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# QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

## PROFIT AND LOSS

Cost Price (CP): The price at which an article was bought.
Selling Price (SP): The price at which an article was sold.
Marked Price (MP): The price mentioned on the article or
the printed price.
In business situation, the cost price of goods or the
purchase price of goods is called investment. And the
selling price of goods is called earning. For example, if you
purchase a land for Rs 1,00,000 then you have invested
Rs 1,00,000. Now, if you sell this land for Rs 1,75,000
then you have earned Rs 1,75,000. Your profit is
Rs 1,75,000 1,00,000 = 75,000.
Profit (P): Profit is excess of SP over CP.
So, P = SP CP. In business conditions, profit is
excess of earning over investment.
Loss (L): Loss is the inverse of profit. Loss is excess of CP
over SP.
So,

L = CP SP

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## Markup is the amount by which the Marked Price exceeds

Cost Price.
All these when expressed in %age terms, are
calculated with Cost Price as a base.
Conventionally,
Profit/Loss

CP

Discount

SP

MP

Markup

## The above definitions of P and L calculate the absolute

figures.
For example, if you bought an article for Rs 3000 and
sold it for Rs. 3500 then your profit is Rs 500. Besides
mentioning P and L as absolute figures, we can mention
P and L as percent of CP also. Please note that base for
P% and L% is always CP unless and until something else is
specifically mentioned in question.

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then,
P% =
=

(Profit 100)
CP
(500 100)
= 16.66%
3500

## Now, in the same example, if SP is taken as base then

(Profit 100) (500 100)

SP
3500
= 14.28%

P% =

Note:
Ponder over the difference in the P% when CP and SP
are taken as base. Thats why it is very important to find
out the base in questions related to Profit and Loss. CP
is always taken as base if nothing is mentioned. But if
question specifically says that profit% or loss% is
calculated on some other base then go ahead with that
base.
Illustration: A trader purchased an article for Rs. 1000 and
sold it for Rs. 1100. Find his Profit as a percentage of SP?
Profit % =

(100 100)
= 9.09%
1100

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## These formulae will help you in calculating P, L, P% or

L% when CP and SP are given.
From the given equation we can derive CP when SP
and P, L, P% or L% are given.
MP = CP + Markup
MP =

CP (100 + Markup%)
100

SP = CP + P
SP = CP L
SP =

CP (100 + Profit%)
100

SP =

CP (100 Loss%)
100

Similarly,
CP = SP P
CP = SP + L
CP =

(SP 100)
(100 + Profit%)

CP =

(SP 100)
(100 Loss%)

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## As we mentioned earlier, percentage can be written as

decimal also. For example, 20% is equivalent to 0.2, 45% is
equivalent to 0.45 and so on. We can simplify our
calculations in some cases if we write percentage in decimal
form. Lets denote the decimal form of profit percentage by
symbol p and loss percentage by symbol L. When we work
with these our formulae will also change slightly and
become easier to calculate and understand.
SP = CP (1 + p)
SP = CP (1 L)
If there is a profit of 45%, then SP = (1 + 0.45) CP
or 1.45 CP
Similarly, if there is a loss of 20%, then SP = 0.8 CP
CP =

SP
(1 + p)

CP =

SP
(1 L)

## Illustration: A trader sold an article for Rs. 625 and earned

a profit of 25%. Find CP and Profit?
Case 1: When P% is used
CP =

## (625 100) 62500

(100 + 25)
125

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625
625

(1 + 0.25) 1.25

CP =

## Profit = SP CP = 625 500 = 125

Illustration: A tout had to sell cinema ticket of Amitabhs
Mrityudata for Rs. 24 and thus suffered a loss of 40%. For
how much he should have sold the ticket to gain 15%?
Rs. 24 represents 60% of ticket value.
Original value of ticket =

24 100
= 40
60

## For a profit of 15% on Rs. 40, he has to sell it for

40 115
= Rs. 46
100
Illustration: If SP of 4 audiocassettes is equal to the CP of
5 audiocassettes, find the gain or loss%?

We know,

SP = CP + Profit or CP Loss

Method 1
Here,

4 SP = 5 CP

Or,

4 SP = 4 CP + 1 CP

## So, 1 CP is the profit.

1 CP
Profit% =
100 = 25%
4 CP
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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

Method 2
Or, from the above 4 SP = 5 CP
SP
CP

Therefore,

5
= 1.25
4

Profit % = 25 %

## Illustration: If SP of 5 movie tickets is equal to the CP of

4 movie tickets, find the gain or loss%?
Here

5 SP = 4 CP

Or,

5 SP = 5 CP 1 CP

## So, l CP is the loss.

1 CP
Loss% =
100 = 20%
5 CP

Note:
Kindly notice the difference in this illustration and
previous illustration.
Also try this using the second method illustrated above.
Illustration: Gabber Singh bought bullets at 5 for rupee.
How many for a rupee must he sell to gain 25%?
100
paise = 20 paise.
5
SP of
one bullet = 20 1.25 = 25 paise
For a rupee he should sell 4 bullets.

Price of

one bullet =

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## Illustration: Samba, Gabbar Singhs assistant, sold a Pistol

at a profit of 5% only. Gabbar Singh scolded him for such a
low profit margin. So, next time, Sambha sold Pistol for Rs.
750 more than the previous and thus made a profit of 20%.
Find the CP?
By charging Rs. 750 more, Samba earned 15%
(20 5)% more of CP;
So,

CP =

750
= Rs. 5,000
0.15

## Illustration: When Samba increased the price, sales

dipped. So Gabbar again scolded him. To increase sales,
Samba reduced price by 10% .In response, sales increased
by 20%. Find the percentage change in the total amount of
receipts?
We know, receipts = sales price
New sales = 1.2 old Sales (20% increase)
New price = 0.9 old price (10% reduction)
New receipts = 1.2 old price 0.9 old sales
= 1.08 old receipts (as old price
old sales = old receipts)
So, receipts grew by 8%
We can also use the successive %age formula here.
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## Illustration: Jay and Viru purchased 100 Bombs to arrest

Gabbar Singh. But they arrested Gabbar without using
bomb. So they sold 40 bombs at 20% profit, 35 bombs at
30% profit and 25 bombs at 40% profit. Had they sold all the
bombs at 35% profit they would have got Rs. 650 more.
Find the CP of one bomb?
Let

CP of one bomb = X
CP of 100 bombs = 100X
SP in first case = 40 1.2X + 351.30X
+ 251.4X = 128.5X
SP in second case = 100X 1.35 = 135X

So,
But

6.5X = 650
X = 100

## Illustration: Satish Kaushik Kasiram by means of a false

balance defrauds 10% in selling. What % does he gain?
He actually sells 0.9 kg instead of l kg
Gain = 1 0.9 = 0.1 kg on every 0.9 kg actually sold.
0.1
Gain % =
= 100 = 11.11%
0.9

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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

Note:
Here you can derive a straight formula also.
Error

Gain% =
100
Actual Value

## Illustration: Now, Satish Kaushik also marks up his goods

by 20%. Find the net gain/loss %.
Assuming, the cost was Rs. 1 per gm.
So, when he sells the customer 1000 gm,
He charges Rs. 1000 + 20% of Rs. 1000 = Rs.1200
But, using the faulty balance, he has given the
customer only 900gm which would have cost him only Rs.
900.
Hence, his profit is

(1200 900) 1
= 33.33%
900
3

On a shorter note,
He actually sells 0.9 kg instead of l kg and charges
worth 1.2 kg.
His gain is cost of 0.3 kg on incurring the cost of 0.9 kg.
Hence, his profit is

0.3
= 33.33%
0.9

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## Illustration: Anupams balance shows 900gm for 1kg. To

make himself profitable, he marks up his goods by 20%.
What is his actual gain or loss%?
Initially there is a loss of 10% because of the defect.
On the same thing, the markup is 20%. Hence we can
solve it using the successive %age formula.
Net profit % =

a + b + ab
20
= (10) + 20 + (10)
=8
100
100

## Illustration: Anuran Kher Debdhar is Satish Kashas boss.

So, by means of a false balance, he defrauds 10% in selling
goods and 10% in buying also. What % does he gain?
While buying he pays for 1 kg but gets 1.1 kg as he
defrauds 10%
He actually sells 0.9 kg instead of 1 kg as he defrauds
10% there also.
He actually sold 1.1 kg instead of

1.1
= 1.22 kg
0.9

actually.
So,
So,

## his profit = 1.22 1 = 0.22 kg

gain% =

0.22 100
= 22%
1

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## Illustration: Lakhan buys equal quantities of toffees from

Anupam Kher Debdhar at 20 per rupee and 11 per rupee.
He mixes both the toffees and sells them at 15 for a rupee.
What is his net gain or loss?
Lets assume that he bought 660 toffees each.
(A number divisible by both 15, 11 and 20)
Total CP =

660 660

= 93
20
11

Total SP =

1320
= 88
15

Loss = 93 88 = 5
Loss% = 5

100
= 5.55%
93

## Here we assumed a number instead of a variable as

discussed earlier. And that really made our work easy. We
took 660 as it is LCM of 20, 11 and 15 and thus completely
divisible by all of them, so that we had to work with natural
numbers only.
Illustration: Lakhan buys toffees from Anupam Kher
Debdhur at 20 per rupee and from Shakti at 11 per rupee,
paying both of them the same amount. He mixes both the
toffees and sells them at 15 for a rupee. What is his net gain
or loss?
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## Note the difference of quantity vs amount from the

previous illustration.
If he pays a rupee to each one, in 2 rupee he gets 31
toffees and sells 30.
So his profit is 1 on 30 = 3.33%
Illustration: Ajit sold two containers of liquid oxygen for Rs.
4000 each to Mona and Lily. On one he made a profit of
20% and on other he lost 20%. Find his actual gain/loss and
% also?
Method 1
CP of the container 1 =

Rs. 4000
= Rs. 3333.33
1.20

CP of the container 2 =

Rs. 4000
= Rs. 5000
0.80

## Total CP = Rs. 3333.33 + Rs. 5000

= Rs. 8333.33
Total SP = Rs. 4000 2 = Rs. 8000
Absolute Loss = 333.33
Loss % =

333.33
= 4%
8333.33

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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

Method 2
Whenever the SP of 2 articles are same and there is
equal % age profit and loss on each article,
202
Using formula, loss% =
% = 4%
100

Absolute loss =
=

(2 202 4000)
(1002 202 )
800 4000
= Rs. 333.33
9600

## Illustration: Ajit sold two containers of liquid oxygen, on

one he made a profit of 20% and on other he lost 20%. If
both the containers have cost him Rs. 4000 each, find his
actual gain/loss and % also?
Perfunctorily this looks like the above question. We can
end up doing this one by the formula and hence making a
mistake.
Since both of them cost equal, the absolute profit and
loss will also be equal and compensate for each other.
Hence

## Net profit /Loss = Nil

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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

Important Point
If two items are sold for Rs. A each, one at a gain of B%
and other at a loss of B%, there is always an overall loss
B2

%.
100

(2 B2 A)
(1002 B2 )

## carefully note that this statement is valid when two items

are sold at same SP.
If two items with same CP are sold, one at a gain of
B% and other at a loss of B%, then net profit or loss is
equal to zero.
DISCOUNT
On every article you buy from the market, a selling price
is written. That selling price is called Maximum Retailing
Price (MRP). But most of the times you dont buy goods at
MRP. Shopkeeper gives you some discount on (MRP). So
you paid (MRP discount) for the article that is the actual
SP for you. Here we have introduced two more important
concepts, MRP and Discount. MRP is also called List
Price. We have referred to this MRP as Marked Price
earlier.
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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

Important Point
1. Discount is always calculated on MRP or List Price
unless and until specifically mentioned.
2.

SP = MRP Discount

3.

## Discount can be mentioned in absolute numeric

value or percentage

4.

SP = MRP

5.

MRP =

(100 D%)
100

(SP 100)
(100 D%)

## Illustration: A company marks its goods at 50% above the

cost price and gives a discount of 30% to the wholesalers.
What profit percentage does the company make?
Lets assume the

CP = 100

Discount = 150

30
= 45
100

## Price to the wholesalers = 150 45 = 105

Profit% = (105 100)

100
= 5%
100

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## Illustration: Another company allows a discount of 20% on

the list price. How much above the company should mark
the CP of goods to have a profit of 10% after discount ?
Lets assume,

CP = 100

## Actual SP = 100 1.1 = 110

Actual SP represents 20% after discount

List price =

110
= 137.5
0.8

Markup = 37.5%
Illustration: A store offers an off-season discount of x%.
A further discount of 20% is offered on purchases more than
Rs. 1000. A person pays Rs. 1020 for an item listed at
Rs. 1500. How much is the off-season discount?
Method 1
Prior to the 20% discount, the item would have cost the
Rs. 1020
0.8

= Rs. 1275.

## Hence, the earlier discount = 1500 1275 = Rs. 225

Hence,

225
Discount =
100%
1500
= 15 %

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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

Method 2
Since, we are combining the discounts, i.e. the same
article gets second discount on the first discounted price, we
can also use the successive %age formula.
Total Discount = (1500 1020)

100
1500

= 32%
Which is equivalent to
(x) + (20) + (x) (20)
= (20 + 0.8x)
100
Hence,
20 +0.8 x = 32,
Solving

x = 15

## Illustration: After offering a discount of 20%, a trader still

manages to get a profit of 20% on sales. What is his
markup?
Method 1
Let
Therefore,

MP
Discount
SP
Profit
CP

=
=
=
=
=

Markup =

100
20
80
20% of 80 = 16
64
36 100
= 56.25%
64

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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

Method 2
The calculations will be easier if we would have taken
the cost price to be 100.
CP = 100
Profit is 20% on SP = 25% on CP
Therefore,

Profit = 25
SP = 125
MP =

125
= 156.25
0.8

Markup = 56.25 %
Method 3
To use change in %ages when the base changes
Profit = 20% on SP
= 25% on CP
Discount is 20% on MP = 25% on SP
Using successive %age
25 + 25 + 2525
100
= 56.25%

Markup =

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EXERCISE
1.

## A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of 10%.

If he had bought it for 20% less and sold it for Rs. 55
more, he would have had a profit of 40%. Find the cost
price of the article.
(a) Rs. 260
(b) Rs. 270
(c) Rs. 220
(d) Rs. 250

2.

## A man buys an article and sells it at a profit of 20%. If

he bought it at 20% less and sold it for Rs. 75 less, he
would have gained 25%. What is the cost price?
(a) Rs. 375
(b) Rs. 376
(c) Rs. 291
(d) Rs. 396

3.

## An article is sold at a profit of 20%. If both the cost price

and selling price would have been Rs. 100 less, the
profit would be 4% more. Find the cost price.
(a) Rs. 601
(b) Rs. 600
(c) Rs. 500
(d) None

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4.

## A person sells his table at a profit of 12.5% and the

chair at a loss of 8.33% but on the whole he gains
Rs. 25. On the other hand, if he sells the table at a loss
of 8.33% and the chair at a profit of 12.5%, then he
neither gains nor loses. Find the cost price of the table.
(a) Rs. 36
(b) Rs. 370
(c) Rs. 294
(d) Rs. 359

5.

## An article is sold at 20% profit. If its cost price is

increased by Rs. 50 and at the same time if its selling
price is also increased by Rs. 30, the percentage of
profit decreases by 33.33%. Find the cost price.
(a) Rs. 459
(b) Rs. 400
(c) Rs. 867
(d) None of these

6.

## I sell 16 articles for the same money as I paid for 20.

What is my gain %?
(a) 23%
(b) 19%
(c) 25%
(d) 98%

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7.

## A wholesaler sells 30 pens for the price of 27 pens to a

retailer. The retailer sells the pens at the marked price.
Find the percent profit of the retailer.
100
(a)
%
8
100
(b)
%
9
102
(c)
%
9
103
(d)
%
9

8.

## If goods be purchased for Rs. 450, and one-third be

sold at a loss of 10%, at what price should the
remainder be sold so as to gain 20% on the whole
transaction?
(a) Rs. 123
(b) Rs. 956
(c) Rs. 405
(d) Rs. 150

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9.

## A man purchases 5 horses and 10 cows for Rs. 10000.

He sells the horses at 15% profit and the cows at 10%
loss. Thus he gets Rs. 375 as profit. Find the cost of 1
horse and 1 cow separately.
(a) Rs. 1200, Rs. 469
(b) Rs. 1100, Rs. 450
(c) Rs. 1200, Rs. 450
(d) None

## 10. Two-thirds of a consignment was sold at a profit of 6%

and the rest at a loss of 3%. If there was an overall
profit of Rs. 540, find the value of the consignment.
(Hint: Use Alligation)
(a) Rs. 19, 000
(b) Rs. 16,000
(c) Rs. 15,000
(d) Rs. 18,000
11. Nandlal purchased 20 dozen notebooks at Rs. 48 per
dozen. He sold 8 dozen at 10% profit and the remaining
12 dozen at 20% profit. What is his profit percentage in
this transaction?
(Hint: Use Alligation)
(a) 16%
(b) 12%
(c) 15%
(d) None

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## 12. A reduction of 10% in the price of sugar enables a

person to obtain 25 kg more for Rs. 225. What is the
reduction price per kg?
(a) 91p
(b) 90p
(c) 89p
(d) 78p
13. A grocer mixes 26 kg of sugar which cost Rs. 2 a kg
with 30 kg of sugar which cost Rs. 3.60 a kg and sells
the mixture at Rs. 3 a kg. What is his profit %?
(a) 6%
(b) 4%
(c) 8%
(d) 5%
14. A man purchases a certain number of mangoes at 3 per
rupee and the same number at 4 per rupee. He mixes
them together and sells them at 3 per rupee. What is
his gain %?
100
(a)
%
9
100
(b)
%
6
100
(c)
%
7
102
(d)
%
6
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## 15. If toffees are bought at the rate of 25 for a rupee, how

many must be sold for 4 rupees so as to gain 25%?
(a) 20
(b) 80
(c) 100
(d) 75
16. A person bought some oranges at the rate of 5 per
rupee and an equal number at 6 per rupee. He mixes
both the types and sells at 9 for rupees 2. In this
business he bears a loss of Rs. 42. Find out how many
oranges he bought in all.
(a) 1080
(b) 1100
(c) 1120
(d) None
17. A tradesman marks his goods at 25% above his cost
price and allows purchasers a discount of 12.5% for
cash. What profit% does he make?
75
(a)
%
3
54
(b)
%
8
76
(c)
%
8
75
(d)
%
8
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## 18. A trader allows a discount of 5% for cash payment.

How much % above cost price must be mark his goods
to make a profit of 10%?
300
(a)
%
18
300
(b)
%
17
300
(c)
%
19
301
(d)
%
19
19. Manju sells an article to Anju at a profit of 25%. Anju
sells it to Sonia at a gain of 10% and Sonia sells to
Bobby at a profit of 5%. If Sonia sells it for Rs. 231, find
the cost price at which Manju bought the article.
(a) Rs. 160
(b) Rs. l59
(c) Rs. 161
(d) Rs. 168
20. Satish marks his goods 25% above cost price but
allows 12.5% discount for cash payment. If he sells the
article for Rs. 875, find his cost price.
(a) Rs. 394
(b) Rs. 800
(c) Rs. 690
(d) Rs. 600
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## 21. If oranges are bought at the rate of 30 for a rupee, how

many must be sold for a rupee in order to gain 25%?
(a) 23
(b) 22
(c) 21
(d) 24
22. By selling oranges at 32 a rupee, a man loses 40%.
How many for a rupee should he sell in order to gain
20%?
(a) 13
(b) 22
(c) 16
(d) 17
23. A man bought a certain quantity of rice at the rate of
Rs. 150 per quintal. 10% of the rice was spoiled. At
what price should he sell the remaining to gain 20% of
his outlay?
(a) Rs. 200
(b) Rs. 201
(c) Rs. 300
(d) Rs. 400

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## 24. What profit % is made by selling an article at a certain

2
price, if by selling at
of that price there would be a
3
loss of 20%?
(a) 10%
(b) 30%
(c) 40%
(d) 20%
9
of its selling price and
10
sold it at 8% more than its selling price. Find his gain %.
(a) 21%
(b) 22%
(c) 20%
(d) 24%

## 26. The marked price of a radio is Rs. 480. The shopkeeper

allows a discount of 10% and gains 8%. If no discount
is allowed, find his gain %.
(a) 21%
(b) 22%
(c) 20%
(d) 24%

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## 27. A milkman buys some milk. If he sells it at Rs. 5 a litre,

he loses Rs. 200, but when he sells it at Rs. 6 a litre, he
gains Rs. 150. How much milk did he purchase?
(a) 340
(b) 468
(c) 350
(d) 342
28. 9 kg of rice cost as much as 4 kg of sugar; 14 kg of
sugar cost as much as 1.5 kg of tea; 2 kg of tea cost as
much as 5 kg of coffee; find the cost of 11 kg of coffee,
if 2.5 kg of rice cost Rs. 12.50.
(a) Rs. 462
(b) Rs. 759
(c) Rs. 783
(d) Rs. 700
29. A fruit merchant makes a profit of 20% by selling a
commodity at a certain price. If he charges Rs. 3 more
on each commodity, he would gain 50%. Find the first
selling price of that commodity.
(a) Rs. 11
(b) Rs. 17
(c) Cant say
(d) None of these

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## 30. A person saves 10% of his income. If his income

increases by 20% and he decides to save 15% of his
Income, by what % has his saving increased?
(a) 80%
(b) 90%
(c) 100%
(d) 70%
31. A man sells two horses for Rs. 1710. The cost price of
the first is equal to the selling price of the second. If the
first is sold at 10% loss and the second at 25% gain,
what is his total gain or loss (in rupees)?
(a) Rs. 120
(b) Rs. 100
(c) Rs. 80
(d) Rs. 95
32. Rakesh calculates his profit % on the selling price
whereas Ramesh calculates his on the cost price. They
find that the difference of their profits is Rs. l00. If the
selling price of both of them are the same and both of
them make 25% profit, find their selling price.
(a) Rs. 3000
(b) Rs. 4000
(c) Rs. 2000
(d) Rs. 5000

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## 33. If a discount of 10% is given on the marked price of an

article, the shopkeeper gets a profit of 20%. Find his %
profit if he offers a discount of 20% on the same article.
20
(a)
%
4
20
(b)
%
3
21
(c)
%
4
(d) None
34. A farmer sold a cow and a calf for Rs. 760 and got a
profit of 10% on the cow and 25% on the calf. If he sells
the cow and the calf for Rs. 767.50 and gets a profit of
25% on the cow and 10% on the calf, find the cost price
of the calf.
(a) Rs. 500
(b) Rs. 380
(c) Rs. 280
(d) None of these
35. If oranges are bought at 11 for 10p and sold at 10 for
11p, what is the gain/loss %?
(a) 22%
(b) 23%
(c) 21%
(d) 31%
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## 36. A dishonest dealer professes to sell his goods at cost

price but uses a weight of 875 gms for the kg weight.
Find his gain %.
100
(a)
%
6
100
(b)
%
8
100
(c)
%
5
100
(d)
%
7
37. A man buys milk at 60p per litre, adds one-third of
water to it and sells the mixture at 72p per litre. Find
profit %.
(a) 60%
(b) 39%
(c) 30%
(d) None
38. If mangoes are bought at 15 a rupee, how many must
be sold for a rupee to gain 25%?
(a) 11
(b) 12
(c) 14
(d) 15

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## 39. What profit % is made by selling an article at a certain

2
price, if by selling at a
of that price there would be a
3
loss of 20%?
(a) 22%
(b) 20%
(c) 34%
(d) 43%
40. A man buys apples at a certain price per dozen and
sells them at eight times that price per hundred. Find
gain %.
(a) 4%
(b) 5%
(c) 4%
(d) 5%
41. A shopkeeper bought a table marked at Rs. 200 at
successive discounts of 10% and 15% respectively. He
spent Rs. 7 on transport and sold the table for Rs. 208.
Find his profit %.
(a) 30%
(b) 35%
(c) 45%
(d) 25%

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## 42. A merchant sold his goods for Rs. 75 at a profit % equal

to the cost price. Find the C.P.
(a) Rs. 60
(b) Rs. 40
(c) Rs. 30
(d) Rs. 50
43. I purchased a box full of pencils at the rate of 7 for
Rs. 5 and sold the whole box at the rate of 9 for Rs. 8.
In this process I gained Rs. 44. How many pencils were
contained in the box?
(a) 225
(b) 235
(c) 252
(d) None
44. A merchant professes to sell his goods at a loss of
10%, but weighs 750 gms in place of a kg. Find his real
loss or gain %.
(a) 22% loss
(b) 20% gain
(c) 40% gain
(d) 21% loss
45. By selling salt at Re. 1 a kg, a man gains 10%. By how
much must he raise the price so as to gain 21%?
(a) 6 paise
(b) 7 paise
(c) 9 paise
(d) 10 paise
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## 46. A milkman buys some milk contained in 10 vessels of

equal size. If he sells his milk at Rs. 5 a litre, he loses
Rs. 200; while selling it at Rs. 6 a litre, he would gain
Rs. 150 on the whole. Find the number of litres
contained in each cask.
(a) 36 liters
(b) 38 liters
(c) 39 liters
(d) none
47. A watch passes through three hands and each gains
25%. If the third sells it for Rs. 250, what did the first
pay for it?
(a) Rs. 128
(b) Rs. 129
(c) Rs. 130
(d) Rs. 124
48. A reduction of 40% in the price of bananas would
enable a man to obtain 64 more for Rs. 40. What is the
reduced price per dozen?
(a) Rs. 3
(b) Rs. 4
(c) Rs. 5
(d) Rs. 6

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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

49. Goods are sold so that when 4 % is taken off the list
price, a profit of 20% is made. How much % is the list
price more than the cost price?
(a) 24%
(b) 25%
(c) 26%
(d) 27%
50. A man sells an article at 5% profit. If he had bought it at
5% less and sold it for Re. 1 less, he would have
gained 10%. Find the cost price.
(a) Rs. 200
(b) Rs. 300
(c) Rs. 400
(d) Rs. 250

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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

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## QA:Arithmetic:Profit and Loss

1. (d)

2. (a)

3. (b)

4. (d)

5. (d)

6. (c)

7. (b)

8. (c)

9. (b)

10. (d)

11. (a)

12. (b)

13. (d)

14. (b)

15. (c)

16. (d)

17. (d)

18. (c)

19. (d)

20. (b)

21. (d)

22. (c)

23. (a)

24. (d)

25. (c)

26. (c)

27. (c)

28. (a)

29. (d)

30. (a)

31. (d)

32. (c)

33. (d)

34. (d)

35. (c)

36. (b)

37. (a)

38. (b)

39. (b)

40. (c)

41. (a)

42. (d)

43. (c)

44. (b)

45. (d)

46. (d)

47. (a)

48. (a)

49. (b)

50. (a)

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