
rfra ifƒe~ lewg dks
isz{; n`"V~ok ns[kdj
4 'kseq"kh
efyuke~ Ñ".ko.kkZe~ efyu
vyhuke~ Hkzejk.kke~ Hkzejksa osQ
lqee~ oqQlqee~ iq"i dks
'kkfUr'khye~ 'kkfUr;qDre~ 'kkfUr ls ;qDr
mPNysr~ mQèo± xPNsr~ mPNfyr gks mBs
dkUrlfyye~ euksgjtye~ LoPN ty
lyhye~ ØhMklfgre~ [ksy&[ksy osQ lkFk
vkd.;Z JqRok lqudj

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqRrjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) dfo% oh.kkikf.ka ¯d dFk;fr\
([k) olUrs ¯d Hkofr\
(x) ljLoR;k% oh.kka JqRok ¯d ifjorZua Hkorq bfr dos% bPNka fy[krA
(?k) dfo% Hkxorha Hkkjrha dL;k% u|k% rVs (oqQ=k) e/qek/ohuka urka ifƒe~ voyksD;
oh.kka oknf;rqa dFk;fr\
2- ^d* LrEHks inkfu] ^[k* LrEHks rs"kka i;kZ;inkfu nÙkkfuA rkfu fpRok inkuka le{ks
fy[kr&
^d* LrEHk% ^[k* LrEHk%
(d) ljLorh (1) rhjs
([k) vkeze~ (2) vyhuke~
(x) iou% (3) lehj%
(?k) rVs (4) ok.kh
(Ä) Hkzejk.kke~ (5) jlky%
3- v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu iz;qT; laLÑrHkk"k;k okD;jpuka oqQ#r&
(d) fuukn; ([k) eUneUne~
(x) ek#r% (?k) lfyye~
(Ä) lqeu%
HkkjrholUrxhfr% 5

4- izFke'yksdL; vk'k;a fgUnhHkk"k;k vkÄ~XyHkk"k;k ok fy[kr&


5- v/ksfyf[krinkuka foykseinkfu fy[kr&
(d) dBksje~ & -----------------------
([k) dVq & -----------------------
(x) 'kh?kze~ & -----------------------
(?k) izkphue~ & -----------------------
(Ä) uhjl% & -----------------------

ifj;kstukdk;Ze~
ikBs¿fLeu~ oh.kk;k% ppkZ vfLrA vU;s"kka i×pok|;U=kk.kka fp=ka jpf;Rok ladyÕ; ok rs"kka
ukekfu fy[krA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
vUo; vkSj fgUnh HkkokFkZ
v;s okf.k! uohuka oh.kka fuukn;A yfyruhfryhuka xhfra e`nqa xk;A
gs ok.kh! uohu oh.kk dks ctkvks] lqUnj uhfr;ksa ls ifjiw.kZ xhr dk e/qj xku djksA
bg olUrs e/qje×tjhfi×tjhHkwrekyk% ljlk% jlkyk% ylfUrA yfyr&dksfdykdkdyhuka
dykik% (foylfUr)A v;s okf.k ! uohuka oh.kka fuukn;A
bl olUr esa e/qj e×tfj;ksa ls ihyh gks x;h ljl vke osQ o`{kksa dh ekyk lq'kksfHkr gks jgh
gSA euksgj dkdyh (cksyh] owQd) okyh dksfdyksa osQ lewg lqUnj yx jgs gSaA gs ok.kh! uohu oh.kk
dks ctkvksA
dfyUnkRetk;k% lokuhjrhjs luhjs lehjs eUneUna ogfr (lfr) ekèkqekèkohuka urka
ifÄ~Dre~ voyksD;A v;s okf.k! uohuka oh.kka fuukn;A
;equk osQ osrl yrkvksa ls f?kjs rV ij ty fcUnqvksa ls iwfjr ok;q osQ eUn eUn cgus ij iwQyksa
ls >qdh gqbZ e/qek/oh yrk dks ns[kdj] gs ok.kh! uohu oh.kk dks ctkvksA
yfyriYyos iknis iq"iiq×ts e×tqoQq ×ts ey;&ek#rksPpqfEcrs LouUrhe~ vyhuka efyuka
rfra izs{; v;s okf.k! uohuka oh.kka fuukn;A
ey;iou ls Li`"V yfyr iYyoksa okys o`{kksa] iq"iiq×tksa rFkk lqUnj oqQ×tksa ij dkys HkkSajksa dh
xq×tkj djrh gqbZ iafDr dks ns[kdj] gs ok.kh uohu oh.kk dks ctkvksA
6 'kseq"kh
ro vnhuka oh.kke~ vkd.;Z yrkuka furkUra 'kkfUr'khya lqea pysr~ unhuka dkUrlfyya
lyhye~ mPNysr~A v;s okf.k! uohuka oh.kka fuukn;A
rqEgkjh vkstfLouh oh.kk dks lqudj yrkvksa osQ furkUr 'kkUr lqeu fgy mBsa] ufn;ksa dk
euksgj ty ØhMk djrk gqvk mNy iM+sA gs ok.kh! uohu oh.kk dks ctkvksA
izLrqr xhr osQ lekukUrj xhr&
oh.kkokfnfu oj nsA
fiz; LorU=k jo ve`r eU=k uo]
Hkkjr esa Hkj nsA
oh.kkokfnfu oj ns
fgUnh osQ izfl¼ dfo ia- lw;ZdkUr f=kikBh fujkyk osQ xhr dh oqQN iafDr;k¡ ;gk¡ nh xbZ
gSa] ftuesa ljLorh ls Hkkjr osQ mRd"kZ osQ fy;s izkFkZuk dh xbZ gSA jk"Vªdfo eSfFkyh'kj.kxqIr dh
jpuk ¶Hkkjro"kZ esa xw¡ts gekjh Hkkjrh¸ Hkh ,sls gh Hkkoksa ls vksrizksr gSA

ia- tkudhoYyHk 'kkL=kh


ia- tkudh oYyHk 'kkL=kh fgUnh osQ Nk;koknh ;qx osQ dfo osQ :i esa izfl¼ gSaA ;s laLÑr osQ
jpukdkj ,oa mRÑ"V vè;srk jgsA ckY;dky esa gh 'kkL=kh th dh dkO; jpuk esa izo`fÙk cu xbZ
FkhA viuh fd'kksjkoLFkk esa gh bUgsa laLÑr dfo osQ :i esa ekU;rk izkIr gks pqdh FkhA mUuhl o"kZ
dh mez esa budh laLÑr dforkvksa dk laxzg ^dkdyh* dk izdk'ku gqvkA
'kkL=kh th us laLÑr lkfgR; esa vk/qfud fo/k dh jpukvksa dk izkjaHk fd;kA buosQ }kjk xhr]
xty] 'yksd] vkfn fo/kvksa esa fy[kh xbZ laLÑr dfork,¡ cgqr yksdfiz; gqb±A budh laLÑr
dforkvksa esa laxhrkRedrk vkSj y; dh fo'ks"krk us yksxksa ij vizfre izHkko MkykA
f}rh;% ikB%
Lo.kZdkd%
izLrqr ikB Jh in~e'kkL=kh }kjk jfpr ¶fo'odFkk'krde~¸ uked dFkklaxzg ls fy;k x;k gS]
ftlesa fofHkUu ns'kksa dh lkS yksd dFkkvksa dk laxzg gSA ;g oekZ ns'k dh ,d Js"B dFkk gS] ftlesa
yksHk vkSj mlosQ nq"ifj.kke osQ lkFk&lkFk R;kx vkSj mlosQ lqifj.kke dk o.kZu] ,d lqugys ia[kksa
okys dkSos osQ ekè;e ls fd;k x;k gSA

iqjk d¯Lef'pn~ xzkes ,dk fu/Zuk o`¼k L=kh U;olr~A rL;k'pSdk nqfgrk fouezk euksgjk
pklhr~A ,dnk ekrk LFkkY;ka r.MqykfUuf{kI; iq=khekfnns'k & lw;kZris r.Mqyku~ [kxsH;ks
j{kA fdf×pRdkyknuUrje~ ,dks fofp=k% dkd% leqîhó ; rkeqiktxkeA
8 'kseq"kh

uSrkn`'k% Lo.kZi{kks jtrp×pq% Lo.kZdkdLr;k iwo± n`"V%A ra r.Mqyku~ [kknUra


glUr×p foyksD; ckfydk jksfnrqekjC/kA ra fuokj;Urh lk izkFkZ;r~&r.Mqyku~ ek Hk{k;A
enh;k ekrk vrho fu/Zuk orZrAs Lo.kZi{k% dkd% izkos kp] ek 'kqp%A lw;ksnZ ;kRizkx~
xzkekn~cfg% fiIiyo`{keuq Ro;kxUrO;e~A vga rqH;a r.MqyewY;a nkL;kfeA izgf"kZrk ckfydk
funzkefi u ysHksA
lw;ksnZ ;kRiwoeZ os lk r=kksifLFkrkA o`{kL;ksifj foyksD; lk pk'p;Zpfdrk l×tkrk
;Ùk=k Lo.kZe;% izklknks orZrAs ;nk dkd% 'kf;Rok izc¼ q Lrnk rsu Lo.kZxok{kkRdfFkra gagks
ckys! Roekxrk] fr"B] vga RoRÑrs
lksikueorkj;kfe] rRdFk; Lo.kZe;a
jtre;eqr rkeze;a ok\ dU;k izkokspr~
vga fuèkZuekrqnfZq grk¿fLeA rkezlksikusuoS
vkxfe";kfeA ija Lo.kZlksikusu lk Lo.kZ&
HkouekllknA
fpjdkya Hkous fp=kfofp=koLrwfu
lfTtrkfu n`"V~ok lk foLe;a xrkA JkUrka
rka foyksD; dkd% izkg&iwo± y?kqikz rjk'k%
fØ;rke~&on Roa Lo.kZLFkkY;ka Hkkstua
dfj";fl ¯d ok jtrLFkkY;keqr rkezLFkkY;ke~\ ckfydk O;ktgkjrkezLFkkY;kesokga
fuèkZuk Hkkstua dfj";kfeA rnk lk dU;k pk'p;Zpfdrk l×tkrk ;nk Lo.kZdkosQu
Lo.kZLFkkY;ka Hkkstua i;Zofs "kre~A uSrkn`d~ Loknq Hkkstue|kof/ ckfydk [kkfnrorhA dkdks
czrw &s ckfyosQ! vgfePNkfe ;Ùoa loZnk pk=kSo fr"B ija ro ekrk orZrs pSdkfduhA Roa
'kh?kzeos Lox`g` a xPNA
bR;qDRok dkd% d{kkH;UrjkfÙkÏks e×tw"kk fuLlk;Z rka izR;onr~& ckfyosQ! ;FksPNa
x`gk.k e×tw"kkesdke~A y?kqreka e×tw"kka izxá ` ckfyd;k dfFkrfe;nso enh;r.Mqykuka
ewY;e~A
Lo.kZdkd% 9

x`gekxR; r;k e×tw"kk leqn?~ kkfVrk] rL;ka egkgkZf.k ghjdkf.k foyksD; lk izgf"kZrk
rfíuk¼fudk p l×tkrkA

rfLeUuso xzkes ,dk¿ijk yqC/k o`¼k U;olr~A rL;k vfi ,dk iq=kh vklhr~A bZ";Z;k
lk rL; Lo.kZdkdL; jgL;efHkKkrorhA lw;kZris r.MqykfUuf{kI; r;kfi Lolqrk j{kkFk±
fu;qDrkA rFkSo Lo.kZi{k% dkd% r.Mqyku~ Hk{k;u~ rkefi r=kSokdkj;r~A izkrLr=k xRok lk
dkoaQ fuHkZRlZ;Urh izkokspr~&Hkks uhpdkd! vgekxrk] eáa r.MqyewY;a iz;PNA
dkoQks¿czohr~&vga RoRÑrs lksikueqÙkkj;kfeA rRdFk; Lo.kZe;a jtre;a rkeze;a okA
xfoZr;k ckfyd;k izkDs re~&Lo.kZe;su lksikusukgekxPNkfe ija Lo.kZdkdLrRÑrs rkeze;a
lksikueso izk;PNr~A Lo.kZdkdLrka Hkkstuefi rkezHkktus ádkj;r~A
izfrfuo`fÙkdkys Lo.kZdkosQu d{kkH;UrjkfÙkÏks e×tw"kk% rRiqj% leqf{kIrk%A yksHkkfo"Vk
lk c`gÙkeka e×tw"kka x`ghrorhA x`gekxR; lk rf"kZrk ;kon~ e×tw"kkeqn?~ kkV;fr rkoÙkL;ka
Hkh"k.k% Ñ".kliksZ foyksfdr%A yqC/;k ckfyd;k yksHkL; iQya izkIre~A rnuUrja lk yksHka
i;ZR;tr~A
10 'kseq"kh
'kCnkFkkZ%

U;olr~ volr~ jgrk Fkk@jgrh Fkh


nqfgrk lqrk iq=kh
LFkkY;ke~ LFkkyhik=ks Fkkyh esa
[kxsH;% if{kH;% if{k;ksa ls
leqM~Mh; mRIyqR; mM+dj
miktxke lehie~ vkxroku~ ikl igq¡pk
Lo.kZi{k% Lo.kZe;% i{k% lksus dk ia[k
jtrp×pq% jtre;% p×pq% pk¡nh dh pksap
r.Mqyku~ v{krku~ pkoyksa dks
fuokj;Urh okj.ka oqQoZUrh jksdrh gqbZ
ek 'kqp% 'kksda ek oqQ# nq%[k er djks
izksokp vdFk;r~ dgk
izgf"kZrk izlUuk [kq'k gqbZ
izklkn% Hkoue~ egy
xok{kkr~ okrk;ukr~ f[kM+dh ls
lksikue~ lksikue~ lh<h
vorkj;kfe vorh.k± djksfe mrkjrk gw¡
vkllkn izkIuksr~ igq¡pk
foyksD; n`"V~ok ns[kdj
izkg mokp dgk
izkrjk'k% dY;orZ% lqcg dk uk'rk
O;ktgkj vdFk;r~ dgk
i;Zosf"kre~ i;Zos"k.ka Ñre~ ijkslk x;k
egkgkZf.k cgqewY;kfu cgqewY;
yqC/k yksHko'khHkwrk yksHkh
fuHkZRlZ;Urh HkRlZuka oqQoZUrh fuUnk djrh gqbZ
i;ZR;tr~ vR;tr~ NksM+ fn;k
Lo.kZdkd% 11

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) fu/Zuk;k% o`¼k;k% nqfgrk dhn`'kh vklhr~\
([k) ckfyd;k iwo± ¯d u n`"Ve~ vklhr~\
(x) #nUrha ckfydka dkd% dFke~ vk'okl;r~\
(?k) ckfydk ¯d n`"V~ok vk'p;Zpfdrk tkrk\
(Ä) ckfydk osQu lksikusu Lo.kZHkoue~ vkllkn\
(p) lk rkezLFkkyha p;uk; ¯d ro±Q nnkfr\
(N) xfoZrk ckfydk dhn`'ka lksikue~ v;kpr~ dhn`'ka p vizkIuksrA
2- (d) v/ksfyf[krkuka 'kCnkuka foykseina ikBkr~ fpRok fy[kr&
(i) i'pkr~ & ------------------------
(ii) gflrqe~ & ------------------------
(iii) v/% & ------------------------
(iv) 'osr% & ------------------------
(v) lw;kZLr% & ------------------------
(vi) lqIr% & ------------------------
([k) lfU/a oqQ#r&
(i) fu $ volr~ & ------------------------
(ii) lw;Z $ mn;% & ------------------------
(iii) o`{kL; $ mifj & ------------------------
(iv) fg $ vdkj;r~ & ------------------------
(v) p $ ,dkfduh & ------------------------
(vi) bfr $ mDRok & ------------------------
(vii) izfr $ vonr~ & ------------------------
(viii) iz $ mDre~ & ------------------------
(ix) v=k $ ,o & ------------------------
(x) r=k $ mifLFkrk & ------------------------
(xi) ;Fkk $ bPNe~ & ------------------------
12 'kseq"kh
3- LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) xzkes fu/Zuk L=kh volr~A
([k) Lo.kZdkoaQ fuokj;Urh ckfydk izkFkZ;r~A
(x) lw;ksZn;kr~ iwoeZ so ckfydk r=kksifLFkrkA
(?k) ckfydk fu/Zuekrq%nqfgrk vklhr~A
(Ä) yqC/k o`¼k Lo.kZdkdL; jgL;efHkKkrorhA
4- izÑfr&izR;;&la;ksxa oqQ#r (ikBkr~ fpRok ok fy[kr)&
(d) gl~ $ 'kr` & ------------------------
([k) Hk{k~ $ 'kr` & ------------------------
(x) fo $ yksÑ $ Y;i~ & ------------------------
(?k) fu $ f{ki~ $ Y;i~ & ------------------------
(Ä) vk $ xe~ $ Y;i~ & ------------------------
(p) n`'k~ $ DRok & ------------------------
(N) 'kh $ DRok & ------------------------
(t) o`¼ $ Vki~ & ------------------------
(>) lqr $ Vki~ & ------------------------
(×k) y?kq $ rei~ & ------------------------
5- izÑfrizR;;&foHkkxa oqQ#r&
(d) glUre~ & ------------------------
([k) jksfnrqe~ & ------------------------
(x) o`¼k & ------------------------
(?k) Hk{k;u~ & ------------------------
(Ä) n`"V~ok & ------------------------
(p) foyksD; & ------------------------
(N) fuf{kI; & ------------------------
(t) vkxR; & ------------------------
(>) 'kf;Rok & ------------------------
(×k) lqrk & ------------------------
(V) y?kqree~ & ------------------------
Lo.kZdkd% 13

6- v/ksfyf[krkfu dFkukfu d%@dk] da@dka p dFk;fr&


dFkukfu d%@dk da@dke~
(d) iwo± izkrjk'k% fØ;krke~ ------------------ ------------------
([k) lw;kZris r.Mqyku~ [kxsH;ks j{k ------------------ ------------------
(x) r.Mqyku~ ek Hk{k; ------------------ ------------------
(?k) vga rqH;a r.MqyewY;a nkL;kfe ------------------ ------------------
(Ä) Hkks uhpdkd! vgekxrk] eáa r.MqyewY;a iz;PN ------------------ ------------------

7- mnkgj.keuql`R; dks"Bdxrs"kq ins"kq i×pehfoHkDrs% iz;ksxa ÑRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


;Fkk& ew"kd% fcykn~ cfg% fuxZPNfrA (fcy)
(d) tu% ------------------- cfg% vkxPNfrA (xzke)
([k) u|% ------------------- fuLljfUrA (ioZr)
(x) ------------------- i=kkf.k irfUrA (o`{k)
(?k) ckyd% ------------------- foHksfrA (¯lg)
(Ä) bZ'oj% ------------------- =kk;rsA (Dys'k)
(p) izHkq% HkDra ------------------- fuokj;frA (iki)

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
ys[kd ifjp; & bl dFkk osQ ys[kd in~e 'kkL=kh gSaA ;s lkfgR;k;qosZnkpk;Z] dkO;rhFkZ]
lkfgR;jRu] f'k{kk'kkL=kh vkSj jfl;u fMIyksek vkfn mikf/;ksa ls Hkwf"kr gSaA bUgsa fo|kHkw"k.k
o vk'kqdfo ekun mikf/;k¡ Hkh izkIr gSaA bUgsa lksfo;r Hkwfe usg: iqjLdkj lfefr vkSj
jktLFkku lkfgR; vdkneh }kjk Lo.kZind izkIr gSA budh vusd jpuk,¡ gSa] ftuesa oqQN izeq[k
fuEufyf[kr gSa &
1- flusek'krde~ 2- LojkT;e~ [k.MdkO;e~
3- ysfuuke`re~ egkdkO;e~ 4- enh;k lksfo;r ;k=kk
5- i|i×prU=ke~ 6- cÄy õ kns'kfot;%
7- yksdrU=kfot;% 8- fo'odFkk'krde~
9- pk;'krde~ 10- egkohjpfjrke`re~
14 'kseq"kh
1- Hkkf"kd&foLrkj & ¶fdlh Hkh dke dks djosQ¸ bl vFkZ esa ^DRok* izR;; dk iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA
;Fkk& ifBRok & iB~ $ DRok ¾ i<+dj
xRok & xe~ $ DRok ¾ tkdj
[kkfnRok & [kkn~ $ DRok ¾ [kkdj
blh vFkZ esa vxj /krq (fØ;k) ls igys milxZ gksrk gS rks Y;i~ izR;; dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA
/krq ls iwoZ milxZ gksus dh fLFkfr esa dHkh Hkh ^DRok* izR;; dk iz;ksx ugha gks ldrk vkSj
milxZ u gksus dh fLFkfr esa dHkh Hkh Y;i~ izR;; ugha gks ldrk gSA
;Fkk& mi $ xe~ $ Y;i~ ¾ mixE;
le~ $ iwt~ $ Y;i~ ¾ lEiwT;
fo $ yksÑ (yksd) $ Y;i~ ¾ foyksD;
vk $ nk $ Y;i~ ¾ vknk;
fuj~ $ xe~ $ Y;i~ ¾ fuxZR;
2- iz'uokpd 'kCnksa dks vfu'p;okpd cukus osQ fy, fpr~ vkSj pu fuikrksa dk iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA ;s fuikr tc loZukeinksa osQ lkFk yxrs gSa rks loZuke in gksrs gSa vkSj tc vO;;
inksa osQ lkFk iz;qDr gksrs gSa rks vO;; gksrs gSaA
;Fkk& d% ¾ dkSu
d% $ pu ¾ d'pu ¾ dksbZ d% $ fpr~ ¾ df'pr~ ¾ dksbZ
osQ $ pu ¾ osQpu dksbZ (cgqopu esa) osQ $ fpr~ ¾ osQfpr~ (cgqopu esa)
dk $ pu ¾ dkpu (dksbZ L=kh) dk $ fpr~ ¾ dkfpr~ (dksbZ L=kh)
dk% $ pu ¾ dk'pu (oqQN fL=k;k¡ cgqopu) dk% $ fpr~ ¾ dkf'pr~ (oqQN
fL=k;k¡ cgqopu esa)
fde~ 'kCn osQ lHkh opuksa] fyaxksa o lHkh foHkfDr;ksa esa fpr~ vkSj pu dk iz;ksx fd;k tk
ldrk gS vkSj mls vfu'p;okpd cuk;k tk ldrk gSA tSls &
1- fdf×pr~ izFkek esa
2- osQufpr~ r`rh;k esa
3- osQ"kkf×pr~ (osQ"kke~ $ fpr~) "k"Bh esa
4- dfLeaf'pr~ lIreh esa
5- dL;kf×pr~ lIreh (L=khfyÄõ es)a
Lo.kZdkd% 15

blh rjg fpr~ osQ LFkku ij pu dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA fpr~ vkSj pu tc vO;;inksa esa yx
tkrs gSa rks os vO;; gks tkrs gSaA tSls &
Dofpr~ Dopu
dnkfpr~ dnkpu
3- laLÑr esa ,d ls prqj (pkj) rd la[;kokph 'kCn iqafYyÄõ] L=khfyÄõ] rFkk uiqald fyÄõ
esa vyx&vyx :iksa esa gksrs gSa ij i×p (ik¡p) ls mudk :i lHkh fyÄõksa esa ,d lk gksrk
gSA
iqafYyÄõ L=khfyÄõ uiqaldfyÄõ
,d% ,dk ,de~
}kS }s }s
=k;% frÏ% =khf.k
pRokj% prÏ% pRokfj
4- orZekudkfyd fØ;k osQ vFkZ esa /krq osQ lkFk 'kr` vkSj 'kkup~ izR;; dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA 'kr`
izR;; ijLeSinh /krqvksa osQ lkFk o 'kkup~ izR;; vkReusinh /krqvksa osQ lkFk iz;qDRk gksrs gSaA
;Fkk& [kkn~ $ 'kr` & [kknu~@[kknr~ lso~ $ 'kkup~ & lsoeku%
xe~ $ 'kr` & xPNu~@xPNr~ eqn~ $ 'kkup~ & eksneku%
iB~ $ 'kr` & iBu~@iBr~ yHk~ $ 'kkup~ & yHkeku%
gl~ $ 'kr` & glu~@glr~ czq $ 'kkup~ &czqok.k%
buosQ :i bl izdkj pyrs gSa&
iaqfYyÄõ
,dopu f}opu cgqopu
xPNu~ xPNUrkS xPNUr%
xPNUre~ xPNUrkS xPNr%
xPNrk xPNn~H;ke~ xPNf‰%
xPNrs xPNn~H;ke~ xPNn~H;%
xPNr% xPNn~H;ke~ xPNn~H;%
xPNr% xPNrks% xPNrke~
xPNfr xPNrks% xPNRlq
16 'kseq"kh
L=khfyÄõ
xPNUrh xPNUR;kS xPNUR;%
xPNUrhe~ xPNUR;kS xPNUrh%
xPNUR;k xPNUrhH;ke~ xPNUrhfHk%
xPNUR;S xPNUrhH;ke~ xPNUrhH;%
xPNUR;k% xPNUrhH;ke~ xPNUrhH;%
xPNUR;k% xPNUR;ks% xPNUrhuke~
xPNUR;ke~ xPNUR;ks% xPNUrh"kq

uiqald fyÄõ esa


xPNr~ xPNrh xPNfUr
xPNr~ xPNrh xPNfUr

'ks"k iaqfYyÄõor~
5- rji~ vkSj rie~ izR;;ksa esa rj vkSj re 'ks"k cprk gSA
;Fkk & cyor~ $ rji~ & cyoÙkj
y?kq $ rei~ & y?kqre
;s rqyukokph izR;; gSA buosQ mnkgj.k ns[ksa &
y?kq y?kqrj y?kqre
egr egÙkj egÙke
Js"B Js"Brj Js"Bre
e/qj e/qjrj e/qjre
xq# xq#rj xq#re
rhoz rhozrj rhozre
fiz; fiz;rj fiz;re
vè;srO;% xzUFk%&
fo'odFkk'krde~ (Hkkx};e~] 1987] 1988 in~e 'kkL=kh] nsoukxj izdk'ku] t;iqj)
r`rh;% ikB%
lkseizHke~
izLrqr ikB izks- jk/koYyHk f=kikBh }kjk jfpr ^izs{k.klIrde~* uked ukV~;&laxzg ls lEikfnr
dj fy;k x;k gSA ;gk¡ ngst izFkk osQ fuUnuh; :i dk mYys[k fd;k x;k gSA viuh ekrk dh j{kk
osQ fy, ckfydk lkseizHkk }kjk fd;k x;k iz;kl fo'ks"k :i ls mYys[kuh; gSA
(rr% izfr'kfr djrykH;ka p{kq"kh ektZ;Urh i×po"kZn's kh;k ckfydk lkseizHkk)
foeyk & v;s tkxfjrk! RojLo rkor~A ifjgh;rs fo|ky;xeuosykA
lkseizHkk & vEc! v| u xfe";kfe fo|ky;e~A
foeyk & (gLrsu lkseizHkka x`ghRok) v;s fdesrr~ dFk;flA fo|ky;Lrq xUrO; ,o
izfrfnue~A
(lkseizHkk;k% izLFkkue~)
'oJw% & foeys! vf; nq"Vs! oqQ=k e`rkfl\ fd;r% dkykr~ 'kCnki;kfe\
foeyk & (ld#.ka fu'kE;) b;a ee 'oJw% lnSo eeZ?kkfrfHk% dVqopuSjkf{kifr
eke~A (mPpS% Lojs.k) vEc! b;ekxPNkfeA ¯d dj.kh;e~\ (ifjØkefr)A
(rr% izfo'kfr lkVksia dksia fu:i;Urh 'oJw%)
foeyk & vEc! fdekfn'kfl\
'oJw% & (foMEc;Urh) fdekfn'kfl\ fdfenkuhefi egknsO;k% izHkkrdkyks u l×tkr%\
foeyk & izkr%dkfyoaQ dk;Ztkreso lEikn;kfeA
'oJw% & izkr%dkfyoaQ dk;Ztkra lEikn;flA bnkuhefi pk;is;L; ukfLr dkfi
dFkkA ro firk vkxR; lk/f;";fr ¯d pk;a --- ;su dkfd.kh vfi u
nÙkk ---
foeyk & ee fir`ikne~ fdeFk± dnFkZ;fl vEc! ;fRdefi dFkuh;a eka izR;so dFk;A
'oJw% & (lHkzHw kÄaõ lHkqt{ksia p) (v;~ g;~) kÜ .` kqr vL;k% nq"Vk;k% v/jksÙkje~A
,rkokuso fiz;ks ;fn firk rfgZ r=kSo xRok dFka u e`rk firqxgZ` s ---\
18 'kseq"kh

foeyk & l rq eka usreq kxr% Jko.ks foxrsA HkorhfHkjso ---


'oJw% & vf; nq"Vs! osruL; xoZenq o~ gfl\ vfrek=ka xfoZrkfl f=kpqrj% i.kdkutZf;Rok
vku;lhR;srus A fu"Bhoua djksfe ro i.kosQ"kqA Fkq%! ¯d eU;ls Roe~ vtZf;Rok
/ueku;fl\ ¯d ro /ua rr~\ ro firk ;koUra ;kSrdjkf'ka izfrKkroku~
rkorks¿/Zeos lefiZ
a roku~A
foeyk & vgks u`'kalrk ;q"ekde~A vgks yksyiq rk ---
'oJw% & v;s! ,rkokaLro lkgle~ Roa ekekf{kiflA us=ks n'kZ;fl eke~A
('olqj% izfo';)
'olqj% & ¯d tkre~\~ dks¿;a dygkMEcj% izkr% dkyknso\ izkr%dkfyoaQ pk;eihnkuha
;koUu yC/e~ ---
'oJw% & dk dFkk pk;ikuL;A =kksfVrkfu vu;k nq"V;k pk;HkktukfuA u e;k fdefi
Hkf.kre~] rFkkfi vf/f{kifr ekfe;e~A o;a u`'kalk%] o;a yksyiq k%] o;a
jk{klk%A
'olqj% & ,rRlo± dfFkreu;k\
foeyk & u e;Srr~ dfFkra fir%!
'oJw% & i';r i';r vL;k nkSjkRE;a nqHkZxk;k%A ¯d ¯d nq"ÑR;fe;a u djksfr\
lEeq[keso izR;qÙkjefi nnkfr] ftàka pky;rh;a eRle{ke~A
'olqj% & (lØks/e~) vgks vL;k nqLlkgle~!
('olqj% 'oJw'p rka u i';r% mHkkS lØkS;± lfgaÏHkkoa foeyka fuHkky;UrkS
rkeqiliZr%A lkseizHkk izfo'; ,rr~ i';fr)
foeyk & vEc! fir%! u e;k fdefi vijk¼a lR;su 'kikfeA fdfefr ;w;a ekesoa
i';Fk\ ufg] ufg] u eka rkMf;rqegZfUr HkoUr% --- A (mHkkS ft?kkal;k
cykn~ foeyka x`ghRok izèk"kZ;r%)
lkseizHkk & (Hk;xzLrsukfreUnLojs.k) & vEc --- vEc ---
('olqjkS rkei';UrkS foeyka d"kZr%)
lkseizHke~ 19

'oJw% & u;r ,uka egkule~ b;a r=kSo ToyrqA


(lkseizHkk lglk iz/koUrh fu"ØkefrA foeyk vkRe=kk.kk; lizk.ki.ka
iz;rrs] usiF;s xh;rs)

{k.ks {k.ks izo/Zrs /uk; fgaÏrk [kyS&


foZyksI;rs¿frfunZ;a p tUrqfHkeZu"q ;rkA
foHkkftra txn~f}/k fugU;rs p ?kkroSQ&
jrho nSU;ekxrkfLr lk/qrk euq";rkAA
(foeyk;kLrhoz'phRdkj%A iq#"kfujh{kosQ.k lg lkseizHkk izfo'kfr)
iq#"kfujh{kd% & (mil`R;) gs! ¯d fØ;rs] ¯d izpyR;=k\ eq×pr ,uke~A
'oJw% & (lEHkzee~) egkHkkx! u fdeI;R;kfgre~A b;eLekda lkèoh Luq"kk
#X.kk orZrAs ,ukeqipjke%A
20 'kseq"kh
fujh{kd% & mipkj% fØ;rs! ;qo;ks#ipkjega dfj";sA loZega tkukfeA (lkseizHkka fufnZ';)
lo± fuosfnreu;k ckfyd;kA
('oJw% 'olqj'p foeyka eq×pr%)

foeyk & (ld"Va lkseizHkkeqil`R;) & iqf=k! Roe~ --- dFka Rofeg ---
lkseizHkk & vEc! ee mikugkS =kqfVrkS] iqLrde×tw"kk p =kqfVrsfr vè;kfidk eka
d{kk;k fu"dkflrorhA Ro;k mDreklhr~ & fo|ky;kn~ x` g es o
vfoyEcekxUrO;e~A vrks¿ga x`gekxrk (jksfnfr)
foeyk & ek jksnh% iqfË! loZeiq iUua Hkfo";frA
lkseizHkk & v=kkxR; e;k n`"Va ;r~ firkeg% firkegh p Roka ekj;r%A vrks¿ga èkkoa
èkkoa LFkkuoaQ xrkA iq#"k& fujh{kdk; e;k fuosfnre~ ---
foeyk & (lok"ia lxn~xna d.BekfyÄ~X; lkseizHkke~) Ro;k vga =kkrkA egr%
lÄïVkr~ Roa ekeqn/~ r` orhA fiz;a Ñra Ro;k esA
lkseizHke~ 21

'kCnkFkkZ%
p{kq"kh us=ks nksuksa vk¡[ksa
ektZ;Urh ektZua oqQoZUrh lkiQ djrh gqbZ
RojLo 'kh?kzrka oqQ# 'kh?kzrk djks
ifjgh;rs foyEcks Hkofr nsj gks jgh gS
'oJw% lkl
'olqj% 'olqj
'kCnki;kfe vkdkj;kfe vkokt nsrh gw¡ @ nsrk gw¡
vkf{kifr vk{ksia djksfr rkuk ns jgh gS
eeZ?kkfrfHk% eeZ gfUr bfr eeZHksnh ('kCnksa ls)
eeZ?kkrh rS% eeZ?kkfrfHk%
lkVksie~ xos.Z k lfgre~ xoZ fn[kkrh gqbZ
dksie~ Øks/e~ Øks/ dksA
dnFkZ;fl fuUn;fl fuUnk djrh gks
i.kdku~ iSls
fu"Bhoue~ FkwRÑre~ Fkwduk
;kSrdjkf'ke~ dU;k'kqYde~ ngst dh jkf'k
u`'kalrk funZ;rk funZ;rk
yksyqirk yksHkizo`fÙk% yksHk dh izo`fÙk
=kksfVrkfu Hkf×trkfu rksM+ Mkyk x;k
Hkktukfu ik=kkf.k ik=k ( crZu)
Hkf.kre~ dfFkre~ dgk x;k
nkSjkRE;e~ nq"VkReRoe~ nq"Vrk
lØkS;Ze~ lu`'kalRoe~ ozwQjrk osQ lkFk
ft?kkal;k gUrqe~ bPNk ft?kkalk ekjus dh bPNk ls
r;k ft?kkal;k
fuHkky;UrkS i';UrkS ns[krs gq, (nks)
izèk"kZ;r% la?kêð;r% [khaprs gSa
d"kZr% izlg~; u;r% cyiwod Z ys tkrs gSa
egkule~ ikd'kkyke~ jlksbZ ?kj esa
22 'kseq"kh
[kyS% nq"VS% nq"Vksa }kjk
eq×pr R;tr NksM+ks
vR;kfgre~ vfgre~ vdjoe~ vfgr fd;k
Luq"kk iq=ko/w% cgw
#X.kk vLoLFkk chekj
mikugkS in=kk.ks twrs (nks)
e×tw"kk fiVde~ isVh (cSx)
miiUue~ mfpre~ lgh] Bhd&Bkd
firkeg% fir`tud% nknk
firkegh fir`tuuh nknh
LFkkude~ jf{kLFkkue~ Fkkuk

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) vè;kfidk lkseizHkka d{kk;k% fdeFk± fu"dkflrorh\
([k) fo|ky;kr~ x`ge~ vkxR; lk (lkseizHkk) fde~ vi';r~\
(x) foeyk;k% 'olqj% 'oJw% p rke~ oqQ=k fdeFkZ×p u;r%\
(?k) lkseizHkk dFke~ ekrq% =kk.ke~ vdjksr~\
(Ä) lkseizHkk;k% vk;q% dfr o"kkZf.k vklhr~\
(p) vfLeu~ ukVosQ iq#"kfujh{kdL; (vkjf{k.k%) drZO;ijk;.krk of.kZrk¿fLr Hkz"Vkpkjijk;.krk
ok\
2- fuEufyf[krL; 'yksdL; vk'k;a fgUnhHkk"k;k vkÄ~XyHkk"k;k ok fy[kr&
{k.ks&{k.ks izo/Zrs /uk; fgaÏrk[kyS&
foZyksI;rs¿frfunZ;a p tUrqfHkeZuq";rkA
foHkkftra txn~f}èkk fugU;rs p ?kkroSQ&
jrho nSU;ekxrk¿fLr lk/qrk euq";rkAA
3- (d) v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka i;kZ;ina ikBkr~ fpRok fy[kr&
(i) iq=ko/w & ----------------------------
(ii) in=kk.ks & ----------------------------
lkseizHke~ 23

(iii) ikd'kkyke~ & ----------------------------


(iv) 'kh?kza oqQ# & ----------------------------
(v) ik=kkf.k & ----------------------------
(vi) gUrqe~ bPNk & ----------------------------
([k) lfU/a oqQ#r&
(i) dyg $ vkMEcj% & ----------------------------
(ii) izpyfr $ vË & ----------------------------
(iii) u $ vfLr & ----------------------------
(iv) izfr $ ,o & ----------------------------
(v) e;k $ ,rr~ & ----------------------------
(vi) r=k $ ,o & ----------------------------

4- mnkgj.keuql`R; izÑfrizR;;la;ksxa oqQ#r&


;Fkk& vk $ xe~ $ Y;i~ & vkxR;
le~ $ iwt~ $ Y;i~ & lEiwT;
(d) vfHk $ xe~ $ Y;i~ & ----------------------------
([k) fo $ gk $ Y;i~ & ----------------------------
(x) fuj~ $ xe~ $ Y;i~ & ----------------------------
(?k) fo $ gl~ $ Y;i~ & ----------------------------
(Ä) iz $ Dy`i~ (Ñi~) $ Y;i~ & ----------------------------
(p) le~ $ cq/~ $ Y;i~ & ----------------------------
5- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq milxZina fpuqr&
(d) ifjgh;rs & ---------------------------- ([k) l×tkr% & ----------------------------
(x) vf/f{kifr & ---------------------------- (?k) izR;qÙkje~ & ----------------------------
(Ä) izo/Zrs & ---------------------------- (p) foyksI;rs & ----------------------------
(N) mipjke% & ---------------------------- (t) mn~/`rorh & ----------------------------
24 'kseq"kh
6- LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) v| fo|ky;e~ u xfe";kfeA
([k) vu;k nq"V;k pk;Hkktukfu =kksfVrkfuA
(x) foeyk vkRe=kk.kk; iz;rrsA
(?k) Roe~ lÄïVkr~ eke~ mn~èk`rorhA
(Ä) Roe~ osruL; xoZe~ mn~ogflA
7- ?kVukØekuqlkja okD;kfu iqu% fy[kr &
(d) lkseizHkk vkjf{k.k% lehie~ vxPNr~A
([k) foeyk;k% 'oJw% rke~ dVqopuS% vkf{kifrA
(x) lk vkRe=kk.kk; iz;Rua djksfrA
(?k) foeyk;k% 'oJw% 'olqj% p rke~ Tokyf;rqe~ egkula u;r%A
(Ä) iq#"kfujh{kd% lkseizHk;k lg vkxPNfr rL;k% =kk.ka djksfrA
;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
ifjp;&vokZphu laLÑr lkfgR; esa vusd jpukdkj viuh jpukvksa osQ ekè;e ls lkekftd
folaxfr;ksa dk mn~?kkVu djrs gq, vU;k;] 'kks"k.k vkSj neu osQ izfrdkj osQ fy, vkàku dj jgs
gSaA fL=k;ksa ij gksus okys vR;kpkj vkSj ukjh LokrU=; osQ Hkko dk fp=k.k vfHkjkt jktsUnz feJ
osQ ,dkadh ukVd ^oS/s;foØee~* esa feyrk gS tks muosQ ,dkadh laxzg ^prq"iFkh;e~* esa
izdkf'kr gSA gfjnÙk 'kekZ dk ,dkadh ^o/wngue~* (f=kirkde~] 1987 esa ladfyr) Hkh blh
leL;k ij osQfUnzr gSA jkèkkoYyHk f=kikBh dh turkygjh] jksfVdkygjh vkfn dkO; rFkk
izs{k.k& lIrde~ osQ vU; ,dkadh Hkh bl n`f"V ls iBuh; gSaA
izks- jk/koYyHk f=kikBh dk tUe 15 iQjojh 1949 bZ- dks eè;izns'k osQ jktx<+ tuin esa
gqvkA vki MkW- gjhflag xkSj fo'ofo|ky; osQ laLÑr foHkkx esa vkpk;Z ,oa foHkkxkè;{k gSaA
vkèkqfud laLÑr lkfgR; esa vkidk eguh; ;ksxnku gSA
Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%
'kCnki;kfe & ¶vkdkj;kfe¸ & cqykrk gw¡ & bl vFkZ esa 'kCnki;kfe 'kCn vk;k gSA fgUnh esa
bldk cM+k vPNk iz;ksx gS & ^vkokt nsrk gw¡A*
fir`ikne~ & ik /krq esa r`p~ izR;; tqM+us ls firk 'kCn cukA ikfr&j{kfr bfr firk vFkkZr~ tks
j{kk djrk gS og firk gSA vknj osQ fy, ikne~ 'kCn tksM+dj fir`ikne~ 'kCn
curk gS ftldk vFkZ gS iwT; firkthA
lkseizHke~ 25

u`'kalrk & u` $ 'kl~ $ v.k~ & u`'kal 'kCn cuk vkSj bldh Hkkookpd laKk u`'kalrk gSA
bldk vFkZ gS funZ;rk & dBksjrk] ozwQjrkA
vkRe=kk.kk; & vius =kk.k osQ fy, & vius cpko osQ fy,A =kS $ Dr vkSj ^r* dk uRo@.kRo
gksus ij =kk.ke~ 'kCn curk gSA vkReu% Ëk.kk; & ;gk¡ "k"Bh rRiq#"k lekl gSA
fujh{kosQ.k & fuj~ $ bZ{k~ $ Y;qV~ esa ^v* djosQ fujh{kd 'kCn curk gS ftldk vFkZ gS ns[kus
okyk] fopkj djus okyk] voyksdu djus okykA blesa r`rh;k foHkfDr dk
iz;ksx gksus ij fujh{kosQ.k 'kCn cukA
lkèoh & lk/q 'kCn esa Ähi~ izR;; djosQ lkèoh 'kCn fu"iUu gksrk gSA bldk vFkZ
gS&lrh L=kh ;k ifrozrk L=khA
mipkj% & ^mi* milxZ iwoZd pj~ /krq ls ?k×k~ izR;; djus ij mipkj% 'kCn fu"i gksrk
gS ftldk vFkZ gS & lsok & 'kqJw"kk] lRdkj] fpfdRlk vkfnA
fu"dkflrorh & ful~ milxZiwoZd ^dl~ /krq ls f.kp~ vkSj Drorq izR;; ls fu"dkflroku~ 'kCn
cukA L=khfyÄõ esa ;gh fu"dkflrorh gks x;kA
lkVksie~ & (lg vkVksius ) & ?keaM esa Hkjk gqvk ;k iQwyk gqvkA gsdM+h osQ lkFk] vdM+dj]
bBykdj ;k jksc osQ lkFk tc vkMEcjiwod Z dksbZ ckr dgh tkrh gS rks mls
lkVksi dFku dgrs gSAa
1- fuEuizdkj osQ mnkgj.k ns[ksa] le>sa o ;kn djsa&
gUrqe~ bPNk ft?kaklk
ikrqe~ bPNk fiiklk
HkksDrqe~ bPNk cqHkq{kk
Kkrqe~ bPNk ftKklk
drqZe~ bPNk fpdh"kkZ
Jksrqe~ bPNk 'kqJw"kk
nz"Vqe~ bPNk fnn`{kk
2- fo'ks"k%&
z LoHkk"kk;ka lekukFkZdiz;ksxEkfUo";r&ftàka pky;frA
z pk;is;L; ukfLr dk¿fi dFkkA
z fdfenkuha egknsO;k% izHkkrdkyks u l×tkr%A
z vgks ,rkokaLro lkgl%A
vè;srO;% xzUFk%&
prq"iFkh;e~& vfHkjkt jktsUnzfeJ%] oSt;Ur izdk'ku] bykgkcknA
prqFkZ% ikB%
dYir#%
izLrqr ikB ^osrkyi×pfoa'kfr%* uked dFkk laxzg ls fy;k x;k gS] ftlesa euksj×td ,oe~
vk'p;Ztud ?kVukvksa osQ ekè;e ls thouewY;ksa dk fu:i.k fd;k x;k gSA bl dFkk esa
thewrokgu vius iwoZtksa osQ dky ls x`gks|ku esa vkjksfir dYio`{k ls lkalkfjd nzO;ksa dks u ek¡xdj
lalkj osQ izkf.k;ksa osQ nq%[kksa dks nwj djus dk ojnku ek¡xrk gS D;ksafd /u rks ikuh dh ygj osQ
leku papy gS] osQoy ijksidkj gh bl lalkj dk loksZRÑ"V rFkk fpjLFkk;h rÙo gSA

vfLr fgeoku~ uke loZjRuHkwfeuZxUs nz%A rL; lkuks#ifj foHkkfr d×puiqja uke uxje~A
r=k thewrosQrqfjfr Jheku~ fo|k/jifr% olfr LeA rL; x`gks|kus oqQyØekxr% dYir#%
fLFkr%A l jktk thewrosQrq% ra dYir#e~ vkjkè; rRizlknkr~ p cksf/lRoka'klEHkoa
thewrokgua uke iq=ka izkIuksrA~ l egku~ nkuohj% loZHkwrkuqdEih p vHkor~A rL; xq.kS%
izlUu% LolfpoS'p izfs jr% jktk dkysu lEizkIr;kSoua ra ;kSojkT;s¿fHkf"kDroku~A ;kSojkT;s
fLFkr% l thewrokgu% dnkfpr~ fgrSf"kfHk% fir`efU=kfHk% mDr% & ¶;qojkt! ;ks¿;a
loZdken% dYir#% roks|kus fr"Bfr l ro lnk iwT;%A vfLeu~ vuqoQw ys fLFkrs
'kØks¿fi ukLeku~ ckf/raq 'kDuq;kr~¸ bfrA
vkd.;SrZ r~ thewrokgu% vUrjfpUr;r~ & ¶vgks cr! bZn'` keejiknia izkI;kfi iwo%ZS
iq#"kSjLekda rkn`'ka iQya fdefi uklkfnra fdUrq osQoya oSQf'pnso Ñi.kS% df'pnfi
vFkks¿Z fFkZr%A rngeLekr~ euksjFkeHkh"Va lk/;kfe¸ bfrA ,oekyksP; l firqjfUrdekxPNr~A
vkxR; p lq[keklhua firjesdkUrs U;osn;r~& ¶rkr! Roa rq tkukfl ,o ;nfLeu~
lalkjlkxjs vk'kjhjfena lo± /ua ohfpoPp×pye~A ,d% ijksidkj ,okfLeu~ lalkjs¿u'oj%
;ks ;qxkUri;ZUra ;'k% izlrw As rnLekfHkjhn`'k% dYir#% fdeFk± j{;rs\ ;S'p iwojZS ;a ^ee
ee* bfr vkxzg.s k jf{kr%] rs bnkuha oqQ=k xrk%\ rs"kka dL;k;e~\ vL; ok osQ rs\ rLekr~
ijksidkjSdiQyfl¼;s RonkK;k bea dYiiknie~ vkjk/;kfeA
dYir#% 27

vFk fi=kk ^rFkk* bfr vH;uqKkr% l thewrokgu% dYir#e~ mixE; mokp &
¶nso! Ro;k vLeRiwo"Zs kke~ vHkh"Vk% dkek% iwfjrk%] rUeeSda dkea iwj;A ;Fkk i`Fohenfjnzka
i';kfe] rFkk djksrq nso** bfrA ,oaokfnfu thewrokgus ^^R;DrLRo;k ,"kks¿ga ;krks¿fLe¸
bfr oko~Q rLekr~ rjks#nHkwrA~

{k.ksu p l dYir#% fnoa leqRiR; Hkqfo rFkk olwfu vo"kZr~ ;Fkk u dks¿fi nqxrZ
vklhr~A rrLrL; thewrokguL; loZthokuqdEi;k loZ=k ;'k% izfFkre~A
28 'kseq"kh
'kCnkFkkZ%
vnfjnzke~ nfjnzghuke~ nfjnzrk ls jfgr vFkkZr~ lEiUu
fgeoku~ fgeky;% fgeky;
uxsUnz% ioZrjkt% ioZrksa dk jktk
lkuks% f'k[kjL; f'k[kj osQ] pksVh osQ
oqQyØekxr% oqQyØekn~ vkxr% oqQy&ijEijk ls
oqQyijEij;k lEizkIr% izkIr gqvk
;kSojkT;s ;qojktins ;qojkt osQ in ij
'kØ% bUnz% bUnz
vfFkZr% ;kfpr% ek¡xk
vfUrde~ lehie~ ikl esa
ohfpor~ rjÄoõ r~ rjÄõ dh rjg
vH;uqKkr% vuqer% vuqefr ik;k gqvk
vfFkZus ;kpdk; ek¡xus okys osQ fy,] fHk[kkjh
osQ fy,
fnoe~ LoxZe~ LoxZ
olwfu /ukfu /u
mixE; lehia xRok Ikkl esa tkdj
nqxZr% nqxfZ re~ vkiUu% ihfM+r] fu/Zu
loZthokuqdEi;k loZthosH;%Ñi;k lHkh thoksa osQ izfr Ñik ls
izfFkre~ izfl¼e~ izfl¼ gks x;k

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) d×puiqja uke uxja oqQ=k foHkkfr Le\
([k) thewrosQrq% ¯d fopk;Z thewrokgua ;kSojkT;s vfHkf"kDroku~\
(x) dYirjks% oSf'k"V~;ekd.;Z thewrokgu% fde~ vfpUr;r~\
(?k) ikBkuqlkja lalkjs¿fLeu~ ¯d ¯d u'oje~ fd×p vu'oje~\
(Ä) thewrokguL; ;'k% loZ=k dFka izfFkre~\
dYir#% 29

2- v/ksfyf[krokD;s"kq LFkwyinkfu dLeS iz;qDrkfu\


(d) rL; lkuks#ifj foHkkfr d×puiqja uke uxje~A
([k) jktk lEizkIr;kSoua ra ;kSojkT;s vfHkf"kDroku~\
(x) v;a ro lnk iwT;%A
(?k) rkr! Roa rq tkukfl ;r~ /ua ohfpoPp×pye~A
3- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka i;kZ;ina ikBkr~ fpRok fy[kr &
(d) ioZr% & -------------------------- ([k) Hkwifr% & --------------------------
(x) bUnz% & -------------------------- (?k) /ue~ & --------------------------
(Ä) bfPNre~ & -------------------------- (p) lehie~ & --------------------------
(N) /fj=khe~ & -------------------------- (t) dY;k.ke~ & --------------------------
(>) ok.kh & -------------------------- (×k) o`{k% & --------------------------
4- ^d* LrEHks fo'ks"k.kkfu ^[k* LrEHks p fo'ks";kf.k nÙkkfuA rkfu leqfpra ;kst;r&
^d* LrEHk ^[k* LrEHk
oqQyØekxr% ijksidkj%
nkuohj% efU=kfHk%
fgrSf"kfHk% thewrokgu%
ohfpoPp×pye~ dYir#%
vu'oj% /ue~
5- (d) ¶LofLr rqH;e~¸ LofLr 'kCnL; ;ksxs prqFkhZ foHkfDr% HkofrA bR;usu fu;esu
v=k prqFkhZ foHkfDr% iz;qDrkA ,oeso (dks"Bdxrs"kq ins"kq) prqFkh± foHkfDra
iz;qT; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(i) LofLr ---------------------- (jktk)
(ii) LofLr ---------------------- (iztk)
(iii) LofLr ---------------------- (Nk=k)
(iv) LofLr ---------------------- (loZtu)
([k) dks"Bdxrs"kq ins"kq "k"Bha foHkfDra iz;qT; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(i) rL; ------------- m|kus dYir#% vklhr~A (x`g)
(ii) l% ------------- vfUrde~ vxPNr~A (fir`)
30 'kseq"kh
(iii) ------------- loZ=k ;'k% izfFkre~ (thewrokgu)
(iv) v;a ------------- r#%\ (fde~)
6- LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) rjks% Ñi;k l% iq=ke~ vizkIuksr~A
([k) l% dYirjos U;osn;r~A
(x) /uo`"V~;k dks¿fi nfjnz% ukfr"Br~A
(?k) dYir#% i`fFkO;ka /ukfu vo"kZr~A
(Ä) thokuqdEi;k thewrokguL; ;'k% izkljr~A
7- (d) ;FkkLFkkua lekla foxzga p oqQ#r&
(i) fo|k/jk.kka ifr% ---------------------
(ii) ---------------------------------- x`gks|kus
(iii) uxkuke~ bUnz% --------------------------
(iv) -------------------------------- ijksidkj%
(v) thokuke~ vuqdEi;k ----------------
([k) mnkgj.keuql`R; erqi~ (er~] or~) izR;;iz;ksxa ÑRok inkfu jp;r&
;Fkk& fge $ erqi~ ¾ fgeoku~
Jh $ erqi~ ¾ Jheku~
(i) 'kfDr $ erqi~ ¾ --------------------------
(ii) /u $ erqi~ ¾ --------------------------
(iii) cqf¼ $ erqi~ ¾ --------------------------
(iv) /S;Z $ erqi~ ¾ --------------------------
(v) xq.k $ erqi~ ¾ --------------------------

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
(d) xzUFk ifjp; & ¶osrkyi×pfoa'kfrdk¸ iPphl dFkkvksa dk laxzg gSA bl uke dh nks
jpuk,¡ ikbZ tkrh gSaA ,d f'konkl (13oha 'krkCnh) }kjk fyf[kr xzUFk gS ftlesa x| vkSj
i| nksuksa fo/kvksa dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA nwljh tEHkynÙk dh jpuk gS tks osQoy x|e;h
gSA bl dFkk esa dgk x;k gS fd jktk foØe dks izfro"kZ dksbZ rkaf=kd lksus dk ,d iQy
dYir#% 31

nsrk gSA mlh rkaf=kd osQ dgus ij jktk foØe 'e'kku ls 'ko ykrk gSA ftl ij lokj
gksdj ,d osrky ekxZ esa jktk osQ euksj×tu osQ fy, dFkk lqukrk gSA dFkk lqurs le; jktk
dks ekSu jgus dk funsZ'k nsrk gSA dgkuh osQ vUr esa osrky jktk ls dgkuh ij vkèkkfjr ,d
iz'u iwNrk gSA jktk mldk lgh mÙkj nsrk gSA 'krZ osQ vuqlkj osrky iqu% 'e'kku igq¡p
tkrk gSA bl rjg iPphl ckj ,slh gh ?kVukvksa dh vko`fÙk gksrh gS vkSj osrky jktk dks
,d&,d djosQ iPphl dFkk,¡ lqukrk gSA ;s dFkk,¡ vR;Ur jkspd] Hkkoiz/ku vkSj foosd
dh ijh{kk ysus okyh gSaA
([k) Dr Drorq iz;ksx%&
Dr & bl izR;; dk iz;ksx lkekU;r% deZokP; esa gksrk gSA
Drorq & bl izR;; dk iz;ksx drZ̀okP; esa gksrk gSA
Dr izR;;%&
z thewrokgu% fgrSf"kfHk% efU=kfHk% mDRk%A
z o`Qi.kS% df'pnfi vFkZ% vfFkZr%A
z Ro;k vLeRdkek% iwfjrk%A
z rL; ;'k% izfFkre~ (drZ̀okP; esa Dr)
Drorq izR;;%&
z lk iq=ka ;kSojkT;ins¿fHkf"kDroku~A~
z ,rnkd.;Z thewrokgu% fpfUrroku~A
z l lq[kklhua firja fuosfnroku~A
z thewrokgu% dYir#e~ mDroku~A
(x) yksddY;k.k&dkeuk&fo"k;d dfri; 'yksd&
z losZ HkoUrq lqf[ku%] losZ lUrq fujke;k%A
losZ Hknzkf.k i';Urq] ek df'pn~ nq%[kHkkXHkosr~AA
z loZLrjrq nqxkZf.k] loksZ Hknzkf.k i';rqA
loZ% dkekuokIuksrq] loZ% loZ=k uUnrqAA
z u Roga dke;s jkT;a u Lox± u iquHkZoe~A
dke;s nq%[krIrkuka izkf.kukekfrZuk'kue~AA
vè;srO;% xzUFk%
osrkyi×p¯o'kfrdFkk] vuqoknd] nkeksnj >k] pkS[kEHkk fo|kHkou] okjk.klh] 1968
i×pe% ikB%
lwfDrekSfDrde~
laLÑr lkfgR; esa uhfr&xzUFkksa dh le`¼ ijEijk gSA buesa lkjxfHkZr vkSj ljy :i esa uSfrd f'k{kk,¡
nh xbZ gSa] ftudk mi;ksx djosQ euq"; vius thou dks liQy vkSj le`¼ cuk ldrk gSA ,sls gh
euksgkjh vkSj cgqewY; lqHkkf"kr ;gk¡ ladfyr gSa] ftuesa lnkpj.k dh egÙkk] fiz;ok.kh dh
vko';drk] ijksidkjh iq#"k dk LoHkko] xq.kktZu dh izsj.kk] fe=krk dk Lo:i vkSj mÙke iq#"k
osQ lEioZQ ls gksus okyh 'kksHkk dh iz'kalk vkSj lRlaxfr dh efgek vkfn fo"k;ksa dk izfriknu fd;k
x;k gSA

o`Ùka ;Rusu laj{ksn~ foÙkesfr p ;kfr pA


v{kh.kks foÙkr% {kh.kks o`ÙkrLrq grks gr%AA
&euqLe`fr%
Jw;rka /eZloZLoa JqRok pSoko/k;Zrke~A
vkReu% izfrowQykfu ijs"kka u lekpjsr~AA
&fonqjuhfr%
fiz;okD;iznkusu losZ rq";fUr tUro%A
rLekn~ rnso oDrO;a opus dk nfjnzrkAA
&pk.kD;uhfr%
ficfUr u|% Lo;eso ukEHk%
Lo;a u [kknfUr iQykfu o`{kk%A
uknfUr lL;a [kyq okfjokgk%
ijksidkjk; lrka foHkwr;%AA
&lqHkkf"krjRuHkk.Mkxkje~
lwfDrekSfDrde~ 33

xq.ks"oso fg drZO;% iz;Ru% iq#"kS% lnkA


xq.k;qDrks nfjnzk¿s fi us'ojSjxq.kS% le%AA
&e`PNdfVde~
vkjEHkxqohZ {kf;.kh Øes.k
y?oh iqjk o`f¼erh p i'pkr~A
fnuL; iwokZ¼iZ jk¼ZfHkUuk
Nk;so eS=kh [kylTtukuke~AA
&uhfr'krde~
;=kkfi oqQ=kkfi xrk Hkos;&q
g±lk eghe.Mye.Muk;A
gkfuLrq rs"kka fg ljksojk.kka
;s"kka ejkyS% lg foiz;ksx%AA
&Hkkfeuhfoykl%
xq.kk xq.kKs"kq xq.kk HkofUr
rs fuxqZ.ka izkI; HkofUr nks"kk%A
vkLok|rks;k% izogfUr u|%
leqnez klk| HkoUR;is;k%AA
&fgrksins'k%

'kCnkFkkZ%
foÙke~ /ue~ /u] ,s'o;Z
o`Ùke~ vkpj.ke~ vkpj.k] pfj=k
v{kh.k% u {kh.k%] lEiUu% u"V u gqvk
/eZloZLoe~ drZO;lkj% /eZ (drZO;cks/) dk lc oqQN
izfrowQykfu foijhrkfu vuqowQy ugha
rq";fUr rks"ke~ vuqHkofUr lUrq"V gksrs gSa
oDrO;e~ dFkuh;e~ dguk pkfg,
34 'kseq"kh
okfjokgk% es?kk% ty ogu djus okys ckny
foHkwr;% le`¼;% lEifÙk;k¡
xq.k;qDr% xq.koku~] xq.klEiUu% xq.kksa ls ;qDr
vxq.kS% xq.kjfgrS% xq.kghuksa ls
vkjEHkxqohZ vknkS nh?kkZ vkjEHk esa yEch
{kf;.kh {k;'khyk ?kVrh LoHkko okyh
o`f¼erh o`f¼e~ mixrk yEch gksrh gqb]Z yEch gqbZ
iwokZ¼Zijk¼ZfHkÂk iwokZ¼sZu ijk¼sZu p iwokZÊ vkSj vijkÊ (Nk;k)
i`FkXHkwrk dh rjg vyx&vyx
[kylTtukuke~ nqtZulqtukuke~ nq"Vksa vkSj lTtuksa dh
eghe.Mye.Muk; i`fFkohe.MykyÄ~dj.kk; i`Foh dks lq'kksfHkr djus osQ
fy,
ejkyS% galS% galksa ls
foiz;ksx% fo;ksx% vyx gksuk
xq.kKs"kq xq.kKkr`"kq tus"kq xq.kksa dks tkuus okyksa esa
vkLok|rks;k% Loknuh;tylEiÂk% Lokn;qDr ty okyh
vklk| izkI; ikdj
vis;k% u is;k%] u iku;ksX;k% u ihus ;ksX;

vH;kl%

1- v/ksfyf[kriz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&


(d) ;Rusu ¯d j{ksr~ foÙka o`Ùka ok\
([k) vLekfHk% (¯d u lekpjsr~) dhn`'ke~ vkpj.ka u dÙkZO;e~\
(x) tUro% osQu fof/uk rq";fUr\
(?k) iq#"kS% fdeFk± iz;Ru% dÙkZO;%\
(Ä) lTtukuka eS=kh dhn`'kh Hkofr\
(p) ljksojk.kka gkfu% dnk Hkofr\
(N) u|k% tya dnk vis;a Hkofr\
lwfDrekSfDrde~ 35

2- ^d* LrEHks fo'ks"k.kkfu ^[k* LrEHks p fo'ks";kf.k nÙkkfu] rkfu ;Fkksfpra ;kst;r&
^d* LrEHk% ^[k* LrEHk%
(d) vkLok|rks;k% (1) [kykuka eS=kh
([k) xq.k;qDr% (2) lTtukuka eS=kh
(x) fnuL; iwokZ¼ZfHkÂk (3) u|%
(?k) fnuL; ijk¼ZfHkÂk (4) nfjnz%
3- v/ksfyf[kr;ks% 'yksd};ks% vk'k;a fgUnhHkk"k;k vkÄ~XyHkk"k;k ok fy[kr&
(d) vkjEHkxqohZ {kf;.kh Øes.k
y?oh iqjk o`f¼erh p i'pkr~A
fnuL; iwokZ¼Zijk¼ZfHkUuk
Nk;so eS=kh [kylTtukuke~AA
([k) fiz;okD;iznkusu losZ rq";fUr tUro%A
rLekRrnso oDrO;a opus dk nfjnzrkAA
4- v/ksfyf[krinsH;% fHkUuizÑfrda ina fpRok fy[kr&
(d) oDrO;e~] dÙkZO;e~] loZLoe~] gUrO;e~A
([k) ;Rusu] opus] fiz;okD;iznkusu] ejkysuA
(x) Jw;rke~] vo/k;Zrke~] /uorke~] {kE;rke~A
(?k) tUro%] u|%] foHkwr;%] ifjr%A
5- LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'uokD;fuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) o`Ùkr% {kh.k% gr% HkofrA
([k) /eZloZLoa JqRok vo/k;Zrke~A
(x) o`{kk% iQya u [kknfUrA
(?k) [kykuke~ eS=kh vkjEHkxqohZ HkofrA
6- v/ksfyf[krkfu okD;kfu yksV~ydkjs ifjorZ;r&
;Fkk& l% ikBa iBfrA & l% ikBa iBrqA
(d) u|% vkLok|rks;k% lfUrA & ---------------------
([k) l% lnSo fiz;okD;a onfrA & ---------------------
(x) Roa ijs"kka izfrowQykfu u lekpjflA & ---------------------
36 'kseq"kh
(?k) rs o`Ùka ;Rusu laj{kfUrA & ---------------------
(Ä) vge~ ijksidkjk; dk;± djksfeA & ---------------------
7- mnkgj.keuql`R; dks"BosQ"kq nRrs"kq 'kCns"kq mfprka foHkfDra iz;qT; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& rs"kka ejkyS% lg foiz;ksx% HkofrA (ejky)
(d) ------------------ lg Nk=k% 'kks/dk;± djksfrA (vè;kid)
([k) ------------------ lg iq=k% vki.ka xroku~A (fir`)
(x) ¯d Roe~ ------------------ lg efUnja xPNfl\ (eqfu)
(?k) cky% ------------------ lg [ksfyrqa xPNfrA (fe=ke~)
ifj;kstukdk;Ze~
(d) ijksidkjfo"k;da 'yksd};e~ vfUo"; Le`Rok p d{kk;ka lLoja iBA
([k) u|k% ,da lqUnja fp=ka fuekZ; ladyÕ; ok o.kZ;r ;r~ rL;k% rhjs euq";k% i'ko%
[kxk'p fufoZ?ua tya ficfUrA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
laLÑr&lkfgR; esa lkjxfHkZr] ykSfdd ikjykSfdd ,oa uSfrdewY;ksa okys lqHkkf"krksa dh cgqyrk gS
tkss ns[kus esa NksVs izrhr gksrs gSa fdUrq xEHkhj Hkko okys gksrs gSaA ekuo&thou esa budk vrho egÙo
gSA
HkkofoLrkj%
(d) vkLok|rks;k% izogfUr u|%A
[kkjs leqnz esa feyus ij Lokfn"V tyokyh ufn;ksa dk ty vis; gks tkrk gSA blh HkkolkE;
osQ vk/kj ij dgk x;k gS fd ¶lalxZtk% nks"kxq.kk% HkofUrA¸
([k) Nk;so eS=kh [kylTtukuke~A
nq"V O;fDRk fe=krk djrk gS vkSj lTtu O;fDr Hkh fe=krk djrk gSA ijUrq nksuksa dh eS=kh] fnu
osQ iwokZ¼Z ,oa ijk¼Z dkyhu Nk;k dh Hkk¡fr gksrh gSA okLro esa nq"V O;fDr dh eS=kh osQ fy,
'yksd dk izFke pj.k ¶vkjEHkxqohZ {kf;.kh Øes.k¸ dgk x;k gS rFkk lTtu dh eS=kh osQ
fy, f}rh; pj.k ^y?ohiqjk o`f¼erh p i'pkr~* dgk x;k gSA
lwfDrekSfDrde~ 37

Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%
(1) foÙkr% & foÙk 'kCn ls rfly~ izR;; fd;k x;k gSA iapeh foHkfDr osQ vFkZ esa yxus okys
rfly~ izR;; dk r% gh 'ks"k jgrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ& lkxj $ rfly~ ¾ lkxjr%]
iz;kx $ rfly~ ¾ iz;kxr%] nsgyh $ rfly~ ¾ nsgyhr% vkfnA blh izdkj
o`Ùkr% 'kCn esa Hkh rfly~ izR;; yxk djosQ o`Ùkr% 'kCn cuk;k x;k gSA
lekpjsr~ & le~ $ vkÄ~ $ √ pj~ $ fof/fyÄ~ $ izFkeiq#"k $ ,dopu
rq";fUr & √ rq"k~ $ yV~ydkj $ izFkeiq#"k $ cgqopu
laj{ksr~ & le~ $ √ j{k~ $ fof/fyÄ~ $ izFkeiq#"k $ ,dopu
gr% & √ gu~ $ Dr izR;; (iqafYyÄõ iz-fo-,-o-)
(2) milxZ & fØ;k osQ iwoZ tqM+us okys iz] ijk vkfn 'kCnksa dks milxZ dgk tkrk gSA bu milxksZa
osQ tqM+us ls fØ;k osQ vFkZ esa ifjorZu vk tkrk gSA
tSls& ^â* /krq ls milxks± dk ;ksx gksus ij fuEufyf[kr :i curs gSa
iz $ â & izgjfr] izgkj (geyk djuk)
fo $ â & fogjfr] fogkj (Hkze.k djuk)
mi $ â & migjfr] migkj (HksaV nsuk)
le~ $ â & lagjfr] lagkj (ekjuk)
(3) 'kCnksa dks L=khfyÄõ esa ifjofrZr djus osQ fy, L=kh izR;; dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bu izR;;ksa
esa Vki~ o Ähi~ eq[; gSaA
tSls& cky $ Vki~ & ckyk
vè;kid $ Vki~ & vè;kfidk
y?kq $ Ähi~ & y?oh
xq# $ Ähi~ & xqohZ
lk/q $ Ähi~ & lkèoh
"k"B% ikB%
HkzkUrks cky%
izLrqr ikB ^laLÑr izkS<ikBkofy%* uked xzUFk ls lEikfnr dj fy;k x;k gSA bl dFkk esa ,d
,sls ckyd dk fp=k.k gS] ftldk eu vè;;u dh vis{kk [ksy&owQn esa yxk jgrk gSA ;gk¡ rd
fd og [ksyus osQ fy, i'kq&if{k;ksa rd dk vkokgu (vkàku) djrk gS fdUrq dksbZ mlds lkFk
[ksyus osQ fy, rS;kj ugha gksrkA blls og cgqr fujk'k gksrk gSA vUrr% mls cks/ gksrk gS fd lHkh
vius&vius dk;ks± esa O;Lr gSAa os Q oy ogh fcuk fdlh dke osQ bèkj&mèkj ?kwerk jgrk gSA og
fu'p; djrk gS fd vc O;FkZ esa le; x¡okuk NksM+dj viuk dk;Z djsxkA

HkzkUr% d'pu cky% ikB'kkykxeuosyk;ka ØhfMrqa futZxkeA fdUrq rsu lg osQfyfHk%


dkya {ksIrqa rnk dks¿fi u o;L;s"kq miyH;eku vklhr~A ;rLrs los¿Z fi iwofZ nuikBku~
Le`Rok fo|ky;xeuk; Rojek.kk cHkwo%q A rUnzkyqckZyks yTt;k rs"kka n`f"ViFkefi ifjgjUusdkdh
fdeI;q|kua izfoos'kA
l fpUr;kekl&fojeURosrs ojkdk% iqLrdnklk%A vga iqujkRekua fouksnf;";kfeA uuq
Hkw;ks nz{;kfe ozQq ¼L; mikè;k;L; eq[ke~A lURosrs fu"oqQVokflu ,o izkf.kuks ee o;L;k
bfrA
vFk l iq"iks|kua oztUra e/qdja n`"V~ok ra ØhMkgsrksjkg~o;r~A l f}fL=kjL;kg~okueso
u eku;keklA rrks Hkw;ks Hkw;% gBekpjfr ckys lks¿xk;r~&o;a fg e/qlxa gz O;xzk bfrA
rnk l cky% ^Ñreusu feF;kxfoZrus dhVsu* bR;U;rks nÙkn`f"V'pVdesda p×Pok
r`.k'kykdkfndeknnkuei';r~A mokp p&^^vf; pVdiksr! ekuq"kL; ee fe=ka Hkfo";flA
,fg ØhMko%A R;t 'kq"desrr~ r`.ke~ Loknwfu Hk{;doykfu rs nkL;kfe** bfrA l rq
^uhM% dk;ksZ cVnz'q kk[kk;ka r|kfe dk;s.Z k* bR;qDRok LodeZO;xzks cHkwoA
rnk f[kUuks ckyd% ,rs if{k.kks ekuq"ks"kq uksixPNfUrA rnUos"k;kE;ija ekuq"kksfpra
fouksnf;rkjfefr ifjØE; iyk;ekua defi 'okueokyksd;r~A izhrks ckyLrfeRFka
HkzkUrkss cky% 39

lacksèk;kekl – js ekuq"kk.kka fe=k! ¯d i;ZVfl vfLeu~ funk?kfnols\ vkJ;Losna izPNk;'khrya


r#ewye~A vgefi ØhMklgk;a Rokesokuq:ia i';kehfrA oqQDoqQj% izR;kg&
;ks eka iq=kizhR;k iks"k;fr Lokfeuks x`gs rL;A
j{kkfu;ksxdj.kkUu e;k Hkz"VO;eh"knfiAA bfrA

loSZ jos a fuf"k¼% l ckyks fof?ureuksjFk% lu~&^dFkefLeu~ txfr izR;sda Lo&LoÑR;s


fueXuks HkofrA u dks¿I;gfeo o`Fkk dky{ksia lgrsA ue ,rsH;% ;SeZs rUnzkyqrk;ka oqQRlk
lekikfnrkA vFk Loksfpregefi djksfe bfr fopk;Z Rofjra ikB'kkykeqitxkeA
rr% izHk`fr l fo|kO;luh HkwRok egrha oSn"q kha izFkka lEina p ysHksA
40 'kseq"kh
'kCnkFkkZ%

HkzkUr% Hkze;qDr% Hkzfer


ØhfMrqe~ [ksfyrqe~ [ksyus osQ fy,
futZxke fu"ØkUr% fudy x;k
osQfyfHk% ØhMkfHk% [ksy }kjk
dkya {ksIrqe~ le;a ;kif;rqe~ le; fcrkus osQ fy,
Rojek.kk% Rojka oqQoZUr%] Roj;Ur% 'kh?kzrk djrs gq,
rUnzkyq% vyl%] vfØ;% vkylh
n`f"ViFke~ n`f"Ve~ fuxkg
fpUr;kekl vfpUr;r~ lkspk
iqLrdnklk% iqLrdkuka nklk% iqLrdksa osQ xqyke
mikè;k;L; vkpk;ZL; xq# osQ
fu"oqQVokflu% o`{kdksVjfuokflu% o`{k osQ dksVj esa jgus okys
ØhMkgsrks% osQfyfufeÙke~ [ksyus osQ fufeÙk
vkàkue~ vkeU=k.ke~ cqykok
gBekpjfr vkxzgiwod Z a O;ogkja gB djus ij
oqQoZfr lfr
e/qlaxzgO;xzk% iq"ijlladyurRijk% iq"i osQ jl osQ laxzg esa yxs gq,
Hkw;ks Hkw;% iqu% iqu% ckj&ckj
feF;kxfoZrsu O;FkkZgÄkï j;qDrsu >wBs xoZ okys
pVde~ i{kh fpfM+;k
p×Pok p×pqiqVsu pksap ls
vknnkue~ x`ÊUre~ xzg.k djrs gq, dks
Loknwfu Lokfn"Vkfu Lokn;qDr
Hk{;doykfu Hk{k.kh;xzklk% [kkus osQ fy, mi;qDr dkSj
LodeZO;xz% Lodh;dk;s"Z kq rRij% vius dk;ks± esa layXu
vUos"k;kfe vUos"k.ka djksfe [kkstrk gw¡
fouksnf;rkje~ euksj×tudkfj.ke~ euksjatu djus okys dks
iyk;ekue~ /koUre~ Hkkxrs gq,
HkzkUrkss cky% 41

voyksd;r~ vi';r~ ns[kk


cVnzq'kk[kk;ka oVo`{kL; 'kk[kk;ka cjxn osQ isM+ dh 'kk[kk ij
lacks/;kekl lacksf/roku~ lacksf/r fd;k
funk?kfnols xzh"efnus xehZ osQ fnu esa
osQyhlgk;e~ ØhMklgk;de~ [ksy esa lg;ksxh
vuq:ie~ ;ksX;e~ mi;qDr
oqQDoqQj% 'ok oqQÙkk
j{kkfu;ksxdj.kkr~ lqj{kkdk;Zo'kkr~ j{kk osQ dk;Z esa yxs gksus ls
Hkz"VO;e~ ifrrO;e~ gVuk pkfg,
bZ"knfi vYiek=kke~ vfi FkksM+k&lk Hkh
fuf"k¼% vLohÑr% euk fd;k x;k
fof?ureuksjFk% [kf.Mrdke% VwVh bPNkvksa okyk
dky{ksie~ le;L; ;kiue~ le; fcrkuk
rUnzkyqrk;ke~ rUnzkyqtuL; Hkkos] vkyL; esa
vylRos
oqQRlk ?k`.kk] HkRlZuk ?k`.kkHkko
fo|kO;luh vè;;ujr% fo|k esa jr jgus okyk
izFkke~ izflf¼e~ [;kfr] izflf¼

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) cky% dnk ØhfMrqa futZxke\
([k) ckyL; fe=kkf.k fdeFk± Rojek.kk cHkwoq%\
(x) e/qdj% ckydL; vkàkua osQu dkj.ksu u veU;r\
(?k) ckyd% dhn`'ka pVde~ vi';r~\
(Ä) ckyd% pVdk; ØhMukFk± dhn`'ka yksHka nÙkoku~\
(p) f[kUu% ckyd% 'okua fde~ vdFk;r~\
(N) fof?ureuksjFk% cky% fde~ vfpUr;r~\
42 'kseq"kh
2- fuEufyf[krL; 'yksdL; HkkokFk± fgUnhHkk"k;k vkÄ~XyHkk"k;k ok fy[kr&
;ks eka iq=kizhR;k iks"k;fr Lokfeuks x`gs rL;A
j{kkfu;ksxdj.kkUu e;k Hkz"VO;eh"knfiAA
3- ¶HkzkUrks cky%¸ bfr dFkk;k% lkjka'ka fgUnhHkk"k;k vkÄ~XyHkk"k;k ok fy[krA
4- LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r &
(d) Loknwfu Hk{;doykfu rs nkL;feA
([k) pVd% LodeZf.k O;xz% vklhr~A
(x) oqQDoqQj% ekuq"kk.kka fe=ke~ vfLrA
(?k) l egrha oSnq"kha yC/oku~A
(Ä) j{kkfu;ksxdj.kkr~ e;k u Hkz"VO;e~ bfrA
5- ¶,rsH;% ue%¸ & bfr mnkgj.keuql`R; ue% bR;L; ;ksxs prqFkhZ foHkDrs% iz;ksxa ÑRok
i×pokD;kfu jp;rA
6- ^d* LrEHks leLrinkfu ^[k* LrEHks p rs"kka foxzg% nÙkkfu] rkfu ;Fkkle{ka fy[kr&
^d* LrEHk ^[k* LrEHk
(d) n`f"ViFke~ (1) iq"ik.kke~ m|kue~
([k) iqLrdnklk% (2) fo|k;k% O;luh
(x) fo|kO;luh (3) n`"Vs% iUFkk%
(?k) iq"iks|kue~ (4) iqLrdkuka nklk%
7- (d) v/ksfyf[krs"kq in;qXes"kq ,da fo'ks";ine~ vij×p fo'ks"k.kine~A fo'ks"k.kine~
fo'ks";ina p i`Fko~Q&i`Fko~Q fpRok fy[kr&
fo'ks"k.ke~ fo'ks";e~
(i) f[kUu% cky% & -------------------- --------------------
(ii) iyk;ekua 'okue~ & -------------------- --------------------
(iii) izhr% ckyd% & -------------------- --------------------
(iv) Loknwfu Hk{;doykfu & -------------------- --------------------
(v) Rojek.kk% o;L;k% & -------------------- --------------------
HkzkUrkss cky% 43

([k) dks"Bdxrs"kq ins"kq lIrehfoHkDrs% iz;ksxa ÑRok fjDrLFkkuiwfr± oqQ#r&


(i) cky% ------------------------------ ØhfMrqa futZxkeA (ikB'kkykxeuosyk)
(ii) ------------------------------ txfr izR;sda LoÑR;s fueXuks HkofrA (bne~)
(iii) [kx% ------------------------------ uhMa djksfrA ('kk[kk)
(iv) vfLeu~ ------------------------------ fdeFk± i;ZVfl\ (funk?kfnol)
(v) ------------------------------ fgeky;% mPpre%A (ux)
ifj;kstukdk;Ze~
(d) ,dfLeu~ LiQksjdiËs (chart-paper) ,dL; m|kuL; fp=ka fuekZ; ladyÕ; ok
i×pokD;s"kq rL; o.kZua oqQ#rA
([k) ¶ifjJeL; egÙoe~¸ bfr fo"k;s fgUnh Hkk"k;k vkÄ~XyHkk"k;k ok i×p okD;kfu fy[krA

Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%
(1) fØ;k osQ fuEufyf[kr :iksa dks è;kuiwoZd ns[ksa le>sa o vH;kl djsa&
iBfr (i<+rk@i<+rh gS) ikB;fr (i<+krk@i<+krh gS) ikB;kekl (i<+k;k)
;Fkk& l% iqLrda iBfrA
f'k{kd% Nk=kku~ ikB;frA
vkpk;Z% osnku~ ikB;keklA
blh izdkj oqQN vU; :i Hkh izLrqr gSa&
cks/fr cks/;fr cks/;kekl
djksfr dkj;fr dkj;kekl
fy[kfr ys[k;fr ys[k;kekl
xPNfr xe;fr xe;kekl
glfr gkl;fr gkl;kekl
Ük`.kksfr Jko;fr Jko;kekl
/kofr /ko;fr /ko;kekl
x`Êkfr xzkg;fr xzkg;kekl
nnkfr nki;fr nki;kekl
44 'kseq"kh
gjfr gkj;fr gkj;kekl
u;fr uk;;fr uk;;kekl
(2) ;L; p Hkkosu Hkkoy{k.ke~&tgk¡ ,d fØ;k osQ gksus ls nwljh fØ;k osQ gksus dk Kku gks
rks igyh fØ;k osQ dÙkkZ esa lIreh foHkfDr gksrh gSA bls ^lfr lIreh* ;k ^Hkkos lIreh*
Hkh dgrs gSaA
;Fkk& mfnrs lforfj deya fodlfrA
xtZfr es?ks e;wj% vu`R;r~A
u`R;fr f'kos u`R;fUr f'kox.kk%A
gBekpjfr ckys Hkzej% vxk;r~A
mfnrs uS"k/s dkO;s Do ek?k% Do p Hkkjfo%A
(3) vU;inkFkZ iz/kuks cgqozhfg%&ftl lekl esa iwoZ vkSj mÙkj inksa ls fHkUu fdlh vU; in osQ
vFkZ dk izk/kU; gksrk gS og cgqozhfg lekl dgykrk gSA
;Fkk& ihrkEcj% & ihre~ vEcja ;L; l% (fo".kq%)A
uhyd.B% & uhy% d.B% ;L; l% (f'ko%)A
vuqfpfUrriwoZfnuikBk% & vuqfpfUrrk% iwoZfnuL; ikBk% ;S% rsA
fof?ureuksjFk% & fof?ur% euksjFk% ;L; l%A
nÙkn`f"V% & nÙkk n`f"V% ;su l%A
lIre% ikB%
izR;fHkKkue~
izLrqr ikB Hkkljfpr ^i×pjk=ke~* uked ukVd ls lEikfnr dj fy;k x;k gSA nq;ksZèku vkfn
dkSjo ohjksa us jktk fojkV dh xk;ksa dk vigj.k dj fy;kA fojkV&iq=k mÙkj c`gUuyk (Nn~eos"kh
vtquZ ) dks lkjFkh cukdj dkSjoksa ls ;q¼ djus tkrk gSA dkSjoksa dh vksj ls vfHkeU;q (vtquZ &iq=k)
Hkh ;q¼ djrk gSA ;q¼ esa dkSjoksa dh ijkt; gksrh gSA blh chp fojkV dks lwpuk feyrh gS] oYyHk
(Nn~eos"kh Hkhe) us j.kHkwfe esa vfHkeU;q dks idM+ fy;k gSA vfHkeU;q Hkhe rFkk vtquZ dks ugha
igpku ikrk vkSj muls mxzrkiwoZd ckrphr djrk gSA nksuksa vfHkeU;q dks egkjkt fojkV osQ le{k
izLrqr djrs gSaA vfHkeU;q mUgsa iz.kke ugha djrkA mlh le; jktoqQekj mÙkj ogk¡ igq¡prk gS ftlosQ
jgL;ksn~?kkVu ls vtqZu rFkk Hkhe vkfn ik.Moksa osQ Nn~eos"k dk mn~?kkVu gks tkrk gSA

HkV% & t;rq egkjkt%A


jktk & viwoZ bo rs g"kksZ czfw g osQukfl fofLer%\
HkV% & vJ¼s;a fiz;a izkIra
lkSHknzks xzg.ka xr%AA
jktk & dFkfenkuha x`ghr%\
HkV% & jFkeklk| fu''kÄa ï
ckgqH;keorkfjr%A
(izdk'ke~) br br%
oqQekj%A
vfHkeU;q% & Hkks% dks uq [kYos"k%\ ;su Hkqtd S fu;fU=krks cykfèkosQukfi u ihfMr%
vfLeA
46 'kseq"kh
c`gUuyk & br br% oqQekj%A
vfHkeU;q% & v;s! v;eij% d% foHkkR;qekos"kfeokfJrks gj%A
c`gUuyk & vk;Z] vfHkHkk"k.kdkSrgw ya es egr~A okpky& ;Rosuek;Z%A
Hkhelsu% & (viok;Z) ck<e~ (izdk'ke~) vfHkeU;ks!
vfHkeU;q% & vfHkeU;qukZe\
Hkhelsu% & #";R;s"k e;k RoesouS efHkHkk"k;A
c`gUuyk & vfHkeU;ks!
vfHkeU;q% & dFka dFke~A vfHkeU;qukZekge~A Hkks%! fde=k fojkVuxjs {kf=k;oa'kksnH~ kwrk%
uhpS% vfi ukefHk% vfHkHkk";Urs vFkok vga 'k=kqo'ka xr%A vr,o
frjfLØ;rsA
c`gUuyk & vfHkeU;ks! lq[kekLrs rs tuuh\
vfHkeU;q% & dFka dFke~\ tuuh uke\ ¯d Hkoku~ es firk vFkok fir`O;%\ dFka eka
fir`onkØE; L=khxrka dFkka i`PNls\
c`gUuyk & vfHkeU;ks! vfi oqQ'kyh nsodhiq=k% osQ'ko%\
vfHkeU;q% & dFka dFke~\ r=kHkoUrefi ukEukA vFk fde~ vFk fde~\
(mHkkS ijLijeoyksd;r%)
vfHkeU;q% & dFkfenkuha lkoKfeo eka gL;rs\
c`gUuyk & u [kyq fdf×pr~A
ikFk± firjeqfí'; ekrqya p tuknZue~A
r#.kL; ÑrkL=kL; ;qDrks ;q¼ijkt;%AA
vfHkeU;q% & vya LoPNUnizykisu! vLekoaQ oqQys vkReLroa drqeZ uqfpre~A j.kHkwekS
grs"kq 'kjku~ i';] en`rs vU;r~ uke u Hkfo";frA
c`gUuyk & ,oa okD;'kkS.Mh;ZeA~ fdeFk± rsu inkfruk x`ghr%\
vfHkeU;q% & v'kL=ka ekefHkxr%A firje~ vtquZ a Leju~ vga dFka gU;ke~A v'kL=ks"kq
ekn`'kk% u izgjfUrA vr% v'kL=kks¿;a eka o×pf;Rok x`ghroku~A
jktk & Ro;Zrka Ro;ZrkefHkeU;q%A
izR;fHkKkue~ 47

c`gUuyk & br br% oqQekj%A ,"k egkjkt%A miliZrq oqQekj%A


vfHkeU;q% & vk%A dL; egkjkt%\
jktk & ,ásfs g iq=k! dFka u ekefHkokn;fl\ (vkRexre~) vgks! mfRlDr%
[kYo;a {kf=k;oqQekj%A vgeL; niZi'z keua djksfeA (izdk'ke~) vFk
osQuk;a x`ghr%\
Hkhelsu% & egkjkt! e;kA
vfHkeU;q% & v'kL=ks.ksR;fHk/h;rke~A
Hkhelsu% & 'kkUra ikie~A /uqLrq nqcyZ %S ,o x`ársA ee rq HkqtkS ,o izgj.ke~A
vfHkeU;q% & ek rkon~ Hkks%! ¯d Hkoku~ eè;e% rkr% ;% rL; ln`'ka op% onfrA
Hkxoku~ & iq=k! dks¿;a eè;eks uke\
vfHkeU;q% & ;ksD=kf;Rok tjklU/a d.Bf'y"Vsu ckgqukA
vláa deZ rr~ ÑRok uhr% Ñ".kks¿rngZrke~AA
jktk & u rs {ksis.k #";kfe] #";rk Hkork jesA
fdeqDRok ukijk¼ks¿ga] dFka fr"Bfr ;kfRofrAA
vfHkeU;q% & ;|geuqxkz á% &
ikn;ks% leqnkpkj% fØ;rka fuxzgksfpr%A
ckgqH;kekâra Hkhe% ckgqH;keso us";frAA
(rr% izfo'kR;qÙkj%)
mÙkj% & rkr! vfHkokn;s!
jktk & vk;q"eku~ Hko iq=kA iwftrk% ÑrdekZ.kks ;ks/iq#"kk%A
mÙkj% & iwT;reL; fØ;rka iwtkA
jktk & iq=k! dLeS\
mÙkj% & bgk=kHkors /u×t;k;A
jktk & dFka /u×t;k;sfr\
mÙkj% & vFk fde~
'e'kkuk¼uqjknk; rw.khjk{k;lk;osQA
u`ik Hkh"ekn;ks HkXuk o;a p ifjjf{krk%AA
48 'kseq"kh
jktk & ,oesrr~A
mÙkj% & O;iu;rq Hkok×NÄkï e~A v;eso vfLr /uq/jZ % èku×t;%A

c`gUuyk & ;|ga vtquZ % rfgZ v;a Hkhelsu% v;a p jktk ;qfèkf"Bj%A
vfHkeU;q% & bgk=kHkoUrks es firj%A rsu [kyq ---
u #";fUr e;k f{kIrk glUr'p f{kifUr eke~A
fn"V~;k xksxzg.ka LoUra firjks ;su nf'kZrk%AA
(bfr Øes.k lokZu~ iz.kefr] losZ p re~ vkfyÄ~xfUrA)
izR;fHkKkue~ 49

'kCnkFkkZ%
izR;fHkKkue~ iqu% Kkue~] laLdkj&tU;a igpku
Kkue~] iqu% Le`fr%
viwoZ% vfo|eku~ iwo%Z tks igys u gqvk gks
vJ¼s;e~ u J¼s;e~ J¼k osQ v;ksX;
lkSHknz% lqHknzk;k% iq=k%] vfHkeU;q% vfHkeU;q
vklk| izkI; ikdj] igq¡pdj
fu''kÄïe~ 'kÄï;k jfgre~ fcuk fdlh fgpd osQ
HkqtSdfu;fU=kr% ,osQu ,o ckgquk la;r% ,d gh gkFk ls idM+k
x;k
foHkkfr 'kksHkrs lq'kksfHkr gksrk gS
dkSrwgye~ ftKklk tkuus dh mRd.Bk
viok;Z nwjhÑR; gVkdj
#";fr ozqQ¼% Hkofr Øksf/r gksrk gS
okpky;rq oDrqa izsj;rq cksyus dks izsfjr djsa
frjfLØ;rs mis{;rs mis{kk dh tkrh gS
fir`O;% firq%Hkzkrk pkpk
voyksd;r% i';r% ns[krs gSa (f}opu)
lkoKe~ viekusu lfgre~ mis{kk djrs gq,
okD'kkS.Mh;Ze~ okfpoaQ ohjRoe~ ok.kh dh ohjrk
inkfr% iknkH;ke~ vrfr iSny pyus okyk
miliZrq lehia xPNrq ikl tkvks
,fg vkxPN vkvks
mfRlDr% XkoksZ¼r%] vgÄïkjh xoZ ls ;qDRk
niZ&iz'keue~ xoZL; 'keue~ ?keaM dks 'kkUr djuk
x`ghr% xzg.ks Ñr% idM+k x;k
izgj.ke~ 'kL=ke~ gfFk;kj
;ksD=kf;Rok cn~èok ck¡/dj
{ksis.k fuUnkopusu fuUnk ls
jes (√ √ je~) izhrks Hkokfe izlUu gksrk gw¡
50 'kseq"kh
;krq xPNrq tkvks
leqnkpkj% f'k"Vkpkj% lH; vkpj.k
vuqxzká% vuqxzgL; ;ksX;e~ Ñik osQ ;ksX;
fuxzgksfpre~ cU/uksfpr mfpr n.M
rw.khj ck.kdks'k% rjdl
O;iu;rq nwjhdjksrq nwj djsa
f{kIrk% O;Ä~X;su lEcksf/rk% vk{ksi fd;s tkus ij
fn"V~;k HkkX;su HkkX; ls
xksxzg.ke~ /suwuke~ vigj.ke~ xk;ksa dk vigj.k
LoUre~ (lq + vUre~) lq[kkUre~ lq[kkUr

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) HkV% dL; xzg.ke~ vdjksr~\
([k) vfHkeU;q% dFka x`ghr% vklhr~\
(x) Hkhelsusu c`gUuy;k p i`"V% vfHkeU;q% fdeFkZe~ mÙkja u nnkfr\
(?k) vfHkeU;q% Loxzg.ks fdeFkZe~ of×pr% bo vuqHkofr\
(Ä) dLekr~ dkj.kkr~ vfHkeU;q% xksxzg.ka lq[kkUra eU;rs\
2- v/ksfyf[krokD;s"kq izdfVrHkkoa fpuqr&
(d) Hkks% dks uq [kYos"k%\ ;su HkqtSdfu;fU=krks cykf/osQukfi u ihfMr% vfLeA (foLe;%]
Hk;e~] ftKklk)
([k) dFka dFka! vfHkeU;qukZekge~A (vkReiz'kalk] LokfHkeku%] nSU;e~)
(x) dFka eka fir`onkØE; L=khxrka dFkka i`PNls\ (yTtk] Øks/%] izlUurk)
(?k) /uqLrq nqcZyS% ,o x`árs ee rq HkqtkS ,o izgj.ke~A (vU/fo'okl%] 'kkS;Ze~] mRlkg%)
(Ä) ckgqH;kekâra Hkhe% ckgqH;keso us";frA (vkRefo'okl%] fujk'kk] okDla;e%)
(p) fn"V~;k xksxzg.ka LoUra firjks ;su nf'kZrk%A ({kek] g"kZ%] /S;Ze~)
3- ;FkkLFkkua fjDrLFkkuiwfr± oqQ#r&
(d) [kyq $ ,"k% ¾ ----------------
([k) cy $ ---------------- $ vfi ¾ cykf/osQukfi
izR;fHkKkue~ 51

(x) foHkkfr $ ---------------- ¾ fcHkkR;qekos"ke~


(?k) ---------------- $ ,ue~ ¾ okpky;Rosue~
(Ä) #";fr $ ,"k ¾ #";R;s"k
(p) Roeso $ ,ue~ ¾ ----------------
(N) ;krq $ ---------------- ¾ ;kfRofr
(t) ---------------- $ bfr ¾ /u×t;k;sfr
4- v/ksfyf[krkfu opukfu d% da izfr dFk;fr&
;Fkk & d% oaQ izfr
vk;Z] vfHkHkk"k.kdkSrwgya es egr~ c`gUuyk Hkhelsue~
(d) dFkfenkuha lkoKfeo eka gL;rs --------------------- ---------------------
([k) v'kL=ks.ksR;fHk/h;rke~ --------------------- ---------------------
(x) iwT;reL; fØ;rka iwtk --------------------- ---------------------
(?k) iq=k! dks¿;a eè;eks uke --------------------- ---------------------
(Ä) 'kkUra ikie~! /uqLrq nqcZyS% ,o x`árs --------------------- ---------------------

5- v/ksfyf[krkfu LFkwykfu loZukeinkfu dLeS iz;qDrkfu&


(d) okpky;rq ,ue~ vk;Z%A
([k) fdeFkZ rsu inkfruk x`ghr%A
(x) dFka u eke~ vfHkokn;flA
(?k) ee rq HkqtkS ,o izgj.ke~A
(Ä) viwoZ bo rs g"kksZ czwfg osQu fofLer%\
6- 'yksdkuke~ viw.kZ% vUo;% v/ksnÙk%A ikBekèk`R; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) ikFk± firje~ ekrqya -------------- p mfí'; ÑrkL=kL; r#.kL; -------------- ;qDr%A
([k) d.Bf'y"Vsu -------------- tjklUèka ;ksD=kf;Rok rr~ vláa -------------- ÑRok (Hkhesu)
Ñ".k% vrngZrka uhr%A
(x) #";rk -------------- jesA rs {ksis.k u #";kfe] ¯d -------------- vga ukijk¼%] dFka (Hkoku~)
fr"Bfr] ;krq bfrA
(?k) ikn;ks% fuxzgksfpr% leqnkpkj% -------------- A ckgqH;ke~ vkâre~ (eke~) --------------
ckgqH;ke~ ,o us";frA
52 'kseq"kh
7- (d) v/ksfyf[krsH;% insH;% milxkZu~ fofpR; fy[kr&
inkfu milxZ%
;Fkk&vklk| vk
(i) vorkfjr% & --------------------
(ii) foHkkfr & --------------------
(iii) vfHkHkk"k; & --------------------
(iv) mn~Hkwrk% & --------------------
(v) frjfLØ;rs & --------------------
(vi) izgjfUr & --------------------
(vii) miliZrq & --------------------
(viii) ifjjf{krk% & --------------------
(ix) iz.kefr & --------------------
([k) mnkgj.keuql`R; dks"BdnRrins"kq i×pehfoHkfDra iz;qT; okD;kfu iwj;r&
;Fkk& 'e'kkukn~ /uqjknk; vtqZu% vkxr%A ('e'kku)
(i) ikBku~ ifBRok l% --------------------- vkxr%A (fo|ky;)
(ii) --------------------- i=kkf.k irfUrA (o`{k)
(iii) xÄkõ --------------------- fuxZPNfrA (fgeky;)
(iv) {kek --------------------- iQykfu vku;frA (vki.ke~)
(v) --------------------- cqf¼uk'kks HkofrA (Le`fruk'k)

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
dfo ifjp;
laLÑr ukVddkjksa esa ^^egkdfo Hkkl** dk uke vxzx.; gSA Hkkl jfpr rsjg :id fuEufyf[kr gS&a
nwrokD;e~] d.kZHkkje~] nwr?kVksRdpe~] m#HkÄõe~] eè;eO;k;ksx%] i×pjk=ke~] vfHk"ksdukVde~]
ckypfjre~] vfoekjde~] izfrekukVde~] izfrKk;kSxU/jk;.ke~] LoIuoklonÙke~ rFkk pk#nÙke~A
xzUFk ifjp;
i×pjk=ke~ dh dFkkoLrq egkHkkjr osQ fojkV ioZ ij vk/kfjr gSA ik.Moksa osQ vKkrokl osQ le;
nq;ksZ/u ,d ;K djrk gS vkSj ;K dh lekfIr ij vkpk;Z nzks.k dks xq#nf{k.kk nsuk pkgrk gSA nzks.k
xq#nf{k.kk osQ :i esa ik.Moksa dk jkT;kf/dkj pkgrs gSaA nq;ksZ/u dgrk gS fd ;fn xq# nzks.kkpk;Z
izR;fHkKkue~ 53

ik¡p jkrksa esa ik.Moksa dk irk yxk nsa rks mudh iSr`d lEifÙk dk Hkkx mUgsa fn;k tk ldrk gSA
blh vk/kj ij bl ukVd dk uke ^i×pjk=ke~* gSA

HkkofoLrkj%
r#.kL; ÑrkL=kL; ;qDrks ;q¼ijkt;%
vKkrokl esa c`gUuyk osQ :i esa vtqZu dks cgqr le; osQ ckn iq=k&feyu dk volj izkIr gqvkA
og vius iq=k ls ckr djuk pkgrk gS ijUrq (vius vigj.k ls) {kqC/ vfHkeU;q muosQ lkFk ckr
djuk gh ugha pkgrkA rc vtqZu mls mÙksftr djus dh Hkkouk ls bl izdkj osQ O;Ä~X;kRed opu
dgrs gSa&
rqEgkjs firk vtqZu gSa] ekek Jh Ñ".k gSa rFkk rqe 'kL=kfo|k ls lEiUu gksus osQ lkFk gh lkFk
r#.k Hkh gks] rqEgkjs fy, ;q¼ esa ijkLr gksuk mfpr gSA
ee rq HkqtkS ,o izgj.ke~
vfHkeU;q {kqC/ gS fd mls /ks[ks ls 'kL=kfoghu Hkhe us fux`ghr fd;k gSA Hkhe bldk Li"Vhdj.k
djrk gS fd vL=k&'kL=k rks nqcZy O;fDr;ksa }kjk xzg.k fd;s tkrs gSaA esjh rks Hkqtk gh esjk 'kL=k
gSA vr% eq>s fdlh vU; vk;q/ dh vko';drk ughaA bl izdkj dk Hkko vU; ukVdksa esa Hkh
miyC/ gS] tSls &
(d) v;a rq nf{k.kks ckgqjk;q/a ln`'ka eeA (eè;eO;k;ksx%)
([k) HkheL;kuqdfj";kfe 'kL=ka ckgqHkZfo";frA (e`PNdfVde~)
(x) o;efi p Hkqtk;q¼iz/kuk%A (vfoekjde~)
uhr% Ñ".kks¿rngZrke~
Jh Ñ".k us tjklU/ osQ tkekrk (nkekn) dal dk o/ fd;k FkkA blls ozqQ¼ tjklU/ us
;nqoaf'k;ksa osQ fouk'k dh izfrKk dh FkhA blfy, mlus ckj&ckj eFkqjk ij vkØe.k Hkh fd;k FkkA
mlus Jh Ñ".k dks dbZ ckj idM+k Hkh ijUrq fdlh u fdlh izdkj Jh Ñ".k ogk¡ ls fudy x;sA
oLrqr% mfpr volj ikdj Jh Ñ".k tjklU/ dks ekjuk pkgrs Fks ijUrq Hkhe us tjklU/ dk o/
djosQ mudh ik=krk Lo;a ys yhA tks dk;Z Jh Ñ".k }kjk dj.kh; Fkk mls Hkhelsu us dj fn;k
vkSj Jh Ñ".k dks tjklU/ osQ o/ dk volj gh ugha fn;kA
dks¿;a eè;eks uke\
;gk¡ eè;e 'kCn dk iz;ksx Hkkl }kjk Hkhe osQ fy, fd;k x;k gSA Hkkl osQ ukVdksa esa loZ=k Hkhe
osQ fy, ^eè;e* 'kCn dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA mUgksaus ^eè;eO;k;ksx* :id dh jpuk dh ftlesa
eè;e ik.Mo vFkkZr~ Hkhe dks uk;d cuk;k x;k gSA
54 'kseq"kh
Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%
(d) fu"ks/kFkZ esa vye~ osQ ;ksx esa r`rh;k foHkfDr iz;qDr gksrh gSA
;Fkk& vya LoPNUnizykisuA
vya fooknsuA
vya izeknsuA
vya dksykgysuA
([k) ^i;kZIr* vFkZ esa vye~ dk iz;ksx gksus ij prqFkhZ foHkfDr gksrh gSA
;Fkk& Hkhe% nq;ksZ/uk; vye~A
vtquZ % d.kkZ; vye~A
jke% jko.kk; vye~A
bna nqX/a eáe~ vye~A
okP; osQ rhu Hksn gSa& (i) drZ̀okP; (ii) deZokP; (iii) HkkookP;
dr`ZokP; osQ drkZ esa izFkek foHkfDr] deZ esa f}rh;k foHkfDr rFkk fØ;k dr`Zin osQ iq#"k vkSj
opu osQ vuqlkj gksrh gSA
;Fkk& jke% ikBa iBfrA
deZokP; esa deZin izFkek esa gksrk gS] drkZ r`rh;k esa rFkk fØ;k deZ osQ iq#"k vkSj opu
osQ vuqlkj gksrh gSA
;Fkk & jkes.k ikB% iB~;rsA
HkkookP; vdeZd fØ;k ls gksrk gSA blesa drkZ r`rh;k esa gksrk gS rFkk fØ;k izFkeiq#"k
,dopu esa jgrh gSA
;Fkk & ckyS% gL;rsA
dr`Z] deZ rFkk HkkookP; esa fØ;k:i
dr`ZokP; deZokP;@HkkookP;
iBfr iB~;rs
fy[kfr fy[;rs
[kknfr [kk|rs
ficfr ih;rs
xk;fr xh;rs
Ük`.kksfr Jw;rs
izR;fHkKkue~ 55

fo'ks"k & /krq ls ^;* izR;; yxkdj deZokP;@HkkookP; osQ :i ^lso~* (vkReusinh) /krq osQ
leku cuk;s tkrs gSaA
Dr@Drorq izR;;
^Dr* izR;; Ñr~ izR;; gSA ;g Hkwrdky dk |ksrd gSA bldk iz;ksx rhuksa fyÄõksa esa gksrk gSA bl
izR;; ls cus 'kCn fo'ks"k.k osQ :i esa Hkh iz;qDr gksrs gSaA
;Fkk& èkkrq izR;; ewy 'kCn iaq- L=kh- uiqa-
iB~ Dr ifBr ifBr% ifBrk ifBre~
xe~ Dr xr xr% xrk xre~
n`'k~ Dr n`"V n`"V% n`"Vk n`"Ve~
^Drorq* Hkh Hkwrdkfyd izR;; gSA bldk iz;ksx lnSo dr`ZokP; esa gksrk gSA Drorq izR;;kUr 'kCn
Hkh rhuksa fyÄõksa esa gksrs gSaA
;Fkk& iB~ $ Drorq ¾ ifBror~
,dopu f}opu cgqopu
iq- iz- fo- ifBroku~ ifBroUrkS ifBroUr%
L=kh- iz- fo- ifBrorh ifBroR;kS ifBroR;%
uiqa- iz- fo- ifBror~ ifBrorh ifBrofUr
okP;ifjorZue~
(d) ;su firj% nf'kZrk%A (deZokP;)
;% fir`u` ~ nf'kZroku~A (drZ`okP;)
([k) Hkon~fHk% o;a ifjjf{krk%A (deZokP;)
HkoUr% vLeku~ ifjjf{kroUr%A (drZ`okP;)
(x) osQu v;a x`ghr%\ (deZokP;)
d% bea x`ghroku~\ (drZ`okP;)
v"Ve% ikB%
ykSgrqyk
izLrqr ikB fo".kq'kekZ }kjk jfpr ^i×prU=ke~* uked dFkkxzUFk osQ ^fe=kHksn* uked rU=k ls
lÄïfyr gSA blesa fons'k ls ykSVdj th.kZèku uked O;kikjh viuh /jksgj (rjktw) dks lsB ls
ek¡xrk gSA ^rjktw pwgs [kk x;s gSa* ,slk lqudj th.kZ/u mlosQ iq=k dks Luku osQ cgkus unh rV
ij ys tkdj xqiQk esa fNik nsrk gSA lsB }kjk vius iq=k osQ fo"k; esa iwNus ij th.kZ/u dgrk
gS fd ^iq=k dks ckt mBk ys x;k gSA* bl izdkj fookn djrs gq, nksuksa U;k;ky; igq¡prs gSa tgk¡
èkekZfèkdkjh mUgsa leqfpr U;k; iznku djrs gSaA

vklhr~ dfLaef'pn~ vf/"Bkus th.kZ/uks uke of.kDiq=k%A l p foHko{k;kís'kkUrja xUrqfePNu~


O;fpUr;r~&
;=k ns'ks¿Fkok LFkkus Hkksxk HkqDrk% Looh;Zr%A
rfLeu~ foHkoghuks ;ks olsr~ l iq#"kk/e%AA
rL; p x`gs ykSg?kfVrk iwoiZ #q "kksikftZrk rqyklhr~A rka p dL;fpr~ Jsf"Buks x`gs
fu{ksiHkwrka ÑRok ns'kkUrja izfLFkr%A rr% lqfpja dkya ns'kkUrja ;FksPN;k HkzkURok iqu%
LoiqjekxR; ra Jsf"Bueqokp&^^Hkks% Jsf"Bu~! nh;rka es lk fu{ksirqykA** l vkg&^^Hkks%!
ukfLr lk] Ronh;k rqyk ew"koSQHkZf{krk** bfrA
th.kZ/u vkg&^^Hkks% Jsf"Bu~! ukfLr nks"kLrs] ;fn ew"koSQHkZf{krsfrA bZnx` os k;a lalkj%A
u fdf×pn=k 'kk'orefLrA ijega u|ka LUkkukFk± xfe";kfeA rr~ RoekReh;a f'k'kqeus a
èkunsoukekua e;k lg Lukuksidj.kgLra iz"s k;** bfrA
l Js"Bh Loiq=keqokp&^^oRl! fir`O;ks¿;a ro] LukukFk± ;kL;fr] rn~ xE;rkeusu
lk/Ze*~ * bfrA
vFkklkS of.kfD'k'kq% Lukuksidj.keknk; izâ"Veuk% rsu vH;kxrsu lg izfLFkr%A
rFkkuqf"Brs l of.ko~Q LukRok ra f'k'kqa fxfjxqgk;ka izf{kI;] rn~}kja c`gfPNy;kPNk| lÙoja
x`gekxr%A
ykSgrqyk 57

i`"V'p rsu of.ktk&^^Hkks%! vH;kxr! dF;rka oqQ=k es f'k'kq;LZ Ro;k lg unha xr%**\
bfrA
l vkg&^^unhrVkRl ';suus âr%** bfrA Js"B~;kg & ^^feF;kokfnu~! ¯d Dofpr~
';suks ckya grq± 'kDuksfr\ rr~ leiZ; es lqre~ vU;Fkk jktoqQys fuosnf;";kfeA** bfrA
l vkg&^^Hkks% lR;okfnu~! ;Fkk ';suks ckya u u;fr] rFkk ew"kdk vfi ykSg?kfVrka
rqyka u Hk{k;fUrA rniZ; es rqyke~] ;fn nkjosQ.k iz;kstue~A** bfrA
,oa foonekukS rkS }kofi jktoqQya xrkSA r=k Js"Bh rkjLojs.k izkos kp&¶Hkks%!
vczã.;e~! vczã.;e~! ee f'k'kqjusu pkSj.s kkiâr%** bfrA
vFk /ekZf/dkfj.kLrewp%q &^^Hkks%! leI;Zrka Jsf"Blqr%**A

l vkg&^^¯d djksfe\ i';rks es unhrVkPN~;us us viâr% f'k'kq%**A bfrA


rPíªRq ok rs izkp
s %q &Hkks%! u lR;efHkfgra Hkork&¯d ';su% f'k'kqa grq± leFkksZ Hkofr\
58 'kseq"kh
l vkg&Hkks% Hkks%! Jw;rka en~op%&
rqyka ykSglgÏL; ;=k [kknfUr ew"kdk%A
jktUr=k gjsPN~;us ks ckyda] uk=k la'k;%AA
rs izkp
s %q &^^dFkesrr~**A
rr% l Js"Bh lH;kukexzs vkfnr% loZa o`ÙkkUra fuosn;keklA rrLrSfoZgL; }kofi rkS
ijLija lacksè; rqyk&f'k'kq&iznkusu lUrksf"krkSA

'kCnkFkkZ%
vf/"Bkus LFkkus LFkku ij
foHko{k;kr~ /ukHkkokr~ /u osQ vHkko osQ dkj.k
Looh;Zr% LoijkØes.k vius ijkØe ls
ykSg?kfVrk rqyk ykSgfufeZrk rqyk yksgs ls cuh gqbZ rjktw
fu{ksi% U;kl% /jksgj
HkzkURok Hkze.ka ÑRok i;ZVu djosQ
(ns'kkVua ÑRok)
Ronh;k ro] Hkonh;k rqEgkjh
bZn`d~ ,rkn`'k% ,slk gh
,ue~ ,re~@,ue~ p iqafl bls] ,rr~ 'kCn iqa- f}- fo-
f}rh;Sdopus mHks ,- o- esa ,rr~@,ue~ nksuksa gh
,o :is Hkor%A :i gksrs gSaA
vkReh;e~ vkRelEcfU/ viuk
Lukuksidj.kgLre~ Lukulkexzh Luku dh lkexzh ls ;qDr gkFk
gLrs ;L; okykA
l%] re~
of.ktk O;kikfj.kk O;kikjh osQ }kjk
';su% fgaldizo`fÙkd% ckt
if{kfo'ks"k%
vczã.;e~ vU;k;:ie~ vuqfpre~ ?kksj vU;k;
ykSgrqyk 59

leiZ; nsfg nks


foonekukS dyga oqQoZUrkS >xM+k djrs gq,
rkjLojs.k mPpLojs.k tksj ls
Åpq% vonu~ cksys
vfHkfgre~ dfFkre~ dgk x;k
e}p% ee opukfu esjh ckrsa
vkfnr% izkjEHkr% vkjEHk ls
fuosn;kekl fuosnuedjksr~ fuosnu fd;k
fogL; gflRok g¡ldj
lacksè; cksèkf;Rok le>k cq>k dj

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) ns'kkUrja xUrqfePNu~ of.kDiq=k% ¯d O;fpUr;r~\
([k) Lorqyka ;kpekua th.kZ/ua Js"Bh fde~ vdFk;r~\
(x) th.kZ/u% fxfjxqgk}kja d;k vkPNk| x`gekxr%\
(?k) LukukuUrja iq=kfo"k;s i`"V% of.kDiq=k% Jsf"Bua fde~ mokp\
(Ä) /ekZf/dkfjfHk% th.kZ/uJsf"BukS dFka lUrksf"krkS\
2- LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) th.kZ/u% foHko{k;kr~ ns'kkUrja xUrqfePNu~ O;fpUr;r~A
([k) Jsf"Bu% f'k'kq% Lukuksidj.keknk; vH;kxrsu lg izfLFkr%A
(x) Js"Bh mPpLojs.k mokp&Hkks% vczãe.;e~ vczãe.;e~A
(?k) lH;S% rkS ijLija lacksè; rqyk&f'k'kq&iznkusu lUrksf"krkSA
3- v/ksfyf[krkuka 'yksdkuke~ viw.kksZ¿Uo;% iznÙk% ikBek/`R; re~ iwj;r&
(d) ;=k ns'ks vFkok LFkkus ----------------- Hkksxk% HkqDrk ----------------- foHkoghu% ;% -------------
l iq#"kk/e%A
([k) jktu~! ;=k ykSglgÏL; ----------------- ew"kdk% ----------------- r=k ';su% ----------------- gjsr~
v=k la'k;% uA
60 'kseq"kh
4- rRina js[kkfÄïra oqQ#r ;=k&
(d) Y;i~ izR;;% ukfLr
fogL;] ykSglgÏL;] lacksè;] vknk;
([k) ;=k f}rh;k foHkfDr% ukfLr
Jsf"Bue~] Lukuksidj.ke~] lÙoje~] dk;Zdkj.ke~
(x) ;=k "k"Bh foHkfDr% ukfLr
i';r%] Looh;Zr%] Jsf"Bu% lH;kuke~
5- lfUèkuk lfUèkfoPNsnsu ok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) Js"B~;kg ¾ ----------------------- $ vkg
([k) ----------------------- ¾ }kS $ vfi
(x) iq#"kksikftZrk ¾ iq#"k $ -----------------------
(?k) ----------------------- ¾ ;Fkk $ bPN;k
(Ä) Lukuksidj.ke~ ¾ ----------------------- $ midj.ke~
(p) ----------------------- ¾ Luku $ vFkZe~
6- leLrina foxzga ok fy[kr&
foxzg% leLrine~
(d) LukuL; midj.ke~ ¾ -----------------------
([k) -------------- -------------- ¾ fxfjxqgk;ke~
(x) /eZL; vf/dkjh ¾ -----------------------
(?k) -------------- -------------- ¾ foHkoghuk%
7- ;Fkkis{ke~ v/ksfyf[krkuka 'kCnkuka lgk;r;k ^^ykSgrqyk** bfr dFkk;k% lkjka'k
laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
of.kDiq=k% LUkkukFkZe~
ykSgrqyk v;kpr~
o`ÙkkUra KkRok
Jsf"Bua izR;kxr%
xr% iznkue~
ykSgrqyk 61

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
xzUFk ifjp;
egkdfo fo".kq'kekZ (200 bZ- ls 600 bZ- osQ eè;) us jktk vej'kfDr osQ iq=kksa dks jktuhfr esa
ikjaxr djus osQ mís'; ls ^i×prU=ke~* uked lqifz l¼ dFkkxzUFk dh jpuk dh FkhA ;g xzUFk ik¡p
Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr gSA bUgha Hkkxksa dks ^rU=k* dgk x;k gSA i×prU=k osQ ik¡p rU=k gSa&fe=kHksn%]
fe=klaizkfIr%] dkdksywdh;e~] yCèkiz.kk'k% vkSj vijhf{krdkjde~A bl xzUFk esa vR;Ur ljy 'kCnksa
esa y?kq dFkk,¡ nh x;h gSaA buosQ ekè;e ls gh ys[kd us uhfr osQ xw<+ rÙoksa dk izfriknu
fd;k gSA

HkkofoLrkj%
^ykSgrqyk* uked dFkk esa nh x;h f'k{kk osQ lUnHkZ esa bu lwfÙkQ;ksa dks Hkh ns[kk tkuk pkfg,A
1- u df'pr~ dL;fpfUe=ka u df'pr~ dL;fpn~ fjiq%A
O;ogkjs.k tk;Urs fe=kkf.k fjioLrFkkAA
2- vkReu% izfrowQykfu ijs"kka u lekpjsr~A

Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%
1-
/krq% Dr% Drorq Drorq vuh;j~ rO;r~ ;r~ Y;qV~ r`p~ .oqy~
iq- L=kh-
√ uh uhr% uhroku~ uhrorh × usrO;e~ us;e~ u;ue~ usrk uk;d%
√ izPN~ i`"V% i`"Voku~ i`"Vorh × iz"VO;e~ × × iz"Vk ×
√ nk nÙk% nÙkoku~ nÙkorh nkuh;e~ nkrO;e~ ns;e~ nkue~ nkrk ×

2- rfly~ izR;;&i×peh fofHkDr osQ vFkZ esa rfly~ izR;; dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
;Fkk& xzkekr~ & xzker% (xzke $ rfly~)
vkns% & vkfnr% (vkfn $ rfly~)
;Fkk& Nk=k% fo|ky;kr~ vkxPNfrA
Nk=k% fo|ky;r% vkxPNfrA
62 'kseq"kh
blh izdkj & x`g $ rfly~ & x`gr% & x`gkr~A
rU=k $ rfly~ & rU=kr% & rU=kkr~A
izFke $ rfly~ & izFker% & izFkekr~A
vkjEHk $ rfly~ & vkjEHkr% & vkjEHkkr~A
3- vfHkr% ifjr% mHk;r%] loZr%] le;k] fud"kk] ^gk* vkSj izfr osQ ;ksx esa f}rh;k
foHkfDr dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA
;Fkk& x`ge~ vfHkr% o`{kk% lfUrA
fo|ky;e~ ifjr% nzqek% lfUrA
xzkee~ mHk;r% u|kS izogr%A
gk nqjkpkfj.ke~A
ØhMk{ks=ke~ fud"kk rj.krkye~ vfLrA
ckyd% fo|ky;e~ izfr xPNfrA
uxje~ le;k vkS"k/ky;% fo|rsA
xzkee~ loZr% xkspkj.kHkwfe% vfLrA
uoe% ikB%
fldrklsr%q
izLrqr ukV~;ka'k lksensojfpr dFkklfjRlkxj osQ lIre yEcd (vè;k;) ij vkèkkfjr gSA ;gk¡
rikscy ls fo|k ikus osQ fy, iz;Ru'khy riksnRr uked ,d ckyd dh dFkk dk o.kZu gSA mlosQ
leqfpr ekxZn'kZu osQ fy, os"k cnydj banz mlosQ ikl vkrs gSa vkSj ikl gh xaxk esa ckyw ls
lsrqfuekZ.k osQ dk;Z esa yx tkrs gSaA mUgsa oSlk djrs ns[k riksnRr mudk migkl djrk gqvk dgrk
gS&^vjs! fdlfy, xaxk osQ ty esa O;FkZ gh ckyw ls iqy cukus dk iz;Ru dj jgs gks\* banz mUgsa
mRrj nsrs gSa&;fn i<+us] lquus vkSj v{kjksa dh fyfi osQ vH;kl osQ fcuk rqe fo|k ik ldrs gks
rks ckyw ls iqy cukuk Hkh laHko gSA banz osQ vfHkizk; dks tkudj riksnRr riL;k djuk NksM+dj
xq#tuksa osQ ekxZn'kZu esa fo|k dk Bhd&Bhd vH;kl djus osQ fy, xq#oqQy pyk tkrk gSA

(rr% izfo'kfr riL;kjr% riksnÙk%)


riksnÙk% & vgefLe riksnÙk%A ckY;s fir`pj.kS% Dys';ekuks¿fi fo|ka uk¿èkhrokufLeA
rLekr~ loS%Z oqQVqfEcfHk% fe=kS% KkfrtuS'p xfgZrks¿Hkoe~A
(Åèo± fu%'oL;)
gk fo/s! fdfenEe;k o`Qre~\ dhn`'kh nqcfZq ¼jklhÙknk! ,rnfi u fpfUrra
;r~&
ifj/kuSjyÄïkjSHkwZf"krks¿fi u 'kksHkrsA
ujks fueZf.kHkksxho lHkk;ka ;fn ok x`gAs A1AA
(fdf×pn~ foe`';)
Hkorq] fdesrus \ fnols ekxZHkzkUr% lUè;ka ;kon~ ;fn x`geqifS r rnfi oje~A
uk¿lkS HkzkUrks eU;rsA ,"k bnkuha ri'p;Z;k fo|keokIrqa izoÙ` kks¿fLeA
(tyksPNyuèofu% Jw;rs)
64 'kseq"kh
v;s oqQrks¿;a dYyksyksPNyuèofu%\ egkeRL;ks edjks ok HkosrA~ i';kfe
rkor~A
(iq#"kesda fldrkfHk% lsrfq uekZ.k&iz;kla oqQokZ.ka n`"V~ok lgkle~)

gUr! ukLR;Hkkoks txfr ew[kkZ.kke~! rhozioz kgk;ka u|ka ew<ks¿;a fldrkfHk% lsraq
fuekZraq iz;rrs!
(lkV~Vgkla ik'oZeiq Rs ;)
Hkks egk'k;! fdfena fo/h;rs! vyeya ro Jes.kA i';]
jkeks ccU/ ;a lsraq f'kykfHkeZdjky;sA
fon/n~ ckyqdkfHkLra ;kfl Roefrjkerke~AA2AA
fpUr; rkor~A fldrkfHk% DofpRlsr%q dr±q ;qT;rs\
fldrklsrq% 65

iq#"k% & HkksLrifLou~! dFka ekeqi#.kfRlA iz;Rusu ¯d u fl¼a Hkofr\ dko';drk


f'kykuke~\ fldrkfHkjso lsraq dfj";kfe LoladYin`<r;kA
riksnÙk% & vk'p;Ze!~ fldrkfHkjso lsraq dfj";fl\ fldrk tyizokgs LFkkL;fUr fde~\
Hkork fpfUrra u ok\
iq#"k% & (lksRizkle~) fpfUrra fpfUrre~A lE;d~ fpfUrre~A ukga lksikuekxSjZ V~Vefèkjks<aq
fo'oflfeA leqRIyqR;So xUrqa {keks¿fLeA
riksnÙk% & (lO;Ä~X;e~)
lk/q lk/q! vk×tus;eI;frØkefl!
iq#"k% & (lfoe'kZe~)
dks¿=k lUnsg%\ fd×p]
fouk fyI;{kjKkua riksfHkjso osQoye~A
;fn fo|k o'ks L;qLrs] lsrjq "s k rFkk eeAA3AA
riksnÙk% & (loSy{;e~ vkRexre~)
v;s! ekesoksfí'; Hknzi#q "kks¿;e~ vf/f{kifr! uwua lR;e=k i';kfeA v{kjKkua
fouSo oSn"q ;eokIrqe~ vfHky"kkfe! rfn;a HkxoR;k% 'kkjnk;k voekuukA
xq#x`ga xRoSo fo|kH;klks e;k dj.kh;%A iq#"kkFkSjZ os y{;a izkI;rsA
(izdk'ke~)
Hkks ujksÙke! uk¿ga tkus ;r~ dks¿fLr Hkoku~A ijUrq Hkofn~Hk% mUehfyra es
u;u;qxye~A riksek=ks.k fo|keokIrqa iz;rekuks¿gefi fldrkfHkjso lsrfq uekZ.kiz;kla
djksfeA rfnnkuha fo|kè;;uk; xq#oqQyeso xPNkfeA
(liz.kkea xPNfr)

'kCnkFkkZ%
fldrk ckyqdk jsr
lsrq% tycU/% iqy
riL;kjr% ri%oqQoZu~ riL;k esa yhu
66 'kseq"kh
fir`pj.kS% rkriknS% firkth osQ }kjk
Dys';eku% larkI;eku% O;koqQy fd;k tkrk gqvk
v/hroku~ vè;;ua o`Qroku~ i<+k
oqQVqfEcfHk% ifjokjtuS% oqQVqfEc;ksa }kjk
KkfrtuS% cU/qckU/oS% cU/q&ckU/oksa }kjk
xfgZr% fufUnr% viekfur
fu%'oL; nh?kZ'okla x`ghRok yEch lk¡l ysdj
nqcqZf¼% nqefZ r% nq"V cqf¼okyk
ifj/kuS% oL=kS% diM+ksa ls] igukoksa ls
ekxZHkzkUr% iFkHkz"V% jkg ls HkVdk gqvk
miSfr izkIuksfr] lehia xPNfr tkrk gS] lehi tkrk gS
ri'p;Z;k rilk riL;k osQ }kjk
tyksPNyuèofu% tyksèoZxrs% 'kCn% ikuh osQ mNyus dh vkokt
dYyksyksPNyuèofu% rjÄõksPNyuL; 'kCn% rjaxksa osQ mNyus dh èofu
oqQokZ.ke~ oqQoZUre~ djrs gq,
lgkle~ gkliwoZde~ g¡lrs gq,
lksRizkle~ migkliwoZde~ f[kYyh mM+krs gq,] pqVdh
ysrs gq,
lkV~Vgkle~ vV~VgkliwoZde~ tksj ls g¡ldj
vV~Ve~ vV~Vkfydke~ vVkjh dks
vf/jks<qe~ mifj xUrqe~ p<+us osQ fy,
mi#.kfRl vojks/a djksf"k jksdrs gks
vk×Tkus;e~ guqeUre~ v×tfuiq=k guqeku~ dks
lfoe'kZe~ fopkjlfgre~ lksp&fopkj dj
loSy{;e~ lyTte~ yTtkiwod Z
oSnq";e~ ikf.MR;e~ fo}Rrk
mUehfyre~ mn~?kkfVre~ [kksy nh
fldrklsrq% 67

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) vu/hr% riksnÙk% oSQ% xfgZrks¿Hkor~\
([k) riksnÙk% osQu izdkjs.k fo|keokIrqa izoÙ` kks¿Hkor~\
(x) riksnÙk% iq#"kL; dka ps"Vka n`"V~ok vglr~\
(?k) riksek=ks.k fo|ka izkIrqa rL; iz;kl% dhn`'k% dfFkr%\
(Ä) vUrs riksnÙk% fo|kxzg.kk; oqQ=k xr%\
2- fHkUuoxhZ;a ina fpuqr&
;Fkk& vf/jks<qe~] xUrqe~] lsreq ]~ fuekZrqe~A
(d) fu%'oL;] fpUr;] foe`';] misR;A
([k) fo'oflfe] i';kfe] dfj";kfe] vfHky"kkfeA
(x) riksfHk%] nqcqZf¼%] fldrkfHk%] dqVqfEcfHk%A
3- (d) js[kkfÄïrkfu loZukeinkfu dLeS iz;qDrkfu\
(i) vyeya ro Jes.kA
(ii) u vga lksikuekxSjZ V~Vef/jks<qa fo'oflfeA
(iii) fpfUrra Hkork u okA
(iv) xq#x`ga xRoSo fo|kH;klks e;k dj.kh;%A
(v) Hkofn~Hk% mUehfyra es u;u;qxye~A
([k) v/ksfyf[krkfu dFkukfu d% oaQ izfr dFk;fr\
dFkukfu d% de~
(i) gk fo/s! fdfena e;k Ñre~\ ---------------- ----------------
(ii) Hkks egk'k;! fdfena fo/h;rsA ---------------- ----------------
(iii) HkksLrifLou~! dFka eke~ mi#.kfRlA ---------------- ----------------
(iv) fldrk% tyizokgs LFkkL;fUr fde~\ ---------------- ----------------
(v) ukga tkus dks¿fLr Hkoku~\ ---------------- ----------------
4- LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) riksnÙk% ri'p;Z;k fo|keokIrqa izo`Ùkks¿fLrA
([k) riksnÙk% oqQVqfEcfHk% fe=kS% xfgZr% vHkor~A
68 'kseq"kh
(x) iq#"k% u|ka fldrkfHk% lsrqa fuekZrqa iz;rrsA
(?k) riksnÙk% v{kjKkua fouSo oSnq";eokIrqe~ vfHky"kfrA
(Ä) riksnÙk% fo|kè;;uk; xq#oqQye~ vxPNr~A
(p) xq#x`ga xRoSo fo|kH;kl% dj.kh;%A
5- mnkgj.keuql`R; v/ksfyf[krfoxzginkuka leLrinkfu fy[kr&
foxzginkfu leLrinkfu
;Fkk& ladYiL; lkrR;su ladYilkrR;su
(d) v{kjk.kka Kkue~ ------------------------------
([k) fldrk;k% lsrq% ------------------------------
(x) firq% pj.kS% ------------------------------
(?k) xqjks% x`ge~ ------------------------------
(Ä) fo|k;k% vH;kl% ------------------------------
6- mnkgj.keuql`R; v/ksfyf[krkuka leLrinkuka foxzga oqQ#r&
leLrinkfu foxzg%
;Fkk& u;u;qxye~ u;u;ks% ;qxye~
(d) tyizokgs ------------------------------
([k) ri'p;Z;k ------------------------------
(x) tyksPNyuèofu% ------------------------------
(?k) lsrqfuekZ.kiz;kl% ------------------------------
7- mnkgj.keuql`R; dks"Bdkr~ ine~ vknk; uwrua okD;};a jp;r&
(d) ;Fkk& vya fpUr;kA (^vye~* ;ksxs r`rh;k)
(i) ------------------------- ------------------------- (Hk;)
(ii) ------------------------- ------------------------- (dksykgy)
([k) ;Fkk& eke~ vuq l xPNfrA (^vuq* ;ksxs f}rh;k)
(i) ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- (x`g)
(ii) ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- (ioZr)
fldrklsrq% 69

(x) ;Fkk& v{kjKkua fouSo oSnq";a izkIrqefHky"kflA (^fouk* ;ksxs f}rh;k)


(i) ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- (ifjJe)
(ii) ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- (vH;kl)
(?k) ;Fkk& lUè;ka ;kor~ x`geqiSfrA (^;kor~* ;ksxs f}rh;k)
(i) ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- (ekl)
(ii) ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- (o"kZ)

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
(d) dfo ifjp; & dFkklfjRlkxj osQ jpf;rk d'ehj fuoklh Jh lksenso HkV~V gSaA ;s
d'ehj osQ jktk Jh vuUrnso osQ lHkkif.Mr FksA dfo us jkuh lw;Zerh osQ euks&fouksn osQ
fy, dFkklfjRlkxj uked xzUFk dh jpuk dhA bl xzUFk dk ewy egkdfo xq.kk<~; dh
c`gRdFkk (izkÑr xzUFk) gSA
([k) xzUFk ifjp; & dFkklfjRlkxj vusd dFkkvksa dk egkleqnz gSA bl xzUFk esa vBkjg yEcd
gSaA ewydFkk dh iqf"V osQ fy, vusd midFkk,¡ of.kZr dh xbZ gSaA izLrqr dFkk jRuizHkk uked
yEcd ls lÄfï yr dh xbZ gSA Kku&izkfIr osQoy riL;k ls ugha] cfYd xq# osQ lehi tkdj
vè;;ukfn dk;ks± osQ djus ls gksrh gSA ;gh bl dFkk dk lkj gSA
(x) i;kZ;okfpu% 'kCnk%&
bnkuhe~ & v/quk] lkEizre~] lEizfrA
tye~ & okfj] mnde~] lfyye~A
unh & lfjr~] rfVuh] rjfÄ.õ khA
iq#"kkFkZ% & m|ksx%] m|e%] ifjJe%A
(?k) foykse'kCnk%&
nqcqZf¼% & lqcqf¼%
xfgZr% & iz'kaflr%
izo`Ùk% & fuo`Ùk%
vH;kl% & vuH;kl%
lR;e~ & vlR;e~
70 'kseq"kh
(Ä) rqequ~&izR;;&iz;ksx%&
(^rqequ~* izR;; esa ^rqe~* 'ks"k cprk gSA ^rqequ~* bR;srL; ^rqe~* bR;so Hkkxks¿of'k";rs)
;Fkk&
O √ Ñ $ rqequ~ ¾ drqe Z ~ O √ xe~ $ rqequ~ ¾ xUrqe~
O vf/ $ √ #g~ $ rqequ~ ¾ vf/jks<qe~ O fuj~ $ √ ek $ rqequ~ ¾ fuekZrqe~
O vo $√ vki~ $ rqequ~ ¾ vokIrqe~
(p) vkRexre~ & ukVdksa esa iz;qDr ;g ,d ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCn gSA tc uV ;k vfHkusrk jaxe×p
ij vius dFku dks nwljksa dks lqukuk ugha pkgrk] eu esa gh lksprk gS rc mlosQ dFku dks
^vkRexre~* dgk tkrk gSA
(N) izdk'ke~ & tc uV ;k vfHkusrk osQ laokn jaxe×p ij n'kZdksa osQ lkeus izdV fd;s tkrs
gSa] rc mu laoknksa dks ^izdk'ke~* 'kCn ls lwfpr fd;k tkrk gSA
(t) vfrjkerk & jke ls vkxs c<+ tkus dh fLFkfr dks ^vfrjkerk* dgk x;k gS&jkee~
vfrØkUr% ¾ vfrjke%] rL; Hkko% ¾ vfrjkerkA jke us f'kykvksa ls leqnz esa lsrq dk
fuekZ.k fd;k FkkA foiz&:i/kjh bUnz dks fldrk&d.kksa ls lsrq cukrs ns[k riksnÙk mudk
migkl djrs gq, dgrk gS fd rqe jke ls vkxs c<+ tkuk pkgrs gksA
fuEufyf[kr dgkorksa dks ikB esa vk, gq, laLÑr okD;ka'k esa igpkfu;s&
(i) lqcg dk Hkwyk 'kke dks ?kj ykSV vk;s] rks Hkwyk ugha dgykrk gSA
(ii) esjh vk¡[ksa [kqy xb±A
(>) vk×tus;e~ & v×tuk osQ iq=k gksus osQ dkj.k guqeku~ dks vk×tus; dgk tkrk gSA guqeku~
mNydj dgha Hkh tkus esa leFkZ FksA blfy, bUnz osQ ;g dgus ij fd eSa lh<+h ls tkus esa
fo'okl ugha djrk gw¡ vfirq mNydj gh tkus esa leFkZ gw¡] riksnÙk fiQj ls migkl djrs
gq, dgrk gS fd igys vkius iqy fuekZ.k esa jke dks yk¡?k fy;k vkSj vc mNyus esa guqeku~
dks Hkh yk¡?kus dh bPNk dj jgs gSaA
(×k) v{kjKkuL; ekgkRE;e~&
(i) fo|k/ua loZ/uiz/kue~A
(ii) ¯d ¯d u lk/;fr dYiyrso fo|kA
(iii) ;% iBfr fy[kfr i';fr ifji`PNfr if.MrkuqikJ;rsA
rL; fnokdjfdj.kS% ufyuhnyfeo fodkL;rs cqf¼%AA
vè;srO;% xzUFk%&
dFkklfjRlkxj (laf{kIr fgUnh :ikUrj) jk/koYyHk f=kikBh] us'kuy cqd VªLV] ubZ fnYyhA
n'ke% ikB%
tVk;ks% 'kkS;eZ ~
izLrqr ikB~;ka'k vkfndfo okYehfd&iz.khr jkek;.ke~ osQ vj.;dk.M ls m¼`r fd;k x;k gS ftlesa
tVk;q vkSj jko.k osQ ;q¼ dk o.kZu gSA iapoVh dkuu esa lhrk dk d#.k foyki lqudj if{kJs"B
tVk;q mudh j{kk osQ fy, nkSM+sA os jko.k dks ijnkjkfHke'kZu:i fuU| ,oa nq"deZ ls fojr gksus osQ
fy, dgrs gSaA jko.k dh vifjofrZr eukso`fÙk dks ns[k os ml ij Hk;kog vkØe.k djrs gSaA
egkcyh tVk;q vius rh[ks u[kksa rFkk i×tksa ls jko.k osQ 'kjhj esa vusd ?kko dj nsrs gSa rFkk i×tksa
osQ izgkj ls mlosQ fo'kky èkuq"k dks [kafMr dj nsrs gSaA VwVs èkuq"k] ekjs x;s v'oksa vkSj lkjFkh okyk
jko.k fojFk gksdj i`Foh ij fxj iM+rk gSA oqQN gh {k.kksa ckn Øks/ka/ jko.k tVk;q ij izk.k?kkrd
izgkj djrk gS ijarq if{kJs"B tVk;q mlls viuk cpko dj ml ij p×pq&izgkj djrs gSa] mlosQ
ck;sa Hkkx dh n'kksa Hkqtkvksa dks {kr&fo{kr dj nsrs gSaA

lk rnk d#.kk okpks foyiUrh lqn%q f[krkA


ouLifrxra x`/za nn'kkZ;rykspuk AA1AA
tVk;ks i'; ekek;Z fß;ek.kkeukFkor~ A
vusu jk{klsUnzs.k d#.ka ikideZ.kk AA2AA
ra 'kCneolqIrLrq tVk;qjFk 'kqJqosA
fujh{; jko.ka f{kiza oSnsgha p nn'kZ l% AA3AA
rr% ioZ r 'k` Ä õ k HkLrh{.krq . M% [kxks Ù ke%A
ouLifrxr% JhekUO;ktgkj 'kqHkka fxje~ AA4AA
fuorZ; efra uhpka ijnkjkfHke'kZukr~A
u rRlekpjs¼hjks ;Rijks¿L; foxgZ;rs ~ AA5AA
72 'kseq"kh
o`¼ks¿ga Roa ;qok /Uoh ljFk% doph 'kjhA
u pkI;knk; dq'kyh oSnsgha es xfe";fl AA6AA
rL; rh{.ku[kkH;ka rq pj.kkH;ka egkcy%A
pdkj cgq/k xk=ks oz.kkUirxlÙke% AA7AA

rrks¿L; l'kja pkia eqDrkef.kfoHkwf"kre~A


pj.kkH;ka egkrstk cHk×TkkL; eg¼uq% AA8AA
l HkXu/Uok fojFkks grk'oks grlkjfFk%A
vÄusï knk; oSngs ha iikr Hkqfo jko.k% AA9AA
tVk;ks% 'kkS;Ze~ 73

laifj"oT; oSnsgha okesukÄuïs jko.k%A


rysukfHkt?kkuk'kq tVk;qa Øks/ewfPZNr% AA10AA
tVk;qLrefrØE; rq.MsukL; [kxkf/i%A
okeckgwUn'k rnk O;ikgjnfjUne% AA11AA

'kCnkFkkZ%
fß;ek.kke~ uh;ekuke~ ys tkbZ tkrh@vigj.k dh tkrh gqbZ
jk{klsUnzs.k nkuoifruk jk{klksa osQ jktk }kjk
ijnkjkfHke'kZukr~ ijL=khLi'kkZr~ ijkbZ L=kh osQ Li'kZ ls
foxgZ;sr~ fuU|kr~ fuUnk djuh pkfg,
/Uoh /uq/Zj% /uq/Zj
doph dop/kjh dop /kj.k fd, gq,
'kjh ck.k/j% ck.k dks fy, gq,
O;ktgkj vdFk;r~ dgk
fuorZ; okj.ka oqQ# euk djks] jksdks
O;ikgjr~ mR[kkroku~ m[kkM+ fn;k
oSnsghe~ lhrke~ lhrk dks
oz.kku~ izgkjtfurLiQksVku~ izgkj (pksV) ls gksus okys ?kkoksa dks
cHk×t HkXua Ñroku~ rksM+ fn;k
irxs'oj% tVk;q% tVk;q (if{kjkt)
fo/w; vilk;Z nwj gVkdj
HkXu/Uok HkXua /uq% ;L; l% VwVs gq, /uq"k okyk
grk'o% grk% v'ok% ;L; l% ekjs x, ?kksM+ksa okyk
vknk; x`ghRok ysdj
vfHkt?kku groku~ ekj Mkyk
vk'kq 'kh?kze~ 'kh?kz gh
rq.Msu eq[ksu] p×Pok pksap osQ }kjk
[kxkf/i% if{kjkt% if{k;ksa dk jktk
vfjUne% 'k=kqneu%] 'k=kquk'kd% 'k=kqvksa dks u"V djus okyk
74 'kseq"kh
vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) ¶tVk;ks! i';¸ bfr dk onfr\
([k) tVk;q% jko.ka fda dFk;fr\
(x) Øks/o'kkr~ jko.k% fda drqZe~ m|r% vHkor~\
(?k) irxs'oj% jko.kL; dhn`'ka pkia l'kja cHk×t\
(Ä) grk'oks grlkjfFk% jko.k% dq=k virr~\
2- mnkgj.keuql`R; f.kfu&izR;;iz;ksxa ÑRok inkfu jp;r&
;Fkk& xq.k $ f.kfu & xqf.ku~ (xq.kh)
nku $ f.kfu & nkfuu~ (nkuh)
(d) dop $ f.kfu & --------------
([k) 'kj $ f.kfu & --------------
(x) oqQ'ky $ f.kfu & --------------
(?k) /u $ f.kfu & --------------
(Ä) n.M $ f.kfu & --------------
3- jko.kL; tVk;ks'p fo'ks"k.kkfu lfEefyr:is.k fyf[krkfu rkfu i`Fkd~&i`Fko~Q ÑRok
fy[kr&
;qok] l'kj%] o`¼%] grk'o%] egkcy%] irxlÙke%] HkXu/Uok] egkx`èkz%]
[kxkf/i%] Øks/ewfPZNr%] irxs'oj%] ljFk%] doph] 'kjh
;Fkk&
jko.k% tVk;q%
;qok o`¼%
---------------------- ----------------------
---------------------- ----------------------
---------------------- ----------------------
---------------------- ----------------------
---------------------- ----------------------
---------------------- ----------------------
tVk;ks% 'kkS;Ze~ 75

4- lfU/a@lfU/foPNsna ok oqQ#r&
;Fkk& p $ vknk; ¾ pknk;
(d) gr $ v'o% ¾ --------------
([k) rq.Msu $ vL; ¾ --------------
(x) -------------- $ -------------- ¾ cHk×tkL;
(?k) -------------- $ -------------- ¾ vÄïsuknk;
(Ä) -------------- $ -------------- ¾ [kxkf/i%
5- ^d* LrEHks fyf[krkuka inkuka i;kZ;k% ^[k* LrEHks fyf[krk%A rku~ ;Fkkle{ka ;kst;r&
d [k
doph virr~
vk'kq if{kJs"B%
fojFk% i`fFkO;ke~
iikr dop/kjh
Hkqfo 'kh?kze~
irxlÙke% jFkfoghu%
6- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka@foykseinkfu e×tw"kk;ka nÙks"kq ins"kq fpRok ;Fkkle{ka fy[kr&
eUne~ iq.;deZ.kk glUrh vuk;Z vufrØE;
iznk; nsosUnzs.k iz'kalsr~ nf{k.ksu ;qok
inkfu foykse'kCnk%
(d) foyiUrh -----------------
([k) vk;Z -----------------
(x) jk{klsUnzs.k -----------------
(?k) ikideZ.kk -----------------
(Ä) f{kize~ -----------------
(p) foxgZ;sr~ -----------------
(N) o`¼% -----------------
(t) vknk; -----------------
(>) okesu -----------------
(×k) vfrØE; -----------------
76 'kseq"kh
7- (d) v/ksfyf[krkfu fo'ks"k.kinkfu iz;qT; laLÑrokD;kfu jp;r&
(i) 'kqHkke~ ----------------- (iv) [kxkf/i% -----------------
(ii) grlkjfFk% ----------------- (v) okesu -----------------
(iii) doph -----------------
([k) mnkgj.keuql`R; leLra ina jp;r&
;Fkk& =k;k.kka yksdkuka lekgkj% & f=kyksdh
(i) i×pkuka oVkuka lekgkj% & ------------------------
(ii) lIRkkuka inkuka lekgkj% & ------------------------
(iii) v"Vkuka Hkqtkuka lekgkj% & ------------------------
(iv) prq.kk± eq[kkuka lekgkj% & ------------------------

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
(d) dfo ifjp;
egf"kZ okYehfd vkfndkO; jkek;.k osQ jpf;rk gaSA dgk tkrk gS fd okYehfd dk ân;]
,d O;k/ }kjk ØhMkjr ØkS×p;qxy (if{k;ksa osQ tksM+s) esa ls ,d osQ ekj fn;s tkus ij
mldh lgpjh osQ foyki dks lqudj nzfor gks x;k rFkk muosQ eq[k ls 'kki osQ :i esa
tks ok.kh fudyh og 'yksd osQ :i esa FkhA ogh 'yksd ykSfdd laLÑr dk vkfn'yksd
ekuk tkrk gS&
ek fu"kkn izfr"Bka Roexe% 'kk'orh% lek%A
;RØkS×pfeFkquknsdeo/h% dkeeksfgre~AA
([k) Hkko foLrkj
tVk;q&lw;Z osQ lkjFkh v#.k osQ nks iq=k Fks&lEikrh vkSj tVk;qA tVk;q i×poVh ou osQ
if{k;ksa dk jktk Fkk tgk¡ vius ijkØe ,oa cqf¼dkS'ky ls 'kklu djrk FkkA i×poVh esa
jko.k }kjk vigj.k dh x;h lhrk osQ foyki dks lqudj tVk;q us lhrk dh j{kk osQ fy,
jko.k osQ lkFk ;q¼ fd;k vkSj ohjxfr ikbZA bl izdkj jkt&/eZ dh j{kk esa vius izk.kksa dk
mRlxZ djus okys tVk;q dks Hkkjrh; laLÑfr dk egku~ uk;d ekuk tkrk gSA
(x) lhrk fo"k;d lwpuk nsrs gq, tVk;q us jke ls tks opu dgs os bl izdkj gSa&
;keks " k/hfeok;q " eÂUos " kfl egkous A
lk p nsoh ee izk.kk% jko.ksuksHk;a âre~AA
tVk;ks% 'kkS;Ze~ 77

Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%
(?k) okD; iz;ksx
z fxje~ & Nk=k% e/qjka fxje~ mokpA
z irxs'oj% & if{kjkt% tVk;q% irxs'oj% vfi dF;rsA
z 'kjh & 'kjh jko.k% fu%'kL=ks.k tVk;quk vkØkUr%A
z fo/w; & ohj% 'k=kqizgkjku~ fo/w; vxzs vxPNr~A
z oz.kku~ & fpfdRld% vkS"k/su oz.kku~ fojksfirku~ vdjksr~A
z iikr & o`{k% dqBkjs.k fNUu% lu~ HkwekS iikrA
z rq.Msu & 'kqdk% rq.Msu r.Mqyku~ [kknfUrA
z O;ikgjr~ & tVk;q% jko.kL; ckgwu~ O;ikgjr~A
z vk'kq & Lodk;Ze~ vk'kq lEikn;A
z vfHkt?kku & jke% ous vusdku~ jk{klku~ vfHkt?kkuA
(Ä) L=khizR;;&
Vki~ izR;;&d#.kk] nqf[krk] 'kqHkk] fuEuk] j{k.kh;k
Ähi~ izR;;&foyiUrh] ;'kfLouh] oSnsgh] deyi=kk{kh
fr izR;;&;qofr%
iafq YyÄõ 'kCnksa ls L=khfyÄõ in fuekZ.k esa Vki~&Ähi~&fr izR;; iz;qDr gksrs gSaA Vki~ izR;;
dk ^vk* rFkk Ähi~ izR;; dk ^bZ* 'ks"k jgrk gSA
;Fkk&
z ew"kd $ Vki~ ¾ ewf"kdk
z ckyd $ Vki~ ¾ ckfydk
z v'o $ Vki~ ¾ v'ok
z oRl $ Vki~ ¾ oRlk
z glu~ $ Ähi~ ¾ glUrh
z ekuq"k% $ Ähi~ ¾ ekuq"kh
z ekfuu~ $ Ähi~ ¾ ekfuuh
z jktu~ $ Ähi~ ¾ jkKh
,dkn'k% ikB%
i;kZoj.ke~
izLrqr ikB~;ka'k i;kZoj.k dks è;ku esa j[kdj fy[kk x;k ,d y?kq fucUèk gSA orZeku ;qx esa iznwf"kr
okrkoj.k ekuo&thou osQ fy, Hk;Äjï vfHk'kki cu x;k gSA ufn;ksa dk ty dyqf"kr gks jgk gS]
ou o`{kksa ls jfgr gks jgs gSa] feV~Vh dk dVko c<+us ls ck<+ dh leL;k,¡ c<+rh tk jgh gSaA
dy&dkj[kkuksa vkSj okguksa osQ /q,¡ ls ok;q fo"kSyh gks jgh gSA oU;&izkf.k;ksa dh tkfr;k¡ Hkh u"V
gks jgh gSaA oSKkfudksa osQ vuqlkj o`{kksa ,oa ouLifr;ksa osQ vHkko esa euq";ksa osQ fy, thfor jguk
vlEHko izrhr gksrk gSA i=k] iq"i] iQy] dk"B] Nk;k ,oa vkS"kf/ iznku djus okys ikniksa ,oa o`{kksa
dh mi;ksfxrk orZeku le; esa iwokZis{k;k vf/d gSA ,slh ifjfLFkfr esa gekjk drZO; gS fd ge
i;kZoj.k osQ laj{k.kkFkZ mik; djsaA o`{kksa osQ jksi.k] unh&ty dh LoPNrk] mQtkZ osQ laj{k.k] okih]
owQi] rM+kx] m|ku vkfn osQ fuekZ.k vkSj mudks LoPN j[kus esa iz;Ru'khy gksa rkfd thou lq[ke;
,oa minzo jfgr gks losQA

izÑfr% les"kka izkf.kuka laj{k.kk; ;rrsA b;a lokZu~ iq".kkfr fofoèkS%S izdkjS%] riZ;fr p
lq[klk/uS%A i`fFkoh] tya] rstks] ok;q%] vkdk'k'pkL;k% ize[q kkfu rÙokfuA rkU;so
fefyRok i`FkDr;k ok¿Lekda i;kZoj.ka jp;fUrA vkfoz;rs ifjr% leUrkr~ yksdks¿usus fs r
i;kZoj.ke~A ;Fkk¿tkrf''k'kq% ekr`xHksZ lqjf{krfLr"Bfr rFkSo ekuo% i;kZoj.koqQ{kkSA ifj"Ñra
izn"w k.kjfgra p i;kZoj.keLeH;a lkalkfjoaQ thoulq[ka] lf}pkja] lR;lÄYï ia ekÄfõ ydlkexzh×p
iznnkfrA izÑfrdksi%S vkrfÄïrks tu% fda drq± izHkofr\ tyIykouS%] vfXuHk;S%] HkwdEiS%]
okR;kpozQS %] mYdkikrkfnfHk'p lUrIrL; ekuoL; Do eÄõye~\
vr,o izÑfrjLekfHk% j{k.kh;kA rsu p i;kZoj.ka jf{kra Hkfo";frA izkphudkys
yksdeÄõyk'kaflu Í"k;ks ous fuolfUr LeA ;rks fg ous ,o lqjf{kra i;kZoj.keqiyH;rs
LeA fofo/k fogxk% dyowQftrSLr=k Jks=kjlk;ua nnfrA
i;kZoj.ke~ 79

lfjrks fxfjfu>Zjk'p ve`rLoknq fueZya tya iz;PNfUrA o`{kk yrk'p iQykfu


iq"ikf.k bU/udk"Bkfu p ckgqY;su leqigjfUrA 'khryeUnlqxU/ouiouk vkS"kèkdYia
izk.kok;aq forjfUrA

ijUrq LokFkkZU/ks ekuoLrnso i;kZoj.ke| uk'k;frA LoYiykHkk; tuk cgqeYw ;kfu


oLrwfu uk'k;fUrA ;U=kkxkjk.kka fo"kkDra tya u|ka fuikR;rs ;su eRL;knhuka typjk.kka p
{k.ksuoS uk'kks tk;rsA unhtyefi rRloZFkk¿is;a tk;rsA ouo`{kk fufoZod
s a fN|Urs O;kikjoèkZuk;]
;su vo`f"V% izo/Zr]s oui'ko'p 'kj.kjfgrk xzkes"kq minzoa fon/frA 'kq¼ok;qjfi o`{kdrZukr~
lÄïVkiUuks tkr%A ,oa fg LokFkkZU/ekuoSfoZÑfreqixrk izÑfrjso rs"kka fouk'kd=khZ l×tkrkA
i;kZoj.ks foÑfreqixrs tk;Urs fofo/k jksxk Hkh"k.kleL;k'pA rRloZfenkuha fpUruh;a
izfrHkkfrA
/eksZ j{kfr jf{kr% bR;k"kZopue~A i;kZoj.kj{k.kefi èkeZL;SokÄõfefr Í"k;%
izfrikfnroUr%A rr ,o okihowQirMkxkfnfuekZ.ka nsok;rufoJkex`gkfnLFkkiu×p
80 'kseq"kh
èkeZfl¼s% Ïksrks:is.kkÄhõ Ñre~A oqQDoqQjlwdjliZuoqQykfnLFkypjk] eRL;dPNiedjizHk`r;ks
typjk'pkfi j{k.kh;k%] ;rLrs LFkyeykiuksfnuks tyeykigkfj.k'pA izÑfrj{k;So lEHkofr
yksdj{ksfr u la'k;%A

'kCnkFkkZ%
iq".kkfr iks"k.ka djksfr iq"V djrk gS
vtkr% f'k'kq% vuqRiUutkrd% vtUek f'k'kq
oqQ{kkS xHksZ xHkZ esa
tyIykouS% tykS?kS% ck<+ ls
okR;kpoSzQ% okrpoSQz % vk¡/h] coaMj
yksdeÄõyk'kaflu% lektdY;k.kdkek% turk osQ dY;k.k dks pkgus okys
Jks=kjlk;ue~ d.kkZe`re~ dku dks vPNk yxus okyk
fxfjfu>Zjk% ioZrkuka izikrk% igkM+ksa ls fudyus okys >jus
;U=kkxkjk.kke~ ;U=kky;kuke~ dkj[kkuksa osQ
vis;e~ ikrqe~ v;ksX;e~ u ihus ;ksX;
o`{kdrZukr~ o`{kk.kke~ mPNsnkr~ isM+ksa osQ dkVus ls
nsok;rue~ nsoky;%] efUnje~ efUnj
LFkyeykiuksfnu% Hkwfeeykilkfj.k% Hkwfe dh xUnxh dks nwj djus okys

vH;kl%

1- vèkksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k laLd`rHkk"k;k fy[kr&


(d) izd`rs% izeq[krÙokfu dkfu lfUr\
([k) LokFkkZU/% ekuo% ¯d djksfr\
(x) i;kZoj.ks fod`rs tkrs ¯d Hkofr\
(?k) vLekfHk% i;kZoj.kL; j{kk dFka dj.kh;k\
(Ä) yksdj{kk dFka laHkofr\
(p) ifj"o`Qra i;kZoj.ke~ vLeH;a ¯d ¯d nnkfr\
i;kZoj.ke~ 81

2- LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) ouo`{kk% fufoZosda fN|UrsA
([k) o`{kdrZukr~ 'kq¼ok;q% u izkI;rsA
(x) izd`fr% thoulq[ka iznnkfrA
(?k) vtkrf''k'kq% ekr`xHksZ lqjf{kr% fr"BfrA
(Ä) i;kZoj.kj{k.ka /eZL; vÄõe~ vfLrA
3- mnkgj.keuql`R; injpuka oqQ#r&
(d) ;Fkk& tys pjfUr bfr & typjk%
LFkys pjfUr bfr & -----------------------
fu'kk;ka pjfUr bfr & -----------------------
O;ksfEu pjfUr bfr & -----------------------
fxjkS pjfUr bfr & -----------------------
HkwekS pjfUr bfr & -----------------------
([k) ;Fkk& u is;e~ bfr & vis;e~
u o`f"V bfr & -----------------------
u lq[ke~ bfr & -----------------------
u Hkko% bfr & -----------------------
u iw.kZ% bfr & -----------------------
4- mnkgj.keuql`R; infuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
;Fkk&fo $ o`Q $ fDru~ ¾ foÑfr%
(d) iz $ xe~ $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
([k) n`'k~ $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
(x) xe~ $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
(?k) eu~ $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
(Ä) 'ke~ $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
(p) Hkh $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
(N) tu~ $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
(t) Hkt~ $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
(>) uh $ fDru~ ¾ -----------------------
82 'kseq"kh
5- funsZ'kkuqlkja ifjorZ;r&
;Fkk&LokFkkZU/ks ekuo% v| i;kZoj.ka uk'k;fr (cgqopus)A
LokFkkZU/k% ekuok% v| i;kZoj.ka uk'k;fUrA
(d) lUrIrL; ekuoL; eÄõya oqQr%\ (cgqopus)
([k) ekuok% i;kZoj.koqQ{kkS lqjf{krk% HkofUrA (,dopus)
(x) ouo`{kk% fufoZosda fN|UrsA (,dopus)
(?k) fxfjfu>Zjk% fueZya tya iz;PNfUrA (f}opus)
(Ä) lfjr~ fueZya tya iz;PNfrA (cgqopus)
6- i;kZoj.kj{k.kk; HkoUr% fda dfj";fUr bfr fo"k;s i×p okD;kfu fy[krA
;Fkk& vga fo"kkDre~ vodja unh"kq u ikrf;";kfeA
(d) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
([k) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(x) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(?k) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(Ä) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7- (d) mnkgj.keuql`R; milxkZu~ i`FkDÑRok fy[kr&
;Fkk& laj{k.kk; & le~
(i) izHkofr & ----------------------
(ii) miyH;rs & ----------------------
(iii) fuolfUr & ----------------------
(iv) leqigjfUr & ----------------------
(v) forjfUr & ----------------------
(vi) iz;PNfUr & ----------------------
(vii) mixrk & ----------------------
(viii) izfrHkkfr & ----------------------
i;kZoj.ke~ 83

([k) mnkgj.keuql`R; v/ksfyf[krkuka leLrinkukaa foxzga fy[kr&


;Fkk& rstksok;q% & rst% ok;q% pA
fxfjfu>ZZjk% & fxj;% fu>Zjk% pA
(i) i=kiq"is & ----------------------
(ii) yrko`{kkS & ----------------------
(iii) i'kqi{kh & ----------------------
(iv) dhVirÄkõ S & ----------------------

ifj;kstukdk;Ze~
(d) fo|ky;izkÄõ.ks fLFkrL; m|kuL; o`{kk% iknik'p dFka lqjf{krk% L;q% rnFk± iz;Ru%
dj.kh;% bfr lIrokD;s"kq fy[krA
([k) vfHkHkkodL; f'k{kdL; ok lg;ksxsu ,dL; o`{kL; vkjksi.ka dj.kh;e~A (;fn LFkkue~
vfLrA) rfgZ fo|ky;&izkÄõ.ks] ukfLr psr~ LofLeu~ izfros'ks] x`gs okA) Ñra lo±
nSufUnU;ka fyf[kRok f'k{koaQ n'kZ;rA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
(d) fPo izR;; dk iz;ksx &
vHkwrrn~Hkkos fPo & tks oLrq igys u gks mlosQ gks tkus esa fPo izR;; dk iz;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSA fPo izR;; dk iz;ksx osQoy Hkw rFkk o`Q /krqvksa osQ lkFk gksrk gSA 'kCn
osQ vfUre Loj dk ^bZ* gks tkrk gSA
;Fkk& vÄhõ Ñre~ & vuÄLõ ; (vLoho`QrL;) vÄaõ Ñre~ vÄhõ o`Qre~ (Loho`Qre~)
Ñ".khfØ;rs & vÑ".kL; Ñ".k% fØ;rs
czãhHkofr & vczã.k% czã Hkofr
nzohfØ;rs & vnzoL; nzo% fØ;rs
([k) fuEufyf[kr 'kCn;qXeksa osQ Hksn ns[kus ;ksX; gSa&
lÄïYi% & lRlÄïYi%
vkpkj% & lnkpkj%
tu% & lTtu%
lÄõfr% & lRlÄõfr%
efr% & lUefr%
84 'kseq"kh
(x) vk"kZopu & ½f"k osQ }kjk dgk x;k opu ^vk"kZopu* dgykrk gSA
(?k) i×prÙo & i`Foh] ty] vfXu] ok;q vkSj vkdk'kA bu ik¡p rÙoksa ls gh ;g 'kjhj
curk gSA
lekukUrj 'yksd o lwfDr;k¡
i;kZoj.k ls lEcfU/r fuEu mfDr;k¡ ,oa 'yksd i<+us ;ksX; rFkk ;kn djus ;ksX; gSa&
z gekjh laLÑfr esa o`{k oUnuh; gSa blfy, o`{kksa dks dkVuk] m[kkM+uk oftZr gSA
n'kowQilek okih n'kokihleks ßn%A
n'kßnle% iq=kks n'kiq=kleks nzqe%AA (eRL;iqjk.ke~)
z rqylh dk ikS/k Hkkjrh; laLd`fr dk ,d egRo iw.kZ vÄõ gSA u osQoy èkkfeZd vfirq
fpfdRlk dh n`f"V ls Hkh ;g j{kk djus ;ksX; gSA blhfy, ?kj osQ vk¡xu esa blosQ jksi.k
dk egÙo gSA iqjk.k vkSj oS|d xzUFkksa osQ vuqlkj rqylh dk ikSèkk ok;qiznw"k.k dks nwj
djrk gSA dgk x;k gS&
^rqylh* dkuus pSo x`gs ;L;kofr"BrsA
rn~x`ga rhFkZfeR;kgq% uk;kfUr ;efdÄïjk%AA
rqylhxU/eknk; ;=k xPNfr ek#r%A
fn'kks n'k iqukR;k'kq Hkwrxzkeka'prqfoZ/ku~AA (i|ksÙkj[k.Me~)
z rqylh dk jl rhozToj dks u"V djrk gSA dgk x;k gS&
ihrks ejhfppw.ksZu rqylhi=ktks jl%A
nzks.kiq"ijlksI;soa fugfUr fo"kea Toje~AA ('kkÄ~xZ/j)
z o`{kkjksi.k dk egÙo&
rkj;sn~ o`{kjksih rq rLekn~ o`{kku~ izjksi;sr~A
rL; iq=kk HkoUR;so iknik uk=k 'kal;%AA
}kn'k% ikB%
okÄ~eu%izk.kLo:ie~
izLrqr ikB NkUnksX;ksifu"kn~ osQ NBs vè;k; osQ i×pe [k.M ij vkèkkfjr gSA blesa eu] izk.k
rFkk oko~Q (ok.kh) osQ lanHkZ esa jkspd fooj.k izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA mifu"kn~ osQ xw<+ izlax dks
cksèkxE; cukus osQ mís'; ls bls vk#f.k ,oa 'osrosQrq osQ laokn:i esa izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA
vk"kZ&ijaijk esa Kku&izkfIr osQ rhu mik; crk, x, gSa ftuesa ifjiz'u Hkh ,d gSA ;gk¡
xq#lsokijk;.k f'k"; ok.kh] eu rFkk izk.k osQ fo"k; esa iz'u iwNrk gS vkSj vkpk;Z mu iz'uksa
osQ mÙkj nsrs gSaA

'osrosQrq% & Hkxou~! 'osrosQrqjga


oUnsA
vk#f.k% & oRl! fpj×thoA
'osrosQrq% & Hkxou~!
fdf×pRiz"VqfePNkfeA
vk#f.k% & oRl! fde| Ro;k
iz"VO;efLr\
'osrosQrq% & Hkxou~! iz"VqfePNkfe
fdfena eu%\
vk#f.k% & oRl! vf'krL;kUuL;
;ks¿f.k"B% rUeu%A
'osrosQrq% & d'p izk.k%\
vk#f.k% & ihrkuke~ vika
;ks¿f.k"B% l izk.k%A
'osrosQrq% & Hkxou~! osQ;a oko~Q\
86 'kseq"kh
vk#f.k% & oRl! vf'krL; rstlk ;ks¿f.k"B% lk okd~A lkSE;! eu% vUue;a] izk.k%
vkikse;% oko~Q p rstkse;h Hkofr bR;I;o/k;Ze~A
'osrosQrq% & Hkxou~! Hkw; ,o eka foKki;rqA
vk#f.k% & lkSE;! lko/kua Ük`.kqA eF;ekuL; nèu% ;ks¿f.kek] l mQèoZ% leqnh"kfrA
rRlfiZ% HkofrA
'osrosQrq% & Hkxou~! O;k[;kra Hkork ?k`rksRifÙkjgL;e~A Hkw;ks¿fi JksrqfePNkfeA
vk#f.k% & ,oeso lkSE;! v';ekuL; vUuL; ;ks¿f.kek] l mQèoZ% leqnh"kfrA
rUeuks HkofrA voxra u ok\
'osrosQrq% & lE;xoxra Hkxou~!
vk#f.k% & oRl! ih;ekukuke~ vika ;ks¿f.kek l mQèoZ% leqnh"kfr l ,o izk.kks
HkofrA
'osrosQrq% & Hkxou~! okpefi foKki;rqA
vk#f.k% & lkSE;! v';ekuL; rstlks ;kss¿f.kek] l mQèoZ% leqnh"kfrA lk [kyq
okXHkofrA oRl! mins'kkUrs Hkw;ks¿fi Roka foKkif;rqfePNkfe ;nUue;a
Hkofr eu%] vkikse;ks Hkofr izk.kkLrstkse;h p Hkofr okfxfrA fd×p
;kn`'keUukfnda x`Êkfr ekuoLrkn`'keso rL; fpÙkkfnda Hkorhfr enqins'klkj%A
oRl! ,rRlo± ân;su vo/kj;A
'osrosQrq% & ;nkKki;fr Hkxou~A ,"k iz.kekfeA
vk#f.k% & oRl! fpj×thoA rstfLo ukS v/hre~ vLrqA

'kCnkFkkZ%
iz"Vqe~ iz'ua drqZe~ iz'u djus@iwNus osQ fy,
iz"VO;e~ iz"Vqa ;ksX;e~ iwNus ;ksX;
vf'krL; Hkf{krL; [kk;s gq, dk
vf.k"B% yf?k"B%] y?kqre% vR;Ur y?kq vFkok lokZf/d y?kq
vUue;e~ vUufodkjHkwre~ vUu ls fufeZr
okÄ~eu%izk.kLo:ie~ 87

vkikse;% tye;% ty esa ifj.kr


rstkse;% vfXue;% vfXu dk ifj.kkeHkwr
vo/k;Ze~ voxUrO;e~ le>us ;ksX;
foKki;rq izcks/;r le>kb;s
Hkw;ks¿fi iqujfi ,d ckj vkSj
leqnh"kfr leqfÙk"Bfr] leq|kfr] mQij mBrk gS
leqPNyfr
lfiZ% ?k`re~] vkT;e~ ?kh
v';ekuL; Hk{;ek.kL;] fuxh;Zek.kL; [kk;s tkrs gq, dk
mins'kkUrs izopukUrs O;k[;ku osQ vUr esa
rstfLo rstks;qDre~ rstfLork ls ;qDr
ukS v/hre~ vko;ks%ifBre~ ge nksuksa }kjk i<k gqvk

vH;kl%
1- vèkksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) 'osrosQrq% loZizFkee~ vk#f.ka dL; Lo:iL; fo"k;s i`PNfr\
([k) vk#f.k% izk.kLo:ia dFka fu:i;fr\
(x) ekuokuka psrkafl dhn`'kkfu HkofUr\
(?k) lfiZ% ¯d Hkofr\
(Ä) vk#.ks% erkuqlkja eu% dhn`'kaa Hkofr\
2- (d) ^v* LrEHkL; inkfu ^c* LrEHksu nRrS% inS% lg ;Fkk;ksX;a ;kst;r&
v c
eu% vUue;e~
izk.k% rstkse;h
oko~Q vkikse;%
([k) v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka foykseina ikBkr~ fpRok fy[kr&
(i) xfj"B% ----------------------------
(ii) v/% ----------------------------
(iii) ,dokje~ ----------------------------
88 'kseq"kh
(iv) vuo/hre~ ----------------------------
(v) fdf×pr~ ----------------------------

3- mnkgj.keuql`R; fuEufyf[krs"kq fØ;kinss"kq ^rqequ~* izR;;a ;kstf;Rok infuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


;Fkk& izPN~ $ rqequ~ ¾ iz"Vqe~
(d) Ükzq $ rqequ~ ¾ -----------------------------
([k) oUn~ $ rqequ~ ¾ -----------------------------
(x) iB~ $ rqequ~ ¾ -----------------------------
(?k) Ñ $ rqequ~ ¾ -----------------------------
(Ä) fo $ Kk $ rqequ~ ¾ -----------------------------
(p) fo $ vk $ [;k $ rqequ~ ¾ -----------------------------
4- funsZ'kkuqlkja fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) vga fdf×pr~ iz"Vqe~ -----------------A (bPN~ & yV~ydkjs)
([k) eu% vUue;a -----------------------A (Hkw & yV~ydkjs)
(x) lko/kua -----------------A (Jq & yksV~ydkjs)
(?k) rstfLouko/hre~ -----------------A (vl~ & yksV~ydkjs)
(Ä) 'osrosQrq% vk#.ks% f'k";% -----------------A (vl~ & yÄ~ydkjs)
5- mnkgj.keuql`R; okD;kfu jp;r&
;Fkk& vga Lons'ka lsforqe~ bPNkfeA
(d) ----------------------------------------- mifn'kkfeA
([k) ----------------------------------------- iz.kekfeA
(x) ----------------------------------------- vkKki;kfeA
(?k) ----------------------------------------- i`PNkfeA
(Ä) ----------------------------------------- voxPNkfeA
6- (d) lfU/a oqQ#r&
(i) vf'krL; $ vÂL; ¾ ---------------------------
(ii) bfr $ vfi $ vo/k;Ze~ ¾ ---------------------------
(iii) dk $ b;e~ ¾ ---------------------------
(iv) ukS $ v/hre~ ¾ ---------------------------
(v) Hkofr $ bfr ¾ ---------------------------
okÄ~eu%izk.kLo:ie~ 89

([k) LFkwyinkU;f/ÑR; iz'ufuekZ.ka dq#r&


(i) eF;ekuL; nèu% vf.kek mQ?o± leqnh"kfrA
(ii) Hkork ?k`rksRifÙkjgL;a O;k[;kre~A
(iii) vk#f.ke~~ mixE; 'osrosQrq% vfHkokn;frA
(iv) 'osrosQrq% okfXo"k;s i`PNfrA
7- ikBL; lkjka'ka i×pokD;S% fy[krA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
xzUFk ifjp;& NkUnksX;ksifu"kn~ mifu"kRlkfgR; dk izkphu ,oa izfl¼ xzUFk gSA ;g lkeosn osQ
mifu"kn~ czkã.k dk eq[; Hkkx gSA bldh o.kZu i¼fr vR;f/d oSKkfud vkSj ;qfDrlaxr gSA
blesa vkReKku osQ lkFk&lkFk mi;ksxh dk;ks± vkSj miklukvksa dk lE;o~Q o.kZu gqvk gSA
NkUnksX;ksifu"kn~ vkB vè;k;ksa esa foHkDr gSA blosQ NBs vè;k; esa ^rÙoefl* dk foLrkj ls
foospu izkIr gksrk gSA

HkkofoLrkj%
vk#f.k vius iq=k 'osrosQrq dks mins'k nsrs gSa fd [kk;k gqvk vUu rhu izdkj dk gksrk gSA mldk
fLFkjre Hkkx ey gksrk gS] eè;e ekal gksrk gS] vkSj lcls y?kqre eu gksrk gSA fi;k gqvk ty
Hkh rhu izdkj dk gksrk gS& mldk LFkfo"B Hkkx ew=k gksrk gS] eè;Hkkx yksfgr (jDr) gksrk gS
vkSj vf.k"B Hkkx izk.k gksrk gSA Hkkstu ls izkIr rst Hkh rhu rjg dk gksrk gS & mldk LFkfo"B
Hkkx vfLFk gksrk gS] eè;e Hkkx eTtk (pchZ) gksrh gS vkSj tks y?kqre Hkkx gS og ok.kh gksrh gSA
tks [kk;k tkrk gS og vUu gSA vUu gh fuf'pr :i ls eu gSA U;k; vkSj lR; ls vftZr
fd;k gqvk vUu lkfRod gksrk gSA mls [kkus ls eu Hkh lkfRod gksrk gSA nwf"kr Hkkouk vkSj vU;k;
ls vftZr vUu rkel gksrk gSA dF; dk lkjka'k ;g gS fd lkfRod Hkkstu ls eu lkfRod gksrk
gSA jktlh Hkkstu ls eu jktl gksrk gS vkSj rkel Hkkstu ls eu dh izof` Ùk Hkh rkelh gks tkrh gSA
bl lalkj esa ty gh thou gS] vkSj izk.k tye; gksrk gSA rSy (rsy)] ?k`r vkfn osQ Hk{k.k
ls ok.kh fo'kn gksrh gS vkSj Hkk"k.kkfn dk;ks± esa lkeF;Z dh o`f¼ djrh gSA blfy, ok.kh dks
rstkse;h dgk tkrk gSA
NkUnksX;ksifu"kn~ osQ vuqlkj eu vUue; gS] izk.k tye; gS vkSj ok.kh rstkse;h gSA
90 'kseq"kh
Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%
1- e;V~ izR;; izkpq;Z osQ vFkZ esa iz;qDr gksrk gSA
;Fkk& iqafYyÄõ L=khfyÄõ
'kkfUr $ e;V~ 'kkfUre;% 'kkfUre;h
vkuUn $ e;V~ vkuUne;% vkuUne;h
lq[k $ e;V~ lq[ke;% lq[ke;h
rst% $ e;V~ rstkse;% rstkse;h
2- e;V~ izR;; dk iz;ksx fodkj vFkZ esa Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA
;Fkk& iqafYyÄõ L=khfyÄõ
e`r~ $ e;V~ e`.e;% e`.e;h
Lo.kZ $ e;V~ Lo.kZe;% Lo.kZe;h
ykSg $ e;V~ ykSge;% ykSge;h
3- ty dks thou dgk x;k gSA ^^tho;fr yksdku~ tye~** ;g i×pHkwrksa osQ vUrxZr
Hkwrfo'ks"k gSA blosQ i;kZ;okph 'kCn gSa&
okfj] ikuh;e~] mnde~] mne~] lfyye~] rks;e~] uhje~] vEcq] vEHkl~] i;l~ vkfnA
ty dh mi;ksfxrk osQ fo"k; esa fuEufyf[kr 'yksd nz"VO; gS&
ikuh;a izkf.kuka izk.kLrnk;Roaa fg thoue~A
rks;kHkkos fiiklkrZ% {k.kkr~ izk.kS% foeqqP;rsAA
4- eul~ (uiqald fyÄ)õ 'kCn dk :i
iz- eu% eulh eukafl
f} ** ** **
r`- eulk euksH;ke~ euksfHk%
p- euls ** euksH;%
ia- eul% ** **
"k- ** eulks% eulke~
l- eufl ** euLlq
lEcks/u gs eu%! gs eulh! gs eukafl!
z vEHkl~] i;l~] ;'kl~] rstl~] uHkl~] vkfn 'kCnksa osQ :i Hkh eul~ dh rjg gksrs gSaA

vè;srO;% xzUFk%&
mifu"knksa dh dgkfu;k¡& MkW- Hkxoku¯lg] us'kuy cqd VªLV] ubZ fnYyhA
xv

fo"k;kuqØef.kdk

iqjksoko~Q v
Hkwfedk ix
eÄõye~ 1
izFke% ikB% 'kqfpi;kZoj.ke~ 3
f}rh;% ikB% xq.korh dU;k 13
r`rh;% ikB% f'k'kqykyue~ 21
prqFkZ% ikB% O;k;ke% loZnk iF;% 31
i×pe% ikB% cqf¼cZyorh lnk 39
"k"B% ikB% lqHkkf"krkfu 48
lIre% ikB% HkwdEifoHkhf"kdk 56
v"Ve% ikB% iz'u=k;e~ 64
uoe% ikB% izk.ksH;ks¿fi fiz;% lqân~ 73
n'ke% ikB% vU;ksDr;% 82
,dkn'k% ikB% fofp=k% lk{kh 90
}kn'k% ikB% thoua foHkoa fouk 99
eÄõye~
˙ rPp{kqnsZofgra iqjLrkPNqØeqPpjr~ A
i';s e 'kjn% 'kra thos e 'kjn% 'kre~ A
Ük`.kq;ke 'kjn% 'kra izczoke 'kjn% 'kre~ A
vnhuk% L;ke 'kjn% 'kre~A Hkw;'p 'kjn% 'krkr~ AA1AA
(;tqosZn 36-24)
vk uks Hknzk% Øroks ;Urq fo'orks&
¿nC/klks vijhrkl mn~fHkn% A
nsok uks ;Fkk lnfen~ o`/s¿lu~&
vizk;qoks jf{krkjks fnosfnos AA2AA
(½Xosn 1-89-1)

HkkokFkZ%
nsoksa }kjk fu:fir ;g 'kqDy o.kZ dk us=k :i (lw;Z) iwoZ fn'kk esa mQij mB pqdk
gSA ge lc lkS o"kks± rd ns[krs jgsa] lkS o"kks± rd thrs jgsaA lkS o"kks± rd lqurs jgsa]
lkS o"kks± rd 'kq¼ :i ls cksyrs jgsaA lkS o"kks± rd LokoyEch (vnhu) cus jgsaA vkSj
;g lc lkS o"kks± ls Hkh vf/d pyrk jgs AA1AA
gekjs ikl pkjksa vksj ls ,sls dY;k.kdkjh fopkj vkrs jgas tks fdlh ls u ncsa] mUgsa
dgha ls ckf/r u fd;k tk losQ (vijhrkl%) ,oe~ vKkr fo"k;ksa dks izdV djus
okys (mn~fHkn%) gksaA izxfr dks u jksdus okys (vizk;qo%) rFkk lnSo j{kk esa rRij
nsox.k izfrfnu gekjh o`f¼ osQ fy, rRij jgsa AA2AA
izFke ikB%

'kqfpi;kZoj.ke~
izLrqr ikB vk/qfud laLÑr dfo gfjnÙk 'kekZ osQ jpuk laxgz ^ylYyfrdk* ls ladfyr
gSA blesa dfo us egkuxjksa dh ;kaf=kd&cgqyrk ls c<+rs izn"w k.k ij fpUrk O;Dr djrs gq,
dgk gS fd ;g ykSgpØ ru&eu dk 'kks"kd gS] ftlls ok;qe.My vkSj Hkwe.My nksuksa
efyu gks jgs gSAa dfo egkuxjh; thou ls nwj] unh&fu>Zj] o`{klewg] yrkoqQ×t ,oa if{k;ksa
ls xqf×tr ouizn's kksa dh vksj pyus dh vfHkyk"kk O;Dr djrk gSA
nqoZge=k thfora tkra izÑfrjso 'kj.ke~A
'kqfp&i;kZoj.ke~AA
egkuxjeè;s pynfu'ka dkyk;lpØe~A
eu% 'kks"k;r~ ruq% is"k;n~ Hkzefr lnk oØe~AA
nqnkZUrSnZ'kuSjequk L;kUuSo tuxzlue~A 'kqfp---AA1AA

dTtyefyua /wea eq×pfr 'kr'kdVh;kue~A


ok"i;kuekyk la/kofr forjUrh èokue~AA
;kukuka iÄ~Dr;ks áuUrk% dfBua lalj.ke~A 'kqfp---AA2AA
4 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

ok;qe.Mya Hk`'ka nwf"kra u fg fueZya tye~A


oqQfRlroLrqfefJra Hk{;a leya /jkrye~AA
dj.kh;a cfgjUrtZxfr rq cgq 'kq¼hdj.ke~A 'kqfp---AA3AA
df×pr~ dkya u; ekeLekUuxjkn~ cgqnjw e~A
izi';kfe xzkekUrs fu>Zj&unh&i;%iwje~AA
,dkUrs dkUrkjs {k.kefi es L;kr~ l×pj.ke~A 'kqfp---AA4AA
gfjrr:.kka yfyryrkuka ekyk je.kh;kA
oqQlekofy% lehjpkfyrk L;kUes oj.kh;kAA
uoekfydk jlkya fefyrk #fpja laxeue~A 'kqfp---AA5AA

vf; py cU/ks! [kxoqQydyjo xqf×trouns'ke~A


iqj&dyjo lEHkzfertusH;ks /`rlq[klUns'ke~AA
pkdfpD;tkya uks oqQ;kZTthforjlgj.ke~A 'kqfp---AA6AA
izLrjrys yrkr#xqYek uks HkoUrq fi"Vk%A
ik"kk.kh lH;rk fulxsZ L;kUu lekfo"VkAA
ekuok; thoua dke;s uks thoUej.ke~A 'kqfp---AA7AA
'kqfpi;kZoj.ke~ 5

'kCnkFkkZ%
nqoZge~ & nq"dje~ & dfBu] nwHkj
thfore~ & thoue~ & thou
vfu'ke~ & vgfuZ'ke~ & fnu&jkr
dkyk;lpØe~ & ykSgpØe~ & yksgs dk pØ
'kks"k;r~ & 'kq"dhoqQoZr~ & lq[kkrs gq,
ruq% & 'kjhje~ & 'kjhj
is"k;n~ & fi"VhoqQoZr~ & ihlrs gq,
oØe~ & oqQfVye~ & Vs<+k
nqnkZUrS% & Hk;VjS% & Hk;kud (ls)
n'kuS% & nUrS% & nk¡rksa ls
vequk & vusu & blls
tuxzlue~ & tuHk{k.ke~ & ekuo fouk'k
dTtyefyue~ & dTtysu efyue~ & dkty&lk efyu (dkyk)
/we% & ok"i% & /qvk¡
eq×pfr & R;tfr & NksM+rk gS
'kr'kdVh;kue~ & 'kdVh;kukuka 'kre~ & lSdM+ksa eksVj xkfM+;k¡
ok"i;kuekyk & ok"i;kukuka iafDr% & jsyxkM+h dh iafDr
forjUrh & nnrh & nsrh gqbZ
èokue~ & èofue~ & dksykgy
lalj.ke~ & l×pyue~ & pyuk
Hk`'ka & vR;f/de~ & vR;f/d
Hk{;e~ & [kk|inkFkZ & HkksT; inkFkZ
leye~ & eysu ;qDre~ & ey;qDr] xUnxh ls ;qDr
xzkekUrs & xzkeL; lhek;ke~ (lhfEu) & xk¡o dh lhek ij
i;%iwje~ & tyk'k;e~ & ty ls Hkjk gqvk rkykc
6 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

dkUrkjs & ous & taxy esa


oqQlqekofy% & oqQlqekuka iafDr% & iwQyksa dh iafDr
lehjpkfyrk & ok;qpkfyrk & gok ls pyk;h gqbZ
jlkye~ & vkeze~ & vke
#fpje~ & lqUnje~ & lqUnj
[kxoqQydyjo & [kxoqQykuka dyjo% & if{k;ksa osQ lewg dh èofu
(if{klewgèofUk%)
pkdfpD;tkye~ & Ñf=kea izHkkoiw.k± txr~ & pdkpkSa/ Hkjh nqfu;k
izLrjrys & f'kykrys & iRFkjksa osQ ry ij
yrkr#xqYek% & yrk'p rjo'p xqYek'p & yrk] o`{k vkSj >kM+h
ik"kk.kh & ioZre;h & iFkjhyh
fulxsZ & izÑR;ke~ & izÑfr esa

vH;kl%
1- vèkksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) dfo% fdeFk± izo`Qrs% 'kj.ke~ bPNfr\
([k) dLekr~ dkj.kkr~ egkuxjs"kq lalj.ka dfBua orZrs\
(x) vLekoaQ i;kZoj.ks ¯d ¯d nwf"kre~ vfLr\
(?k) dfo% oqQ=k l×pj.ka dÙkqeZ ~ bPNfr\
(Ä) LoLFkthouk; dhn`'ks okrkoj.ks Hkze.kh;e~\
(p) vfUres i|ka'ks dos% dk dkeuk vfLr\

2- lfUèka@lfU/foPNsna oqQ#r&
(d) izÑfr% $ ------------------------ ¾ izÑfrjso
([k) L;kr~ $ -------- $ -------- ¾ L;kUuSOk
(x) --------- $ vuUrk% ¾ áuUrk%
'kqfpi;kZoj.ke~ 7

(?k) ofg% $ vUr% $ txfr ¾ ------------------------


(Ä) --------- $ uxjkr~ ¾ vLekUuxjkr~
(p) le~ $ pj.ke~ ¾ ------------------------
(N) /wee~ $ eq×pfr ¾ ------------------------

3- vèkksfyf[krkuke~ vO;;kuka lgk;r;k fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


Hk`'ke~] ;=k] r=k] v=k] vfi] ,o] lnk] cfg%
(d) bnkuha ok;qe.Mya ------------------ iznwf"krefLrA
([k) ------------------ thoua nqoZge~ vfLrA
(x) izkÑfrd&okrkoj.ks {k.ka l×pj.ke~ ------------------ ykHknk;oaQ HkofrA
(?k) i;kZoj.kL; laj{k.ke~ ------------------ izÑrs% vkjk/ukA
(Ä) ------------------ le;L; lnqi;ksx% dj.kh;%A
(p) HkwdfEir&le;s ------------------ xeueso mfpra HkofrA
(N) ------------------ gjhfrek ------------------ 'kqfp i;kZoj.ke~A

4- mnkgj.keuql`R; vèkksfyf[kr&ins"kq izÑfrizR;;foHkkxa@la;ksxa oqQ#r&


;Fkk&tkre~ ¾ tu~ $ Dr
(d) iz $ Ñ $ fDru~ ¾ ------------------
([k) fu $ l` $ Dr $ Vki~ ¾ ------------------
(x) ------------------ $ Dr ¾ nwf"kre~
(?k) ------------------ $ ------------------ ¾ dj.kh;e~
(Ä) ------------------ $ ;r~ ¾ Hk{;e~
(p) je~ $ -------------------- $ ------------------ ¾ je.kh;k
(N) --------------- $ --------------- $ --------------- ¾ oj.kh;k
(t) fi"k~ $ ------------------ ¾ fi"Vk%
8 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

5- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka i;kZ;ina fy[kr&


(d) lfyye~ ------------------
([k) vkeze~ ------------------
(x) oue~ ------------------
(?k) 'kjhje~ ------------------
(Ä) oqQfVye~ ------------------
(p) ik"kk.ke~ ------------------

6- mnkgj.keuql`R; ikBkr~ fpRok p leLrinkfu fy[kr&


;Fkk&foxzg inkfu leLrin lekluke
(d) eysu lfgre~ leye~ vO;;hHkko
([k) gfjrk% p ;s rjo% (rs"kka) ------------------ deZ/kj;
(x) yfyrk% p ;k% yrk% (rklke~) ------------------ deZ/kj;
(?k) uok ekfydk ------------------ deZ/kj;
(Ä) /`r% lq[klUns'k% ;su (re~) ------------------ cgqczhfg
(p) dTtye~ bo efyue~ ------------------ deZ/kj;
(N) nqnkZUrS% n'kuS% ------------------ deZ/kj;

7- js[kkfÄïr&inek/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) 'kdVh;kue~ dTtyefyua /wea eq×pfrA
([k) m|kus if{k.kka dyjoa psr% izlkn;frA
(x) ik"kk.khlH;rk;ka yrkr#xqYek% izLrjrys fi"Vk% lfUrA
(?k) egkuxjs"kq okgukuke~ vuUrk% iÄ~Dr;% /kofUrA
(Ä) izÑR;k% lfUu/kS okLrfooaQ lq[ka fo|rsA
'kqfpi;kZoj.ke~ 9

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
lekl & lelua lekl%
lekl dk 'kkfCnd vFkZ gksrk gS&la{ksiA nks ;k nks ls vf/d 'kCnksa osQ feyus ls tks
rhljk u;k vkSj laf{kIr :i curk gS og lekl dgykrk gSA lekl osQ eq[;r% pkj Hksn
gSμ
a
1- vO;;hHkko lekl 2- rRiq#"k
3- cgqczhfg 4- }U}
1- vO;;hHkko
bl lekl esa igyk in vO;; gksrk gS vkSj ogh izèkku gksrk gSA
;Fkk&fueZf{kde~ ef{kdk.kke~ vHkko%A
;gk¡ izFkein fuj~ gS vkSj f}rh;in ef{kde~ gSA ;gk¡ ef{kdk dh iz/kurk u gksdj ef{kdk
dk vHkko iz/ku gS] vr% ;gk¡ vO;;hHkko lekl gSA oqQN vU; mnkgj.k ns[ksa&
(i) mixzkee~ & xzkeL; lehis & (lehirk dh iz/kurk)
(ii) futZue~ & tukuke~ vHkko% & (vHkko dh iz/kurk)
(iii) vuqjFke~ & jFkL; i'pkr~ & (i'pkr~ dh iz/kurk)
(iv) izfrx`ge~ & x`ga x`ga izfr & (izR;sd dh izèkkurk)
(v) ;Fkk'kfDr & 'kfDre~ vufrØE; & (lhek dh izèkkurk)
(vi) lpØe~ & poszQ.k lfgre~ & (lfgr dh izèkkurk)
2- rRiq#"k & ^izk;s.k mÙkjiniz/ku% rRiq#"k%* bl lekl esa izk;% mÙkjin dh iz/kurk gksrh
gS vkSj iwoZ in mÙkjin osQ fo'ks"k.k dk dk;Z djrk gSA leLrin esa iwoZin dh foHkfDr
dk yksi gks tkrk gSA
;Fkk& jktiq#"k% vFkkZr~ jktk dk iq#"kA ;gka¡ jktk dh iz/kurk u gksdj iq#"k dh iz/kurk
gS] vkSj jktk 'kCn iq#"k osQ fo'ks"k.k dk dk;Z djrk gSA
(i) xzkexr% & xzkea xr%A
(ii) 'kj.kkxr% & 'kj.ke~ vkxr%A
(iii) ns'kHkDr% & ns'kL; HkDr%A
10 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(iv) ¯lgHkhr% & ¯lgkr~ Hkhr%A


(v) Hk;kiÂ% & Hk;e~ vkiÂ%A
(vi) gfj=kkr% & gfj.kk =kkr%A
rRiq#"k lekl osQ nks Hksn gSa&deZ/kj; vkSj f}xqA
(i) deZ/kj; & bl lekl esa ,d in fo'ks"; rFkk nwljk in igys in dk fo'ks"k.k gksrk gSA
;Fkk&
ihrkEcje~ & ihra p rr~ vEcje~A
egkiq#"k% & egku~ p vlkS iq#"k%A
dTtyefyue~ & dTtye~ bo efyue~A
uhydeye~ & uhya p rr~ deye~A
ehuu;ue~ & ehu bo u;ue~A
eq[kdeye~ & deye~ bo eq[ke~A
(ii) f}xq & ^la[;kiwoksZ f}xq%* bl lekl esa igyk in la[;kokph gksrk gS vkSj lekgkj
(vFkkZr~ ,d=khdj.k ;k lewg) vFkZ dh iz/kurk gksrh gSA
;Fkk& f=kHkqte~ & =k;k.kka Hkqtkuka lekgkj%A
blesa iwoZin ^f=k* la[;kokph gSA
iapik=ke~ & iapkuka ik=kk.kka lekgkj%A
iapoVh & iapkuka oVkuka lekgkj%A
lIrf"kZ% & lIrkuka ½"kh.kka lekgkj%A
prq;qZxe~ & prq.kk± ;qxkuka lekgkj%A

3- cgqczhfg & ^vU;iniz/ku% cgqczhfg%*


bl lekl esa iwoZ rFkk mÙkj inksa dh iz/kurk u gksdj fdlh vU; in dh iz/kurk gksrh
gSA
;Fkk&
ihrkEcj% & ihre~ vEcje~ ;L; l% (fo".kq%)A ;gk¡ u rks ihre~ 'kCn dh iz/kurk gS
vkSj u vEcje~ 'kCn dh vfirq ihrkEcj/kjh fdlh vU; O;fDr (fo".kq)
dh iz/kurk gSA
'kqfpi;kZoj.ke~ 11

uhyd.B% & uhy% d.B% ;L; l% (f'ko%)A


n'kkuu% & n'k vkuukfu ;L; l% (jko.k%)A
vusddksfVlkj% & vusddksfV% lkj% (/ue~) ;L; l%A
foxfyrle`f¼e~ & foxfyrk le`f¼% ;L; re~A
iz{kkfyrikne~ & iz{kkfyrkS iknkS ;L; re~A
4- }U} & ^mHk;iniz/ku% }U}%* bl lekl esa iwoZin vkSj mÙkjin nksauksa dh leku :i
ls izèkkurk gksrh gSA inksa osQ chp\ esa ^p* dk iz;ksx foxzg esa gksrk gSA

;Fkk&
jkey{e.kkS & jke'p y{e.k'pA
irjkS & ekrk p firk pA
/ekZFkZdkeeks{kk% & /eZ'p] vFkZ'p] dke'p] eks{k'pA
olUrxzh"ef'kf'kjk% & olUr'p xzh"e'p f'kf'kj'pA
dfoifjp; & izks- gfjnÙk 'kekZ lEizfr bykgkckn osQUnzh; fo'ofo|ky; esa laLÑr osQ vkpk;Z
gSaA buosQ dbZ laLÑr dkO; izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA tSls&xhroaQnfydk] f=kiFkxk] mRdfydk]
ckyxhrkyh] vkØUnue~] ylYyfrdk bR;kfnA budh jpukvksa esa lekt dh folaxfr;ksa osQ izfr
vkØks'k rFkk LoLFk okrkoj.k osQ izfr fn'kkfunsZ'k osQ Hkko izkIr gksrs gSaA

HkkofOkLrkj%

i`fFkoh] tya] rstks ok;qjkdk'k'psfr i×pegkHkwrkfu izÑrs% ize[q krÙokfuA ,rS% rÙoSjos i;kZoj.kL;
jpuk HkofrA vkfoz;rs ifjr% leUrkr~ yksdks¿ususfr i;kZoj.ke~A ifj"Ñra iznw"k.kjfgra p
i;kZoj.keLeH;a loZfo/thoulq[ka nnkfrA vLekfHk% lnSo rFkk iz;frrO;a ;Fkk tya LFkya xxu×p
fueZya L;kr~A i;kZoj.klEc¼k% osQpu 'yksdk% v/ksfyf[krk% lfUrμ
;Fkk&
i`fFkoha ifjrks O;kI; rkekPNk| fLFkra p ;r~
txnk/kj:is.k] i;kZoj.keqP;rsAA
12 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

iznw"k.kfo"k;s&
l`"VkS fLFkrkS fouk'ks p u`foKScZgquk'kde~A
i×prÙofo#¼a ;Rlkf/ra rRiznw"k.ke~AA
ok;qiznw"k.kfo"k;s&
izf{kIrks okguS/Zwe% o`Q".ks cg~oidkjd%A
nq"VSjZlk;uS;qZDrks ?kkrd% 'okl#Xog%AA
tyiznw"k.kfo"k;s&
;U=k'kkyk ifjR;DrSuZxjsnwf"krnzoS%A
unhunkS leqnzk'p izf{kIrSnZw"k.ka xrk%AA
iznw"k.k fuokj.kk; laj{k.kk; p &
'kks/ua jksi.ka j{kko/Zua ok;qokfj.k%A
oukuka oU;oLrwuka Hkwes% laj{k.ka oje~AA
,rs 'yksdk% i;kZoj.kdkO;kr~ ladfyrk% lfUrA
rRle&rn~Hko&'kCnkukeè;;ue~μ
v/ksfyf[krkuka rRle'kCnkuka rnqn~Hkwrkuka p rn~Hko'kCnkuka ifjp;% dj.kh;%&
rRle rn~Hko
izLrj & iRFkj
ok"i & Hkki
nqoZg & nwHkj
oØ & ck¡dk
dTty & dkty
pkdfpD; & pdkpd] pdkpkSa/
/we% & /qv¡k
'kre~ & lkS (100)
cfg% & ckgj
NUn% ifjp;%
vfLeu~ xhrs 'kqfp i;kZoj.ke~ bfr /zqooaQ (LFkk;h) orZrsA rnfrfjDra loZ=k izfrifÄ~Dr 26
ek=kk% lfUrA bna xhfrdkPNUnl% :iefLrA
f}rh;% ikB%

xq.korh dU;k
izLrqr ikB egkdfo n.Mh }kjk jfpr n'koqQekjpfjr uked x|dkO; osQ "k"B mPN~okl
ls lEikfnr dj ladfyr gSA ;gk¡ fe=kxqIr vius fofp=k o`ÙkkUr osQ vUrxZr xksfeuh
uked dU;k dh dFkk lqukrk gS tks ,d izLFk (32 iyksa osQ cjkcj) /ku ls ,d
O;fDr dks lEiw.kZ Hkkstu djkus dk izcU/ djrh gSA
vfLr nzfoMs"kq dk×ph uke uxjhA rL;keusddksfVlkj% Jsf"Biq=k% 'kfDroqQekjks
ukeklhr~A lks¿"Vkn'ko"kZn's kh;% fpUrkekiÂ%&^ukLR;nkjk.kke~ vuuqx.q knkjk.kka ok
lq[ke~A rRdFka uq xq.kon~ foUns;a dy=ke~A* l oL=kkUrfiu¼'kkfyizLFkks nkjxzg.kk;
HkqoeHkzer~A ;ka dkefi y{k.korha dU;ka foyksD; l i`PNfr&^Hknz!s 'kDuksf"k fdeusu
'kkfyizLFksu xq.konÂe~ vLeku~ Hkkstf;rqe\~ * ,oa Ñrs l gflrko/wr% x`gkn~ x`ga
izfo';kHkzer~A
,dnk l dkosjhrhjiÙkus foxfyrle`¯¼ fojyHkw"k.kka oqQekjhei';r~A
rL;k vrqfyr:ilEinkfHkHkwr% 'kfDroqQekjks¿fpUr;r~&ls;ekÑfruZ 'khyfojksf/
uhA vklTtfr es ân;eL;kesoA rnsuka
ijh{;ks n ~ o gkfeA Lus g iw . kZ n ` f "V% l
vkg&^vfLr rs dkS'kya 'kkfyizLFksukusu
lEiÂekgkje~ vLeku~ Hkkstf;rqe\~ *
rrLr;k o`¼nklh lkfHkizk;ekyksfdrkA
rL; gLrkr~ izLFkek=ka èkkU;eknk; Lox`gL;
pRojs ra iz{kkfyrikne~ mikos'k;r~A
rrLrku~ lqjHkhu~ 'kkyhukris fdf×pn~
14 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

fo'kks"; eqgqeZqgq% ifjoR;Z lek;ka HkwekS v?k^;r~A rq"ksH;Lr.MqykUi`Fko~Q ÑRok


èkk=kheqDrorh&^ekr%! beku~ Hkw"k.kektZuleFkkZu~ rq"kku~ Lo.kZdkjsH;ks nsfgA rsH;ks
yC/kfHk% dkfd.khfHk% dk"Bkkfu LFkkyha 'kjko};a pkgj* rr% lk rku~ r.Mqyku~
myw[kys eqlysukogR; 'kwi.Zs k 'kks/f;Rok¿lÑn~ tysu iz{kkY; DofFkrtys izkf{kir~A
fl¼s"kq p r.Mqy"s kq e.Mfu%lkj.kk; LFkkyhe/kse[q kha ÑrorhA bU/ukfu iqujEHklk
'kef;Rok Ñ".kkÄõkjkufi rnfFkZH;% izfs "krorhA foØhrSjÄõkjS;rZ ~ ewY;a yC/a rsu
'kkoaQ ?k`ra nf/ rSya fp×pkiQya p Øhre~A rrks O;×tukfnoaQ p r;k lEikfnre~A
vFk lk dU;k /k=kheq[ksukfr¯Fk Lukuk; izsfjrorhA Luku'kq¼k;kfrFk;s
rSyekeyoaQ pk;PNr~A iQydek#á izkÄõ.kdnyhnya yfoRok r=kklua Hkkstukèkkja
p ÑrorhA is;ksigkjiwo± Hkkstua ?k`rlfgrksnua O;×tua p rLeS nÙkorhA

eè;s eè;s p fofo/HkksT;kfn izdkjku~ o.kZf;ROkk #fpefi of/ZrorhA vUrr%


f'kf'kjokfj.kk is;ekpeua p iznÙkorhA HkqDrs rq rfLeu~ r;kL; 'k;uO;oLFkkfi ÑrkA
,oa dU;kxq.klEink lekÑ"V% 'kfDroqQekjLrka fof/onqi;E; uhroku~A
vr,oksDre~&
^¯d x`fg.k% fiz;fgrk;\ nkjxq.kk%A*
xq.korh dU;k 15

'kCnkFkkZ%
vusddksfVlkj% & vusddksfV% lkj% (/ue~) ;L; & ftlosQ ikl vusd djksM+ èku
gks
foUns;e~ & izkIrO;e~ & izkIr djuk pkfg,
dy=ke~ & iRuh & iRuh
'kkfy% & dye%@r.Mqy&fo'ks"k% & /ku (pkoy)
izLFk% & }k¯=k'kr~ iykRed% eki% & ,d fof'k"V eki (32 iyksa
osQ cjkcj)
xq.konÂe~ & Lokfn"Ve~ vÂe~ & Lokfn"V vkSj ikSf"Vd vkgkj
gflrko/wr% & gflrsu vo/wr%@migklsu frjLÑr% & migkl }kjk frjLÑr
rhje~ & rVe~ & rV
iÙkue~ & uxje~ & uxj] dLck
foxfyrle`f¼e~ & foxfyrk le`f¼% ;L;k% rke~ & fu/Zu
vklTtfr & vkÑ"Vks Hkofr & vkÑ"V gks jgk gS
ijh{; & ijh{kka ÑRok & ijh{kk djosQ
mn~ogkfe & fookga djksfe & fookg djrk gw¡
lkfHkizk;e~ & vfHkizk;s.k lfgre~ & vfHkizk;iwoZd
pRojs & izkax.ks & vk¡xu esa
iz{kkfyrikne~ & iz{kkfyrkS iknkS ;L; re~ & /qys gq, iSj okys dk
mikos'k;r~ & & & cSBk;k
lqjHkhu~ & lqjfHklfgrku~ & lqxfU/r
vkris & ?kesZ & /wi esa
fo'kks"; & 'kq"dhÑR; & lq[kkdj
eqgeq gZq %q & okjEokje~ & ckj&ckj
ifjoR;Z & ifjorZua fo/k; & myV&iqyV dj
16 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

lek;ke~ HkwekS & lery&HkwekS & lery Hkwfe ij


v?k^;r~ & ?k^ue~ vdjksr~ & owQVk
rq"ksH;% & 'kkfyRofXHk% & /ku dh Hkwlh ls
dkfd.khfHk% & i.koSQ% & iSlksa ls] dkSM+h ls
LFkkyhe~ & ik=kfo'ks"ke~ & Fkkyh
'kjko};e~ & oaQl};e~@o/Zekud};e~ & nks I;kys] nks dVksjs
vkgj & vku; & ykvks
myw[kys & yksdHkk"kk;ke~ vks[ky bfr & vks[kyh esa
izfl¼s ik=ks
eqlysu & oqQ^u;U=kfo'ks"ks.k & ewly ls
'kks/f;Rok & LoPNhÑR; & lkiQ djosQ
vlÑr~ & okjEokje~ & ckj&ckj
iz{kkY; & fueZyhÑR; & lkiQ djosQ
DofFkrtys & m".ktys & xje ty esa
vEHklk & tysu & ty ls
'kef;Rok & 'kkUra ÑRok] fuokZif;ROkk & Ba<k djosQ
Ñ".kkÄõkjku~ & vnX/dk"Bku~ & dks;yksa dks
fp×pkiQye~ & frfUr.kh & beyh
O;×tukfnde~ & 'kkdkfnde~ & lCth vkfn
vkeyde~ & vkeyosQu fufeZre~ & vk¡oys dk
iQyde~ & dk"Bklue~ & pkSdh ih<+k
vk#á & vf/#á & p<+dj
yfoRok & dÙkZf;ROkk & dkVdj
Hkkstuk/kje~ & HkkstuL; vk/kje~ & Hkkstu dk vk/kj
is;ksigkjiwoZe~ & is;ksigkjiwoZde~ & Hkkstu ls igys ihus okyk
is; inkFkZ osQ lkFk
xq.korh dU;k 17

?k`rlfgrksnue~ & ?k`r;qDre~ vksnue~ & ?k`r;qDr Hkkr


f'kf'kjokfj.kk & 'khrysu tysu & 'khry ty ls
mi;E; & ifj.kh; & fookg djosQ
x`fg.k% & x`gLFkL; & x`gLFk dk
nkjxq.kk% & L=khxq.kk% & fL=k;ksa osQ xq.k
(nkjk&iRuh)
vH;kl%
1- vèkksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) 'kfDroqQekj% dL;ka fpUrk;ke~ vkiÂ% vklhr~\
([k) dkosjhrhjiÙkus fLFkrk oqQekjh dhn`'kh vklhr~\
(x) oqQekjha foyksD; 'kfDroqQekj% fde~ vfpUr;r~\
(?k) vÄkõ je~ foØh; r;k oqQek;kZ ¯d Øhre~\
(Ä) oqQekjh vfrFk;s HkkstukFk± ¯d nÙkorh\
(p) b;a dFkk dLekr~ xzUFkkr~ mn~/`rk d'p vL;k% iz.ksrk\

2- LFkwyinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) beku~ rq"kku~ Lo.kZdkjsH;ks nsfgA
([k) r;k o`¼nklh lkfHkizk;e~ vkyksfdrkA
(x) rku~ r.Mqyku~ DofFkrtys izkf{kir~A
(?k) lk dU;k vfrfFka Lukuk; izsfjrorhA

3- ^d* LrEHks nÙkkuka inkuka lekukFkZoaQ ina ^[k* LrEHks nÙke~A rkS ;Fkksfpra ;kst;r&
^d* ^[k*
(d) dy=ke~ okjEokje~
([k) iÙkue~ frfUr.kh
18 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(x) vEHklk iRuh


(?k) eqgqeqgZ q% tysu
(Ä) fp×pkiQye~ uxje~
4- dks"Bdkr~ mfpra ina fpRok fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&
(d) Lk% foxfyrle`f¼a fojyHkw"k.kka ------------------ vi';r~A (oqQekjhe~@oqQekje~)
([k) vfLr nzfoMs"kq ------------------ uke uxjhA (d×puiqja@dk×ph)
(x) bU/ukfu vEHklk ------------------ Ñ".kkÄkõ jkufi izsf"krorhA ('kef;Rok@izTokY;)
(?k) lk dU;k /k=kheq[ksukfr¯Fk ------------------ izsfjrorhA (Lukuk;@'k;uk;)
(Ä) f'kf'kjokfj.kk is;ekpeua p ------------------A (Ñrorh@nÙkorh)
5- mnkgj.keUkql`R; ikBkr~ fpRok p leLrinkfu fy[kr&
;Fkk& iz $ fo'k~ $ Y;i~ ¾ izfo';
(d) fo $ 'kq"k~ $ Y;i~ ¾ -------------
([k) ifj $ o`r~ $ Y;i~ ¾ -------------
(x) mi $ ;e~ $ Y;i~ ¾ -------------
(?k) iz $ {kky~ $ Y;i~ ¾ -------------
(Ä) ik $ .;r~ ¾ -------------
(p) Ñ $ .;r~ ¾ -------------

6- js[kkfÄïrkfu loZukeinkfu dL; Ñrs iz;qDrkfu rkfu fy[kr&


(d) l% v"Vkn'ko"kZns'kh;% fpUrkekiÂ%A
([k) rL;k% vrqfyr:ilEinkfHkHkwr% 'kfDroqQekj% vfpUr;r~A
(x) vklTtfr es ân;e~ vL;ke~ ,oA
(?k) r;k vL; 'k;uL; O;oLFkkfi ÑrkA

7- (d) lfU/a oqQ#r&


(i) u $ vfLr $ vnkjk.kke~ ¾ -----------------
(ii) xq.kor~ $ vÂe~ ¾ -----------------
xq.korh dU;k 19

(iii) lk $ b;e~ ¾ -----------------


(iv) ijh{; $ mn~ogkfe ¾ -----------------
(v) iqu% $ vEHklk ¾ -----------------

([k) fuEufyf[kr'kCnkuka lgk;r;k okD;iz;ksxa oqQ#r&


iz{kkY;] vEHklk] iÙkus] eqgqeqZgq%] pRojs

ifj;kstukdk;Ze~
'kfDroqQekj% ifj.k;k; fL=k;ka ;RdkS'kye~ vis{krs Le rr~ orZekuns'kdkyn`"V~;k lehphue~
vfLr u ok bfr Lofopkja LoHkk"k;k izdk'k;rA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
1- .;r~ izR;; & ^;ksX;* vFkZ esa .;r~ izR;; dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
ihus ;ksX; & is;e~ (ik $ .;r~)
djus ;ksX; & dk;Ze~ (Ñ $ .;r~)
pqjkus ;ksX; & pkS;Ze~ (pqj~ $ .;r~)
gjus ;ksX; & gk;Ze~ (g` $ .;r~)
2- vEHkl~ (ikuh) uiqaldfyÄõ
fofHkDr% ,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkek vEHk% vEHklh vEHkkafl
f}rh;k vEHk% vEHklh vEHkkafl
r`rh;k vEHklk vEHkksH;ke~ vEHkksfHk%
prqFkhZ vEHkls vEHkksH;ke~ vEHkksH;%
iapeh vEHkl% vEHkksH;ke~ vEHkksH;%
"k"Bh vEHkl% vEHklks% vEHklke~
lIreh vEHkfl vEHklks% vEHkLlq
i;l~ uHkl~ vkfn 'kCnksa osQ :i vEHkl~ osQ leku gh pyrs gSaA
20 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

3- lkfHkizk;ekyksfdrk&vfHkizk; osQ lkFk ns[kh x;hA lkekU; :i ls ns[kus rFkk vfHkizk;iwodZ


ns[kus esa vUrj gksrk gSA ;gk¡ oqQekjh us nklh dks vfHkizk; osQ lkFk ns[kk gS rkfd nklh
muosQ vfHkizk; dks le> ysA nklh us oqQekjh dh ml n`f"V osQ vfHkizk; dks HkyhHkk¡fr
le> fy;k gSA ;gk¡ oqQekjh dk nklh dks ns[kus dk vfHkizk; Fkk fd of.ko~Qiq=k dks ;g
mÙkj nsuk fd eq>eas bl dk;Z dks djus dk dkS'ky gS vFkkZr~ eSa ;g dke dj ldrh gw¡
blfy, rqe buosQ gkFk ls /ku dh iksVyh ys yksA
4- ls;ekÑfruZ 'khyfojksf/uh&;g vkÑfr 'khyfojksf/uh ugha gSA vFkkZr~ ;g 'khyorh
ckfydk gS] blosQ psgjs rFkk HkkoHkafxek dks ns[kdj bldh lPpfj=krk dk vkHkkl gks
tkrk gS fiQj Hkh osQoy eu dh vkokt ij vk¡[ksa ew¡n dj fo'okl djuk Bhd ughaA
5- yfoRok √ywe~ Nsnus $ DRok (lsV~) xq.k vokns'k%A
r`rh;% ikB%

f'k'kqykyue~
izLrqr ikB laLÑrokÄ~e; osQ izfl¼ ukVd ^oqQUnekyk* osQ iape vÄï ls lEikfnr
dj fy;k x;k gSA blosQ jpf;rk izfl¼ ukVddkj fnÄ~ukx gSAa bl ukVdka'k esa jke
oqQ'k vkSj yo dks ¯lgklu ij cSBkuk pkgrs gSa fdUrq os nksuksa vfr'kkyhurkiwodZ euk
djrs gSAa ¯lgkluk:< jke oqQ'k vkSj yo osQ lkSUn;Z ls vkÑ"V gksdj mUgsa viuh
xksn esa cSBk ysrs gSa vkSj vkufUnr gksrs gSAa ikB esa f'k'kq Lusg dk vR;Ur euksgkjh
o.kZu fd;k x;k gSA
(flagkluLFk% jke%A rr% izfo'kr% fonw"kosQuksifn';ekuekxkSZ rkilkS oqQ'kyokS)
fonw"kd% & br br vk;kS!Z
oqQ'kyokS & (jkeL; lehie~ mil`R; iz.kE; p) vfi oqQ'kya egkjktL;\
jke% & ;q"eí'kZukr~ oqQ'kyfeoA Hkorks% ¯d o;e=k oqQ'kyiz'uL; Hkktue~
,o] u iqujfrfFktuleqfprL; d.Bk'ys"kL;A (ifj"oT;) vgks
ân;xzkgh Li'kZ%A

(vkluk/Zeiq os'k;fr)
22 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

mHkkS & jktklua [kYosrr~] u ;qDreè;kflrqeA~


jke% & lO;o/kua u pkfj=kyksik;A rLeknÄï & O;ofgreè;kL;rka ¯lgklue~A
(vVeqios'k;fr)
mHkkS & (vfuPNka ukV;r%) jktu~!
vyefrnkf{k.;suA
jke% & vyefr'kkyhur;kA
Hkofr f'k'kqtuks o;ks¿uqjks/kn~
xq.kegrkefi ykyuh; ,oA
oztfr fgedjks¿fi ckyHkkokr~
i'kqifr&eLrd&osQrdPNnRoe~AA
jke% & ,"k Hkorks% lkSUn;kZoyksdtfursu dkSrgw ysu i`PNkfe&{kf=k;oqQy&
firkeg;ks% lw;p Z Uæ;ks% dks ok Hkorkso'± kL; dÙkkZ\
yo% & Hkxou~ lglznhfèkfr%A
jke% & dFkeLer~lekukfHktukS laoÙ` kkS\
fonw"kd% & ¯d };ksjI;sdeso izfropue~\
yo% & Hkzkrjkokoka lksn;kSAZ
jke% & le:i% 'kjhjlfUuos'k%A o;lLrq u fdf×pnUrje~A
yo% & vkoka ;eykSA
jke% & lEizfr ;qT;rsA ¯d uke/s;e~\
yo% & vk;ZL; oUnuk;ka yo bR;kRekua Jko;kfe (oqQ'ka fufnZ';) vk;ksZ¿fi
xq#pj.koUnuk;ke~ ----------------------------------
oqQ'k% & vgefi oqQ'k bR;kRekua Jko;kfeA
jke% & vgks! mnkÙkjE;% leqnkpkj%A
¯d uke/s;ks Hkorksx#Zq %\
f'k'kqykyue~ 23

yo% & uuq Hkxoku~ okYehfd%A


jke% & osQu lEcU/su\
yo% & miu;uksins'ksuA
jke% & vge=kHkorks% tuoaQ ukerks osfnrqfePNkfeA
yo% & u fg tkukE;L; uke/s;e~A u df'pnfLeu~ riksous rL; uke
O;ogjfrA
jke% & vgks ekgkRE;e~A
oqQ'k% & tkukE;ga rL; uke/s;e~A
jke% & dF;rke~A
oqQ'k% & fujuqØks'kks uke----
jke% & o;L;] viwo± [kyq uke/s;e~A
fonw"kd% & (fofpUR;) ,oa rkor~ i`PNkfe fujuqØks'k bfr d ,oa Hk.kfr\
oqQ'k% & vEckA
fonw"kd% & ¯d dqfirk ,oa Hk.kfr] mr izÑfrLFkk\
oqQ'k% & ;|ko;ksckZyHkkotfura df×pnfou;a i';fr rnk ,oe~ vfèkf{kifr&
fujuqØks'kL; iq=kkS] ek pkiye~ bfrA
fonw"kd% & ,r;ks;fZ n firqfuZjuqØks'k bfr uke/s;e~ ,r;kstuZ uh rsukoekfurk
fuokZflrk ,rsu opusu nkjdkS fuHkZRlZ;frA
jke% & (Loxre~) f/Ä~ ekesoHa kwre~A lk rifLouh eRÑrsukijk/su LokiR;esoa
eU;qxHkSjZ {kjSfuZHkZRlZ;frA
(lok"ieoyksd;fr)
jke% & vfrnh?kZ% izoklks¿;a nk#.k'pA (fonw"kdeoyksD; tukfUrde~)
oqQrwgysukfo"Vks ekrjeu;ksukZerks osfnrqfePNkfeA u ;qDra p
L=khxreuq;ksDrqe]~ fo'ks"krLriksousA rr~ dks¿=kkH;qik;%\
24 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

fonw"kd% & (tukfUrde~) vga iqu% i`PNkfeA (izdk'ke~) ¯d uke/s;k ;qo;kstuZ uh\
yo% & rL;k% }s ukeuhA
fonw"kd% & dFkfeo\
yo% & riksouokfluks nsohfr ukEukà;fUr] Hkxoku~ okYehfdoZ/fw jfrA
jke% & vfi p brLrkon~ o;L;!
eqgÙw kZek=ke~A
fonw"kd% & (mil`R;) vkKki;rq Hkoku~A
jke% & vfi oqQekj;ksju;ksjLekoaQ p loZFkk le:i% oqQVqEco`ÙkkUr%\
(usiF;s)
b;rh osyk l×tkrk jkek;.kxkuL; fu;ksx% fdeFk± u fo/h;rs\
mHkkS & jktu~! mikè;k;nwrks¿Leku~ Roj;frA
jke% & e;kfi lEekuuh; ,o eqfufu;ksx%A rFkkfg&
HkoUrkS xk;UrkS dfojfi iqjk.kks ozrfuf/j~
fxjka lUnHkks¿Z ;a izFkeeorh.kksZ olqerhe~A
dFkk ps;a 'yk?;k ljfl#gukHkL; fu;ra]
iqukfr Jksrkja je;fr p lks¿;a ifjdj%AA
o;L;! viwoks¿Z ;a ekuokuka ljLoR;orkj%] rnga lqâTtulk/kj.ka
Jksrfq ePNkfeA lfUu/h;Urka lHkkln%] iz"s ;rkeLenfUroaQ lkSfef=k%]
vgeI;sr;ksf'pjkluifj[ksna fogj.ka ÑRok viu;kfeA
(bfr fu"ØkUrk% los)Z
f'k'kqykyue~ 25

'kCnkFkkZ%

mRFkk; & mfRFkrks HkwRok & mBdj


vyÄ~fØ;rs & foHkw";rs & lq'kksfHkr gksrk gS
firkeg% & firq%firk & firk osQ firk
lgÏnhf/fr% & lw;Z% & lw;Z
d.Bk'ys"kL; & d.Bs vk'ys"kL; & xys yxkus dk
ifj"oT; & vkfyÄuõ a ÑRok & vkfyÄuõ djosQ
fofpUR; & fopk;Z & fopkj djosQ
vufHkK% & vifjfpr% & ugha tkuus okyk@vutku
vè;kflrqe~ & mios"Vqe~ & cSBus osQ fy,
lO;o/kue~ & O;o/kusu lfgre~ & #dkoV lfgr
vè;kL;rke~ & mifo';rke~ & cSfB;s
vyefrnkf{k.;su & vyefrdkS'kysu & vR;f/d n{krk] vf/d oqQ'kyrk
ugha djsa
vÄïe~ & ØksMe~ & xksn esa
fgedj% & pUæ% & pUæek
i'kqifr% & f'ko% & f'ko
osQrd&NnRoe~ & osQrdL; NnRoe~ & osQrdh (osQoM+)s osQ iq"i ls cuk
eLrd dk 'ks[kj (twM+k)
vkRexre~ & Loxre~ & eu gh eu
lekukfHktukS & lekuoqQyksRiÂkS & ,d oqQy esa iSnk gksus okys
lao`ÙkkS & latkrkS & gks x;s
izfropue~ & mÙkje~ & mÙkj
lksn;ksZ & lgksnjkS & lgksnj@lxs HkkbZ
26 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

;eykS & ;qxykS & tqM+ok


'kjhjlfUuos'k% & vX jpukfoU;kl% & 'kjhj dh cukoV
mnkÙkjE;% & vR;Ur je.kh;% & vR;f/d euksgj
leqnkpkj% & f'k"Vkpkj% & f'k"Vkpkj
miu;uksins'ksu & miu;uL; mins'ksu & miu;u dh nh{kk osQ dkj.k
(miu;u&laLdkjnh{k;k)
uke/s;e~ & uke & uke
fujuqØks'k% & funZ;% & n;k jfgr
o;L; & fe=k & fe=k
Hk.kfr & dFk;fr & dgrk gS
vEck & tuuh & ekrk
mr & vFkok & vFkok
izÑfrLFkk & lkekU; eufLFkfr & LokHkkfod :i ls
vf/f{kifr & vf/{ksia djksfr & iQVdkjrh gS
pkiye~ & piyrke~ & papyrk
voekfurk & frjLÑrk & viekfur
nkjdkS & iq=kkS & iq=k
fuHkZRlZ;fr & rtZ;fr & /edkrh gS
fu%'oL; & nh?k± 'okla x`ghRok & nh?kZ 'okl ysdj
LokiR;e~ & LolUrfre~ & viuh lUrku dh

vUo; & xq.kegrke~ vfi o;ks¿uqjks/kr~ f'k'kqtu% ykyuh;% ,o HkofrA ckyHkkokr~ fg


fgedj% vfi i'kqifr&eLrd&osQrdPNnRoe~ oztfrA
Hkko & vR;f/d xq.kh yksxksa osQ fy, Hkh NksVh mez osQ dkj.k ckyd ykyuh; gh
gksrk gSA pUæek ckyHkko osQ dkj.k gh 'kVj osQ eLrd dk vkHkw"k.k cudj
osQrdh iq"iksa ls fufeZr pwM+k dh Hkk¡fr 'kksfHkr gksrk gSA
f'k'kqykyue~ 27

vUo; & HkoUrkS xk;UrkS] iqjk.k% ozrfuf/% dfo% vfi] olqerhe~ izFkea vorh.kZ% fxjke~
v;a lUnHkZ%] ljfl#gukHkL; p b;a 'yk?;k dFkk] l% p v;a ifjdj% fu;ra
Jksrkja iqukfr je;fr pA
Hkko & Hkxoku~ okYehfd }kjk fuc¼ iqjk.kiq#"k dh dFkk] oqQ'k yo }kjk Jh jke dks
lquk;h tkuh Fkh] mlh dh lwpuk nsrs gq, usiF; ls oqQ'k vkSj yo dks fcuk
le; u"V fd;s vius drZO; dk ikyu djus dk funsZ'k fn;k tkrk gSA nksuksa
jke ls vkKk ysdj tkuk pkgrs gSa rc Jh jke mi;qZDr 'yksd osQ ekè;e ls
ml jpuk dk lEeku djrs gSaA
vki nksuksa (oqQ'k vkSj yo) bl dFkk dk xku djus okys gSa] riksfuf/ iqjk.k eqfu
(okYehfd) bl jpuk osQ dfo gSa] /jrh ij izFke ckj vorfjr gksus okyk LiqQV ok.kh dk ;g
dkO; gS vkSj bldh dFkk deyukfHk fo".kq ls lEc¼ gS bl izdkj fu'p; gh ;g la;ksx
Jksrkvksa dks ifo=k vkSj vkufUnr djus okyk gSA

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLo`QrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) jkek; oqQ'kyo;ks% d.Bk'ys"kL; Li'kZ% dhn`'k% vklhr~\
([k) jke% yooqQ'kkS oqQ=k mios'kf;rqe~ dFk;fr\
(x) ckyHkkokr~ fgedj% oqQ=k fojktrs\
(?k) dq'kyo;ks% oa'kL; dÙkkZ d%\
(Ä) osQu lEcU/su okYehfd% oqQ'kyo;ks% xq#% vklhr~\
(p) oqQ'kyo;ks% ekrja okYehfd% osQu ukEuk vkà;fr\

2- js[kkfÄïrs"kq ins"kq foHkfDrdkj.ka fufnZ'kr&


(d) jktu~! vye~ vfrnkf{k.;suA
([k) jke% yooqQ'kkS vkluk/Ze~ mios'k;frA
(x) f/Ä~ eke~ ,oaHkwre~A
(?k) vVO;ofgre~ vè;kL;rka ¯lgklue~A
(Ä) vye~ vfrfoLrjs.kA
28 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

3- e×tw"kkr% i;kZ;};a fpRok inkuka le{ka fy[kr&


f'ko% f'k"Vkpkj% 'kf'k% pUæ'ks[kj% lqr% bnkuhe~
vèkquk iq=k% lw;Z% lnkpkj% fu'kkdj% Hkkuq%

(d) fgedj% & --------------- ---------------


([k) lEizfr & --------------- ---------------
(x) leqnkpkj% & --------------- ---------------
(?k) i'kqifr% & --------------- ---------------
(Ä) ru;% & --------------- ---------------
(p) lglznhf/fr% & --------------- ---------------

4- mnkgj.keuql`R; v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq iz;qDr&izѯr&izR;;×p fy[kr&


;Fkk& vklue~ & vkl~ $ Y;qV~ izR;;%
inkfu izÑfr% izR;;%
(d) ;qDre~ & ---------------- $ ----------------
([k) Hkktue~ & ---------------- $ ----------------
(x) 'kkyhurk & ---------------- $ ----------------
(?k) ykyuh;% & ---------------- $ ----------------
(Ä) NnRoe~ & ---------------- $ ----------------
(p) lfUufgr% & ---------------- $ ----------------
(N) lEekuuh;k & ---------------- $ ----------------

5- fo'ks"k.k&fo'ks";inkfu ;kst;r&
;Fkk& fo'ks"k.k inkfu fo'ks"; inkfu
'yk?;k & dFkk
(1) mnkÙkjE;% (d) leqnkpkj%
(2) vfrnh?kZ% ([k) Li'kZ%
f'k'kqykyue~ 29

(3) le:i% (x) dq'kyo;ks%


(4) ân;xzkgh (?k) izokl%
(5) oqQekj;ks% (Ä) dqVqEco`ÙkkUr%

6- (d) v/ksfyf[krins"kq lfU/a oqQ#r


(d) };ks% $ vfi & --------------------------------
([k) }kS $ vfi & --------------------------------
(x) d% $ v=k & --------------------------------
(?k) vufHkK% $ vge~ & --------------------------------
(Ä) bfr $ vkRekue~ & --------------------------------
([k) v/ksfyf[krins"kq foPNsna oqQ#r
(d) vgeI;sr;ks% & --------------------------------
([k) o;ks¿uqjks/kr~ & --------------------------------
(x) lekukfHktukS & --------------------------------
(?k) [kYosrr~ & --------------------------------

7- vèkksfyf[krkfu okD;kfu d% oaQ izfr dFk;fr&


d% de~
(d) lO;o/kua u pkfj=;yksik;A --------------------- ---------------------
([k) ¯d oqQfirk ,oa Hk.kfr] mr izÑfrLFkk\ --------------------- ---------------------
(x) tkukE;ga rL; uke/s;e~A --------------------- ---------------------
(?k) rL;k }s ukEuhA --------------------- ---------------------

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
ukV~;&izlÄ%õ
oqQUnekyk osQ ys[kd fnÄ~ukx us izLrqr ukVd esa jkedFkk osQ d#.k volkn Hkjs mÙkjk/ZZ dh
ukVdh; lEHkkoukvksa dks ekSfydrk ls lkdkj fd;k gSA blh dFkkud ij izfl¼ ukVddkj
30 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

HkoHkwfr dk mÙkjjkepfjr Hkh vkfJr gSA oqQUnekyk osQ Ngksa vVksa dk n`';fo/ku okYehfd&riksou
osQ ifjlj esa gh osQfUær gSA izLrqr ukVdka'k i×pe vV ls lEikfnr dj lVfyr fd;k x;k
gSA yo vkSj dq'k ls feyus ij jke osQ ân; esa muls vk¯yxu dh ykylk gksrh gSA muosQ
Li'kZlq[k ls vfHkHkwr gks jke] mUgsa vius ¯lgklu ij] viuh xksn esa fcBkdj ykM+ djrs gSaA
blh Hkko dh iqf"V esa ukVd esa ;g 'yksd m¼`r gS&
Hkofr f'k'kqtuks o;ks¿uqjks/kn~
xq.kegrkefi ykyuh; ,o A
oztfr fgedjks¿fi ckyHkkokr~
i'kqifr&eLrd&osQrdPNnRoe~ AA
f'k'kqLusgleHkko'yksdk%&
vusu dL;kfi oqQykÄ~oQq js.k
Li`"VL; xk=ks"kq lq[ka eeSoe~ A
dka fuoZ`¯r psrfl rL; oqQ;kZn~
;L;k;eÄ~dkr~ Ñfru% iz:<% AA (dkfynklL;)
vUr%dj.krÙoL; nEiR;ks% LusglaJ;kr~ A
vkuUnxzfUFkjsdks¿;eiR;fefr iB~;rs AA (HkoHkwrs%)
/wyh/wljruo%
ØhMkjkT;s LoosQ p jeek.kk% A
Ñreq[kok|fodkjk%
ØhMfUr lqfuHkZja ckyk% AA (dL;fpr~)
vfu;r#fnr fLer fojktr~
dfri;dkseynUroqQM~eykxze~ A
onudeyoaQ f'k'kks% Lejkfe
L[kynle×tle×tqtfYira rs AA
prqFkZ% ikB%

O;k;ke% loZnk iF;%


izLrqr ikB vk;qonZs osQ izfl¼ xzUFk ^lqJrq lafgrk* osQ fpfdRlk LFkku esa of.kZr 24osa
vè;k; ls ladfyr gSA blesa vkpk;Z lqJrq us O;k;ke dh ifjHkk"kk crkrs gq, mlls gksus
okys ykHkksa dh ppkZ dh gSA 'kjhj esa lqxBu] dkfUr] LiwQfrZ] lfg".kqrk] uhjksxrk vkfn
O;k;ke osQ ize[q k ykHk gSAa
'kjhjk;kltuua deZ O;k;kelafKre~ A
rRÑRok rq lq[ka nsga foe`nu~ h;kr~ leUrr% AA1AA

'kjhjksip;% dkfUrxkZ=kk.kka lqfoHkDrrk A


nhIrkfXuRoeukyL;a fLFkjRoa yk?koa e`tk AA2AA
JeDyefiiklks".k&'khrknhuka lfg".kqrk A
vkjksX;a pkfi ijea O;k;keknqitk;rs AA3AA
u pkfLr ln`'ka rsu fdf×pRLFkkSY;kid"kZ.ke~ A
u p O;k;kfeua eR;ZenZ;UR;j;ks cykr~ AA4AA
32 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

u pSua lglkØE; tjk lef/jksgfr A


fLFkjhHkofr ekala p O;k;kekfHkjrL; p AA5AA
O;k;kefLoUuxk=kL; in~H;keqno ~ frZrL; p A
O;k/;ks uksiliZfUr oSurs;feoksjxk%
o;ks:ixq.kSghZuefi oqQ;kZRlqn'kZue~ AA6AA
O;k;kea oqQoZrks fuR;a fo#¼efi Hkkstue~ A
fonX/efonX/a ok funksZ"ka ifjiP;rs AA7AA
O;k;keks fg lnk iF;ks cfyuka fLuX/Hkksftuke~ A
l p 'khrs olUrs p rs"kka iF;re% LEk`r% AA 8AA
losZ"o`rq"ogjg% iqfEHkjkRefgrSf"kfHk% A
cyL;k/sZu dÙkZO;ks O;k;keks gUR;rks¿U;Fkk AA9AA
âfnLFkkukfLFkrks ok;q;Znk oD=ka izi|rs A
O;k;kea oqQoZrks tUrksLrn~cyk/ZL; y{k.ke~ AA10AA
o;kscy'kjhjkf.k ns'kdkyk'kukfu p A
leh{; oqQ;kZn~ O;k;keeU;Fkk jksxekIuq;kr~ AA11AA

'kCnkFkkZ%
vk;kl% & iz;Ru%] iz;kl%] Je% & ifjJe
foe`n~uh;kr~ & enZ;sr~ & ekfy'k djuh pkfg,
leUrr% & loZr% & iwjh rjg ls
mip;% & vfHko`f¼% & o`f¼
O;k;ke% loZnk iF;% 33

dkfUr% & vkHkk & ped


xk=ke~ & 'kjhje~ & 'kjhj
lqfoHkDrrk & 'kkjhfjda lkS"Boe~ & 'kkjhfjd lkSUn;Z
nhIrkfXuRoe~ & tBjkXus% izo/Zue~ & tBjkfXu dk iznhIr gksuk
vFkkZr~ Hkw[k yxuk
e`tk & LoPNhdj.ke~ & LoPN djuk
Dye% & JetfuRka 'kSfFkY;e~ & Fkdku
fiiklk & ikrqe~ bPNk & I;kl
m".k% & rki% & xehZ
LFkkSY;e~ & vfrekalyRoa] ihurk & eksVkik
vid"kZ.ke~ & nwjhdj.ke~ & nwj djuk] de djuk
vnZ;fUr & vnZua oqQoZfUr & oqQpy Mkyrs gSa
vj;% & 'k=ko% & 'k=kqx.k
vkØE; & vkØe.ka ÑRok & geyk djosQ
tjk & ok/ZD;e~ & cq<+kik
vfHkjrL; & layXuL; & rYyhu gksus okys dk
fLoUuxk=kL; & Losnsu flDrL; 'kjhjL; & ilhus ls yFkiFk 'kjhj dk
in~H;ke~ mn~ofrZrL; & in~H;ke~ mUuferL; & nksuksa iSjksa ls Åij mBus
okys O;k;ke
oSurs;% & x#M% & x#M+
mjx% & liZ% & lk¡i
fonX/e~ & lqiDoe~ & Hkyh izdkj iosQ gq,
ifjiP;rs & th;Zrs & ip tkrk gS
vgu~ & fnol% & fnu
iF;a & vuqowQye~ & mfpr
vgjg% & izfrfnue~ & gj jkst
iqfEHk% & iq#"kS% & iq#"kksa osQ }kjk
v'kukfu & vkgkjk%@Hkkstukfu & Hkkstu
34 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[krμ
(d) dhn`'ka deZ O;k;kelafKre~ dF;rs\
([k) O;k;kekr~ ¯d fdeqitk;rs\
(x) tjk dL; ldk'ka lglk u lef/jksgfr\
(?k) fd;rk cysu O;k;ke% drZO;%\
(Ä) v/ZcyL; y{k.ke~ fde~\

2- mnkgj.keuql`R; dks"Bdxrs"kq ins"kq r`rh;kfoHkfDra iz;qT; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


;Fkk & O;k;ke% -------- ghuefi lqn'kZua djksfr (xq.k)
O;k;ke% xq.kS% ghuefi lqn'kZua djksfrA
(d) -------------------- O;k;ke% dÙkZO;%A (cyL;k/Z)
([k) -------------------- ln`'ka fdf×pr~ LFkkSY;kid"kZ.ka ukfLrA (O;k;ke)
(x) -------------------- fouk thoua ukfLrA (fo|k)
(?k) l% -------------------- [k×t% vfLrA (pj.k)
(Ä) lwidkj% -------------------- Hkkstua ft?kzfrA (ukfldk)

3- LFkwyinek/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#rμ


(d) 'kjhjL; vk;kltuua deZ O;k;ke% bfr dF;rsA
([k) vj;% O;k;kfeua u vnZ;fUrA
(x) vkRefgrSf"kfHk% loZnk O;k;ke% drZO;%A
(?k) O;k;kea dqoZr% fo#¼a Hkkstue~ vfi ifjiP;rsA
(Ä) xk=kk.kka lqfoHkDrrk O;k;kesu laHkofrA
O;k;ke% loZnk iF;% 35

4- fuEufyf[krkuke~ vO;;kuke~ fjDrLFkkus"kq iz;ksxa oqQ#rμ


lglk] vfi] ln`'ka] loZnk] ;nk] lnk] vU;Fkk
(d) -------------------- O;k;ke% dÙkZO;%A
([k) -------------------- euq";% lE;o~Q:is.k O;k;kea djksfr rnk l% -------------------- LoLFk%
fr"BfrA
(x) O;k;kesu vlqUnjk% -------------------- lqUnjk% HkofUrA
(?k) O;k;kfeu% tuL; ldk'ka ok/ZD;a -------------------- uk;kfrA
(Ä) O;k;kesu -------------------- fdf×pr~ LFkkSY;kid"kZ.ka ukfLrA
(p) O;k;kea leh{; ,o drZO;e~ -------------------- O;k/;% vk;kfUrA

5- (d) v/ksfyf[krs"kq rf¼rins"kq izѯr@izR;;a p i`Fko~Q ÑRok fy[krμ


ewy'kCn% (izÑfr%) izR;;%
(d) iF;re% ¾ -------------------- $ --------------------
([k) lfg".kqrk ¾ -------------------- $ --------------------
(x) vfXuRoe~ ¾ -------------------- $ --------------------
(?k) fLFkjRoe~ ¾ -------------------- $ --------------------
(Ä) yk?koe~ ¾ -------------------- $ --------------------

([k) v/ksfyf[krÑnUrins"kq ewy/krqa izR;;a p i`Fko~Q ÑRok fy[krμ


ewy'kCn% $ izR;;%
(d) drZO;% ------------------------------- $ -------------------------------
([k) Hkkstue~ ------------------------------- $ -------------------------------
(x) vkfLFkr% vk $ -------------------- $ -------------------------------
(?k) Le`r% ------------------------------- $ -------------------------------
(Ä) leh{; le~ ------------------------ $ -------------------------------
(p) vkØE; vk $---------------------- $ -------------------------------
(N) tuue~ ------------------------------- $ -------------------------------
36 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

6- v/ksfyf[krsH;% insH;% milxkZu~ i`Fko~Q ÑRok fy[krμ


;Fkk& lqn'kZue~ & lq $ n'kZue~
(d) mitk;rs ------------------------------- $ ---------------------------------
([k) vid"kZ.ke~ ------------------------------- $ ---------------------------------
(x) vf/jksgfr ------------------------------- $ ---------------------------------
(?k) izi|rs ------------------------------- $ ---------------------------------
(Ä) lqfoHkDrrk ------------------------------- $ ---------------------------------

7- (d) "k"B 'yksdL; HkkoekfJR; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


;Fkk& ------------------ lehis mjxk% u ------------------ ,oeso O;k;kfeu% tuL; lehia
------------------ u xPNfUrA O;k;ke% o;ks:ixq.kghue~ vfi tue~ ------------------ djksfrA

([k) mnkgj.keuql`R; okP;ifjorZua oqQ#r&


deZokP;e~ dr`ZokP;e~
;Fkk&vkRefgrSf"kfHk% O;k;ke% fØ;rs vkRefgrSf"k.k% O;k;kea oqQoZfUrA
(1) cyork fo#¼efi Hkkstua iP;rs ------------------------------------------------------
(2) tuS% O;k;kesu dkfUr% yH;rs ------------------------------------------------------
(3) eksgusu ikB% iB~;rs ------------------------------------------------------
(4) yr;k xhra xh;rs ------------------------------------------------------

(x) ^O;k;keL; ykHkk%* bfr fo"k;ef/ÑR; i×pokD;s"kq ,de~ vuqPNsna fy[krA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
(d) lqJqr% vk;qonsZ L;] ^lqJqrlafgrk* bR;k[;L; xzUFkL; jpf;rkA vfLeu~ xzUFks 'kY;fpfdRlk;k%
izk/kU;efLrA lqJqr% 'kY;'kkL=kKL; fnoksnklL; f'k";% vklhr~A fnoksnkl% lqJqra okjk.kL;ke~
vk;qosZne~ vikB;r~A lqJqr% fnoksnklL; mins'kku~ LoxzUFks¿fy[kr~A
([k) miyC/klq vk;qosZnh;&lafgrklq ^lqJqrlafgrk* loZJs"B% 'kY;fpfdRlkiz/kuks xzUFk%A vfLeu~
xzUFks 120 vè;k;s"kq Øes.k lw=kLFkkus ekSfydfl¼kUrkuka 'kY;deksiZ ;ksfx&;U=kknhuka] funkuLFkkus
O;k;ke% loZnk iF;% 37

izeq[kk.kka jksxk.kka] 'kjhjLFkkus 'kjhj'kkL=kL; fpfdRlkLFkkus] 'kY;fpfdRlk;k% dYiLFkkus p


fo"kk.kka izdj.kkfu of.kZrkfuA vL; mÙkjrU=ks 66 vè;k;k% lfUrA
(x) oSurs;feoksjxk% μ d';i ½f"k dh nks ifRu;k¡ Fkhaμ dæq vkSj fourkA fourk dk iq=k
x#M+ Fkk vkSj dæq dk iq=k liZA fourk dk iq=k gksus osQ dkj.k x#M+ dks oSurs; dgk tkrk
gSA (fourk;k% v;e~ oSurs;%] v.k~ izR;;s Ñrs)A x#M+ liZ ls vf/d rkdroj gksrk gS]
Hk;o'k lk¡i x#M+ ds ikl tkus dk lkgl ugha djrkA ;gk¡ O;k;ke djus okys euq"; dh
rqyuk x#M+ ls rFkk O;kf/;ksa dh rqyuk lk¡i ls dh xbZ gSA ftl izdkj x#M+ osQ le{k
lk¡i ugha tkrkA mlh izdkj O;k;ke djus okys O;fDr osQ ikl jksx ugha iQVdrsA

Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%

xq.kokpd 'kCnksa ls Hkko vFkZ esa ";×k~ vFkkZr~ ; izR;; yxkdj Hkkookph inksa dk fuekZ.k
fd;k tkrk gSA 'kCn osQ izFke Loj esa o`f¼ gksrh gS vkSj vfUre v dk yksi gksrk gSA
(d) 'kwjL; Hkko% 'kkS;Ze~ & 'kwj $ ";×k~
([k) lqUnjL; Hkko% lkSUn;Ze~ & lqUnj $ ";×k~
(x) lq[kL; Hkko% lkS[;e~ & lq[k $ ";×k~
(?k) fonq"k% Hkko% oSnq";e~ & fo}l~ $ ";×k~
(Ä) e/qjL; Hkko% ek/q;Ze~ & e/qj $ ";×k~
(p) LFkwyL; Hkko% LFkkSY;e~ & LFkwy $ ";×k~
(N) vjksxL; Hkko% vkjksX;e~ & vjksx $ ";×k~
(t) lfgrL; Hkko% lkfgR;e~ & lfgr $ ";×k~~
Fkky~&izR;;%& ^izdkj* vFkZ esa Fkky~ izR;; dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA
tSls& rsu izdkjs.k & rFkk
;su izdkjs.k & ;Fkk
vU;su izdkjs.k & vU;Fkk
loZ izdkjs.k & loZFkk
mHk; izdkjs.k & mHk;Fkk
38 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

HkkofoLrkj%
(d) 'kjhjek|a [kyq /eZlk/ue~
([k) yk?koa deZlkeF;± LFkS;± Dys'klfg".kqrkA
nks"k{k;ks¿fXuo`f¼'p O;k;keknqitk;rsAA
(x) ;Fkk 'kjhjL; j{kk;S mfpra Hkkstue~] mfpr'p O;ogkj% vko';dks¿fLr rFkSo 'kjhjL;
LokLF;k; O;k;ke% vfi vko';d%A
(?k) ;qDrkgkjfogkjL; ;qDrps"VL; deZlqA
;qDrLoIukocks/L; ;ksxks Hkofr nq%[kgkAA
(Ä) if{k.k% vkdk'ks mah;Urs rs"kke~ mM~M;ueso rs"kka O;k;ke%A i'koks¿fi brLrr% iyk;Urs]
iyk;ueso rs"kka O;k;ke%A 'kS'kos f'k'kq% LogLriknkS pky;fr] v;eso rL; O;k;ke%A
fo$vk$;e~ /krks% ?k×k~ izR;;kr~ fu"iUu% O;k;ke 'kCn% foLrkjL; fodklL; p
okpd%A ;rks fg O;k;kesu vXkuka fodkl% HkofrA vr% lq[kiwoZoaQ thoua ;kif;rqa
euq";S% fuR;a O;k;ke% dj.kh;%A
cqf¼cZyorh lnk 39

i×pe% ikB%

cqf¼cZyorh lnk
izLrqr ikB 'kqdlIrfr% uked izfl¼ dFkkxzUFk ls lEikfnr dj fy;k x;k gSA blesa
vius nks NksV&s NksVs iq=kksa osQ lkFk taxy osQ jkLrs ls firk osQ ?kj tk jgh cqf¼erh
uked ukjh osQ cqf¼dkS'ky dks fn[kk;k x;k gS tks lkeus vk, gq, 'ksj dks Mjk dj
Hkxk nsrh gSA bl dFkkxzUFk esa uhfrfuiq.k 'kqd vkSj lkfjdk dh dgkfu;ksa osQ }kjk
vizR;{k :i ls ln~of` Ùk dk fodkl djk;k x;k gSA
vfLr nsmyk[;ks xzke%A r=k jkt¯lg% uke jktiq=k% olfrLeA ,dnk osQukfi
vko';ddk;s.Z k rL; Hkk;kZ cqf¼erh iq=k};ksirs k firqxgZ` a izfr pfyrkA ekxsZ
xgudkuus lk ,oaQ O;k?kza nn'kZA lk O;k?kzekxPNUra n`"V~ok /k"V~;kZr~ iq=kkS pisV;k
izâR; txknμ¶dFkesoQS d'kks O;k?kzHk{k.kk; dyga oqQ#Fk%\ v;esdLrkof}HkT;
HkqT;rke~A i'pkn~ vU;ks f}rh;% df'pYy{;rsA¸

bfr JqRok O;k?kzekjh dkfpfn;fefr eRok O;k?kzks Hk;koqQyfpÙkks u"V%A


40 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

futcqnè~ ;k foeqDrk lk Hk;kn~ O;k?kzL; HkkfeuhA


vU;ks¿fi cqf¼ek¡YyksoQs eqP;rs egrks Hk;kr~AA
Hk;koqQya O;k?kza n`"V~ok df'pr~ /wr%Z Ük`xky% glÂkgμ ¶Hkoku~ oqQr% Hk;kr~
iykf;r%\¸
O;k?kz%& xPN] xPN tEcqd! Roefi fdf×pn~ xw<izn's ke~A ;rks O;k?kzekjhfr ;k
'kkL=ks Jw;rs r;kga gUrqekjC/% ija x`ghrdjthforks u"V% 'kh?kza rnxzr%A
Ük`xky%& O;k?kz! Ro;k egRdkSrd q e~ vkosfnra ;Uekuq"kknfi fcHksf"k\
O;k?kz%& izR;{keso e;k lkReiq=kkosoQS d'kks ekeÙkqa dygk;ekukS pisV;k izgjUrh
n`"VkA
tEcqd%& Lokfeu~! ;=kkLrs lk /wrkZ r=k xE;rke~A O;k?kz! ro iqu% r=k xrL;
lk lEeq[keih{krs ;fn] rfgZ Ro;k vga gUrO;% bfrA
O;k?kz%& Ük`xky! ;fn Roa eka eqDRok ;kfl rnk osykI;osyk L;kr~A
tEcqd%& ;fn ,oa rfgZ eka futxys cn~èok py lRoje~A l O;k?kz% rFkkÑRok
dkuua ;;kSA Ük`xkysu lfgra iqujk;kUra O;k?kza nwjkr~ n`"V~ok cqf¼erh

fpfUrrorh&tEcqdÑrksRlkgkn~ O;k?kzkr~ dFka eqP;rke~\ ija


izR;qRiÂefr% lk tEcqdekf{kiUR;Äq Yõ ;k rtZ;UR;qokpμ
js js /wrZ Ro;k nÙka eáa O;k?kz=k;a iqjkA
fo'okL;k|Sdekuh; dFka ;kfl onk/qukAA
cqf¼cZyorh lnk 41

bR;qDRok /kfork rw.k± O;k?kzekjh Hk;ÄïjkA


O;k?kzk¿s fi lglk u"V% xyc¼Ük`xkyd%AA
,oa izdkjs.k cqf¼erh O;k?kztkn~ Hk;kr~ iqujfi eqDrk¿Hkor~A vr ,o
mP;rs&
cqf¼cZyorh rfUo loZdk;s"Z kq loZnkAA

'kCnkFkkZ%
Hkk;kZ & iRuh & iRuh
iq=k};ksisrk & iq=k};su lfgrk & nksuksa iq=kksa osQ lkFk
misrk & ;qDrk & ;qDr
dkuus & ous & taxy esa
nn'kZ & vi';r~ & ns[kk
/k"V~;kZr~ & /`"VHkkokr~ & f<BkbZ ls
pisV;k & djizgkjs.k & FkIiM+ ls
izâR; & pisfVdka nRok & FkIIkM+ ekjdj
txkn & mDrorh & dgk
dyge~ & fookne~ & >xM+k
foHkT; & foHkDra ÑRok & vyx&vyx djosQ
(ck¡Vdj)
y{;rs & vfUo";rs & ns[kk tk,xk] <w¡<+k
tk,xk
O;k?kzekjh & O;k?kza ekj;fr (gfUr) & ck?k dks ekjus okyh
bfr
u"V% & e`r%] iykf;r% & Hkkx x;k
Hkkfeuh & Hkkfeuh] :iorh L=kh & :iorh L=kh
42 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

tEcqd% & Ük`xky% & fl;kj


xw<+izns'ke~ & xqIrizns'ke~ & xqIr izns'k esa
x`ghrdjthfor% & gLrs izk.kkÂhRok & gFksyh ij izk.k ysdj
vkosfnre~ & foKkfire~ & crk;k
izR;{ke~ & le{ke~ & lkeus
lkReiq=kkS & lk vkReu% iq=kkS & og vius nksuksa iq=kksa dks
,oSQd'k% & ,de~ ,oaQ ÑRok & ,d ,d djosQ
vRrqe~ & Hk{kf;rqe~ & [kkus osQ fy,
dygk;ekukS & dyga oqQoZUrkS & >xM+k djrs gq, (nks)
dks
izgjUrh & izgkja oqQoZUrh & ekjrh gqbZ
bZZ{krsrs & i';fr & ns[krh gS
osyk & le;% & 'krZ
vkf{kiUrh & vk{ksia oqQoZUrh & vk{ksi djrh gqbZ]
f>M+drh gqbZ]
HkRlZuk djrh gqbZ
rtZ;Urh & rtZua oqQoZUrh & /edkrh gqb]Z Mk¡Vrh gqbZ
fo'okL; & lek'oL; & fo'okl fnykdj
rw.kZe~ & 'kh?kze~ & tYnh] 'kh?kz
Hk;Äïjk & Hk;a djksfr bfr & Hk;ksRikfndk
xyc¼&Ük`xkyd% & xys c¼ Ük`xky% & xys esa ca/s gq, Ük`xky
;L; l% okyk

vfUreL; 'yksdL; vUo;%&


js js /wrZ! Ro;k eáa iqjk O;k?kz=k;a nÙke~A fo'okL; (vfi) v| ,oQe~ vkuh; dFka ;kfl bfr
v/quk onA bfr mDRok Hk;Vjk O;k?kzekjh rw.k± /kforkA xyc¼ Ük`xkyd% O;k?kz% vfi lglk
u"V%A gs rfUo! loZnk loZdk;sZ"kq cqf¼cZyorhA
cqf¼cZyorh lnk 43

vH;kl%

1- vèkksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[krμ


(d) cqf¼erh osQu misrk fir`xZ̀ga izfr pfyrk\
([k) O;k?kz% ¯d fopk;Z iykf;r%\
(x) yksosQ egrks Hk;kr~ d% eqP;rs\
(?k) tEcqd% ¯d onu~ O;k?kzL; migkla djksfr\
(Ä) cqf¼erh Ük`xkya fde~ mDrorh\

2- LFkwyinekèk`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#rμ


(d) r=k jkt¯lgks uke jktiq=k% olfrLeA
([k) cqf¼erh pisV;k iq=kkS izârorhA
(x) O;k?kza n`"V~ok /wrZ% Ük`xky% vonr~A
(?k) Roe~ ekuq"kkr~ foHksf"kA
(Ä) iqjk Ro;k eáa O;k?kz=k;a nÙke~A

3- mnkgj.keuql`R; drZfj izFkek foHkDrs% fØ;k;k×p ^Drorq* izR;;L; iz;ksxa ÑRok


okP;ifjorZua oqQ#rμ
;Fkk&r;k vga gUrqe~ vkjC/% & lk eka gUrqe~ vkjCèkorhA
(d) e;k iqLroaQ ifBre~A & -------------------------------------------
([k) jkes.k Hkkstua Ñre~A & -------------------------------------------
(x) lhr;k ys[k% fyf[kr%A & -------------------------------------------
(p) v'osu r`.ka HkqDre~A & -------------------------------------------
(Ä) Ro;k fp=ka n`"Ve~A & -------------------------------------------

4- v/ksfyf[krkfu okD;kfu ?kVukØes.k la;kst;rμ


(d) O;k?kz% O;k?kzekjh b;fefr eRok iykf;r%A
([k) izR;qRiÂefr% lk Ük`xkya vkf{kiUrh mokpA
44 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(x) tEcqdÑrksRlkg% O;k?kz% iqu% dkuue~ vkxPNr~A


(?k) ekxsZ lk ,oaQ O;k?kza vi';r~A
(Ä) O;k?kza n`"V~ok lk iq=kkS rkM;Urh mokp&v/quk ,deso O;k?kza foHkT; HkqT;rA
(p) cqf¼erh iq=k};su misrk firqxgZ̀ a izfr pfyrkA
(N) ^Roa O;k?kz=k;a vkuf;rqa* izfrKk; ,deso vkuhroku~A
(t) xyc¼ Ük`xkyd% O;k?kz% iqu% iykf;r%A

5- l¯U/@lfU/foPNsna ok oqQ#rμ
(d) firqxgZ̀ e~ & ------------------ $ ------------------
([k) ,oSQd% & ------------------ $ ------------------
(x) ------------------ & vU;% $ vfi
(?k) ------------------ & bfr $ mDRok
(Ä) ------------------ & ;=k $ vkLrs

6- (d) vèkksfyf[krkuka inkuke~ vFkZ% dks"Bdkr~ fpRok fy[kr&


(d) nn'kZ & (nf'kZroku~] n`"Voku~)
([k) txkn & (vdFk;r~] vxPNr~)
(x) ;;kS & (;kfproku~] xroku~)
(?k) vÙkqe~ & ([kkfnrqe~] vkfo"oQrqZe~)
(Ä) eqP;rs & (eqDrks Hkofr] eXuks Hkofr)
(p) bZ{krs & (i';fr] bPNfr)

([k) ikBkr~ fpRok i;kZ;ina fy[krμ


(d) oue~ & -----------------
([k) Ük`xky% & -----------------
(x) 'kh?kze~ & -----------------
(?k) iRuh & -----------------
(Ä) xPNfl & -----------------
cqf¼cZyorh lnk 45

7- izÑfrizR;;foHkkxa oqQ#rμ
(d) pfyr% & -----------------
([k) u"V% & -----------------
(x) vkosfnr% & -----------------
(?k) n`"V% & -----------------
(Ä) xr% & -----------------
(p) gr% & -----------------
(N) ifBr% & -----------------
(t) yC/% & -----------------

ifj;kstukdk;Ze~
cqf¼eR;k% LFkkus vkRekua ifjdYI; rn~Hkkouka LoHkk"k;k fy[krA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
Hkkf"kdfoLrkj%
nn'kZ&n`'k~ /krq] fyV~ ydkj] izFke iq#"k] ,dopu
foHksf"k ^Hkh* /krq] yV~ ydkj] eè;e iq#"k] ,dopuA
izgjUrh & iz $ â /krq] 'kr` izR;;] L=khfyÄAõ
xE;rke~ & xe~ /krq] deZokP;] yksV~ ydkj] izFkeiq#"k] ,dopuA
;;kS & ^;k* /krq] fyV~ ydkj] izFkeiq#"k] ,dopuA
;kfl & xPNflA

lekl
xyc¼ Ük`xkyd% & xys c¼% Ük`xky% ;L; l%A
izR;qRiÂefr% & izR;qRiUuk efr% ;L; l%A
TkEcqdo`QrksRlkgkr~ & tEcqosQu Ñr% mRlkg% & tEcqdÑrksRlkg% rLekr~A
iq=k};ksisrk & iq=k};su misrkA
Hk;koqQyfpÙk% & Hk;su vkoqQy% fpÙke~ ;L; l%A
46 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

O;k?kzekjh & O;k?kza ekj;fr bfrA


x`ghrdjthfor% & x`ghra djs thfora ;su l%A
Hk;Vjk & Hk;a djksfr ;k bfrA
xzUFk&ifjp; μ 'kqdlIrfr% osQ ys[kd vkSj dky osQ fo"k; esa ;|fi HkzkfUr cuh gqbZ gS]
rFkkfi bldk dky 1000 bZ- ls 1400 bZ- osQ eè; ekuk tkrk gSA gsepUnz us (1088&1172)
esa 'kqdlIrfr% dk mYys[k fd;k gSA pkSngoha 'krkCnh esa IkQkjlh Hkk"kk esa ^rwfrukeg* uke ls
vuwfnr gqvk FkkA
'kqdlIrfr% dk <k¡pk vR;Ur ljy vkSj euksjatd gSA gfjnÙk uked lsB dk enufouksn
uked ,d iq=k FkkA og fo"k;klDr vkSj oqQekxZxkeh FkkA lsB dks nq%[kh ns[kdj mlosQ fe=k
f=kfoØe uked czkã.k us vius ?kj ls uhfrfuiq.k 'kqd vkSj lkfjdk ysdj mlosQ ?kj tkdj
dgk&bl liRuhd 'kqd dk rqe iq=k dh Hkk¡fr ikyu djksA bldk laj{k.k djus ls rqEgkjk nq[k
nwj gksxkA gfjnÙk us enufouksn dks og rksrk ns fn;kA rksrs dh dgkfu;ksa us enufouksn dk ân;
ifjorZu dj fn;k vkSj og vius O;olk; esa yx x;kA
O;kikj izlax esa tc og ns'kkUrj x;k rc 'kqd us viuh euksjatd dgkfu;ksa ls mldh
iRuh dk rc rd fouksn djrk jgk tc rd mldk ifr okil ugha vk x;kA la{ksi esa
'kqdlIrfr% vR;f/d euksjatd dFkkvksa dk laxgz gSA

gu~ (ekjuk) /krks% :ie~A


yV~ydkj%
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% gfUr gr% ?ufUr
eè;eiq#"k% gfUl gFk% gFk
mÙkeiq#"k% gfUe gUo% gUe%

y`V~ydkj%
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% gfu";fr gfu";r% gfu";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% gfu";fl gfu";Fk% gfu";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% gfu";kfe gfu";ko% gfu";ke%
cqf¼cZyorh lnk 47

yÄ~ydkj%
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vgu~ vgrke~ vgr
eè;eiq#"k% vg% vgre~ vgr
mÙkeiq#"k% vgue~ vgUo vgUe

yksV~ydkj%
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% gUrq grke~ ?uUrq
eè;eiq#"k% tfg gre~ gr
mÙkeiq#"k% gukfu guko guke

fof/fyÄ~ydkj%
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% gU;kr~ gU;krke~ gU;q%
eè;eiq#"k% gU;k% gU;kre~ gU;kr
mÙkeiq#"k% gU;ke~ gU;ko gU;ke
48 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

"k"B% ikB%

lqHkkf"krkfu
laLÑr Ñfr;ksa osQ ftu i|ksa ;k i|ka'kksa esa lkoZHkkSe lR; dks cM+s ekfeZd <ax ls izLrqr
fd;k x;k gSA mu i|ksa dks lqHkkf"kr dgrs gSaA izLrqr ikB ,sls 10 lqHkkf"krksa dk laxzg
gS tks laLÑr osQ fofHkUu xzaFkksa ls ladfyr gSaA buesa ifjJe dk egÙo] Øksèk dk
nq"izHkko] lHkh oLrqvksa dh mikns;rk vkSj cqf¼ dh fo'ks"krk vkfn fo"k;ksa ij izdk'k
Mkyk x;k gSA

vkyL;a fg euq";k.kka 'kjhjLFkks egku~ fjiq% A


ukLR;q|eleks cUèkq% ÑRok ;a ukolhnfr AA1AA

xq.kh xq.ka osfÙk u osfÙk fuxqZ.kks]


cyh cya osfÙk u osfÙk fucZy% A
fidks olUrL; xq.ka u ok;l%]
djh p flagL; cya u ew"kd% AA2AA

fufeÙkeqfí'; fg ;% izoqQI;fr]
èkzqoa l rL;kixes izlhnfr A
vdkj.k}sf"k euLrq ;L; oS]
dFka tuLra ifjrks"kf;";fr AA3AA
lqHkkf"krkfu 49

mnhfjrks¿FkZ% i'kqukfi x`árs]


g;k'p ukxk'p ogfUr cksfèkrk% A
vuqDreI;wgfr if.Mrkstu%]
ijsfÄõrKkuiQyk fg cq¼;% AA4AA

Øksèkks fg 'k=kq% izFkeks ujk.kka]


nsgfLFkrks nsgfouk'kuk; A
;FkkfLFkr% dk"Bxrks fg ofÉ%]
l ,o ofÉnZgrs 'kjhje~ AA5AA

e`xk e`xS% lÄ õeuqoztfUr]


xko'p xksfHk% rqjxkLrqjXS% A
ew[kkZ'p ew[kSZ% lqfèk;% lqèkhfHk%]
leku&'khy&O;lus"kq l[;e~ AA6AA

lsforO;ks egko`{k% iQyPNk;klefUor% A


;fn nSokr~ iQya ukfLr Nk;k osQu fuok;Zrs AA7AA

veU=ke{kja ukfLr] ukfLr ewyeukS"kèke~ A


v;ksX;% iq#"k% ukfLr ;kstdLr=k nqyZHk% AA8AA

laiÙkkS p foiÙkkS p egrkesd:irk A


mn;s lfork jÙkQks jÙkQÜÓkLre;s rFkk AA9AA

fofp=ks [kyq lalkjs ukfLr fdf×pfÂjFkZde~ A


v'o'psn~ èkkous ohj% HkkjL; ogus [kj% AA10AA
50 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

'kCnkFkkZ%
volhnfr & nq%[ke~ vuqHkofr & nq%[kh gksrk gS
osfÙk & tkukfr & tkurk gS
ok;l% & dkd% & dkSvk
djh & xt% & gkFkh
fufeÙk% & dkj.ke~ & dkj.k
izoqQI;fr & vfrdksia djksfr & vR;fèkd Øksèk djrk gS
èkqzoa & fuf'pre~ & fuf'pr :i ls
vixes & lekIrs & lekIr gksus ij
izlhnfr & izlUu% Hkofr & izlUu gksrk gS
vdkj.k}sf"keu% & vdkj.ka }s"ka djksfr bfr & vdkj.k gh }s"k djus okyk
vdkj.k}sf"k rn~on~eu% ;L; l% eu gS ftldk
ifjrks"kf;";fr & ifjrks"ka nkL;fr & lUrq"V djsxk
mnhfjr% & mDr% dfFkr% & dgk gqvk
x`árs & izkI;rs & izkIr fd;k tkrk gS
g;k% & v'ok% & ?kksM+s
ukxk% & gfLru% & gkFkh
Ågfr & fuèkkZj;fr & vanktk yxkrk gS
bfXrKkuiQyk% & bfÄõra Kkue~] & lVsrtU; Kku :ih iQy
bfÄõrKkueso iQya ;L;k% okys
lk] rk%
if.Mr% & fo}ku~] cqf¼eku~ & cqf¼eku~
ofÉ% & vfXu% & vkx
ngrs & Toky;fr & tykrk gS
vuqoztfUr & i'pkr~ xPNfUr & ihNs&ihNs tkrs gSa]
vuqlj.k djrs gSa
rqjxk% & v'ok% & ?kksMs+
lqHkkf"krkfu 51

lqfèk;% & fo}kal% & fo}ku~ euh"kh


O;lus"kq & LoHkkos & vknr] LoHkko esa
l[;e~ & eS=kh & fe=krk
lsforO;% & vkJf;rO;% & vkJ; ysuk pkfg,
nSokr~ & HkkX;kr~ & HkkX; ls
fuok;Zrs & fuokj.ka fØ;rs & jksdk tkrk gS
veU=ke~ & u eU=ka] veU=ke{kja bfr & eU=kghu
eU=k & euu;ksX;e~ & euu ;ksX;@lkFkZd@lkjoku~
ewye~ & v/%Hkkxe~ & tM+
vkS"kèke~ & vkS"kfèk$v.k~ & nok] tM+h&cwVh
(ouLifr fufeZre~)
;kstd% & (;qt~ $.oqy~) & tksM+us okyk
lfork & lw;Z% & lw;Z
jDr% & & yky
[kj% & xnZHk% & xèkk

'yksdkuke~ vUo;%&
1- euq";k.kka 'kjhjLFk% egku~ 'k=kq% vkyL;e~A m|ele% cUèkq% u vfLr ;a ÑRok (euq";%) u
volhnfrA
2- xq.kh xq.ka osfÙk] fuxZq.k% (xq.ka) u osfÙk] cyh cya osfÙk] fucZy% (cya) u osfÙk] olUrL;
xq.ka fid% (osfÙk)] ok;l% u (osfÙk)] flagL; cya djh (osfÙk)] ew"kd% uA
3- ;% fufeÙke~ mfí'; izoqQI;fr l% rL; vixes èkzqoa izlhnfr ;L; eu% vdkj.k}sf"k (vfLr)
ra tu% dFka ifjrks"kf;";frA
4- i'kquk vfi mnhfjr% vFkZ% x`árs] g;k% ukxk% p cksfèkrk% (Hkkja) ogfUr] if.Mr% tu%
vuqDre~ vfi Ågfr cq¼;% ijsfXrKkuiQyk% HkofUrA
5- ujk.kka nsgfouk'kuk; izFke% 'k=kq% nsgfLFkr% Øksèk%A ;Fkk dk"Bxr% fLFkr% ofÉ% dk"Be~ ,o
ngrs (rFkSo 'kjhjLFk% Øksèk%) 'kjhja ngrs A
52 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

6- e`xk% e`xS% lg] xko'p xksfHk% lg] rqjxk% rqjXS% lg] ew[kkZ% ew[kSZ% lg] lqfèk;% lqèkhfHk% lg
vuqoztfUrA l[;e~ leku'khyO;lus"kq (Hkofr)A
7- iQyPNk;k lefUor% egko`{k% lsforO;%A nSokr~ ;fn iQya ukfLr (o`{kL;) Nk;k osQu
fuok;ZrsA
8- veU=ke~ v{kja ukfLr] vukS"kèke~ ewya ukfLr] v;ksX;% iq#"k% ukfLr] r=k ;kstd% nqyZHk%A
9- egrke~ laiÙkkS foiÙkkS p ,d:irk HkofrA
;Fkk& lfork mn;s jDr% Hkofr] rFkk vLre;s p jDr% HkofrA
10- fofp=ks lalkjs [kyq fdf×pr~ fujFkZoaQ ukfLrA v'o% psr~ èkkous ohj%] (rfgZ) HkkjL; ogus
[kj% (ohj%) vfLrA
vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) osQu le% cUèkq% ukfLr\
([k) olUrL; xq.ka d% tkukfrA
(x) cq¼;% dhn`';% HkofUr\
(?k) ujk.kka izFke% 'k=kq% d%\
(Ä) lqqfèk;% l[;a osQu lg Hkofr\
(p) vLekfHk% dhn`'k% o`{k% lsforO;%\

2- v/ksfyf[krs vUo;};s fjDrLFkkuiwfr± oqQ#rμ


(d) ;% ------------------ mfí'; izoqQI;fr rL;k ------------------ l% èkzqoa izlhnfrA ;L; eu%
vdkj.k}sf"k vfLr] ra dFka ------------------ ifjrks"kf;";fr\
([k) ------------------ [kyq lalkjs ------------------ fujFkZde~ ukfLrA v'o% psr~ ------------------ ohj%]
[kj% ------------------ (ohj%) (Hkofr)

3- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka foykseinkfu ikBkr~ fpRok fy[kr&


(d) izlhnfr ------------------
([k) ew[kZ% ------------------
(x) cyh ------------------
lqHkkf"krkfu 53

(?k) lqyHk% ------------------


(Ä) laiÙkkS ------------------
(p) vLrs ------------------
(N) lkFkZde~ ------------------

4- v/ksfyf[krkuka okD;kuka Ñrs lekukFkZdku~ 'yksdka'kku~ ikBkr~ fpRok fy[kr&


(d) fo}ku~ l ,o Hkofr ;% vuqDre~ vfi rF;a tkukfrA
([k) euq";% leLoHkkoS% tuS% lg fe=krka djksfrA
(x) ifjJea oqQokZ.k% uj% dnkfi nq%[ka u izkIuksfrA
(?k) egkUr% tuk% loZnSo leizÑr;% HkofUrA

5- ;FkkfunsZ'ka ifjorZua fo/k; okD;kfu jp;r&


(d) xq.kh xq.ka tkukfrA (cgqopus)
([k) i'kq% mnhfjra vFk± x`ÊkfrA (deZokP;s)
(x) e`xk% e`xS% lg vuqoztfUrA (,dopus)
(?k) d% Nk;ka fuokj;frA (deZokP;s)

6- lfUèka@lfUèkfoPNsna oqQ#r&
(d) u $ vfLr $ m|ele% & -------------
([k) ------- $ ------ & rL;kixes
(x) vuqDre~ $ vfi $ Ågfr & -------------
(?k) ------ $ ---------- & xko'p
(Ä) ------ $ ---------- & ukfLr
(p) jDr% $ p $ vLre;s & -------------
(N) ------- $ ----------- & ;kstdLr=k
7- laLÑrsu okD;iz;ksxa oqQ#r&
(d) ok;l% -------------------
([k) fufeÙke~ -------------------
54 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(x) lw;Z% -------------------


(?k) fid% -------------------
(Ä) ofÉ% -------------------

ifj;kstukdk;Ze~

(d) m|eL; egÙoa o.kZ;r% i×p'yksdku~ fy[krA


vFkok
dkfi dFkk ;k Hkof•% ifBrk L;kr~ ;L;ka m|eL; egÙoa of.kZre~ rka LoHkk"k;k
fy[krA

([k) fufeÙkeqfí'; ;% izoqQI;fr èkqzoa l rL;kixes izlhnfrA ;fn Hkork dnkfi bZn`'k%
vuqHko% Ñr% rfgZ LoHkk"k;k fy[krA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
1- rRiq#"k lekl
'kjhjLFk% & 'kjhjs fLFkr%
x`gLFk% & x`gs fLFkr%
euLLFk% & eufl fLFkr%
rVLFk% & rVs fLFkr%
owQiLFk% & owQis fLFkr%
o`{kLFk% & o`{ks fLFkr%
foekuLFk% & foekus fLFkr%
2- vO;;hHkko lekl
fuxqZ.ke~ & xq.kkuke~ vHkko%
fueZf{kde~ & ef{kdk.kke~ vHkko%
lqHkkf"krkfu 55

futZye~ & tyL; vHkko%


fujkgkje~ & vkgkjL; vHkko%

3- i;kZ;okfpinkfu&
'k=kq% & fjiq%] vfj%] oSfj%
fe=ke~ & l[kk] cUèkq%] lqân~
ofÉ% & vfXu%] nkgd%] ikod%
lqfèk;% & fo}kal%] foKk%] vfHkKk%
v'o% & rqjx%] g;%] ?kksVd%
xt% & djh] gLrh] nUrh] ukx%A
o`{k% & nzqe%] r#%] egh#g%A
lfork & lw;Z%] fe=k%] fnokdj%] HkkLdj%A
eU=k% ^euukr~ =kk;rs bfr eU=k%A*
vFkkZr~ os 'kCn tks lksp&fopkj dj cksys tk,¡A lykg ysuk] eU=k.kk djukA eU=k~$vp~ (fdlh
Hkh nsork dks lEcksfèkr) oSfnd lwDr ;k izkFkZukijd oSfnd eU=k] osn dk ikB rhu izdkj dk
gS& ;fn NUnksc¼ vkSj mPp Loj ls cksyk tkus okyk gS rks ^½o~Q* gS] ;fn x|e; vkSj
eUnLoj esa cksyk tkus okyk gS rks ^;tql~* gS] vkSj ;fn NUnksc¼rk osQ lkFk xs;rk gS rks ^lkeu~*
gS (izkFkZukijd) ;tql~ tks fdlh nsork dks mn~fn"V djosQ cksyk x;k gks& ^vksa ue% f'kok;*
vkfnA iapra=k esa Hkh ea=k.kk] ijke'kZ] mins'k rFkk xqIr ea=k.kk osQ vFkZ esa bl 'kCn dk iz;ksx
gqvk gSA
56 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

lIre% ikB%

HkwdEifoHkhf"kdk
gekjs okrkoj.k esa HkkSfrd lq[k lk/uksa osQ lkFk&lkFk vusdksa vkink,¡ Hkh yxh jgrh gSaA
izkÑfrd vkink,¡ thou dks vLr&O;Lr dj nsrh gSaA dHkh fdlh egkekjh dh vkink]
ck<+ rFkk lw[ks dh vkink ;k rwiQku osQ :i esa Hk;Vj izy;μ ;s lc ge vius thou
esa ns[krs rFkk lqurs jgrs gSaA HkwoQEi Hkh ,slh gh vkink gS A ftlosQ ckjs esa ;gk¡ n`f"Vikr
fd;k x;k gSA bl ikB osQ ekè;e ls ;g crk;k x;k gS fd fdlh Hkh vkink esa fcuk
fdlh ?kcjkgV osQ] fgEer osQ lkFk fdl izdkj ge viuh lqj{kk Lo;a dj ldrs gSaA

,dksÙkj f}lgÏ∫h"VkCns (2001 bZLoh;s o"ks)Z x.krU=k&fnol&ioZf.k ;nk lexzefi


Hkkjr jk"Vªa u`R;&xhrokfn=kk.kke~ mYykls eXueklhr~ rnkdLeknso xqtZj& jkT;a
i;kZoQq ya] foi;ZLre~] ØUnufodya] foiUu×p tkre~A HkwdEiL; nk#.k& foHkhf"kdk
leLrefi xqtZj{ks=ka fo'ks"ks.k p dPNtuina èoalko'ks"kq ifjofrZrorhA HkwdEiL;
osQUnzHkwra Hkqtuxja rq e`fÙkdkØhMudfeo [k.M[k.Me~ tkre~A cgqHkwfedkfu Hkoukfu
{k.ksuSo èkjk'kk;hfu tkrkfuA mR[kkrk fo|qíhiLrEHkk%A fo'kh.kkZ% x`glksiku& ekxkZ%A
iQky};s foHkDrk Hkwfe%A HkwfexHkkZnqifj fuLljUrhfHk% nqokZj tyèkkjkfHk%&
HkwdEifoHkhf"kdk 57

egkIykoun`';e~ mifLFkre~A lgÏferk% izkf.kuLrq {k.ksuSo e`rk%A èoLrHkous"kq


lEihfMrk lgÏ'kks¿U;s lgk;rkFk± d#.kd#.ka ØUnfUr LeA gk nSo! {kqR{kked.Bk%
e`rizk;k% osQpu f'k'koLrq bZ'ojÑi;k ,o f}=kkf.k fnukfu thoua èkkfjroUr%A
b;eklhr~ HkSjofoHkhf"kdk dPN HkwdEiL;A i×pksÙkj f}lgÏ∫h"VkCns (2005
bZLoh;s o"ksZ) vfi d'ehj izkUrs ikfdLrku ns'ks p èkjk;k% egRdEiua tkre~A
;LekRdkj.kkr~ y{kifjferk% tuk% vdkydkydofyrk%A i`Foh dLekRizdEirs
oSKkfudk% bfr fo"k;s dFk;fUr ;r~ i`fFkO;k vUrxZHksZ fo|ekuk% c`gR;% ik"kk.k&
f'kyk ;nk la?k"kZ.ko'kkr~ =kqV~;fUr rnk tk;rs Hkh"k.ka laL[kyue~] laL[kyutU;a
dEiu×pA rnSo Hk;kogdEiua èkjk;k mifjryeI;kxR; egkdEiua tu;fr ;su
egkfouk'kn`';a leqRi|rsA
Tokykeq[kioZrkuka foLiQksVSjfi HkwdEiks tk;r bfr dFk;fUr HkwdEifo'ks"kKk%A
i`fFkO;k% xHksZ fo|ekuks¿fXu;Znk [kfute`fÙkdkf'kykfnl×p;a DoFk;fr rnk rRloZeo s
ykokjlrke~ misR; nqokZjxR;k èkjka ioZra ok fonk;Z cfgfuZ"ØkefrA èkweHkLeko`ra
tk;rs rnk xxue~A lsfYl;'k&rki&ek=kk;k v"V'krkÄïrkeqixrks¿;a ykokjlks ;nk
unhosxsu izogfr rnk ik'oZLFkxzkek uxjkf.k ok rnqnjs {k.ksuSo lekfo'kfUrA
fugU;Urs p foo'kk% izkf.ku%A Tokykeqn~fxjUr ,rs ioZrk vfi Hkh"k.ka
HkwdEia tu;fUrA
;|fi nSo% izdksiks HkwdEiks uke] rL;ksi'keuL; u dks¿fi fLFkjksik;ks
n`';rsA izÑfr le{ke|kfi foKkuxfoZrks ekuo% okeudYi ,o rFkkfi
HkwdEijgL;Kk% dFk;fUr ;r~ cgqHkwfedHkoufuekZ.ka u dj.kh;e~A rVcUèka fuekZ;
c`gUek=ka unhtyefi uSdfLeu~ LFkys iq×thdj.kh;e~ vU;Fkk vlUrqyuo'kkn~
HkwdEiLlEHkofrA oLrqr% 'kkUrkfu ,o i×prÙokfu f{kfrtyikodlehjxxukfu
HkwryL; ;ksx{ksekH;ka dYiUrsA v'kkUrkfu [kyq rkU;so egkfouk'ke~ miLFkki;fUrA
58 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

'kCnkFkkZ%
i;kZoqQye~ μ ifjr%O;koqQye~ μ pkjksa vksj ls cspSu
foi;ZLre~ μ vLrO;Lre~ μ vLrO;Lr
foiUue~ μ foifÙk;qDre~ μ (foifÙkxzLr) eqlhcr esa
nk#.kfoHkhf"kdk μ Hk;Vj=kkl% μ Hk;;qDr
èoalko'ks"kq μ uk'kksijkUre~ vof'k"Vs"kq μ fouk'k osQ ckn cph gqbZ oLrq
e`fÙkdkØhMudfeo μ e`fÙkdk;k% ØhMude~ bo μ fe^h osQ f[kykSus osQ leku
cgqHkwfedkfu Hkoukfu μ cgO;% Hkwfedk% ;s"kq μ cgqeaftys edku
rkfu Hkoukfu
mR[kkrk% μ mRikfVrk% μ m[kM+ x;s
fo'kh.kkZ% μ u"Vk% μ fc[kj x;s
iQky};s μ [k.M};s μ nks [k.Mksa esa
fuLljUrhfHk% μ fuxZPNUrhfHk% μ fudyrh gqbZ
nqokZj μ nq%[ksu fuokjf;rqa ;ksX;e~ μ ftudks gVkuk dfBu gS
egkIykoue~ μ egr~ Iykoue~ μ fo'kky ck<+
{kqR{kked.B% μ {kqèkk {kke% d.Bk% ;s"kke~ rs μ Hkw[k ls nqcZy d.B okys
dkydofyrk% μ fnoaxrk% μ e`R;q dks izkIr gq,
la?k"kZ.ko'kkr~ laL[kyue~ μ fopyue~ μ LFkku ls gVuk
tu;fr μ mRiÛka djksfr μ mRiUu djrh gS
HkwdEifo'ks"kKk% μ Hkqo% dEiujgL;L; Kkrkj% μ Hkwfe osQ dEiUu osQ jgL;
dks tkuus okys
[kfut μ mR[kuukr~ izkIra nzO;e~ μ Hkwfe dks [kksnus ls izkIr oLrq
DoFk;fr μ mÙkIra djksfr μ mckyrh gS] rikrh gS
fonk;Z μ fonh.k± ÑRok] fHkRok μ iQkM+dj
ik'oZLFk&xzkek% μ fudVLFk xzkek% μ lehi osQ xk¡o
mnjs μ oqQ{kkS μ isV esa
lekfo'kfUr & vUr% xPNfUr μ lek tkrh gSa
HkwdEifoHkhf"kdk 59

mn~fxjUr% μ izdV;Ur% μ izdV djrs gq,


mi'keuL; μ 'kkUrs% μ 'kkUr djus dk
okeudYi μ okeuln`'k% μ ckSuk
fuekZ; μ fuekZ.ka ÑRok μ cukdj
iq×thdj.kh;e~ μ laxzg.kh;e~ μ bd_k djuk pkfg,
;ksx{ksekH;ke~ μ vizkIrL; izkfIr% ;ksx% μ vizkIr dh izkfIr ;ksx gS
izkIrL; j{k.ka {kse% rkH;ke~ izkIr dh j{kk {kse gS

vH;kl%
1- vèkksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLo`QrHkk"k;k fy[kr &
(d) leLrjk"Vªa dhn`o~Q mYykls eXue~ vklhr~\
([k) HkwdEiL; osQUnzfcUnq% d% tuin% vklhr~\
(x) i`fFkO;k% L[kyukr~ ¯d tk;rs\
(?k) lexzks fo'o% oSQ% vkrafdr% n`';rs\
(Ä) osQ"kka foLiQksVSjfi HkwdEiks tk;rs\
(p) dhn`'kkfu Hkoukfu èkjk'kk;hfu tk;Urs\

2- lfUèka@lfUèkfoPNsna p oqQ#r &


(v) ijlo.kZlfUèkfu;ekuqlkje~ &
(d) fd×p ¾ ---------------- $ p
([k) ---------------- ¾ uxje~ $ rq
(x) foiUu×p ¾ ---------------- $ ----------------
(?k) ------------------ ¾ fde~ $ uq
(Ä) HkqtuxjUrq ¾ ---------------- $ ----------------
(p) ---------------- ¾ le~ $ p;%
60 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(vk) folxZlfUèkfu;ekuqlkje~&
(d) f'k'koLrq ¾ ---------------- $ ----------------
([k) ---------------- ¾ foLiQksV%S $ vfi
(x) lgLkz'kks¿U;s ¾ ---------------- $ vU;s
(?k) fofp=kks¿;e~ ¾ fofp=k% $ ----------------
(Ä) ---------------- ¾ HkwdEi% $ tk;rs
(p) okeudYi ,o ¾ ---------------- $ ----------------

3- (v) ^d* LrHHks inkfu nÙkkfu ^[k* LrEHks foykseinkfu] r;ks% la;ksxa oqQ#r&
d [k
lEiUue~ izfo'kUrhfHk%
èoLrHkous"kq lqfpjs.kSo
fuLljUrhfHk% foiUue~
fuekZ; uofufeZr Hkous"kq
{k.ksuSo fouk';

(vk) ^d* LrEHks inkfu nÙkkfu ^[k* LrEHks lekukFkZdinkfu r;ks% la;ksxa oqQ#r &
d [k
i;kZoqQye~ u"Vk%
fo'kh.kkZ% Øksèk;qDrke~
mn~fxjUr% la=kksV~;
fonk;Z O;koqQye~
izoqQfirke~ izdV;Ur%

4- (v) mnkgj.keuql`R; izÑfr&izR;;;ks% foHkkxa oqQ#r&


;Fkk& ifjofrZrorh & ifj $ o`r~ $ Drorq $ Ähi~ (L=kh)
èk`roku~ & ----------------- $ -----------------
glu~ & ----------------- $ -----------------
HkwdEifoHkhf"kdk 61

fo'kh.kkZ & fo $ 'kÏ $ Dr $ ---------------


izpyUrh & ----------------- $ ----------------- $ 'kr` $ Ähi~ (L=kh)
gr% & ----------------- $ -----------------
(vk) ikBkr~ fofpR; leLrinkfu fy[kr&
egr~ p rr~ dEiua ¾ ----------------------------------
nk#.kk p lk foHkhf"kdk ¾ ----------------------------------
èoLrs"kq p rs"kq Hkous"kq ¾ ----------------------------------
izkDrus p rfLeu~ ;qxs ¾ ----------------------------------
egr~ p rr~ jk"Vªa rfLeu~ ¾ ----------------------------------

5- LFkwyinkfu vkèk`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&


(d) HkwdEifoHkhf"kdk fo'ks"ks.k dPNtuina èoalko'ks"ks"kq ifjofrZrorhA
([k) oSKkfudk% dFk;fUr ;r~ i`fFkO;k% vUrxZHksZ] ik"kk.kf'kykuka la?k"kZ.ksu dEiua tk;rsA
(x) foo'kk% izkf.ku% vkdk'ks fiihfydk% bo fugU;UrsA
(?k) ,rkn`'kh Hk;kog?kVuk x<+oky{ks=ks ?kfVrkA
(Ä) rfnnkuhe~ HkwdEidkj.ka fopkj.kh;a fr"BfrA

6- ^HkwdEifo"k;s* i×pokD;fere~ vuqPNsna fy[krA

7- dks"BosQ"kq nÙks"kq /krq"kq funsZ'kkuqlkja ifjorZua fo/k; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) lexza Hkkjra mYykls eXu% ------------------- (vl~ $ yV~ ydkjs)
([k) HkwdEifoHkhf"kdk dPNtuina fou"Va ------------------- (Ñ $ Drorq $ Ähi~)
(x) {k.ksuoS izkf.ku% x`gfoghuk% ------------------- (Hkw $ yÄ~] izFke iq#"k cgqopu)
(?k) 'kkUrkfu i×prÙokfu HkwryL; ;ksx{ksekH;ka ------------------- (Hkw $ yV~] izFke iq#"k
cgqopu)
(Ä) ekuok% ------------------- ;r~ cgqHkwfedHkoufuekZ.ka dj.kh;e~ u ok\ (i`PN~ $ yV~]
izFke iq#"k cgqopu)
(p) unhosxsu xzkek% rnqnjs ------------------- (le~ $ vk $ fo'k~ $ fof/fyÄ~] izFke iq#"k
,d opu)
62 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%

HkwdEi ifjp; μ Hkwfe dk dEiu HkwdEi dgykrk gSA og fcUnq HkwdEi dk mn~xe osQUnz
dgk tkrk gS] ftl fcUnq ij dEiu dh mRifÙk gksrh gSA dEiu rjax osQ :i esa fofoèk fn'kkvksa
esa vkxs pyrk gSA ;s rjaxas lHkh fn'kkvksa esa mlh izdkj iSQyrh gSa tSls fdlh 'kkUr rkykc esa
iRFkj osQ VqdM+kas dks isaQdus ls rjaxsa mRiUu gksrh gSaA
èkjkry ij oqQN LFkku ,sls gSa tgk¡ HkwdEi izk;% vkrs gh jgrs gSaA mnkgj.k osQ vuqlkj& iz'kkUr
egklkxj osQ pkjkas vksj osQ izns'k] fgekpy izns'k] xXk] czãiq=k dk rVh; Hkkx bu {ks=kksa esa
vusd HkwdEi vk, ftuesa ls oqQN rks vR;fèkd Hk;kog vkSj fouk'kdkjh FksA lqukeh Hkh ,d
izdkj dk HkwdEiu gh gS ftlesa Hkwfe osQ Hkhrj vR;Ur xgjkbZ ls rhoz dEiu mRiUu gksrk gSA
;gh dEiu leqnz osQ ty dks dkiQh m¡QpkbZ rd rhozrk iznku djrk gSA iQyLo:i rVh; {ks=k
lokZfèkd izHkkfor gksrs gSaA lqukeh dk Hkh"k.k izdksi 20 flrEcj 2004 dks gqvkA ftldh
pisV esa Hkkjrh; izk;}hi lfgr vusd ns'k vk x;sA f{kfr] ty] ikod] xxu vkSj lehj bu
i×prRoksa esa lUrqyu cuk, j[kdj izkÑfrd vkinkvksa ls cpk tk ldrk gSA blosQ foijhr
vlUrqfyr i×prRoksa ls l`f"V fou"V gks ldrh gS\

HkwdEifo"k;s izkphuere~
izkphuS% ½f"kfHk% vfi LoLoxzUFks"kq HkwdEiksYys[k% Ñr% ;su Li"Va Hkofr ;r~ HkwdEik%
izkphudkys¿fi vk;kfUr LeA
;Fkk&
ojkglafgrk;ke~&
f{kfrdEiekgqjsosQ eáUrtZyfuokfllÙoÑre~
HkwHkkjf[kUufnXxtfu%'okl leqn~Hkoa pkU;sA
vfuyks¿fuysu fufgr% f{krkS iru~ lLoua djksR;U;s
osQfpr~ Ron`"VdkfjrfeneU;s izkgqjkpk;kZ%AA
e;wjfp=ks
dnkfpr~ HkwdEi% Js;ls¿fi dYirsA ,rkn`'kk% vfi mYys[kk% vLekoaQ lkfgR;s leqiYkH;Urs
;Fkk ok#.ke.MyekS'kuls &
HkwdEifoHkhf"kdk 63

izrhP;ka ;fn dEisr ok#.ks lIrosQ x.ks]


f}rh;;kes jk=kkS rq r`rh;s ok#.ka Le`re~ A
v=k o`f"V'p egrh 'kL;o`f¼LrFkSo p]
izKk èkeZjrk'pSo Hk;jksxfooftZrk% AA
mYdkHkwdEifnXnkglEHko% 'kL;o`¼;s A
{ksekjksX;lqfHk{kk;S o`"V;s p lq[kk; p A
HkwdEilek ,o vfXudEi%] ok;qdEi%] vEcqdEi% bR;soe¿U;s¿fi HkofUrA
64 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

v"Ve% ikB%

iz'u=k;e~
izLrqr dFkk :lh dFkkdkj fy;ks VkYLVk; dh izfl¼ dgkuh osQ vaxzsth vuqokn dk
laf{kIr :i esa iqujk[;ku gSA ;gk¡ lsok rFkk ijksidkj ij cy nsrs gq, dgk x;k gS fd
blosQ }kjk dBksj ls Hkh dBksj euq"; dk ân;&ifjofrZr gks ldrk gS ftldh orZeku
le; esa ekuo lekt osQ fy, egrh vko';drk gSA
df'pn~ jktk Loeufl fujUrja izorZekuk;kftKklk;k% lekèkkuk; dfLe¡f'pnkJes
fuolrks equ%s ik'oZeiq kxPNr~A rnkuha eqfu% Lodk;Zlya Xu ,o jktkua ;Fks"VeH;uUnr~A
jktk ra eqfua iz'u=k;ei`PNr~& d% le;% Js"B%\ d% iqjQ"k% Js"B%\ ¯d deZ p
Js"Be~\ bfrA eqfuLrq jktkua izfr u è;kRok Lodk;Zesokdjksr~A

r=kkJes jkKks fuoklkfnO;oLFkkefi fuèkkZ;Z eqfuuZ fdeI;okspr~ izR;qr Lodh;kfu


dk;kZf.k ;FkkiwoeZ kpjr~A jktk iqu% iqu% rkuso iz'ukuqiLFkkI; equ#s Ùkja izrhf{kroku~A
iz'u=k;e~ 65

fdUrq eqfuuZ fdefi oDrqeqRlqd%A l p fujUrjekJeL; d"kZ.ka] ektZua] lspua]


rFkkU;kfu dk;kZf.k drq± O;ki`r%A jktk fujk'kks HkwRok izR;korZuL; fopkja pdkjA
vFkkijs|%q jkKks jktèkkuha izfr izLFkkuksRlqdL; iqjr% df'pr~ 'kL=kkgr% JeDykUr%
iq#"k% vkJeekxr%A rL; d"Va foyksD; n;knzksZ eqfu;ZFkklkè;a rL;ksipkjs izo`Ùk%A
jktkfi rkn`'kL; vkrqjL; n'k;k fody bo equsLrfLeu~ dk;sZ rnkns'ksu lgk;rka
pdkjA dfri;Sjso fnolSjkxUrqdks equs% jkK'pksipkjs.k LoLFkks tkr%A
l p jktkueqokpμ e;k osQukfi dkj.ksu Øksèkkfo"Vsu jktSo gUrO; vklhr~
fdUrq ef}pkjL; izdk'kukn~ jktiq#"kk% eka Hk`'kerkM;u~ cUnhÑroUr'pA
;FkkdFkefi v=k fujkinekJeekxrks¿fLe iyk;ekuks cUèkukr~A vèkquk Hkorks
O;ogkjs.k dksiks es xfyr%A {kUrO;kss¿;a ojkdks tu%A vkKki;rq egkjkt%A
vFk jktkua eqfu#okp&¶eU;s Hkonh;L; iz'u=k;L; lekèkkueL; tuL;
ifjofrZrekulL; lso;So tkre~A eqfu% iqujfi fo'knhoqQoZUudFk;r~& v;eso
Js"B% le;% ;=k ekuo% ijksidkjs dfLeUufi deZf.k ok O;ki`r%A le{ka orZeku%
iq#"k ,o Js"B% dL;kfi lgk;rka dke;eku%A lsoo S Js"Ba deZ ;su ân;ifjorZuefi
tk;rsA¸ jktk equs#Ùkjiznkui¼R;k izeqfnr% HkwRok Louxja xr%A

'kCnkFkkZ%
izorZekuk;k% μ pyk;ekuk% μ pyrh gqbZ dk
mikxPNr~ μ lehia xroku~ μ fudV x;k
;Fks"Ve~ μ bPNkuqlkje~ μ LosPNk ls
vH;uUnu~ μ vfHkuUnua o`Qroku~ μ Lokxr fd;k
izrhf{kroku~ μ izrh{kke~ vdjksr~ μ izrh{kk dh
fu/kZ;Z μ fuf'pra ÑRok μ fuf'pr djosQ
izR;korZuL; μ izfr$vkorZuL; μ ykSVus dk
vijs|q% μ vijfLeu~ fnus μ vxys fnu
iqjr% μ le{ke~ μ lkeus
66 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

foyksD; μ n`"V~ok μ ns[kdj


;Fkklkè;e~ μ ;FkklaHkoe~ μ ftruk laHko Fkk
Hk`'ke~ μ vR;f/de~ μ vR;f/d
fujkine~ μ vkin~foghue~ μ foifÙk jfgr
xfyr% μ lekIr% μ u"V gks x;k
ojkdks μ foo'k% μ cspkjk
fo'knhoqQoZu~ μ foLrkja oqQoZu~ μ foLrkj djrs gq,
{kUrO;% μ {kek ;ksX;% μ {kek djus ;ksX;
izo`Ùk% μ layXu% μ yxk gqvk
izeqfnr% μ izd"ksZ.k eqfnr% μ vrho izlUu
O;ki`r% μ deZf.k fujr% μ dke esa yxk gqvk
pdkj μ vdjksr~ μ fd;k

vH;kl%

1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[krμ


(d) jktk fdeFk± equs% ik'oZeqikxPNr~\
([k) jktk eqfua dku~ iz'uku~ vi`PNr~\
(x) vijs|q% dhn`'k% iqjQ"k% vkJeekxr%\
(?k) iqjQ"k% dFka LoLFk% tkr%\
(Ä) Js"B% le;% d%\
(p) Js"Ba deZ fde~\

2- LFkwyinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#rμ


(d) jktk eqfua iz'u=k;ei`PNr~A
([k) eqfu% Lodk;ZlayXu ,o jktkue~ vH;uUnr~A
(x) jktk ftKklk;k% lek/kuk; equs% ik'oZexPNr~A
iz'u=k;e~ 67

(?k) jktk iz'uku~ miLFkkI; equs% mÙkja izrhf{kroku~A


(Ä) jktk 'kL=kkgrL; lgk;rke~ vdjksr~A

3- ^d* LrEHks nÙkkuka fo'ks"k.kinkuka ^[k* LrEHks nÙkS% fo'ks";S% lg la;kstua oqQ#rμ
(d) ([k) mÙkjkf.k
izorZekuk;k% eqfu% --------------
'kL=kkgr% vkJee~ --------------
n;knzZ% ftKklk;k% --------------
ojkd% fnolS% --------------
dfri;S% iqjQ"k% --------------
fujkine~ tu% --------------
Lodh;kfu deZ --------------
Js"Be~ dk;kZf.k --------------

4- ikBkr~ leLrina fpRok foxzg&okD;&le{ka fy[krμ


(d) iwoeZ ~ vufrØE; & ----------------------------
([k) 'kL=ks.k vkgr% & ----------------------------
(x) jkK% iq#"k% & ----------------------------
(?k) egku~ pklkS jktk & ----------------------------
(Ä) Jes.k DykUr% & ----------------------------
(p) vkinkuke~ vHkko% & ----------------------------

5- ikBkr~ fpRok vO;;inS% fjDrLFkkuiwfr± oqQ#rμ


(d) -------------- Hkorks O;ogkjs.k dksiks es xfyr%A
([k) jktk vkJes equs% -------------- vkxPNr~A
(x) eqfu% -------------- vkJes jkKks fuoklkfnO;oLFkkefi vdjksr~A
(?k) jktk -------------- rkuso i'pkr~ miLFkkfiroku~A
68 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

6- vèkksfyf[krkfu loZukeinkfu dLeS iz;qDrkfu bfr okD;le{ks fy[krμ


(d) jktk ra iz'u=k;ei`PNr~A
([k) rL; d"Va foyksD; eqfu% rL;ksipkjs izo`Ùk%A
(x) l fujk'kks HkwRok izR;korZuL; fopkjedjksr~A
(?k) l Lodk;ZlayXu ,o jktkua&;Fks"VeH;uUnr~A

7- lfUèkfoPNsna oqQ#rμ
(d) ;Fks"Ve~ & ------------------ $ ------------------
([k) izR;korZue~ & ------------------ $ ------------------
(x) rFkkU;kfu & ------------------ $ ------------------
(?k) df'pr~ & ------------------ $ ------------------
(Ä) lso;So & ------------------ $ ------------------
(p) rL;ksipkjs & ------------------ $ ------------------

ifj;kstukdk;Ze~
^lsokijeksèkeZ%* bfr Hkkoa o.kZ;u~ dkefi lR;?kVuka dFkka ok fy[kr&

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
Hkkf"kd foLrkj%μ
izorZekuk;k% & iz $ o`r~ $ 'kkup~ (L=kh-) "k"Bh fo- ,dopue~
mikxPNr~ & mi $ vk $ xe~ yÄ~ ydkj iz- iq- ,dopue~
vH;uUnr~ & vfHk $ √uUn~ $ yÄ~ ydkj iz- iq- ,dopue~
izrhf{kroku~ & izfr $ bZ{k~ $ √Drorq iz- iq- ,dopue~
fuèkkZ;Z & fuj~ $ √èk` (èkkj.ks) Y;i~ izR;;
vokspr~ & op~ $ yqX ydkj iz- iq- ,dopue~
izR;korZuL; & izfr $ vk $ o`r~ $ Y;qV~ izR;; "k"Bh fo- ,dopue~
iz'u=k;e~ 69

vijs|q% & (vO;; 'kCn) vij $ ,|ql~


O;ki`r% & fo $ vki` $ Dr
dfri; & (fo'ks"k.kine~) oqQN] dfr $ v;p~] iqo~Q p
dfri; 'kCn osQ :i vdkjkUr ia¡q- ^uj* 'kCn osQ leku gksaxsA bl 'kCn dk iz;ksx osQoy cgqopu
esa gksrk gSA
pdkj & √o`Q fyV~ ydkj izFke iq- ,dopue~
^o`Q* èkkrq osQ fyV~ ydkj dk :i
^ijks{ks fyV~*
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% pdkj pØrq% pozqQ%
eè;eiq#"k% pdFkZ pØFkq% pØ
mÙkeiq#"k% pdkj] pdj po`Qo po`Qe
ydkj
Nk=k ik¡p ydkjksa dk iz;ksx tkurs gSaA fdUrq laLÑr Hkk"kk esa nl ydkj gksrs gSaA nlksa ydkjksa osQ
Kku osQ fy, ^xe~* /krq dk mngkj.k ns[ksa&
xe~ /krq yV~ydkj% (orZekudky)
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% xPNfr xPNr% xPNfUr
eè;eiq#"k% xPNfl xPNFk% xPNFk
mÙkeiq#"k% xPNkfe xPNko% xPNke%

xe~ /krq yÄ~ydkj% (vu|ruHkwr)


,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vxPNr~ vxPNrke~ vxPNu~
eè;eiq#"k% vxPN% vxPNre~ vxPNr
mÙkeiq#"k% vxPNe~ vxPNko vxPNke
70 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

xe~ /krq y`V~ydkj% (lkekU; Hkfo";)


,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% xfe";fr xfe";r% xfe";fUr
eè;eiq#"k% xfe";fl xfe";Fk% xfe";Fk
mÙkeiq#"k% xfe";kfe xfe";ko% xfe";ke%
xe~ /krq yksV~ydkj% (vkKk)
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% xPNrq xPNrke~ xPNUrq
eè;eiq#"k% xPN xPNre~ xPNr
mÙkeiq#"k% xPNkfu xPNko xPNke
xe~ /krq fof/fyÄ~ydkj%
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% xPNsr~ xPNsrke~ xPNs;q%
eè;eiq#"k% xPNs% xPNsre~ xPNsr
mÙkeiq#"k% xPNs;e~ xPNso xPNse
xe~ /krq (vk'khfyZÄõ)
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% xE;kr~ xE;kLrke~ xE;klq%
eè;eiq#"k% xE;k% xE;kLre~ xE;kLr
mÙkeiq#"k% xE;kle~ xE;kLo xE;kLe
xe~ /krq ijks{ksHkwr (fyV~)
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% txke tXeLrq% tXeq%
eè;eiq#"k% txfeFk] txUFk tXeFkq% tXe
mÙkeiq#"k% txke] txe tfXeo tfXee
iz'u=k;e~ 71

xe~ /krq (vu|ruHkfo"; yqV~)


,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% xUrk xUrkjkS xUrkj%
eè;eiq#"k% xUrkfl xUrkLFk% xUrkLFk
mÙkeiq#"k% xUrkfLe xUrkLOk% xUrkLe%
xe~ /krq (lkekU;Hkwr&yqÄ~)
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vxer~ vxerke~ vxeu~
eè;eiq#"k% vxe% vxere~ vxer
mÙkeiq#"k% vxee~ vxeko vxeke
xe~ /krq (fØ;k foifÙk&yqÄ~)
,dopue~ f}opue~ cgqopue~
izFkeiq#"k% vxfe";r~ vxfe";rke~ vxfe";u~
eè;eiq#"k% vxfe";% vxfe";re~ vxfe";r
mÙkeiq#"k% vxfe";e~ vxfe";ko vxfe";ke

folxZ lfUèk esa folxZ osQ i'pkr~ l~ ;k r~ vkus ij folxZ osQ LFkku ij l~ gks tkrk gSA ;Fkkμ
liZ% $ liZfr = liZLliZfr
d% $ Roe~ = dLRoe~
eqfu% $ rq = eqfuLrq
bl lfUèk esa in osQ vfUre l~ dks # vkns'k gksrk gS rFkk # osQ m dk yksi gks tkrk gSA
eqfu% $ u = eqfuuZ
equs% $ mÙkje~ = equs#Ùkje~
folxZ osQ iwoZ v gks vkSj ckn esa Hkh v gks rks folxZ dk vks rFkk ckn osQ vdkj dk iwoZ :i
(¿) gks tkrk gSA
72 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

;Fkkμ
d% $ vfi = dks¿fi
l% $ vfi = lkss¿fi

ys[kd ifjp;%
fo'odFkk&lkfgR; esa :lh ys[kd fy;ks VkYLVk; dh vR;fèkd izflf¼ gSA lkfRodrk ls iw.kZ ,oa
èkjrh ls tqM+h gqbZ dgkfu;ksa osQ ys[kd osQ :i esa VkYLVk; us fo'o&dFkk txr~ dks cgqr izHkkfor
fd;k FkkA budk egku~ miU;kl ^okj ,.M ihl* mUuhloha 'krkCnh osQ Øhfe;k&;q¼ osQ dFkkud
ij vkèkkfjr gS tks ;q¼ dh fujFkZdrk vkSj 'kkfUr osQ i{k esa okrkoj.k izLrqr djrk gSA VkYLVk;
osQ fopkjksa dk egkRek xkUèkh ij cgqr izHkko iM+k FkkA nksuksa esa i=kkpkj Hkh gksrk FkkA fo'o dh
izeq[k Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh VkYLVk; dh jpukvksa osQ vuqokn gq, gSaA laLo`Qr esa Hkh mudh jpuk,¡
vuwfnr gSa tks ^VkYLVk; dFkk laxzg%* osQ uke ls izfl¼ gSaA
izLrqr dFkk izfl¼ :lh dFkkdkj fy;ks VkYLVk; dh ,d cgqizpfyr dgkuh osQ vaxzs”kh
'kh"kZd ‘Three question’ dk vuwfnr laf{kIr iqujk[;ku gSA ;g dgkuh lsok ,oa ijksidkjijd
gksus osQ vfrfjDr ân; ifjorZudkjh gSA dgkuh esa ekuo dh egÙkk Hkh izfrikfnr gSA bl dFkk dk
iqujk[;ku izks- mek'kadj 'kekZ ^½f"k* osQ }kjk fd;k x;k gSA izks- ½f"k u osQoy izfl¼ leh{kd
gSa vfirq fonXèk jpukdkj osQ :i esa Hkh izfl¼ gSaA laLo`Qr esa vkidh ,d ekSfyd dFkk
^,dkfdRoe~* lkfgR; vdkneh u;h fnYyh ls izdkf'kr ^laLo`Qr y?kqdFkk laxzg* esa ladfyr gSA
uoe% ikB%

izk.ksH;ks¿fi fiz;% lqân~


izLrqr ukV~;ka'k egkdfo fo'kk[knÙk }kjk jfpr ^eqækjk{kle~* uked ukVd osQ izFke
vV ls mn~/r` fd;k x;k gSA uUnoa'k dk fouk'k djus osQ ckn mlosQ fgrSf"k;ksa dks
[kkst&[kkstdj idM+okus osQ Øe esa pk.kD;] vekR; jk{kl ,oa mlosQ dqVfq Ec;ksa dh
tkudkjh izkIr djus osQ fy, pUnunkl ls okrkZyki djrk gS fdUrq pk.kD; dks
vekR; jk{kl osQ fo"k; esa dksbZ lqjkx u nsrk gqvk pUnunkl viuh fe=krk ij n`<+
jgrk gSA mlosQ eS=kh Hkko ls izlUu gksrk gqvk Hkh pk.kD; tc mls jktn.M dk Hk;
fn[kkrk gS] rc pUnunkl jktn.M Hkksxus osQ fy;s Hkh lg"kZ izLrqr gks tkrk gSA bl
izdkj vius lqân~ osQ fy, izk.kksa dk Hkh mRlxZ djus osQ fy;s rRij pUnunkl viuh
lqân~&fu"Bk dk ,d ToyUr mnkgj.k izLrqr djrk gSA
pk.kD;% & oRl! ef.kdkjJsf"Bua pUnunklfenkuha æ"VqfePNkfeA
f'k";% & rFksfr (fu"ØE; pUnunklsu lg izfo';) br% br% Jsf"Bu~
(mHkkS ifjØker%)
f'k";% & (mil`R;) mikè;k;! v;a Js"Bh pUnunkl%A
pUnunkl% & t;Rok;Z%
pk.kD;% & Jsf"Bu~! Lokxra rsA vfi izph;Urs laO;ogkjk.kka o`f¼ykHkk%\
pUnunkl% & (vkRexre~) vR;knj% 'kVuh;%A (izdk'ke~) vFk fde~A vk;ZL;
izlknsu v[kf.Mrk es of.kT;kA
pk.kD;% & Hkks Jsf"Bu~! izhrkH;% izÑfrH;% izfrfiz;fePNfUr jktku%A
pUnunkl% & vkKki;rq vk;Z%] ¯d fd;r~ p vLeTtukfn";rs bfrA
74 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

pk.kD;% & Hkks Jsf"Bu~! pUæxqIrjkT;fena u uUnjkT;e~A uUnL;So vFkZlEcUèk%


izhfreqRikn;frA pUæxqIrL; rq HkorkeifjDys'k ,oA
pUnunkl% & (lg"kZe)~ vk;Z! vuqxg` hrks¿fLeA
pk.kD;% & Hkks Jsf"Bu~! l pkifjDys'k% dFkekfoHkZofr bfr uuq Hkork
iz"VO;k% Le%A
pUnunkl% & vkKki;rq vk;Z%A
pk.kD;% & jktfu vfo#¼o`fÙkHkZoA
pUnunkl% & vk;Z! d% iquj/U;ks jkKks fo#¼ bfr vk;s.Z kkoxE;rs\
pk.kD;% & Hkokuso rkor~ izFkee~A
pUnunkl% & (d.kkSZ fi/k;) 'kkUra ikie~] 'kkUra ikie~A dhn`'kLr`.kkukefXuuk
lg fojks/%\
pk.kD;% & v;ehn`'kks fojks/% ;r~ Roe|kfi jktkiF;dkfj.kks¿ekR;jk{klL;
x`gtua Lox`gs j{kflA
pUnunkl% & vk;Z! vyhdesrr~A osQukI;uk;s.Z k vk;kZ; fuosfnre~A
pk.kD;% & Hkks Jsf"Bu~! vyek'kV;kA Hkhrk% iwojZ ktiq#"kk% ikSjk.kkfePNrkefi
x`gs"kq x`gtua fuf{kI; ns'kkUrja oztfUrA rrLrRizPNknua
nks"keqRikn;frA
pUnunkl% & ,oa uq bne~A rfLeu~ le;s vklhnLen~xg` s vekR;jk{klL; x`gtu
bfrA
pk.kD;% & iwoeZ ~ ^vu`re~*] bnkuhe~ ¶vklhr~¸ bfr ijLijfo#¼s opusA
pUnunkl% & vk;Z! rfLeu~ le;s vklhnLen~xg` s vekR;jk{kL; x`gtu bfrA
pk.kD;% & vFksnkuha DOk xr%\
pUnunkl% & u tkukfeA
pk.kD;% & dFka u Kk;rs uke\ Hkks Jsf"Bu~! f'kjfl Hk;e~] vfrnwja
rRizfrdkj%A
izk.ksH;ks¿fi fiz;% lqân~ 75

pUnunkl% & vk;Z! ¯d es Hk;a n'kZ;fl\ lUrefi xsgs vekR;jk{kL; x`gtua


u leiZ;kfe] ¯d iqujLkUre~\

pk.kD;% & pUnunkl! ,"k ,o rs fu'p;%\


pUnunkl% & ck<e~] ,"k ,o es fu'p;%A
pk.kD;% & (Loxre~) lk/q! pUnunkl lk/qA
lqyHks"oFkZykHks"kq ijlaons us tusA
d bna nq"dja dq;kZfnnkuha f'kfouk foukAA

'kCnkFkkZ%
ef.kdkj Jsf"Bue~ & jRudkja of.kta & ef.k dk O;kikjh
fu"ØE; & cfgxZRok & fudydj
mil`R; & lehia xRok & ikl tkdj
ifjØker% & ifjHkze.ka dqoZr% & (nksuksa) ifjHkze.k djrs gSa
76 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

izph;Urs & o`¯¼ izkIuqofUr & c<+rs gSa


laO;ogkjk.kke~ & O;kikjk.kke~ & O;kikjkas dk
vkRexre~ & Loxre~ & eu gh eu
'kVuh;% & lUnsgkLine~ & 'kadk djus ;ksX;
v[kf.Mrk & fuckZ/k & ck/kjfgr
of.kT;k & okf.kT;e~ & O;kikj
izhrkH;% & izlUukH;% & izlUu tuksa osQ izfr
izfrfiz;e~ & izR;qidkje~ & midkj osQ cnys fd;k
x;k midkj
vifjDys'k% & nq%[kkHkko% & nq[k dk vHkko
vkKki;rq & vkfn'krq & vkns'k nsa
vFkZlEcU/% & /uL; lEcU/% & /u dk lEcU/
ifjDys'k% & nq%[ke~ & nq%[k
iz"VO;k% & iz"Vqa;ksX;k% & iwNus ;ksX;
voxE;rs & Kk;rs & tkuk tkrk gS
vfo#¼o`fÙk% & vfo#¼LoHkko% & fojks/jfgr LoHkko okyk
fi/k; & vkPNk| & cUn dj
jktkiF;dkfj.k% & u`ikidkjdkfj.k% & jktkvksa dk vfgr djus
okys
vyhde~ & vlR;e~ & >wB
vuk;sZ.k & nq"Vsu & nq"V osQ }kjk
ikSjk.kke~ & uxjokfluke~ & uxj osQ yksxkas osQ
fuf{kI; & LFkkif;Rok & j[kdj
oztfUr & xPNfUr & tkrs gSa
izPNknue~ & vkPNknue~ & fNikuk
vekR;% & eU=kh & eU=kh
vlUre~ & u fuolUre~ & u jgus okys
ck<e~ & vke~ & gk¡
laosnus & leiZ.ks Ñrs lfr & leiZ.k ij
tus & yksosQ & lalkj esa
izk.ksH;ks¿fi fiz;% lqân~ 77

vafre 'yksd dk vUo;


vUo;% ijL; laosnus vFkZykHks"kq lqyHks"kq bna nq"dja deZ tus (yksosQ) f'kfouk fouk d%
oqQ;kZr~A
ijL; ijdh;L; vFkZL; laosnus leiZ.ks Ñrs lfr vFkZykHks"kq lqyHks"kq lRlq LokFk±
r`.khÑR; ijlaj{k.k:iesoa nq"dja deZ tus (yksosQ) ,osQu f'kfouk fouk RonU;% d%
oq Q ;kZ r ~ A f'kfojfi Ñrs ;q x s Ñroku~ Roa rq bnkuha dykS ;q x s djks f "k bfr
rrks¿I;fr'kf;r&lqpfjrRofefr Hkko%A
vFkZμnwljksa dh oLrq dks lefiZr djus ij cgqr /u izkIr gksus dh fLFkfr esa Hkh
nwljksa dh oLrq dh lqj{kk :ih dfBu dk;Z dks ,d f'kfo dks NksM+dj rqEgkjs
vykok nwljk dkSu dj ldrk gS\
vk'k;μ bl 'yksd osQ }kjk egkdfo fo'kk[knÙk us cM+s gh laf{kIr 'kCnksa esa pUnunkl osQ
xq.kksa dk o.kZu fd;k gSA blesa dfo us dgk gS fd nwljksa dh oLrq dh j{kk djuh
dfBu gksrh gSA ;gk¡ pUnunkl osQ }kjk vekR; jk{kl osQ ifjokj dh j{kk dk
dfBu dke fd;k x;k gSA U;klj{k.k dks egkdfo Hkkl us Hkh nq"dj dk;Z ekurs
gq, LoIuoklonÙke~ esa dgk gSμ nq"dja U;klj{k.ke~A
pUnunkl vxj vekR; jk{kl osQ ifjokja dks jktk dks lefiZr dj nsrk] rks jktk
mlls izlUu Hkh gksrk vkSj cgqr&lk /u ikfjrksf"kd osQ :i esa nsrk] ij mlus
HkkSfrd ykHk o yksHk dks njfdukj djrs gq, vius izk.kfiz; fe=k osQ ifjokja dh
j{kk dks viuk dÙkZO; ekuk vkSj bls fuHkk;k HkhA dfo us pUnunkl osQ bl dk;Z
dh rqyuk jktk f'kfo osQ dk;ks± ls dh gS ftUgksaus vius 'kj.kkxr diksr dh j{kk
osQ fy, vius 'kjhj osQ vaxksa dks dkVdj ns fn;k FkkA jktk f'kfo us rks lR;;qx
esa ,slk fd;k Fkk] ij pUnunkl us ,slk dk;Z bl dfy;qx esa fd;k gS] blfy, os
vkSj vf/d iz'kalk osQ ik=k gaSA

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[kriz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[kr&
(d) pUnunkl% dL; x`gtua Lox`gs j{kfr Le\
([k) r`.kkuka osQu lg fojks/% vfLr\
78 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(x) d% pUnunkla æ"VqfePNfr\


(?k) ikBs¿fLeu~ pUnunklL; rqyuk osQu lg Ñrk\
(Ä) izhrkH;% izÑfrH;% izfrfiz;a osQ bPNfUr\
(p) dL; izlknsu pUnunklL; okf.kT;k v[kf.Mrk\
2- LFkwyk{kjinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#rμ
(d) f'kfouk fouk bna nq"dja dk;± d% oqQ;kZr~A
([k) izk.ksH;ks¿fi fiz;% lqârA
(x) vk;ZL; izlknsu esa okf.kT;k v[kf.MrkA
(?k) izhrkH;% izÑfrH;% jktku% izfrfiz;fePNfUrA
(Ä) r`.kkuke~ vfXuuk lg fojks/ks HkofrA
3- funsZ'kkuqlkja lfU/a@lfU/foPNsna dq#rμ
(d) ;Fkkμ d% $ vfi & dks¿fi
izk.ksH;% $ vfi & ------------
------------ $ vfLe & lTtks¿fLeA
vkReu% $ ------------ & vkReuks¿f/dkjln`'ke~
([k) ;Fkkμ lr~ $ fpr~ & lfPpr~
'kjr~ $ pUæ% & ------------
dnkfpr~ $ p & ------------
4- v/ksfyf[krokD;s"kq funsZ'kkuqlkja ifjorZua dq#rμ
;Fkkμ izfrfiz;fePNfUr jktku%A (,dopus)
izfrfiz;fePNfr jktkA
(d) l% izÑrs% 'kksHkka i';fr (cgqopus)
([k) vga u tkukfeA (eè;eiq#"kSdopus)
(x) Roa dL; x`gtua Lox`gsj{kfl\ (mÙkeiq#"kSdopus)
(?k) d% bna nq"dja dq;kZr~\ (izFkeiq#"kcgqopus)
(Ä) pUnunkla æ"VqfePNkfeA (izFkeiq#"kSdopus)
(p) jktiq#"kk% ns'kkUrja oztfUrA (izFkeiq#"kSdopus)
izk.ksH;ks¿fi fiz;% lqân~ 79

5- dks"BosQ"kq nÙk;ks% in;ks% 'kq¼a fodYia fofpR; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r&


(d) ----------------- fouk bna nq"dja d% oqQ;kZr~A (pUnunklL; @ pUnunklsu)
([k) ----------------- bna o`ÙkkUra fuosn;kfeA (xqjos @ xqjks%)
(x) vk;ZL; ----------------- v[kf.Mrk es of.kT;kA (izlknkr~ @ izlknsu)
(?k) vye~ ----------------- A (dygsu @ dygkr~)
(Ä) ohj% ----------------- ckya j{kfrA (¯lgsu @ ¯lgkr~)
(p) ----------------- Hkhr% ee Hkzkrk lksikukr~ virr~A (oqQDoqQjs.k @ oqQDoqQjkr~)
(N) Nk=k% ----------------- iz'ua i`PNfrA (vkpk;Ze~ @ vkpk;sZ.k)
6- v/ksnÙke×tw"kkr% leqfprinkfu x`ghRok foykseinkfu fy[kr&

vknj% vlR;e~ xq.k% i'pkr~ rnkuhe~ r=k

(d) vuknj% ------------------------


([k) nks"k% ------------------------
(x) iwoZe~ ------------------------
(?k) lR;e~ ------------------------
(Ä) bnkuhe~ ------------------------
(p) v=k ------------------------
7- mnkgj.keuql`R; v/ksfyf[krkfu inkfu iz;qT; i×pokD;kfu jp;r&
;Fkk fu"ØE;& f'kf{kdk iqLrdky;kr~ fu"ØE; d{kka izfo'kfrA
(d) mil`R; ------------------------
([k) izfo'; ------------------------
(x) æ"Vqe~ ------------------------
(?k) bnkuhe~ ------------------------
(Ä) v=k ------------------------
80 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
dfoifjp;%
^eqækjk{kle~* bfr ukEu% ukVdL; iz.ksrk fo'kk[knÙk vklhr~A l% jktoa'ks mRiUu% vklhr~A rL;
firk HkkLdjnÙk% egkjktL; inoha izkIuksr~A fo'kk[knÙk% jktuhrs% U;k;L; T;ksfr"kfo"k;L; p
fo}ku~ vklhr~A oSfnd/ekZoyEch HkwRok¿fi l% ckS¼/eZL; vfi vknjedjksr~A
xzUFkifjp;%
^eqækjk{kle~* ,de~ ,sfrgkflda ukVde~ vfLrA n'kkVs"kq fojfprs vfLeÂkVosQ pk.kD;L;
jktuhfrddkS'kyL; cqf¼oSHkoL; jk"Vªl×pkyukFkZe~ dwVuhrhuke~ fun'kZuefLrA vfLeÂkVosQ
pk.kD;L;kekR;jk{klL; p dwVuhR;ks% la?k"kZ%A
HkkofoLrkj%
pk.kD;& pk.kD;% ,d% fo}ku~ czkã.k% vklhr~A rL; fir`iznÙka uke fo".kqxqIr% vklhr~A
v;eso ^dkSfVY;* bfr ukEuk izfl¼%A osQ"kkf×pr~ fonq"kke~ bnefi erefLr ;r~ jktuhfr'kkL=ks
oqQfVyuhrs% izfr"Bkkiuk; rL;k% Lo&thous mi;ksxk; p v;a ^dkSfVY;%* bR;fi dF;rsA
p.kdukedL; dL;fpr~ vkpk;ZL; iq=kRokr~ ^pk.kD;%* bfr ukEuk l izfl¼% tkr%A uUnkuka
jkT;dky% 'kro"kkZf.k i;ZUre~ vklhr~A rs"kq vfUres"kq }kn'ko"ks"Z kq ,rsu lqekY;knhuke~ v"VuUnkuka
lagkj% dkfjr% rFkk p pUæxqIrekS;%Z u`iRosu jkt¯lgklus LFkkfir%A v;esd% egku~ jktuhfrK%
vklhr~A ,rsu Hkkjrh;'kkluO;oLFkk;k% izkekf.kdrÙokuka o.kZusu ;qDra ¶vFkZ'kkL=ke~¸ bfr
vfregÙoiw.kZ% xzUFk% jfpr%A
pUæxqIrekS;Z%& pUæxqIr% egkin~euUnL; eqjk;k% p iq=k% vklhr~A pk.kD;L; ekxZn'kZus
vusu prqfo±'kfro"kZi;ZUra jkT;a Ñre~A
jk{kl%& uUnjkK% LokfeHkDr% prqj% iz/kukekR;% vklhr~A
pUnunkl%& dqlqeiqj ukfEu uxjs egkekR;L; jk{klL; fiz;rea ik=ka fe=k×p vklhr~A l
ef.kdkj% Js"Bh p vklhr~A vL;So x`gkr~ jk{kl% lifjokj uxjkr~ cfgjxPNr~A
Hkkf"kd foLrkj%
1- i`Fko~Q vkSj fouk 'kCnksa osQ ;ksx esa f}rh;k r`rh;k vkSj iapeh rhuksa foHkfDr;ksa dk iz;ksx&
;Fkk&tya fouk thoua u lEHkofrA f}rh;k
izk.ksH;ks¿fi fiz;% lqân~ 81

tysu fouk thoua u lEHkofrA r`rh;k


tykr~ fouk thoua u lEHkofrA iapeh
ifjJea i`Fko~Q ukfLr lq[ke~A f}rh;k
ifjJes.k i`Fko~Q ukfLr lq[ke~A r`rh;k
ifjJekr~ i`Fko~Q ukfLr lq[ke~A iapeh
2- vuh;j~ izR;;iz;ksx%
vR;knj% 'kVuh;%
tUrq'kkyk n'kZuh;k
;kposQH;% nkua nkuh;e~
osneU=kk% Lej.kh;k%
iqLrdesykiosQ iqLrdkfu Ø;.kh;kfuA
(d) vuh;j~ izR;;L; iz;ksx% ;ksX;kFksZ HkofrA
([k) vuh;j~ izR;;s ^vuh;* bfr vof'k";rsA
(x) vL; :ikf.k f=k"kq fyXs"kq pyfUrA
;Fkk & iq¡fYyXs L=khfyXs uiaqldfyXs
iBuh;% iBuh;k iBuh;e~
buosQ :i Øe'k% nsoor~] yrkor~ rFkk iQyor~ pysxsaA
3- mHk loZukeine~
iq¡fYyXs uiqaldfyXs L=khfyXs
mHkkS mHks mHks
mHkkS mHks mHks
mHkkH;ke~ mHkkH;ke~ mHkkH;ke~
mHkkH;ke~ mHkkH;ke~ mHkkH;ke~
mHkkH;ke~ mHkkH;ke~ mHkkH;ke~
mHk;ks% mHk;ks% mHk;ks%
mHk;ks% mHk;ks% mHk;ks%
82 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

n'ke% ikB%

vU;ksDr;%
vU;ksfDr vFkkZr~ fdlh dh iz'kalk vFkok fuUnk vizR;{k :i ls vFkok fdlh cgkus ls
djukA tc fdlh izrhd ;k ekè;e ls fdlh osQ xq.k dh iz'kalk ;k nks"k dh fuUnk dh tkrh
gS] rc og ikBdksa osQ fy, vf/d xzká gksrh gSA izLrqr ikB esa ,slh gh lkr vU;ksfDr;ksa
dk lVyu gS ftuesa jktgal] dksfdy] es?k] ekykdkj] ljksoj rFkk pkrd osQ ekè;e ls
ekuo dks ln~of` Ùk;ksa ,oa lRdeksZa osQ izfr izoÙ` k gksus dk lan's k fn;k x;k gSA
,osQu jktgalsu ;k 'kksHkk ljlks Hkosr~ A
u lk cdlgÏs.k ifjrLrhjokfluk AA1AA
HkqDrk e`.kkyiVyh Hkork fuihrk
U;Ecwfu ;=k ufyukfu fu"ksforkfu A
js jktgal! on rL; ljksojL;]
ÑR;su osQu Hkforkfl Ñrksidkj% AA 2AA
rks;SjYiSjfi d#.k;k HkheHkkukS funk?ks]
ekykdkj! O;jfp Hkork ;k rjksjL; iqf"V% A
lk fda 'kD;k tuf;rqfeg izko`"ks.;su okjka]
/kjklkjkufi fofdjrk fo'orks okfjnsu AA3AA
vkisfnjs¿EcjiFka ifjr% irXk%]
Hk`Xk jlkyeqoqQykfu lekJ;Urs A
lVkspe×pfr ljLRof; nhunhuks]
ehuks uq gUr dreka xfreH;qiSrq AA 4AA
vU;ksDr;% 83

,d ,o [kxks ekuh ous olfr pkrd% A


fiikflrks ok fez;rs ;kprs ok iqjUnje~ AA5AA
vk'okL; ioZroqQya riuks".krIr&
eqíkenkofo/qjkf.k p dkuukfu A
ukukunhun'krkfu p iwjf;Rok]
fjDrks¿fl ;Ttyn! lSo roksÙkek Jh% AA6AA
js js pkrd! lko/kueulk fe=k {k.ka Jw;rk&
eEHkksnk cgoks fg lfUr xxus losZ¿fi uSrkn`'kk% A
osQfpn~ o`f"VfHkjknzZ;fUr olq/ka xtZfUr osQfpn~ o`Fkk]
;a ;a i';fl rL; rL; iqjrks ek czwfg nhua op% AA7AA

'kCnkFkkZ%
ljl% & rMkxL; & rkykc dk
cdlglzs.k & cdkuka lglzs.k & gtkjksa cxqyksa ls
ifjr% & loZr% & pkjksa vksj
rhjokfluk & rVfuokfluk & rVoklh osQ }kjk
e`.kkyiVyh & deyukylewg% & deyuky dk lewg
fuihrkfu & fu% 'ks"ks.k ihrkfu & HkyhHkk¡fr ih;k x;k
vEcwfu & tykfu & ty
ufyukfu & deykfu & deyksa dks
fu"ksforkfu & lsforkfu & lsou fd;s x;s
Hkfork & Hkfo";fr & gksxk
ÑR;su & dk;sZ.k & dk;Z ls
Ñrksidkj% & Ñr% midkj% ;su l% & midkj fd;k gqvk(izR;qidkj
djus okyk)
84 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

rks;S% & tyS% & ty ls


HkheHkkukS & Hkhe%Hkkuq% ;fLeu~ & xzh"edky esa (lw;Z osQ vR;fèkd
l% HkheHkkuq% rfLeu~ rius ij)
funk?ks & xzh"edkys & xzh"edky esa
ekykdkj & gs ekykdkj! & gs ekyh!
iqf"V% & iq"Vrk] o`f¼% & iks"k.k
tuf;rqe~ & mRiknf;rqe~ & mRiUUk djus osQ fy,
izko`"ks.;su & o"kkZdkfyosQu & o"kkZdkfyd
okfjnsu & tynsu & ckny osQ }kjk
/kjklkjku~ & /kjk.kka vklkjku~ & /kjkvksa dk izokg
okjke~ & tykuke~ & tyksa osQ
fofdjrk & (tya)o"kZ;rk & (ty) cjlkrs gq,
vkisfnjs & izkIroUr% & izkIr dj fy,
vEcjiFke~ & vkdk'kekxZe~ & vkdk'k&ekxZ dks
irÄõk% & [kxk% & i{kh
Hk`Äõk% & Hkzejk% & HkkSajs] Hk¡ojs
jlkyeqoqQykfu & jlkykuka eqoqQykfu & vke dh e×tfj;ksa dks
lÄïkspe~ v×pfr & lVkspa xPNfr & laoqQfpr gksus ij
ehu% & eRL;% & eNyh
iqjUnje~ & bUnze~ & bUnz dks
ekuh & LokfHkekuh & LokfHkekuh
vH;qiSrq & izkIuksrq & izkIr djsa
vk'okL; & lek'okL; & larq"V djosQ
ioZroqQye~ & ioZrkuka oqQye~ & ioZrksa osQ lewg dks
riuks".krIre~ & riuL; m".ksu rIre~] & lw;Z dh xehZ ls ris gq, dks
míkenkofo/qjkf.k & mUurdk"Bjfgrkfu & m¡Qps dk"Bksa (o`{kksa) ls jfgr
dks
vU;ksDr;% 85

ukukunhun'krkfu & ukuk u|%]unkuka 'krkfu p & vusd ufn;ksa vkSj lSoQM+kas unksa
dks
dkuukfu & oukfu & ou
iwjf;Rok & iw.k± ÑRok & iw.kZ djosQ (Hkjdj)
fiikflr% & r`f"kr% & I;klk
lko/kueulk & è;kusu & è;ku ls
vEHkksnk% & es?kk% & ckny
xxus & vkdk'ks & vkdk'k esa
vknzZ;fUr & tysu Dysn;fUr & ty ls fHkxks nsrs gSa
olq/ke~ & i`Fohe~ & i`Foh dks
xtZfUr & xtZua (èofue~) oqQoZfUr & xtZuk djrs gSa
iqjr% & vxzs & vkxs] lkeus

lokZlke~ vU;ksDrhuke~ vUo;k%μ


1- ,osQu jktgalsu ljl% ;k 'kksHkk Hkosr~A ifjr% rhjokfluk cdlglzs.k lk ('kksHkk) u
(Hkofr)AA
2- ;=k Hkork e`.kkyiVyh HkqDrk] vEcwfu fuihrkfu ufyukfu fu"ksforkfuA js jktgal! rL;
ljksojL; osQu ÑR;su Ñrksidkj% Hkfork vfl] onAA
3- gs ekykdkj! HkheHkkukS funk?ks vYiS% rks;S% vfi Hkork d#.k;k vL; rjks% ;k iqf"V%
O;jfpA okjke~ izko`"ks.;su fo'or% /kjklkjku~ vfi fofdjrk okfjnsu bg tuf;rqe~ lk (iqf"V%)
fde~ 'kD;kAA
4- irXk% ifjr% vEcjiFke~ vkisfnjs] Hk`Xk% jlkyeqoqQykfu lekJ;UrsA lj% Rof; lVkspe~
v×pfr] gUr nhunhu% ehu% uq dreka xfre~ vH;qiSrqAA
5- ,d ,o ekuh [kx% pkrd% ous olfrA ok fiikflr% fez;rs iqjUnje~ ;kprs okAA
6- riuks".krIre~ ioZroqQye~ vk'okL; míkenkofo/qjkf.k dkuukfu p (vk'okL;) ukukunhun'krkfu
iwjf;Rok p gs tyn! ;r~ fjDr% vfl ro lk ,o mÙkek Jh%AA
86 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

7- js js fe=k pkrd! lko/kueulk {k.ka Jw;rke~] xxus fg cgo% vEHkksnk% lfUr] losZ vfi
,rkn`'kk% u (lfUr) osQfpr~ /fj.kha o`f"VfHk% vkæZ;fUr] osQfpn~ o`Fkk xtZfUr] (Roe~) ;a
;a i';fl rL; rL; iqjr% nhua op% ek czwfgAA

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukuke~ mÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k fy[krμ
(d) ljl% 'kksHkk osQu Hkofr\
([k) pkrd% oaQ ;kprs\
(x) ehu% dnk nhuka xfra izkIuksfr\
(?k) dkfu iwjf;Rok tyn% fjDr% Hkofr\
(Ä) o`f"VfHk% olq/ka osQ vknzZ;fUr\

2- v/ksfyf[krokD;s"kq js[kkfÄrï inkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQjQrμ


(d) ekykdkj% rks;%S rjks% iqf"Va djksfrA
([k) Hk`Äõk% jlkyeqoqQykfu lekJ;UrsA
(x) irÄõk% vEcjiFke~ vkisfnjsA
(?k) tyn% ukukunhun'krkfu iwjf;Rok fjDrks¿fLrA
(Ä) pkrd% ous olfrA
(p) vEHkksnk% o`f"VfHk% olq/ka vknzZ;fUrA

3- mnkgj.keuql`R; lfU/a@lfU/foPNsna ok oqQ#r&


(i) ;Fkk & vU;$ mDr;% ¾ vU;ksDr;%
(d) ----------------- $ ----------------- ¾ fuihrkU;Ecwfu
([k) ----------------- $ midkj% ¾ o`Qrksidkj%
(x) riu $ ----------------- ¾ riuks".krIre~
(?k) ro $ mÙkek ¾ -----------------
(Ä) u $ ,rkn`'kk% ¾ -----------------
vU;ksDr;% 87

(ii) ;Fkk & fiikflr% $ vfi ¾ fiikflrks¿fi


(d) ----------------- $ ----------------- ¾ dks¿fi
([k) ----------------- $ ----------------- ¾ fjDrks¿fl
(x) ehu% $ v;e~ ¾ -----------------
(?k) ----------------- $ vknZz;fUr ¾ o`f"VfHkjknzZ;fUr
(iii) ;Fkk & ljl% $ Hkosr~ ¾ ljlksHkosr~
(d) [kx% $ ekuh ¾ -----------------
([k) ----------------- $ uq ¾ ehuks uq

(iv) ;Fkk & eqfu% $ vfi ¾ eqfujfi


(d) rks;S% $ vYiS% ¾ --------------------
([k) -------------------- $ vfi ¾ vYiSjfi
(x) rjks% $ vfi ¾ --------------------
4- mnkgj.keuql`R; v/ksfyf[krS% foxzginS% leLrinkfu jp;r&
foxzginkfu leLr inkfu
;Fkk & ihra p rr~ iVte~ ¾ ihriVte~
(d) jktk p vlkS gal% ¾ ------------------------------------
([k) Hkhe% p vlkS Hkkuq% ¾ ------------------------------------
(x) vEcje~ ,o iUFkk% ¾ ------------------------------------
(?k) mÙkek p b;e~ Jh% ¾ ------------------------------------
(Ä) lko/kua p rr~ eu%] rsu ¾ ------------------------------------

5- mnkgj.keuqlR` ; fuEufyf[krkfHk% /krqfHk% lg ;FkkfufnZ"Vku~ izR;;ku~ la;Tq ; 'kCnjpuka


oqQ#r&
/krq% DRok Drorq rO;r~ vuh;j~
(d) iB~ ifBRok ifBroku~ ifBrO;% iBuh;%
([k) xe~ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------
88 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

(x) fy[k~ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------


(?k) Ñ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------
(Ä) xzg~ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------
(p) uh ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------

6- ikBeuql`R; v/ksfyf[krkuka ewy'kCnkuka ;FkkfufnZ"Vs"kq foHkfDropus"kq :ikf.k fy[kr&


ewy'kCnk% foHkfDropus 'kCn:ikf.k
;Fkk & jktgal r`rh;Sdopus jktaglsu
(d) ,d (iq¡fYyX) r`rh;Sdopus ----------------------------
([k) r# "k"B~;Sdopus ----------------------------
(x) ou lIrE;Sdopus ----------------------------
(?k) iqjUnj f}rh;Sdopus ----------------------------
(Ä) d#.kk r`rh;Sdopus ----------------------------
(p) tyn lEcks/uSdopus ----------------------------
(N) ljl~ (lj%) "k"B~;Sdopus ----------------------------

7- v/ksfyf[kr;ks% 'yksd;ks% HkkokFk± fgUnhHkk"k;k vkaXyHkk"k;k ok fy[kr&


(d) vkisfnjs ----------------------- dreka xfreH;qiSfrA
([k) vk'okL; ----------------------- lSo roksRrek Jh%AA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
ikBifjp;%
vU;s"kka Ñrs ;k mDr;% dF;Urs rk mDr;% (vU;ksDr;%) v=k ikBs lVfyrk orZUrsA vfLeu~
ikBs "k"B'yksde~ lIre'yksde~ p vfrfjP; ;s 'yksdk% lfUr rs if.MrjkttxUukFkL;
^Hkkfeuhfoykl* bfr xhfrdkO;kr~ lVfyrk% lfUrA "k"B% 'yksd% egkdfo ek?kL; ^f'k'kqikyoèke~*
bfr egkdkO;kr~ x`ghr% vfLrA lIre% 'yksd% egkdfoHkrZ̀gjs% uhfr'krdkr~ mn~/`r% vfLrA
vU;ksDr;% 89

dfoifjp;%
if.MrjkttxUukFk% laLÑrlkfgR;L; ew/ZU;% ljl'p dfo% vklhr~A l% 'kkgtgk¡ ukeosQu
eqxy 'kklosQu LojktlHkk;ka lEekfur%A if.MrjkttxUukFkL; =k;ksn'k Ñr;% izkI;UrsA (1)
xXkygjh (2) ve`rygjh (3) lq/kygjh (4) y{ehygjh (5) d#.kkygjh (6) vkliQfoykl%
(7) izk.kkHkj.ke~ (8) txnkHkj.ke~ (9) ;equko.kZue~ (10) jlxXk/j% (11) Hkkfeuhfoykl%
(12) euksjekoqQpenZue~ (13) fp=kehekalk[k.Mue~A ,rs"kq xzUFks"kq ^Hkkfeuhfoykl%* bfr rL;
fofo/i|kuka lXz g%A
egkdfoek?k%& egkdfoek?kL; ,deso egkdkO;a izkI;rs ¶f'k'kqikyo/e~¸ bfrA
HkrZ̀gfj%& egkdfoHkrZ̀gjs% =khf.k 'krdkfu lfUr] uhfr'krde~] Ük`Xkj'krde~ oSjkX;'krda pA
v/ksnÙkk% fofo/fo"k;dk% 'yksdk% vfi iBuh;k% Lej.kh;k'p&
gal% & gal% 'osr% cd% 'osr% dks Hksnks cdgal;ks% A
uhj{khjfoHkkxs rq galks gal% cdks cd% AA
,deso i;kZIre~ & ,osQukfi lqiq=ks.k ¯lgh Lofifr fuHkZ;e~ A
lgSo n'kfHk% iq=kS% Hkkja ogfr jklHkh AA
fid% & dkd% Ñ".k% fid% Ñ".k% dks Hksn% fiddkd;ks% A
olUrle;s izkIrs dkd% dkd% fid% fid% AA
pkrd o.kZue~ & ;|fi lfUr cgwfu ljkafl]
Loknq'khry lqjfHk i;kafl A
pkrdiksrLrnfi p rkfu]
R;DRok ;kpfr tyntykfu AA
90 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

,dkn'k% ikB%

fofp=k% lk{kh
izLrqr ikB Jh vkseizdk'k BkoqQj }kjk jfpr dFkk dk lEikfnr va'k gSA ;g dFkk
caxyk osQ izfl¼ lkfgR;dkj cafdepUnz pVthZ }kjk U;k;k/h'k&:i esa fn;s x;s
iSQlys ij vk/kfjr gSA lR;klR; osQ fu.kZ; gsrq U;k;k/h'k dHkh&dHkh ,slh ;qfDr;ksa
dk iz;ksx djrs gSa ftlls lk{; osQ vHkko esa Hkh U;k; gks losQA bl dFkk esa Hkh
fo}ku~ U;k;k/h'k us ,slh gh ;qfDr dk iz;ksx dj U;k; djus esa liQyrk ikbZ gSA
d'pu fu/Zuks tu% Hkwfj ifjJE; fdf×pn~ foÙkeqikftZroku~A rsu Loiq=ka ,dfLeu~
egkfo|ky;s izo's ka nkif;rqa liQyks tkr%A rÙku;% r=kSo Nk=kkokls fuolu~ vè;;us
layXu% leHkwrA~ ,dnk l firk ruwtL; #X.krkekd.;Z O;koqQyks tkr% iq=ka nz"Vqa
p izfLFkr%A ijeFkZdk';suZs ihfMr% l cl;kua fogk; inkfrjso izkpyr~A
inkfrØes.k lapyu~ lk;a le;s¿I;lkS xUrO;kn~ nwjs vklhr~A fu'kkUèkdkjs
izlr` s fotus izn's ks in;k=kk u 'kqHkkogkA ,oa fopk;Z l ik'oZfLFkrs xzkes jkf=kfuokla
dÙkq± df×pn~ x`gLFkeqikxr%A d#.kkijks x`gh rLeS vkJ;a izk;PNr~A
fofp=kk nSoxfr%A rL;keso jk=kkS rfLeu~ x`gs d'pu pkSj% x`gkH;Urja izfo"V%A
r=k fufgrkesdka e×tw"kke~ vknk; iykf;r%A pkSjL; iknèofuuk izc¼ q ks¿frfFk%
pkSj'kÄï;k reUo/kor~ vx`g~.kkPp] ija fofp=ke?kVrA pkSj% ,o mPpS%
Øksf'krqekjHkr ^^pkSjks¿;a pkSjks¿;e~** bfrA rL; rkjLojs.k izc¼ q k% xzkeokflu%
Lox`gkn~ fu"ØE; r=kkxPNu~ ojkdefrfFkeso p pkSja eRok¿HkRlZ;u~A ;|fi xzkeL;
vkj{kh ,o pkSj vklhr~A rR{k.keso j{kkiq#"k% re~ vfrfFka pkSjks¿;e~ bfr iz[;kI;
dkjkx`gs izkf{kir~A
fofp=k% lk{kh 91

vfxzes fnus l vkj{kh pkS;kZfHk;ksxs ra U;k;ky;a uhroku~A U;k;k/h'kks


cafdepUnz% mHkkH;ka i`Fko~Q&i`Fko~Q fooj.ka Jqroku~A lo± o`ÙkeoxR; l ra funks"Z ke~
veU;r vkjf{k.ka p nks"kHkktue~A fdUrq izek.kkHkkokr~ l fu.ksrZ aq uk'kDuksrA~ rrks¿lkS
rkS vfxzes fnus miLFkkrqe~ vkfn"Voku~A vU;s|%q rkS U;k;ky;s Lo&Lo&i{ka iqu%
LFkkfiroUrkSA rnSo df'pn~ r=kR;% deZpkjh lekxR; U;osn;r~ ;r~ br%
Øks'k};kUrjkys df'pTtu% osQukfi gr%A rL; e`r'kjhja jktekx± fud"kk orZrAs
vkfn';rka ¯d dj.kh;fefrA U;k;k/h'k% vkjf{k.ke~ vfHk;qDra p ra 'koa U;k;ky;s
vkusreq kfn"Voku~A
vkns'ka izkI; mHkkS izkpyrke~A r=kksiRs ; dk"BiVys fufgra iVkPNkfnra nsga
LdUèksu ogUrkS U;k;kf/dj.ka izfr izfLFkrkSA vkj{kh lqi"q Vnsg vklhr~] vfHk;qDr'p
vrho Ñ'kdk;%A Hkkjor% 'koL; LdUèksu ogua rRÑrs nq"dje~ vklhr~A l
Hkkjosnu;k ØUnfr LeA rL; ØUnua fu'kE; eqfnr vkj{kh reqokp&^js nq"V!
rfLeu~ fnus Ro;k¿ga pksfjrk;k e×tw"kk;k xzg.kkn~ okfjr%A bnkuha futÑR;L;
iQya HkqÄ{~ oA vfLeu~ pkS;kZfHk;ksxs Roa o"kZ=k;L; dkjkn.Ma yIL;ls** bfr izkPs ;
mPpS% vglr~A ;FkkdFkf×pn~ mHkkS 'koekuh; ,dfLeu~ pRojs LFkkfiroUrkSA
U;k;k/h'ksu iquLrkS ?kVuk;k% fo"k;s oDrqekfn"VkSA vkjf{kf.k futi{ka izLrqrofr

vk'p;Ze?kVr~ l 'ko% izkokjdeilk;Z U;k;k/h'kefHkok| fuosfnroku~& ekU;oj!


,rsu vkjf{k.kk vèofu ;nqDra rn~ o.kZ;kfe ^Ro;k¿ga pksfjrk;k% e×tw"kk;k%
92 'kseq"kh& f}rh;ks Hkkx%

xzg.kkn~ okfjr%] vr% futÑR;L; iQya HkqÄ{~ oA vfLeu~ pkS;kZfHk;ksxs Roa o"kZ=k;L;
dkjkn.Ma yIL;ls* bfrA
U;k;k/h'k% vkjf{k.ks dkjkn.Mekfn'; ra tua llEekua eqDroku~A
vr,oksP;rs & nq"djk.;fi dekZf.k efroSHko'kkfyu%A
uh¯r ;qfDra lekyEC; yhy;So izoQq oZrAs A

'kCnkFkkZ%

Hkwfj & i;kZIre~ & vR;f/d


mikftZroku~ & vftZroku~ & dek;k
fuolu~ & okla oqQoZu~ & jgrs gq,
izl`rs & foLr`rs & iSQyus ij
fotus izns'ks & ,dkUrizns'ks & ,dkUr izns'k esa
'kqHkkogk & dY;k.kiznk & dY;k.kdkjh
x`gh & x`gLokeh & x`gLFk
nSoxfr% & HkkX;fLFkfr% & HkkX; dh yhyk
iykf;r% & osxsu fuxZr%@iyk;uedjksr~ & Hkkx x;k] pyk x;k
izcq¼% & tkx`r% & tkxk gqvk
Rofjre~ & 'kh?kze~ & 'kh?kzxkeh
izfLFkr% & xr% & pyk x;k
vFkZdk';sZu & /uL; vHkkosu & /ukHkko osQ dkj.k
inkfrjso & iknkH;ke~ ,o & iSny gh
iqal% & iq#"kL; & euq"; dk
fufgrke~ & LFkkfirke~ & j[kh gqbZ
vUo/kor~ & vUoxPNr~ & ihNs&ihNs x;k
Øksf'krqe~ & phRdrqZe~ & tksj tksj ls dgus@fpYykus
fofp=k% lk{kh 93

rkjLojs.k & mPPkLojs.k & Å¡ph vkokt esa


vHkRlZ;u~ & HkRlZuke~ voqQoZu~ & Hkyk&cqjk dgk
iz[;kI; & LFkkI; & LFkkfir djosQ
pkS;kZfHk;ksxs & pkSjdeZf.k pkS;nZ ks"kkjksis & pksjh osQ vkjksi esa
uhroku~ & vu;r~ & ys x;k
voxR; & KkRok & tkudj
nks"kHkktue~ & nks"kik=ke~ & nks"kh
miLFkkrqe~ & miLFkkif;rqe~ & mifLFkr gksus osQ fy,
vkjf{k.ke~ & lSfude~ (j{kd iq#"k) & lSfud
vkfn"Voku~ & vkKka