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1500

811.111(07)
81.2
9
93

30.05.2012. 84108/32
. . . 20,16.
.

005
93, 2; 953005

93

1500 
: . . : , 2012. 384 .
ISBN 978
5
271
39382
2 ( )
1500

. ,

.
.

811.111(07)
81.2 9

1500




..
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129085, . ,
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ISBN 9785271393822
( )


 (,
, ),
: , .

, , , 
.
, 

. ,
, 
, .
, 
,
, ,
,
.
, , 
.
, , fast ( 
), 
(
),

( ,
, ,
).
,
3

, , 
, . (
. .) 
.

(
LONGMAN Dictionary of Contemporary English. The Living
Dictionary Pearson Education Limited, Fourth
edition with Writing Assistant 2005).
, , 
(

). 
.
, , ,
.

fast
[fst]

:
dv, adj, v, n ; ; 
; ,

How fast can you get the job done?


?

The subway is the fastest way to get downtown. 


.

Muslims fast during Ramadan. 

.
Gandhi drank some orange juice to break his threeweek fast.

.


( )

, .
FAST five minutes / an hour

fast / / . (
4

,
.)
. 
, 
, , , 
.
( ) 
(
,
). :

accustomed
[kstmd]

adj ,

We were accustomed to working together.


(. ) .

1500 ,
, ( ) 
.
, 
, 
.
, . 
,
, . 
. . 
, You never know what you can do till you try,

, , , , 
, .

adj
adv
ant
aux v
conj
def art
determ
fml
infml
int
mod v
n
num
pl
pp
predeterm

adjective
adverb
antonym
auxiliary verb
conjunction
definite article
determiner
formal
informal
interjection
modal verb
noun
number
plural
past participle
predeterminer

prep
pron
sb
sg
sth
syn
v

preposition
pronoun
somebody
singular
something
synonym
verb

.
.
.
.



(,



/ );





.
.
. .
.
.
. .
. .
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
.
. .
.

/
,



K

F
H
L


, .

A
an abandoned child
the ability to think
abolish the old system
above freezing / zero /
I want to go abroad. .

abandon

[bndn]
v
How could she abandon her own child?
?

ability

n pl abilities ; 

The health centre serves all patients, regardless of their ability to pay.
,
.
ant inability

[biliti]

abolish

[bli]
v
Slavery was abolished in the US in the 19th century.
XIX .

above

[bv]
adv, prep ,
F Our office is above the hairdressers.
.
syn over
ant below
abroad

:
[br
d]
adv
Ive never lived abroad before. 
.

A
be absent from school
Its absolutely impossible. .
be absorbed in sth .
an abstract concept
child abuse

absent

[bsnt]
adj
The dull, absent look on her face implied boredom. , 
.
ant present
absolutely

:
[ bsl tli]
adv ,
Are you absolutely sure? ?

absorb
:
[bs
b]
v ,
Plants absorb nutrients from the soil. 
.
abstract

[bstrkt]
adj, n ;
Political culture is a vague, abstract concept. 
, .
The abstract normally appears at the beginning of the proposal. 
.
syn theoretical
ant concrete
abuse

:, :
n, v ; ;

A selfmonitoring tax system is clearly open to abuse.



.
people who abuse the system ,
syn misuse
[bj s, bj z]

A
English with a German accent

accept a challenge
have access to the library
have a car accident
accompany the President

accent

[ksnt]
n
He noticed that I spoke Polish with an accent. ,
 .
syn stress
accept

[ksept]
v
He accepted the invitation to stay with us.
.
ant refuse, reject
access
c
[kses]
n, v ;
Cats should always have access to fresh, clean water. 
, .
Users can access their voice mail remotely.
.
accident

[ksidnt]
n ()
Over 70,000 people are killed or injured every year in road accidents.
70 000
 .
accompany

[kmpni]
v
Children under 14 must be accompanied by an adult.
14 .

10

A
accompish a difficult task
Youre an adult, so act accordingly. ,
.
Blacks account for 10% of the population. 
10% .
accurate information
accuse sb of sth . .

accomplish

[kmpli]
v
Mission accomplished. .
syn achieve
accordingly

:
[k
dili]
adv
Mary still considered him a child and treated him accordingly.
 
.
syn therefore

account

[kant]
n, v ; ;
He was too shocked to give an account of what happened.
, , 
.
Recent pressure at work may account for his behaviour. 
, , .
syn bill

accurate

[kjurt]
adj
The brochure tries to give a fair and accurate description of each
hotel.
.
ant inaccurate
accuse

:
[kj z]
v
He was accused of murder.
.
11

A
become accustomed to (doing) sth .
finally achieve the goal
acid rain
acknowledge the fact
friends and acquaintances

accustomed

[kstmd]
adj ,
We were accustomed to working together. (.
) .

achieve

:
[tv]
v ,
She eventually achieved her goal of becoming a professor.
.

acid
c
[sid]
adj
This juice have a slightly acid flavour.
.
syn bitter
acknowledge

[knlid]
v
The family acknowledge the need for change. 
.

acquaintance

[kweintns]
n ,
They developed an acquaintance over the Internet.
(. ) .

12

A
acquire a language
act as a group
lead an active life
become a movie actor
She looks happy, but actually she is sad. 
, .

acquire

[kwai]
v
The land was acquired by the city for $21 million. 
21 .

act

n, v ; ; ,

The act of Parliament was published yesterday.


, , .
The company acted correctly in sacking him.
.

[kt]

active

[ktiv]
adj ;
Shes over 80, but is still very active. 80,
.
ant inactive
actor

[kt]
n
She has starred with many leading actors. 
.
actually

[ktuli]
adv ,
Ive known Mary for years. Since we were babies, actually.
. .

13

A
adapt to the change
add some milk to the soup
address the audience
provide adequate food 

adjust to a new school

adapt

[dpt]
v (),
The children are finding it hard to adapt to the new school.
.

add

[d]
v ,
If the mixture seems dry, add water. ,
.
address

[dres]
n, v ,
Whats your new address? ?
She turned to address the man on her left. ,
.

adequate

[dikwit]
adj ;
Some creams we tested failed to give adequate protection against UV
light. , ,

.
syn sufficient
ant inadequate
adjust
[dst]

Check and adjust the brakes regularly. 


.
syn adapt

14

A
business administration
admire the view
admit a mistake
adopt a new system
children and adults

administration

[d ministrein]
n ,
The health service spends too much on administration. 
.
admire

[dmai]
v
I really admire the way she brings up those kids all on her own.
, .

admit

[dmit]
v , ,
You may not like her, but you have to admit that she is good at her job.
, , , 
.
syn confess
ant deny
adopt

[dpt]
v
The courts were asked to adopt a more flexible approach to young
offenders.
.

adult

[dlt]
n, adj ; ,
Some children find it difficult to talk to adults.
.
He lived most of his adult life in Scotland. @
.

15

A
advances in science
the advantage of being tall
tobacco advertising
advise sb to stop drinking .

affairs of state

advance

:
n, v, adj ; ; 

in advance , , ,
Book tickets 21 day in advance. 
.
A line of German tanks slowly advanced.
.
We received no advance warning of the storm. 
.
[dvns]

advantage

:
[dvntid]
n
His height gives him an advantage over the other players.
.
ant disadvantage

advertising

[dvtaizi]
n
Both candidates are spending millions on television advertising.
.
advise

[dvaiz]
v
John advised him to leave London.
.

affair

[fe]
n ; ;
She had an affair with her boss that lasted six years.
.
syn love affair
16

A
Alcohol affects the brain. .
have / feel an affection for sb
.
cant afford to buy a Ford

be afraid of making mistakes


Soon afterwards he left. .

affect

[fekt]
v , ,
As usual, Peter affected complete boredom. , 
.
affection

[fekn]
n ; ;
She looked back on those days with affection.
.
syn fondness
afford
:
[f
d]
v
We cant afford to go on vacation this year. 
.
afraid

[freid]
adj
Dont be afraid to ask for help. .
syn scared
afterwards
:
[ftwdz]
adv ;
Afterwards, I was asked to write a book.
.

17

A
people of all ages
his aged parents
go to a travel agency
childrens aggressive behaviour 

agree to sbs proposal . 

age

[eid]
n
Whats the minimum age for getting a drivers license? 
?
aged

[eidid]
adj
My aged parents live in Samara.
.
agency

[eidnsi]
n
a UN agency responsible for helping refugees , 

aggressive

[gresiv]
adj ;
Jims voice became aggressive. .
agree
:
[gr]
v
If she felt he was right, she would agree with him. 
, , .
ant disagree, refuse

18

A
land suitable for agriculture , 

look straight ahead


financial aid to Iraq
aim at the target
an air of sadness

agriculture

[gri klt]
n
More than 75% of the land is used for agriculture. 75%
.
ahead

[hed]
adv ;
We are 10 points ahead in polls. 10
.
syn in advance
ant behind

aid

[eid]
n, v ;
Foreign aid from many countries poured into the famine area. 
.
Calcium aids in bone development. 
.
aim

[eim]
n, v ; ;
The aim of the research is to find new food sources. 
.
We aim to finish by Friday. .
syn direct
air

[e]
n, adj ;
Lets go outside and get some fresh air. ()
.
Air travel was growing rapidly. (.
) .

19

A
The noise alarms the dog. .
The sisters look alike. .
allow sb to go out .
drink coffee almost every day

Leave me alone. .

alarm

:
n, v ; ; 

He set off the alarm by accident. 


.
[lm]

alike

adj, adv ; ;
;
My mother and I are alike in many ways.
.
The twins were dressed alike. .
[laik]

allow

[la]
v ,
Dont allow your problems to dominate your life.
.
syn permit
ant forbid

almost
:
[
lmst]
adv
Suppers almost ready. .
alone

adj, adv ; ;

I cried like a child because I felt so alone. , 


.
The responsibility is yours and yours alone.
.
ant together

[ln]

20

A
alter the schedule /
an alternative to sugar
disappear altogether
amazing speed
the ambition to be a writer

alter
:
[
lt]
v ()
The city centre has altered beyond recognition. 
.
alternative

::
adj, n ; ;
,
Have you any alternative questions?
?
I had no alternative but to report him to the police.
, .
[
lt:ntiv]

altogether

:
[
ltge]
adv ; ;
In Canada, the situation is altogether different.
.
syn all in all

amaze

[meiz]
v ;
Dave amazed his friends by suddenly getting married.
, .
syn astonish

ambition

[mbin]
n ;
She fulfilled her ambition to run 10,000 metres in under 30 minutes.
, 10 000
30 .

21

A
This act amounts to murder. 
.
amuse students with jokes 

analysis of DNA
the ancestors of modern humans 

ancient Greece and Rome

amount

n, v ; ;
()
They spend equal amounts of time in California and New York.
.
Time lost through illness amounted to 1,357 days. , 
, 1357 .
[mant]

amuse

:
[mj z]
v
He made funny faces to amuse the children.
, .

analysis

[nlisis]
n (pl analyses)
They were doing some type of statistical analysis.
.
syn psychoanalysis
ancestor

[nsst]
n
My ancestors were French. .
syn forebear
ancient

[einnt]
adj
Whereas the Romans were building an empire, the ancient Egyptians
were searching for eternal life. , 
.
ant modern
22

A
Theres another angle to this situation.
.
get angry with sb .
wild / domestic animals /
announce sbs birth / death / .
/
The noise annoys me. .

angle

[ngl]
n, v ; ;
You didnt measure the angle accurately. 
.
The book is angled towards a business audience.
.
syn viewpoint
angry

[gri]
adj
He was beginning to get angry. (. 
).
syn inflamed
animal

[niml]
n
The cosmetics have not been tested on animals. 
.
announce

[nans]
v ,
The government has announced plans to create 10,000 new jobs. 
10 000
.
syn state
annoy

[ni]
v
What annoyed him most was that he had received no apology.
, .
syn irritate
23

A
the annual meeting
find another way
Im anxious about your health. 
.
live apart from ones parents
She lives in a small apartment.
.

annual

[njul]
adj
The school trip has become an annual event. 
.
syn yearly
another

[n]
pron
K She spends the day rushing from one meeting to another. 
, .
anxious

[ks]
adj
We had an anxious couple of weeks waiting for the test results.
.
syn worrying; keen
apart
[pt]

:
adv

The children have never been apart before.


(. ).

apartment
:
[ptmnt]
n ;
She lives in a small apartment. 
.
syn flat

24

A
apologize to him for being late

an apparently simple question

appeal to feelings
He appears to be sleeping. , .
differ in appearance

apologize

[pldaiz]
v
I think you should apologize to your brother. ,
.
apparently

[prntli]
adv
Apparently the company is losing a lot of money. , 
.
appeal

:
n, v , ; 
;
All the organizations involved have sent urgent appeals to the
government, asking for extra funding. 

.
Farmers have appealed to the government dor help. 
.

[pl]

appear

[pi]
v ;
He tried to make it appear that she had committed suicide.
, ,
.

appearance

[pirns]
n
Theyve changed the appearance of the whole building. 
.
ant disappearance
25

A
apply the rule to every case 

be appointed to an important post 

have an appointment with a doctor 



I appreciate your help. .
A typhoon is approaching Japan.
.

apply

[plai]
v ;
If necessary, an interim approach can be applied. 
.
appoint

[pint]
v
Hes been appointed as chairman. 
.
appointment
[pintmnt]

They congratulated him on his appointment as chairman. 


.

appreciate
:
[prieit]
v
He did not fully appreciate the significance of signing the contract.
.
syn realize
approach

[prt]
n, v ;
a new / unorthodox approach to teaching languages / 

As I approached the house, I noticed a light upstairs. 
, .
26

A
the most appropriate title
approve of their marriage
approximately 10,000 years ago 10 000
be apt to forget it
study modern architecture 

appropriate

,
adj, v , 
;
I can assure you that appropriate action will be taken. ,
.
He is suspected of appropriating government funds. 
.
syn steal
ant inappropriate

[prprit, prprieit]

approve
:
[pr v]
v ,
The conference approved a proposal for a referendum.
.
ant disapprove
approximately

[prksimtli]
adv
The plane will be landing in approximately 20 minutes. 
20 .
apt

[pt]
adj ;
Some of the staff are apt to arrive late on Mondays.
.
syn tend to; appropriate

architecture
:
[kitekt]
n
the architecture of Venice

27

A
a nosmoking area
argue that he is wrong ,
Problems arise from carelessness.
 .
My father was in the army. .
the nuclear arms race

area
[eri]

n ; ;

There were over 2 inches of rain in coastal areas.


.

argue
::
[gj ]
v
Beckham continued to argue with the referee throughout the game.
.
syn quarrel, fight
arise

[raiz]
v (arose, arisen)
A crisis has arisen in the Foreign Office. 
.
arms
:
[mz]
n pl ;
Hemingways A Farewell to Arms! , 
!
army
:
[mi]
n (pl armies)
The army are helping to clear up after the floods.
.

28

A
arrange sth with sb . .
arrest sb for speeding .

arrive at the station /


the art of making friends
article of clothing

arrange
[reind]

Contact your local branch to arrange an appointment.


, .

arrest

[rest]
v, n ;
He was arrested and charged with murder. 
.
A man is under arrest following the suspicious death of his wife. 

.
arrive

[raiv]
v ;
What time does the train arrive in London? 
?
syn come
art
:
[t]
n
The exhibition features 205 works of art. 
205 .
article
:
[tikl]
n
The papers leading article described the government as weak. 

.

29

A
artificial intelligence
be ashamed of ones past
be fast / sound asleep
unique aspects of Chinese culture 

assert that it is impossible , 

artificial
:
[ tifil]
adj
artificial flowers
syn false

ant natural

ashamed

[eimd]
adj
Im ashamed to admit that Ive never read any of his books.
, .
asleep
:
[slp]
adj
Quiet! The babys asleep. ! .
ant awake
aspect
[spekt]

n ;

Dealing with people is the most important aspect of my work. 


.

assert
:
[s:t]
v
French cooking, she asserted, is the best in the world. 
, .

30

A
assign work to each member 

assist in my fathers business


Red is associated with danger. 
.
assume responsibility
assure you that you will win , 

assign

[sain]
v ;
Ive been assigned the task of looking after new students.
.

assist
[sist]

The teacher assists the children with their tasks.


.

associate

,
v, n ; ; 
,
This type of landscape is usually associated with Africa.
.
one of his business associates

[sieit, sit]

assume
:
[sj m]
v ;
It seems reasonable to assume that the book was written around 70 AD.
, 70
..
syn presume

assure

[]
v ;
Her doctor has assured us that shell be fine. ,
.
syn reassure; ensure
31

A
an astonishing memory
the US astronauts
Galileos astronomy
a professional athlete
CO2 in the atmosphere

astonish
[stni]

v ,

Her reply astonished me. .


syn amaze

astronaut
:
[strn
t]
n ;
When I was a child I dreamed to become an astronaut.
, .
astronomy

[strnmi]
n
I studied the astronomy in Cambridge. 
.
athlete
:
[lt]
n ,
I was a natural athlete as a kid. 
.
atmosphere

[tmsfi]
n ;
The hotel had a lovely relaxed atmosphere. 
.

32

A
a bookcase attached to the wall , 

heart attack
attain the goal
an attempt to break the record
attend the meeting

attach

[tt]
v ;
Attach a recent photograph to your application form.
.
syn fix
attack

n, v ; ; 
,
The attack began at dawn. .
Snakes will only attack if you disturb them. ,
.
syn offence
[tk]

attain

[tein]
v
More women are attaining positions of power.
.
attempt

[tempt]
n, v ;
All attempts to control inflation have failed.
.
In this chapter I will attempt to explain what led up to the revolution.
, .
attend
[tend]

Only 12 people attended the meeting. 12 


.
33

A
May / Could I have your attention? ?
a friendly attitude towards sb 
.
attract sbs attention .
attribute the success to luck
gather a large audience

attention

[tenn]
n
They listened to the speech with close attention.
.
attitude
:
[titj d]
n ; ;
Petes attitude towards women really scares me.
.
attract
[trkt]

What attracted me most to the job was a chance to travel.


, 
.

attribute

:, :
v, n ; , ,

saying usually attributed to Confucius ,



[tribj t, tribj t]

Not everyone can develop the attributes of a leader. 

audience
:
[
dins]
n ;
The audience began clapping and cheering. 
.

34

A
the author of the bestseller
an authority on biology

information available to everyone ,

higher than average


avoid meeting people

author
:
[
]
n
He was an author of two books on China.
.
syn writer; initiator
authority
:
[
riti]
n (pl authorities) ,
Several countries claim authority over the islands.
.
available

[veilbl]
adj ,
Every available space on the wall was covered in pictures. 
.
average

adj, n ; ;

The average cost of making a movie has risen by 15%. 


15%.
The average of 3, 8 and 10 is 7. ,
.
syn mean

[vrid]

avoid

[vid]
v ,
It is important to take measures to avoid the risk of fire. 
, .
35

A
stay awake all night
the Academy Award for Best Picture

be aware of the danger
an awful mistake
an awkward silence

awake

[weik]
adj
I hope hes awake now. , (. 
).
syn aware
ant asleep
award

:
[w
d]
n, v ;
Nina was in Moscow to receive her award as Teacher of the Year.
, .
The judge awarded me first prize.
.

aware

[we]
adj (),
They were well aware that the company was losing money. 
, .
awful
:
[
fl]
adj
The weather was awful. .
syn terrible
awkward
:
[
kwd]
adj
I hoped he would stop asking awkward questions. ,
.
syn difficult

36

B
people from different backgrounds 

My car was badly damaged. 


.
ban smoking in public places 

a bank loan
barely survive the war

background

[bkgrand]
n ;
Students with a background in chemistry will probably find the course
easier. , , ,
, .
badly

[bdli]
adv ;
The company was very badly managed.
.
ant well
ban

[bn]
n, v ; ;
a total ban on cigarette advertising
Charlies been banned from driving for a year. 
.
ant allow
syn prohibit
bank

[bk]
n ; ,
We have very little money in the bank. .
trees on the river bank
barely

[beli]
adv
She was very old and barely able to walk.
.
syn hardly
37

B
the language barrier
This story is based on fact. 
.
take a bath every day
the Battle of Trafalgar
a sandy beach

barrier

[bri]
n
The language barrier makes debate impossible. 
.
base

[beis]
v, n ; ,
India has a good scientific research base. 
 .
Their relationship was based upon mutual respect. 
.
bath
:
[b]
n
After a week of camping, I really needed a bath. 
.
syn bathtub

battle

[btl]
n, v ; ;
Her son was killed in battle. .
Doctors battled to save his life. ,
.
beach
:
[bt]
n
surfers on the beach

38

B
beat the champion
beg sb to come back .
study animal behaviour
Contrary to popular belief 

I dont believe a word of it. .

beat

:
v (beat, beaten), n ; ;

Beat the eggs, then add the milk. ,


.
a heart rate of 80 beats a minute 80
syn defeat

[bt]

beg

[beg]
v ,
The children begged to come with us. c .
behaviour

[biheivi]
n
It is important to reward good behaviour. 
.
belief
:
[bilf]
n
belief in God
ant disbelief
believe

:
[bilv]
v ;
You shouldnt believe everything you read.
, .

39

B
He belongs to the FBI. .
below freezing / zero /
bend down to pick up sth .
eat lunch beneath a tree
for sbs benefit .

belong
[bil]

v ;

Put the chair back where it belongs. (.


).

below

[bil]
adv, prep ;
Water was dripping onto the floor below. 
(. ).
ant above

bend

[bend]
v ; ()
John bent and kissed her. .
ant straighten

beneath
:
[bin]
adv, prep ;
F The dolphins disappeared beneath the waves.
.
syn underneath; under

benefit

n, v ; ; 
,
The new credit cards will be of great benefit to our customers.
.
Im sure youll benefit greatly from the visit. 
.
syn welfare
[benefit]

40

B
the table beside the bed
Besides myself
beyond the river
an electricity / gas bill /
5 billion people 5

beside
[bisaid]

prep ;

F Wendy came up and sat beside me.


.

besides

[bisaidz]
adv, prep ;
F People choose jobs for other reasons besides money. 
, , 
.
beyond
[bijnd]

prep, adv ;

F Such tasks are far beyond the scope of the average schoolkid.

bill

[bil]
n ; ;
Have you paid the phone bill? ?
billion

[biljn]
n
The final cost could be as much as one billion dollars. 
.

41

B
before the birth of Christ .. /
put in a bit of sugar
Barking dogs seldom bite. 
.
a bitter experience
blame others for the failure

birth
:
[b:]
n
Mary was celebrating last night after giving birth to twins.
.
bit

[bit]
n
He wedged the door open with a bit of wood.
.
bite
[bait]

v (bit, bitten) ;

An adult conger eel can easily bite through a mans leg. 

bitter

adj, n ; ;

His photo stirred up bitter memories.


.
A pint of bitter, please. , .

[bit]

blame

[bleim]
v, n ; ;
Dont blame me its not my fault.
.
Do you accept any blame for what happened?
?

42

B
Fill in the blank. / .
with sbs blessing c .
Walk two more blocks. .
high / low blood pressure / ()

The wind is blowing from the north. .

blank

adj, n ; ; ; 

Leave the last page blank. .
Soldiers fired blanks into the crowd.
.
[blk]

blessing

[blesi]
n ;
The dishwasher has been a real blessing!
!

block

[blk]
n, v ; ;
a solid block of ice
A fallen tree is blocking the road.
.
blood

[bld]
n
Blood is thicker than water. (.
).
blow

v (blew, blown), n ; ; ;

Rebels attempted to blow up the bridge. 


.
The factory closures came as a blow to the local economy.
.
[bl]

43

B
board a plane
boil water
strong family bonds
book a hotel room
cross the Russian border

board

:
n, v ; ; ;
( )
The plan of the new building is displayed on a board at the back of the
room. .
The couple boarded the train for London.
.

[b
d]

boil

[bil]
v, n ; ;
We are advised to boil the water before drinking it. 
.
Add spices and bring the sauce to the boil. 
.
bond

[bnd]
n, v ;
the emotional bond between mother and child

It takes 5 minutes for the two surfaces to bond.
.
book

[bk]
n, v ;
Ive just started reading a book by Graham Greene.
.
Have you booked a room? ?
border
:
[b
d]
n, v ;
The river lies on the border between the US and Mexico. 
.
countries that border the Mediterranean ,

44

B
a very boring movie
be born with a talent for music 

borrow a book from a friend


I dont want to bother you. .

bore
[b
]

:
v, n ; ;

I wont bore you with all the technical details.


.
He turned out to be a crashing bore. .

born
:
[b
n]
v (pp bear)
I was born on December 15th, 1973. 15 1973
.
borrow

[br]
v ;
Can I borrow your pen for a minute?
?
bother

[b]
v, n ;
I try not to bother about what other people think.
, .
Its an old car, but its never caused me any bother. 
, .
syn trouble

45

B
the bottom of the sea
The plane is bound for London. .
the boundary between the two countries 

bow to the queen
brain death

bottom

[btm]
n, adj , , ();
Can you hold the bottom of the ladder for me?
?
Youve got some chocolate on your bottom lip.
.
ant top
syn backside
bound

[band]
adj
You are legally bound to report the accident.
.
boundary

[bandri]
n ;
the disputed boundary between the two provinces

bow

[ba]
v, n ; ;
She bowed and left the stage. .
take / give a bow ( )
brain

[brein]
n ;
Messages from the brain are carried by the central nervous system.
.

46

B
a branch of science
a brave young soldier
take a break for a cup of tea
breathe fresh air
how to breed animals

branch

:
n, v ; ; ; 

the executive / judicial / legislative branch / 


/
When you reach the village green, the street branches into two.
, .

[brnt]

brave

[breiv]
adj ;
her brave fight against cancer
syn courageous
ant cowardly
break

v (broke, broken), n (), 


(); ();
I never break my promise / word.
/ .
syn smash, shatter, split

[breik]

breathe
:
[br]
v
The room filled with smoke, and it was becoming difficult to breathe.
, .
breed
:
[brd]
v, n ;
Eagles breed during the cooler months of the year. 
.
Spaniels are my favourite breed of dog.
.

47

B
a brief explanation
in the bright light
sbs brilliant talent .
in a broad sense
broadcast the concert live 

brief

:
adj, n, v ; ; 
;
We stopped by Alices house for a brief visit.
.
We should, in brief, invest heavily in digital systems. ,
.
brief sb on sth . .

[brf]

bright

[brait]
adj
Her eyes were hurting from the bright lights.
.
ant dull
brilliant

[briljnt]
adj ;
She was dressed in brilliant white. .

broad
:
[br
d]
adj
He was six feet tall, with broad shoulders. 180
(. ), .
ant narrow
broadcast

::
n, v (broadcast, broadcast) ;

a news broadcast
The interview was broadcast live across Europe. 
.
[br
dkst]

48

B
win a bronze in the 100m race
100
be as brown as a berry
cut the defense budget
Shes got the travel bug. .
build up ones career

bronze

[brnz]
n, adj ;
a bell cast in bronze ,
a bronze statuette
brown

[bran]
adj, v ;
brown bread
First brown the meat in a pan. .
budget

n, v, adj ; (
); ,
The budget for photography has been cut. /
.
Weve budgeted for a new car next year. 
.
budget flights
syn cheap
[bdzt]

bug

n, v ; ;
;
I picked a bug last weekend. .
The babys crying is really bugging him.
.

[bg]

build

v (built, built), n , ;
;
Ted took twenty years to build up his business.
.
a woman of slim / sturdy build / 

[bild]

49

B
bullying in schools
bump into sb / .

become a burden on sb .
suffer burns
burst into tears / laughter / (
/ )

bullying

[blii]
n ,
an attempt to tackle the problem of bullying in schools

bump

[bmp]
v, n ();
She bumped her arm on the table. .
He had a few injuries, mostly bumps and bruises. 
, .
burden

:
n, v , , ; 

The burden of taxation has risen considerably. 


.
a company burdened with debt ,
syn load
[b:dn]

burn
:
[b:n]
v, n ; ;
An average household candle will burn for about six hours.
.
She was taken to the hospital with serious burns. 
.
burst

:
v (burst, burst), n ; 
;
The pipes had burst and the house was under two feet of water.
, (. ).
a burst of laughter / anger / enthusiasm /
/

[b:st]

50

B
bury the dead body
be busy with parttime job
I have but one question. .
do up / undo a button /

bury

[beri]
v
He was buried in the village churchyard. 
.
busy

[bizi]
adj, v ;
Shes busy now can you phone later? 
?
He busied himself with answering letters.
.
syn engaged
but

[bt]
conj ,
H Its an old car, but its very reliable. ,
.
H But now to the main question.
.
button

[btn]
n, v ; ;
A button was missing from his shirt.
.
Sam, make sure Nina buttons up her jacket. , ,
.

51


calculate the cost
Always keep calm. .
launch / mount a ampaign
die of skin cancer
a candidate for President

calculate
[klkjuleit]

v ,

These instruments calculate distances precisely. 


.
syn work out; estimate

calm

:
adj, n, v ; ;

I tried to stay calm and just ignore him.


.
the calm before the storm

[km]

Calm down and tell me what happened. ,


.

campaign

[kmpein]
n, v ;
Florida was a key state in his campaign for reelection.
.
a group campaigning against the destruction of the rainforests 
,

cancer

[kns]
n
A lot of cancers can now be treated successfully.
.
candidate
[kndidt]

There are only three candidates for the job. 


.

52


He is capable of doing the job.
.
mans great capacity to learn

the capital of Australia
capture wild animals
carbon dioxide ,

capable

[keipbl]
adj
I dont think hes capable of murder. ,
.
capacity

[kpsiti]
n ; ;
The fuel tank has a capacity of 40 litres.
(. ) 40 .
ant incapacity

capital

n, adj ; ( );

Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation. c


.
capital investments

[kpitl]

capture

[kpt]
v, n ;
The town was captured after a siege lasting ten days. 
.
the capture of Jerusalem in 1099 1099
carbon
:
[kbn]
n ;
carbon mine

53


I dont care what you say. (.
), .
a long career as an actress
Be careful not to make this mistake. 
.
a popular cartoon character 

new cases of AIDS

care

[ke]
v, n ; ;
The only thing he seems to care about is money. , 
, , .
They shared the care of the children. (.
) .

career

[kri]
n ;
He realized that his acting career was over. ,
.
careful

[kefl]
adj ;
Be careful the floors slippery.
.
ant careless
cartoon
::
[kt n]
n ;
cartoon characters such as Donald Duck , 
,
syn comic strip
case

[keis]
n, v ; ;
The case will be heard in the High Court.
.
The reactor will be cased in metal. 
.
54


pay $1000 in cash 1000
cast a shadow on the wall
wear casual clothes
fall into the same category
cause a lot of trouble

cash

[k]
n, v ; ;
Cash was taken during a burglary of the apartment. 
.
cash a cheque / postal order /
cast

:
v (cast, cast), n ; ; 

research findings that cast new light on the origin of our universe
, 

an allstar cast
syn toss

[kst]

casual

[kl]
adj ;
Jane felt more comfortable in casual clothes.
.
ant formal
category

[ktigri]
n
There are five categories of workers. 
.
cause
:
[k
z]
n, v ; ,
Its our job to establish the cause of the fire.
.
The fire caused $19,000 worth of damage.
19 .
syn reason
55


go into a cave
The Soviet Union ceased to exist. 
.
impose / set / put a ceiling on sth
. / .
celebrate ones birthday / jubilee 
/
destroy cancer cells

cave
[keiv]

n, v ;

the entrance to a cave


The roof of the tunnel caved in on them.
.

cease
[ss]

:
v

The rain ceased and the sky cleared. ,


.

ceiling

:
[sli]
n ;
a light hanging from the ceiling ,

celebrate

[selibreit]
v ;
My folks are celebrating their 50th anniversary. 
50 .

cell

[sel]
n ; ;
all me on my cell if youre running late. ,
.
syn mobile

56


Central America / Asia / Europe /
/
at the end of the 20th century XX
tea / wedding ceremony /
Im certain of his success. .
deputy / vice chairman

central

[sentrl]
adj ;
The roof is supported by a central column.
.

century

[sentri]
n
The church was built in the 13th century.
XIII .

ceremony
[sermni]

n ;

the wedding / graduation / opening ceremony

/
/

certain

:
adj, pron ; ,

Now, are you certain about that? ?


K Certain of the payments were made on Mr Smiths authority. 
 .
syn sure
[s:tn]

chairman

[temn]
n
Pete was appointed chairman of the education commitee. 
.

57


face a new challenge
The chances are (that) ,
I have no change with me. .
Hes an odd character. .
defining / distinguishing characteristic

challenge

[tlnd]
n, v ; ;
The company is ready to meet the challenges of the next few years.
.
They went to the High Court to challenge the decision. 
, .

chance
:
[tns]
n ; ;
Ralph was waiting for a chance to introduce himself.
.
I wasnt sure if Id got quite enough petrol to get me home, but
I decided to chance it. ,
, .
syn opportunity
change

[teind]
v, n ()(); ;
These gloves are too large for me. Can I change them for a smaller size?
. ?
Even with a change of trains, the subway is quicker than a cab at rush
hour. .
syn switch, exchange
character

[krkt]
n ;
He swore, which was out of character for him. ,
.
syn nature
characteristic

[ krktristik]
n, adj ;
a baby discovering the physical characteristics of objects ,

58


charge a high price
a city full of charm ,
chase the car
chat with friends
stay at a cheap hotel

charge
:
[td]
n, v ; ;
free of charge
The shop will pack them for a small extra charge.
.
He has been charged with murder. .
charm
:
[tm]
n, v ; ;
the charm of this small Southern city

We were charmed by the friendliness of the local people.
.
chase

[teis]
v, n ;
The dogs saw him running and chased him. ,
, .
chat

[tt]
n, v ; ;
Ive had a long chat with Vinnie. (. 
) .
John and I sat up until the early hours chatting. 
.
cheap
:
[tp]
adj, adv ;
The equipment is relatively cheap and simple to use. 
.
She used to get meat cheap at the butchers.
.
syn inexpensive
ant expensive
59


Dont cheat on your taxes! 
!
cash a cheque
kiss sbs cheek .
cheer up the patients
a chemical / nuclear change / 

cheat
:
[tt]
v, n ;
She claimed that I cheated at chess. , 
, .
His addiction has turned him into a cheat and a liar. 
.
check; cheque

v, n ; ; (.)
( );
They paused to check how the other climbers were getting on.
, .
an I have the check, please? , .
syn bill

[tek]

cheek
:
[tk]
n ;
Lucy stretched up to kiss his cheek. , 
.
Ive had enough of your cheek. .
cheer

[ti]
n, v !;
A great cheer went up from the crowd.
.
The spectators cheered him wildly. 
.
ant boo
chemical

[kemikl]
n, adj ;
toxic / hazardous chemicals /
60


have chest pains ()
the chief reason for sbs success .

in / during / since childhood /


choose the best answer
We didnt see you at church this morning.
.

chest

[test]
n ;
Her heart was pounding in her chest.
.
chief

:
adj, n ; ; 
; ;
He was recently appointed chief economist at the Bank of Scotland.
.
Los Angeles Police Chief Willie L. Williams 
.
syn main

[tf]

childhood

[taildhd]
n
I had a very happy childhood. 
.

choose
:
[t z]
v (chose, chosen)
You can choose from a wide range of cars.
.
church
:
[t:t]
n
My parents go to church every Sunday.
.

61


business / literary circles /
Circumstances have changed. 
.
the average US citizen
civil rights
civilian life

circle
:
[s:kl]
n, v ; ;
Cut the pastry into circles. .
The pigeons circled above the terrace. 
.
syn ring

circumstance

:
[s:kmstns]
n
I cant imagine a circumstance in which I would be willing to steal.
, 
.

citizen

[sitizn]
n ;
The mayor urged citizens to begin preparing for a major storm.
.

civil

[sivl]
adj
For years the country was torn apart by civil conflict. 
.

civilian

[siviljn]
n
Many innocent civilians were killed during the war.
/ .

62


Western civilization
He claims that he saw a UFO. , .
middleclass families
classify man as an animal

It is clear that he did it. , .

civilization

[ sivlaizein]
n
the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome

claim

[kleim]
v, n , ;
The girls claim to have seen the fairies. ,
.
Evidence to support these claims is still lacking. ,
,  .
class

:
n, v , , ; 

Were in the same class for math. .


Heroin and cocaine are classed as hard drugs. 
.
syn lesson

[kls]

classify

[klsifai]
v
In law, the beer is classified as a food product. 
.
syn class

clear

[kli]
adj, v ; ;
I get 200 a week clear. 200 .
Its Bills turn to clear the table.
(. ).
syn transparent, net
ant cloudy, opaque
63


a very clever monkey
a lawyer and his client
a warm, dry climate ,
climb Mount Everest
the close of the 20th century XX

clever

[klev]
adj ;
Mary is quite clever and does well at school.
.
syn intelligent; smart

client

[klaint]
n
Yesterday I had a meeting with an important client.
.
syn customer

climate

[klaimt]
n
dry climate

climb
[klaim]

v, n ; ;
; ( ..)

Harry climbed the stairs. .


a steady limb in house prices
syn go up; rise

close

v, adj, adv ; ;
; ;
She closed the curtains. / .
If you need to buy bread, the closest shop is about a mile away.
, .
Her father lives quite close by. .
syn shut; near
ant open
[klz]

64


a skeleton in the closet /
Change your clothes. (. ).
be on cloud nine
a clue to the mystery
coal, oil and gas ,

closet

[klzt]
n ,
a closet full of beautiful clothes ,

clothes

[klz]
n
What sort of clothes was he wearing? ?

cloud

[klad]
n, v ; ; ,
Dark clouds floated across the moon.
.
Fear has clouded his vision. C 
(. ).

clue
:
[kl ]
n ;
I havent a clue how to talk to girls. , 
.
coal

[kl]
n
Put some coal on the fire. .

65


the west coast of Australia
the school dress code , 
coin a new word
My teas gone cold. .
The Soviet Union collapsed. .

coast
[kst]

n ;

We drove along the Pacific coast to Seattle. 


.

code

[kd]
n ;
Each state in the US has a different criminal and civil code.
.
coin

[kin]
n, v ;
Toss a coin to see who goes first. ,
, .
The word aromatherapy was coined in the 1920s. C 
20 .
cold
[kld]

adj, n ; ;

She gave him a cold stare. .


Keep your feet dry so you dont catch a bad cold.
, (. ).
ant hot, warm

collapse

[klps]
v, n ; ; ;
The roof has collapsed long ago. .
the collapse of the Soviet Union

66


grab by the collar
my friends and colleagues
collect information
go to college /
a former British colony

collar

n, v ; ; ,

He loosened his collar and tie. .


The police collared him less than twenty minutes after the robbery.
20 
.

[kl]

colleague
:
[klg]
n
She discussed the idea with some of her colleagues.
.
collect

v, adv ; ;

Mary collects teddy bears. .

[klekt]

call / phone sb collect .


syn pick up

college

[klid]
n
Donna left school and went to art college.
.
syn university
colony

[klni]
n ;
Algeria was formerly a French colony. 
.
67


write a newspaper column
combine music and drama 

enjoy a comfortable life


command great respect
comment on the news

column

[klm]
n ; ;
Add up the numbers in each column.
.
combine

[kmbain]
v ;
Diets are most effective when combined with exercise. 
.
comfortable
[kmftbl]

adj ;

The bed wasnt particularly comfortable. 


.

command

:
n, v ; ; 
;
troops under the command of General Roberts 

Captain Picard commanded the crew to report the main deck. 
.

[kmnd]

comment

n, v ; ; 
,
No comment. .

[kmnt]

His lawyer commented that the decision was outrageous. 


, .
syn remark

68


industry and commerce
commercial television
commit a serious error
the International Olympic Committee (
)
an export commodity

commerce
:
[km:s]
n ;
measures promoting local commerce and industry 

syn trade
commercial

:
adj, n ; ; 

Our top priorities must be profit and commercial growth.

.
a soap powder commercial 

[km:l]

ant noncommercial

commit

[kmit]
v ;
Women commit fewer crimes than men. 
, .
committee

[kmiti]
n
Hes on the finance committee. .
commodity

[kmditi]
n (pl commodities)
Commodity prices fell sharply. .

69


a common language
communicate with each other
the international community
my travelling companion
I enjoy your company. .

common
[kmn]

adj, n ; ;

He insists that he is a revolutionary not a common criminal. 


, , 
.
They have nothing in common. .

ant rare

communicate
:
[kmj nikeit]
v ;
We communicated mostly by email.
.
community

:
n (pl communities) ; ()

We meet once a month to discuss community problems. 


.

[kmj niti]

companion

[kmpnin]
n ;
For ten years he had been her constant companion.
.

company

[kmpni]
n (pl companies) ;
Twos a company, threes a crowd. ,
.
syn business, firm

70


compare Japan with China
compel sb to speak English .

compete with sb for a gold medal .

complain about the noise
a complete failure

compare

[kmpe]
v
The report compares the different types of home computer available.
,
.

compel

[kmpel]
v
The law will compel employers to provide health insurance.
.

compete

:
[kmpt]
v ;
Several advertising agencies are competing to get the contract. 

.

complain

[kmplein]
v
She often complains about not feeling appreciated at work. 
, .
complete
:
[kmplt]
adj, v ; ;
The police were in complete control of the situation. 
.
The building took two years to complete. ,
.
syn total, whole; fill out
ant incomplete
71


a highly complex process
a complicated puzzle
key / major component /
a team composed of nine members (, )

elements and compounds () 

complex

[kmpleks]
adj, n ;
It was a complex relationship between two complex people.
.
The town has one of the best leisure complexes in the country.
.
syn complicated
ant simple

complicated

[kmplikeitid]
adj
Mental illness is a very complicated subject. 
.
syn complex

component

[kmpnnt]
n, adj ;
substances chemical components
Weve been breaking down the budget into its component parts.
.
syn constituent

compose

[kmpz]
v ; ()
Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. 
.
syn consist of; make up

compound
,
[kmpand, kmpand] n, v ;
Sulphur dioxide is a compound of sulphur and oxygen.
.
72


conceal the truth from sb .
conceive of life as a comedy 

concentrate on what he is saying ,



the concept of time
concern about the future

conceal

:
[knsl]
v
She tried to conceal the fact that she was pregnant.
, .

conceive

:
[knsv]
v
Many people cant conceive of a dinner without meat or fish. 
.

concentrate

v; n , 
;
Adrian was finding it difficult to concentrate.
.
range juice concentrate
syn focus on
[knsntreit]

concept

[knspt]
n ; ,
the concept of infinite space 

concern

:
n, v , ; ,
;
The recent rise in crime is a matter of considerable public concern.

.
Issues like food additives do concern me. , 
, .
[kns:n]

73


conclude that he was killed ,

give a concrete example


standards of conduct
Mr Smith is in conference.  .
confess that I did it ,

conclude

:
[knkl d]
v ,
It seems reasonable to conclude that peoples behaviour is influenced
by TV. , 
.

concrete

:
adj, n, v ; ; 
;
the lack of any concrete evidence  

a concrete floor
[knkrt]

conduct
,
[kndkt, kndkt]
v; n ;
We are conducting a survey of consumer attitudes towards organic
food.
.
The Senators conduct is being investigated by the Ethics Committee.
.
conference

[knfrns]
n ,
Mr Dickson is in conference.  .

confess
[knfes]

Edwards confessed to being a spy for the KGB.

74


have confidence in my ability
be confined to a cll
confirm Darwins theory
a conflict between two countries

confront a difficult problem

confidence

[knfidns]
n ; ()
Our first priority is to maintain the customers confidence in our
product.
.

confine

[knfain]
v ;
For the sake of simplicity we will confine our discussion to income
taxation. 
.
syn restrict

confirm
:
[knf:m]
v
New evidence has confirmed the first witnesss story.
.
ant deny
conflict
,
[knflikt, knflikt]
n, v ;
Unions were seen to be engaging in a conflict with firms
managements. 
.
The drive for profit often conflicts with consumers interests.
.
confront

[knfrnt]
v ;
The problems confronting the new government were enormous. 
, , 
.
syn face
75


be confused by sbs anger . 

lose the support of the Congress 

connect to the Internet


conquer the world
healthconscious Americans 

confuse
[knfj z]

:
v ;

People might well confuse the two products.

congress

[kngrs]
n ;
a congress of the ruling Labour Party c 

connect

[knekt]
v ; ;
I didnt connect the two events in my mind.
.
syn link
ant disconnect

conquer

[kk]
v ;
The Normans conquered England in 1066.
1066 .
syn overcome

conscious

[kns]
adj ;
I was very conscious of the fact that I had to make a good impression.
, 
.
ant unconscious
76


marry without ones parents consent 

as a consequence (of sth) (.)
wildlife conservation
a dark conservative suit
consider the problem seriously

consent

[knsent]
n, v ;
He took the car without the owners consent.
.
ant refuse
consequence

[knsikwns]
n ;
Our findings have farreaching consequences for researchers.
(.
) .

conservation

[ knsvein]
n ;
the conservation of several species of dolphins 

syn preservation

conservative
:
[kns:vtiv]
adj, n ;
a very conservative attitude to education

an argument between reformers and conservatives in the organization


syn traditional

consider

[knsid]
v ;
They consider themselves to be Europeans. 
.
77


a considerable distance
The book consists of eight lessons. 
.
be consistent with the theory
keep a constant speed
Cars constitute 10% of the export. 
10% .

considerable

[knsidrbl]
adj
Weve saved a considerable amount of money. 
.
consist

[knsist]
v ,
Happiness does not consist in how many possessions you own.
, .
consistent

[knsistnt]
adj
Shes the teams most consistent player. 
.
ant inconsistent
constant

adj, n ; , 

There was a constant stream of visitors to the house.
.
The speed of light is a constant. 
.

[knstnt]

constitute
[k
nstitj t]

:
v ; ;

The Federation was constituted in 1949. 


1949 .
syn make up; found

78


have a strong / good / weak constitution /
/
a bridge under construction
consult a doctor for advice
consume a lot of energy
come into contact with Europeans

constitution
:
[ knstitj n]
n ; ;
Gender discrimination violates the Constitution.
.
construction

n ; ; 

the construction of a new airport


[knstrkn]

consult
[knslt]

v ;

I cant believe you sold the car without consulting me! 


, , !

consume

:
[knsj m]
v ;
He was consumed with guilt after the accident.
(. ).

contact
[kntkt]

n, v, adj , ; ;

Children need physical contact with a caring adult. 


.
Give the names of two people who can be contacted in an emergency.
, 
.
If you are babysitting, make sure you have a contact number for the
parents. , ,
.
79


This book contains 1500 words. 1500 .
contemporary art / music / dance /
/
be content with the result
the meaning in this context
continue to grow fast

contain

[kntein]
v ,
The bus contains twenty passengers.
.
contemporary

[kntemprri]
adj, n ;
the role of the media in contemporary society 

Petrach and Chaucer were contemporaries. 
.
syn modern
content

,
[kntnt, kntent]
n, adj ;
She kept the contents of the letter a secret. 
.
Nick was a good husband, and Jill was clearly very content.
, .

context
[kntekst]

His comments, taken out of context, seem harsh. 


, , .

continue
:
[kntinj ]
v ()
Sheila continued to work after she had her baby. 
.
syn resume
80


sign a contract with the Dodgers
Dodgers
contrary to expectations
contribute to world peace

a convenient place to park

contract

,
n, v , ; ,

Read the contract carefully before you sign it. 


, .
Metal contracts as it cools. .
ant expand
[kntrkt, kntrkt]

contrary

n, adj , ; 

Are they happy? No, quite the contrary. ? ,


.
Two contrary views emerged.
.
[kntrri]

contribute
:
[kntribj t]
v ,
Alcohol contributes to 100,000 deaths a year in the US. 
100 000 (.
).
convenient

:
[knvnint]
adj
My secretary will call you to arrange a convenient time to meet.
,
.
ant inconvenient

81


by convention /
have / hold / carry on (a) conversation with sb /
.
convert sth to / into sth . .
convey a sense / an impression / an idea /
/
convince sb of sth . .

convention

[knvenn]
n ;
the European convention on human rights

syn pact; custom

conversation

[ knvsein]
n ,
He could hear snatches of conversation from across the room.
.
convert

:, :
v, n (); 

a sofa that converts into a bed , 



a convert to Christianity
[knv:t, knv:t]

convey

[knvei]
v ;
Ads convey the message that thin is beautiful.
(. ), .
convince

[knvins]
v
Ive been trying to convince Jane to come with me.
.
syn persuade

82


cooperate to do sth .
cope with sth .
her copper hair
to the core
multinational corporations

cooperate
[kpreit]

They agreed to cooperate with Brazil on a programme to protect the

rainforests. 
.

cope

[kp]
v
My computer can cope with huge amounts of data. 
.

copper

n, adj , ; ,

He offered to do the job for a few coppers. 
(. ).
Copper Age
[kp]

core

:()
n, adj , ; 
,
Remove the cores, and bake the apples for 40 minutes.
40 .
the companys core product

[k
(r)]

corporation

:
[ k
prein]
n
He works for a large American corporation. 
.

83


factually / grammatically / anatomically correct
/ /
correspond with / to sth .
down / along the corridor
cover the cost of sth .
dry / persistent / ticklish cough / 
/

correct

adj, v , ;

Score one point for each correct answer. 


.
Correct me, if Im wrong, but , ,
syn right
ant incorrect
[krekt]

correspond
[ krspnd]

v ,

The two halfs of the document did not correspond.


.

corridor

[krid]
n
We had to wait outside in the corridor until our names were called.
, .

cost

[kst]
n, v , ;
This doesnt include the cost of repairing the damage. 
.
His strong stand on the issue could have cost him his job.


.
syn price, charge, fare

cough
[kf]

v, n ;

Stuart gave an embarrased cough.


(. ).

84


count by twos / fives / tens / /

have the courage to do sth .


take sb to court .
cover sth with sth . .

count
[kant]

v, n ; ;

You can count on me. .


Hold your breath for a count of ten. 
(. ).

courage
[krid]

n , ,

She showed great courage throughout her illness.


.
ant cowardice

court
[k
t]

:
n, v ; ; ;

The court ruled that no compensation was due. ,


.
His campaign team have assiduously courted the media.
.

cover

v, n ; ,
;
She wore a lowcut dress, partly covered by a thin shawl.
, .
Exercise is a word which covers a vast range of activities. 
,
.
[kv]

Three soldiers broke cover.


.

85


traditional rural craft
crash into / onto sth .
crazy to do sth .
create a lot of problems
living creatures

craft
[krft]

:
n, v ;

arts and crafts


a handcrafted silver cigar case 

crash
[kr]

v, n ();

He was drunk when he crashed his car. ,


.
a crash victim

crazy
[kreizi]

adj ,

I know this idea sounds crazy, but it may be worth a try. ,


, , .
syn mad

create
[krieit]

Her behaviour is creating a lot of problems.


.

creature

:
[krt]
n , ,
He was the most beautiful creature Kate had ever seen.
,  .

86


interestfree credit
to join the crew /
combat / fight crime
in / during a crisis
criticize sb / sth for doing sth . / .
.

credit

[kredit]
n, v ; ()
Whats the credit limit on your Visa card?
Visa?
The cheque has been credited to your account. 
.
ant debt

crew
:
[kr ]
n , ,
Do you still hang out with the same crew?
?
crime

[kraim]
n ;
Women commit far less crime than men.
, .
crisis
c
[kraisis]
n (pl crises)
The country now faces an economic crisis. 
.
criticize

[kritisais]
v
The new law has been widely criticized. 
.
ant praise

87


a bumper crop
stand out from the crowd
crucial in / to doing sth .
a cruel blow
cultivate a positive approach to life 

crop

[krp]
n, v ;
Fruit growers are gathering in a bumper crop.
.
I had my hair closely cropped. .
syn harvest

crowd

[krad]
n, v ; ,
A vast crowd gathered in the main square.
.
Hundreds of people crowded into the church for the funeral.

crucial

:
[kr l]
adj ,
The work of monks was crucial in spreading Christianity.
.

cruel

:
[kr l]
adj
Sometimes life seems unbearabl cruel.
.
ant kind

cultivate

[kltiveit]
v ,
The land was too rocky to cultivate. 
.
syn grow
88


modern / contemporary culture
cure sb of sth . .
curious to know / see / hear / /

in its current state /


in / on the curriculum /

culture

[klt]
n
In our culture, it is rude to ask someone how much they earn.
,
.

cure

[kju]
n, v , ;
There is still no cure for AIDS.
.
90% of patients can be cured of the disease.

90% 

curious

[kjuris]
adj ,
He was curious about how she would react. ,
.

current

[krnt]
adj, n , ;
In its current state, the car is worth $1000. 
1000 .
Strong currents can be very dangerous for swimmers. 
.

curriculum

n (pl curricula / curriculums) 


,
IT is now on the curriculum in most schools. 
.
[krikjlm]

89


its the custom (for sb) to do sth .
.
regular customer

custom

[kstm]
n ,
He awoke early, as was his custom. (.
), .

customer

[kstm]
n ,
Many of the banks offer a poor level of customer service.
.

90

D
loving dad
our daily lives
do great damage to the human body

its dangerous to do sth .
in the dark

dad

[dd]
n
She lives with her mom and dad. .
daily

[deili]
adj, adv ;
daily flights to Miami
The Zoo is open daily. .

damage

[dmid]
n, v , ;
The damage to his reputation was considerable.
.
Smoking can severely damage your health. 
.

dangerous

[deindrs]
adj
Its dangerous for a woman to walk alone at night. 
.
syn risky

dark

:
adj, n ; ; ;

There were dark clouds in the sky. .


the dark humour common in difficult situations , 

I want you home before dark. , 
(. ).
ant light, fair
syn black
[dk]

91

D
the date of the meeting /
at the dawn of the 21st century XXI
find a dead body
be deaf in one ear
deal with the problem

date
[deit]

n, v ; ;

Ive got a date with Jane tomorrow night.


.
Make sure you sign and date the document at the bottom. 
.

dawn
:
[d
n]
n, v ;
We worked from dawn to dusk. 
.
It began to dawn on me that something was wrong.
, .
syn daybreak
dead

[ded]
adj ;
He was found dead in his car. .
I picked up the phone but discovered the line was dead.
, , .
deaf
[def]

adj ,

She was deaf to his pleas. .

deal
[dl]

:
n, v (dealt, dealt) ;

Okay, its a deal. , .


Most travel agents do not deal directly with these companies. 
.
92

D
Oh dear! !
a debate on education
Pay the debt! !
only a decade ago
deceive sb into doing sth . 
.

dear

[di]
adj, int ; !
Cars are 60% dearer in Britain than in Europe. 
60% , .
L Oh dear, Ive broken the lamp. , .
ant cheap

debate

[dibeit]
n, v , ;
The drug has become the subject of heated debate within the medical
profession. .

The issue will be debated on Tuesday.


.

debt

[det]
n
He had enough money to pay off his outstanding debts.
, .
ant credit
decade

[dikeid]
n ,
Only a decade ago notebook computers were very expensive.
.
deceive

:
[disv]
v
He didnt deceive himself that they could remain friends. 
6 , .
syn trick
93

D
a decent standard of living
decide against / in favour of (doing) sth
. / .
declare independence from Britain

My memory began to decline. .
trees decorated with lights , 

decent
[dsnt]

:
adj

The majority of residents here are decent citizens.


.

decide

[disaid]
v ()
Tinas decided to go to Rome for her holidays. 
.
declare

[dikle]
v ,
I declare you man and wife. .
decline

[diklain]
v, n ; ,
Spending on information technology has declined. 
.
There has been a decline in the size of families.

.
syn deteriorate

decorate

[dekreit]
v
Childrens pictures decorated the walls of the classroom.
.

94

D
fall into a deep sleep
defeat the champion
defend ones country
define sth as sth . .
I definitely need a holiday. .

deep
[dp]

:
adj, adv ;

She was sitting in a deep leather chair. 


.
They talked deep into the night.
.
syn profound

ant shallow

defeat

:
[dift]
n, v ;
She was a woman who hated to admit defeat.
, .
They hoped to defeat the enemy at sea.
.
syn beat

defend
[difend]

She was always defending her husband in front of their daughter.


.

define

[difain]
v
The tasks will be clearly defined by their tutor. 
.
definitely

[definitli]
adv
I definitely need a holiday. .
syn certainly

95

D
agree to some degree
delay sth until sth . .
deliberately break the law
a delicate matter
the delicious smell of newmown grass 

degree
:
[digr]
n
Were all willing to support him to some degree.
.
delay

n, v ; , 

There can be no excuse for any further delay. 


.

[dilei]

The opening of the bridge is delayed until May.


.

deliberately

[dilibrtli]
adv ,
He deliberately upset her. .
syn on purpose, intentionally

delicate

[delikt]
adj ,
The sun can easily damage a childs delicate skin.
.
syn fragile

delicious

e
[dilis]
adj
The meal was absolutely delicious, Ann said politely.
, .

96

D
give a cry of delight
deliver a message to a friend
demand more money / 

a Western / parliamentary democracy / 

demonstrate how / what / why , / /

delight

[dilait]
n, v ;
The kids were screaming with delight. .
Her fabulous recipes will delight anyone who loves chocolate.
, 
.

deliver
[diliv]

The morning mail has just been delivered.


.

demand

:
[dimnd]
n, v ; ;
There is a huge demand for new cars.
.
Where are you going? she demanded angrily. ?
.

democracy

[dimkrsi]
n (pl democracies)
a return to democracy after 16 years of military rule
16

demonstrate
[demnstreit]

v ;

What are they demonstrating against?

97

D
dense forest / jungle / undergrowth / 
/
population density
go to the dentists ()
deny women equal rights
the personnel department

dense

[dens]
adj ;
A narrow track wound steeply up through dense forest. 
.
syn thick; stupid
density

[densiti]
n
areas of high population density / 

dentist

[dentist]
n
Im going to the dentist(s) this afternoon.
().

deny
[dinai]

The men have denied charges of theft.


(. ) .

department
:
[diptmnt]
n ;
We cant find a toy department in the shop.
.

98

D
check the time of departure 
/
depend on sb / sth . / .
feel too depressed to go out 
,
deprive sb of sth . .
derive pleasure / enjoyment from sth 
.

departure
[dipt]

:e
n

There was a delay in the departure of our plane.


.
ant arrival

depend
[dipend]

Choosing the right bike depends on what you want to use it for.


,
.

depress

[dipres]
v ,
It depresses me that nobody seems to care. ,
, , .
deprive
[dipraiv]

A lot of these children have been deprived of a normal home life.


.

derive

[diraiv]
v
This word is derived from Latin. 
(. ).

99

D
descend to sbs level .
describe the lost bag
desert sb for sb . .
deserve attention
a strong desire to be a singer

descend
[disend]

Our plane started to descend.


(. ).
ant ascend

describe
[diskraib]

The police asked her to describe the man.

desert

, :
[dezt, diz:t]
n, v ; ,
The plane crashlanded in the desert. 
.
Mary was deserted by her husband. (.
).
syn abandon

deserve
:
[diz:v]
v
Im sorry for the kids. They deserve better. .
.
syn merit
desire

[dizai]
n, v ;
She expressed a desire to visit us. 
.
Add lemon juice if desired. (. ,)
.
100

D
make a desperate effort
despite the fact (that) ,
to have sth for dessert () .
reach the final destination
destroy the Berlin Wall

desperate
[desprt]

adj ,

I had no money left and was desperate.


, .

despite

[dispait]
prep
F Despite all our efforts to save the school, the authorities decided to
close it. , 
.
syn in spite of

dessert
:
[diz:t]
n
What are we having for dessert? ?
destination

[destinein]
n ;
The Maldives are a popular tourist destination.
.
destroy

[distri]
v
The school was completely destroyed by fire.
.

101

D
in detail /
how to detect lies
determine sbs future .
develop a unique ability
device to do sth .

detail
[di:teil]

:
n

Todd had planned the journey down to the smallest detail.

detect

[ditekt]
v ,
Tim detected a change in her mood.
.
determine
:
[dit:min]
v
Experts have determined that the signature was forged.
, .
syn establish
develop

[divelp]
v (),
She should have developed her own style instead of copying him.
, .
device

[divais]
n ,
a device for separating metal from garbage 

syn gadget

102

D
devote ones time / energy / attention to sth
/ / .
Chinese / Yorkshire dialect / 

be on a diet /
differ widely / greatly / significantly /
/
be different from sb .

devote
[divt]

She devoted herself fulltime to her business. 


.
syn dedicate

dialect
[dailekt]

The people up there speak a Tibetan dialect.


.

diet

[dait]
n
Lyn always seems to be on a diet. ,
.

differ

[dif]
v
Tastes differ. (. ).
syn disagree

different

[difrnt]
adj ,
Different people reacted in different ways. 
.
syn various
ant similar

103

D
difficult (for sb) to unserstand / find / obtain (
.) / /
dig a hole / trench / grave / /
diminish sbs achievements .
direct sbs attention to the fact .
,
wash ones dirty linen / laundry

difficult

[difiklt]
adj ,
difficult times .
syn hard, tough
ant easy

dig

[dig]
v (dug, dug, digging) (), ()
She dug around in her bag for a pen.
.
diminish

[dimini]
v ,
Dont let him diminish your achievements. 
/ .
syn reduce
direct

[direkt]
adj, v ;
Theres a direct link between poverty and illhealth.
.
Id like to direct your attention to paragraph four. 
.
ant indirect; order
dirty

:
[d:ti]
adj
How did you get so dirty?
(. )?
ant clean
104

D
dissapoint sbs hopes / expectations / plans
. / /
end in disaster /
teach sb discipline .
buy sth at a discount .
discover who / what / how , / /

disappoint

[ dispint]
v
I hated to disappoint her. 
.
disaster
:
[dizst]
n , ,
air / environmental / natural / nuclear disaster /
/
Their expedition nearly ended in disaster, when one of the climbers
slid off the cliff. ,
.
discipline

[displin]
n, v ;
The book gives parents advice on discipline. 
.
Try to discipline yourself to write every day.
.

discount

[diskant]
n, v ;
Employees can buy books at a discount. 
.
Experts discounted the accuracy of the polls.
.

discover

[diskv]
v ,
The body was discovered in a field. .
105

D
discrimination against women
discuss sth with sb . .
have / suffer from a disease / . 

feel disgust at sth .


do / wash the dishes

discrimination

[di skriminein]
v
widespread discrimination against older people in the job market

discuss

[disks]
v
Pupils should be given time to discuss the book with their classmates.

.
disease
:
[dizz]
n ,
She suffers from a rare disease of the brain. 
.
disgust

n, v ; 

Joan looked at him with disgust. 


.
Many parents claimed to be disgusted by the amount of violence in
the film. , 
.

[disgst]

dish

[di]
n
The menu includes a wide selection of vegetarian dishes.
.
106

D
dislike doing sth .
dismiss sth as sth . .
display a talent
settle disputes
distinguish a lie from the truth

dislike
[dislaik]

v, n ; ,

I dislike being in the centre of attention.


.
She shared her mothers dislike of housework. ,
.
ant like; liking

dismiss

[dismis]
v ;
He laughed and dismissed my proposal as unrealistic. 
.
syn fire, sack

display

[displei]
n, v , ;
a superb display of African masks 

She displayed no emotion. .

dispute

:
[dispj t]
n, v ;
The police dont usually like to intervene in domestic disputes.
, .

Few would dispute that travel broadens the mind. 


, .

distinguish

[distigwi]
v ,
The light was too dim for me to distinguish anything clearly. 
, .
107

D
be in economic distress 

distribute food equally


the citys business district
disturb sbs sleep / .
American cultural diversity 

distress

[distres]
n, v , ;
The girl was crying and clearly in distress.
.
The dream had distressed her greatly. .
distribute
:
[distribj t]
v ,
Clothes and blankets have been distributed among the refugees.
.
syn give out
district

[distrikt]
n
We bought a house in a pleasant suburban district.
.

disturb

:
[dist:b]
v ,
Sorry to disturb you, but I have an urgent message.
(. ), 
.

diversity

:
[daiv:siti]
n ,
The curriculum will take account of the ethnic diversity of the
population. 
.
syn variety
108

D
divide the cake into six pieces 

an increase in the divorce rate / 

Smoking does harm to everybody. / 


.
sign important documents
Americas domestic problems 

divide

[divaid]
v ;
Scientists traditionally divide the oceans into zones. 
.

divorce
:
[div
s]
n, v ,
Why doesnt she get a divorce? ?
My parents divorced when I was six. ,
().
do
:
[d ]
v (did, done)
I didnt know what to do. , .
do the laundry / ironing / dishes / /
document

n, v ; , 

to draw up a document
It is well documented that men die younger than women. ,
, 
.
[dkjmnt]

domestic

[dmestik]
adj ;
Domestic flights go from Terminal One. 
.
109

D
double meaning
Theres no doubt that ,
go downtown /
draw a map /
top / bottom / righthand / lefthand drawer / 
/ /

double

[dbl]
adj, v ;
Dont park your car on double yellow lines.
.
Within two years the company had doubled in size. 
.
doubt

[dat]
n, v ;
The incident raises doubts about the safety of nuclear power. 

.
Do you think therell be any tickets left? I doubt it. ,
? .

downtown

[dantan]
adv , ()
I have to go downtown later. .

draw

:
v (drew, drawn) , ; 
()
Ive never been able to draw. .
Ali reached into his pocket and drew out a piece of paper.
.
[dr
]

drawer

:
[dr
]
n
He opened the front drawer of his desk, and took out envelope.
.
110

D
have a dream
be dressed in black / white /
drift into sleep
be driven by desire
shop till you drop

dream

:
n, v (dreamed / dreamt) ; ,

Seeing him again was like a bad dream.
.
She dreamed that one day she would be famous.
,  .

[drm]

dress

[dres]
n, v ;
She wore a long red dress. .
How do you dress for work? ?
drift

[drift]
v, n ; ;
The conversation drifted from one topic to another. 
(. ) .
The road is blocked with massive drifts of snow. 
.
drive

v (drove, driven), n ();


; ,
So when did you learn to drive? ?
a two hour drive from... to... () ...
...
[draiv]

drop

v (dropped, dropping), n ; 
;
As soon as she saw the police car she dropped her speed. 
, .
a drop in temperature

[drp]

111

D
save a drowning child
test a new drug on animals

dry oneself on the towel
pay due respect

drown
[dran]

Depressed, Mary tried to drown herself.


, .

drug

[drg]
n ,
Drugs prescribed by doctors can be extremly hazardous if used in
the wrong way. , , 
, .
dry
[drai]

adj, v ;

You should store disks in a cool, dry place.


.
He was drying his hair with a towel. .
ant wet

due
:
[dj ]
adj ,
His new book is due to be published next year.
.

112

D
never a dull monument doing sth 
/ , .
during the war
Its my duty to help you. .

dull
[dl]

adj (duller, dullest) ; v 

Life is never dull when Liz is here.


, .
He drank some alcohol to dull the pain.
, .
syn blunt, stupid

during

[djri]
prep
F My father was killed during the war.
.

duty

:
[dj ti]
n (pl duties)
We feel it our duty to help her. 
.

113

E
be eager to do sth / .
earn money for the family
the origin of life on Earth
pass the test with ease
protect the ecological system

eager
:
[g]
adj
Hes a bright child and eager to learn.
.
earn
:
[:n]
v
He earns nearly $20,000 a year. 20 000
.
earth
[:]

:
n, v ;

71% of the Earths surface is sea. 71% 


.
Make sure the machine is properly earthed. ,
.
syn soil, ground

ease
:
[z]
n, v ;
They won with ease. .
Hell give you something to ease the pain. 
, .
ecological

[ ekldikl]
adj
an ecological disaster

114

E
the market economy
feel on edge
economics / sports / political editor 
/ /
how to educate children
in effect ,

economy

[iknmi]
n ;
Not insuring your belongings is a false economy. , 
, .
edge

[ed]
n, v ;
Billy sat on the edge of the bed. .
She edged closer to get a better look. 
, .
editor

[edit]
n
the editor of the Daily Telegraph
educate
[edjkeit]

v , , 

He was educated at Moscow State University.


.

effect

n , ; , 

I could feel the effects of the thin mountain air. 


.

[ifekt]

115

E
an efficient use of energy

make an effort to do sth .


Either you or he is lying. .
an elaborate plan of escape

efficient
[ifint]

e
adj ,

Liz turned out to be a very efficient secretary.

.
ant inefficient

effort
[eft]

n ,

They made no effort to include us in the negotiations. 


.
syn attempt

either
[ai]

pron ( )

We can offer a comfortable home to a young person of either sex.



.
syn each

elaborate

,
adj, v , ; 
()
pure silks embroidered with elaborate patterns , 

He said he had new evidence, but refused to elaborate any further.
, ,
.
[ilbrt, ilbreit]

116

E
elbow room ,
the care of elderly people
be elected President
a machine run by electricity , 

the most important element


to take the elevator

elbow

[elb]
n, v ;
Theres more elbow room in the restaurant since they extended it.
, .
He elbowed his way to the bar and ordered a beer.
.
elderly

[eldli]
adj
a welldressed elderly woman

a retirement village for the elderly

elect

[ilekt]
v ,
the countrys first democratically elected government 
,

electricity

[ilektrisiti]
n
The farm was very isolated, but it had electricity.
, .
element

[elemnt]
n ;
There are four elements in this world Earth, Air, Fire and Water.
, , .
elevator

[eleveit]
n ()
Well have to take the elevator. .
syn lift
117

E
eliminate cancer
be embarrassed about / at sth .
The flowers emerge in the spring. 
.
in case of emergency
cut carbon dioxide emissions 

eliminate

[ilimineit]
v ;
Fatty foods should be eliminated from the diet. 
.

embarrass

[imbrs]
v
He didnt want to embarrass her by asking questions.
.

emerge

:
[im:d]
v ,
The sun emerged from behind the clouds.  
.

emergency

:
[im:densi]
n (pl emergencies)
In case of emergency, press the alarm button. 
.

emission
[imin]

n ,

Britain agreed to cut emissions of nitrogen oxide from power stations.



.

118

E
hide ones emotions
emphasize that / how , /
a businessempire 
employ sb as a secretary . 

on an empty stomach ,

emotion

[imn]
n ,
Sara listened with mixed emotions.
.

emphasize

[emfsaiz]
v
The Prime Minister emphasized that there are no plans to raise the
taxes.  ,
.
empire

[empai]
n
the Roman empire
employ

[impli]
v
The factory employs over 2000 people. 
2000 .
empty
[empti]

adj, v (emptier, emptiest) ; 


,

The fuels tank is almost empty / halfempty. 


/ .
He emptied out the ashtray. .

119

E
enable sb to do sth . .
encounter problems / difficulties 
/
encourage children to read
a means to an end
endangered species

enable

[ineibl]
v ,
The loan enabled Jane to buy the house.
.

encounter

[inkant]
v, n ;
They encountered serious problems when two members of the
expedition were injured. 
, .

She didnt remember our encounter last summer.


.

encourage

[inkrid]
v
I want to thank everyone who have encouraged and supported me.
, .
ant discourage

end

[end]
n, v ;
Costs are expected to double by the end of 2012. ,
2012 .
WW II ended in 1945. 1945 .
ant start, begin
endanger
[indeind]

Smoking during pregnancy endangers your babys life.


.

120

E
endure great pain
make an enemy (of sb) .
have the energy to do sth .
engage in (doing) sth .
enjoy reading comics

endure
[indj]

v ,

He cant endure being apart from me.

(.
).

enemy

[enmi]
n (pl enemies) ,
I wouldnt wish this on my worst enemy.
.
energy

[endi]
n ,
Helping people takes time and energy.
.
engage

[ingeid]
v
Only 10% of American adults engage in regular exercise.
10% .

enjoy

v , 

Sandra enjoys her job in the city.


.
[indi]

121

E
make an enormous effort
ensure sbs success .
enter college at fifteen 

a private enterprise
entertain guests at the party 

enormous
:
[in
ms]
adj
an enormous amount of money
syn huge
ensure

[in]
v
The hospital tries to ensure that people are seen quickly.
.
syn make sure
enter

[ent]
v
Few reporters dared to enter the war zone.
.
enterprise

[entpraiz]
n ,
The program is a joint enterprise with the London Business School.

.
syn initiative

entertain

[ enttein]
v
She entertained the children with stories, songs and drama.
, .

122

E
sbs enthusiasm for hockey / football / tennis . 
/ /
the entire world
put a letter in a pink envelope

the natural environment


envy the rich

enthusiasm
:
[inj zizm]
n ,
The audience greeted the speaker with great enthusiasm.
.
entire

[intai]
adj ,
It was the worst day in my entire life.
.
syn whole

envelope

[envlp]
n ,
She tore open the envelope and frantically read the letter. 
.
environment

[invairnment]
n
Some of these chemicals are very damaging to the environment.

.
envy

[envi]
v, n ;
He envied Mary her youth and strength.
.

I felt the twinge of envy when I saw them together.


, .

123

E
All men are created equal. .
cars equipped with air bags , 

a plane with hightech equipment 

The word has no equivalent in Russian.
.
the Victorian era

equal
:
[kwl]
adj
Both candidates received an equal number of votes. 
.
equip
[ikwip]

They spent a lot of money equipping the school with new computers.

(. ) 
.

equipment

[ikwipmnt]
n
A lot of money was spent on the equipment of the new hospital.
.
equivalent
[ikwivlnt]

adj ,

I had no dollars, but offered him an equivalent amount of sterling.


,
.

era

[ir]
n ,
We live in an era of instant communication.
.

124

E
make an error in grammar

escape from prison


The lake is beautiful, especially in summer. 
, .
essay on / about /
establish relations / links / contact (with sb)
/ / ( .)

error

[er]
n
There must be an error in our calculations. ,
, .
escape
[iskeip]

v, n , ; ,

He escaped from prison in October. 


.
They had a lucky escape when a car crashed into the front of their
house. (. ),
.

especially

[ispeli]
adv
I never liked long walks, especially in winter.
, .
syn particularly
essay

[esei]
n , ,
Rousseaus Essay on the Origin of Languages

establish

[istbli]
v ,
Hungary established diplomatic relations with China in 1990. 
1990 .
syn found
125

E
a real estate agent
the estimated population of China 

a question of medical ethics
different ethnic groups
evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment 

estate

[isteit]
n ,
He is heir to a large estate. .
real estate

estimate

,
[estimt, estimeit]
n, v ;
a rough estimate of how much time well need ,

The tree is estimated to be at least 700 years. ,
700 .

ethic

[eik]
n
The old ethic of hard work has given way to a new ethic of instant
gratification.
.
ethnic

[enik]
adj
The school teaches pupils from different ethnic groups.
.
evaluate

[ivljueit]
v
You should be able to evaluate your own work.
.
syn assess

126

E
even better / bigger / brighter / /
chain of events
eventually find the answer
evidence of life on Mars
drive away evil spirits

even
[vn]

:
adv, adj ; ;

It was quite difficult to see, even with the light on.


 , .
He had lovely white, even teeth.
.

2, 4, 6 and 8 are even numbers. 2, 4, 6 8 .


ant uneven; odd

event

[ivent]
n
Leaving home was a major event in his life.
.
eventually
[iventuli]

adv

Eventually, she got a job and moved to London.

evidence

[evidns]
n ;
Johns evidence was enough to convict Hayes of murder. 
,
.
evil
:
[vl]
adj, n , ;
an evil dictator responsible for the deaths of millions
,
There is too much evil in the world. .
127

E
human evolution
at exactly the same time
exaggerate the size of the fish 

examine sb in / on American history .

Exports exceed imports. .

evolution
::
[ vl n]
n
the theory of evolution
exactly

[igzktli]
adv
I cant remember exactly what she said. ,
.
syn precisely
exaggerate

[igzdreit]
v
I couldnt sleep for three days Im not exaggerating.
.
examine
[igzmin]

v , ,

The police will have to examine the weapon for fingerprints. 



.

exceed
:
[iksd]
v
Working hours must not exceed 42 hours a week.
42 .

128

E
an excellent idea
work daily except Sunday , 

the only exception to the rule

excessive drinking
exchange roubles for dollars

excellent

[ekslnt]
adj
His car is in excellent condition. 
.
syn great
except

[iksept]
conj, prep ;
H Mary felt fine except for being a little tired.
, .
F The office is open every day except Sundays.
, .
exception
[iksepn]

The law applies to all EU countries; Britain is no exception.


, 
.

excessive

[iksesiv]
adj
his excessive drinking
exchange

[iksteind]
n
There is a currency exchange in this bank.
.

129

E
a exciting game /
make an excuse to leave early
senior / top executive
get regular exercise
be too exhausted to sleep ,

exciting

[iksaiti]
adj ,
Ive got some very exciting news for you.
.
excuse

:, :
[ikskj z, ikskj s]
v, n ;
Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the museum please? 
, , , ?
Whats your excuse for being late this time?
?
syn pardon me, Im sorry

executive

n, adj ;

top executives on high salaries 


a commission with executive powers 

[igzekjtiv]

exercise

[ekssaiz]
n ,
You can do exercises to strengthen your stomach muscles. 
.
exhaust
:
[igz
st]
v, n , ;
We are in danger of exhausting the worlds oil supply.
.
exhaust fumes
syn use up
130

E
exhibit Picassos works
exist on bread and water
expand the market
expect you to arrive soon 

very expensive wine

exhibit

[igzibit]
v, n ;
Her paintings have been exhibited all over the world.
.
The exhibits date from the 17th century. 
XVII .
syn show
exist

[igzist]
v
Stop pretending that the problem doesnt exist.
, .
syn survive
expand

[ikspnd]
v
Water expands as it freezes.
(. ).
ant contract

expect

[ikspekt]
v
Snow is expected by the weekend. 
.
expensive

[ikspensiv]
adj ,
Petrol is becoming more and more expensive. 
(. ).
syn costly
ant cheap
131

E
lack of experience
experiments with animals
expert on / in / /
explain the answer to pupils
explore the Amazon River

experience

[ikspirins]
n
I had some experience in fashion design.
.

experiment

n, v ; 
,
Many small birds guide themselves by the stars, as has been verified
by experiment. ,
.
I would defend the right of scientists to experiment on animals.
.
[iksperimnt]

expert
:
[eksp:t]
n, adj ; ,
Hes a world expert on marine mammals.
.
He cast his expert eye on the gardeners work.
.
ant inexpert
explain

[iksplein]
v
He carefully explained the procedure to me. 
.
explore
:
[ikspl
]
v , ,
Venice is a wonderful city to explore.
.
syn look at
132

E
the population explosion
express ones views / feelings /

on the verge / edge / brink of extinction


extract from Byron
a man of extraordinary talent
an extremely difficult problem 

explosion

[ikspln]
n
Several people were injured in a bomb explosion. 
.
syn outburst
express

[ikspres]
v
Bill expressed his opinions. .

extinction

[ikstikn]
n
The breed was on the verge of extinction.
.
extract
,
[ikstrkt, ekstrkt]
v, n ;
Youll have to have that tooth extracted.
.
Ive only seen short extracts from the film. 
.
extraordinary
:
[ikstr
dinri]
adj ,
Its extraordinary that he should make exactly the same mistake
again. , .
syn incredible
extremely
:
[ikstrmli]
adv ,
Im extremely sorry to have troubled you. ,
.
133

F
lose face
have an amazing facility for languages 

its a wellknown / littleknown fact that /
,
the main factors in sbs success 
.
factory workers /

face

n, v ; ;
()
Her face was white with fear. .
Youve got to face facts, baby. Youre never going to be a star.
, . .
[feis]

facility

[fsiliti]
n (pl facilities)
All rooms have private facilities. ( 
).

fact

[fkt]
n
The book is full of interesting facts about the World Cup.
.
ant fiction
factor

[fkt]
n
The weather could be a crucial factor in tomorrows game.
.

factory
[fktri]

n (pl factories) ,

a car factory

134

F
the Faculty of Law
fail to do sth .
not have the faintest idea 

it is fair to do sth .
speak English fairly well 

faculty

[fklti]
n (pl faculties) ;
in full possession of all your faculties

fail

v ; (
)
It looks likely that the peace talks will fail. 
, .
ant succeed

[feil]

faint

[feint]
adj, v ;
a faint hope that they might be alive ,

Several fans fainted in the blazing heat.


.
syn pass out
fair

[fe]
adj ; ( )
All we are asking for is a fair wage. , , 
.
ant unfair; dark; fine
fairly

[feli]
adv
a fairly large garden
syn quite, rather
135

F
blind faith in technology
fall in love with sb .
false teeth / hair / eyelashes ;
/
look / sound familiar / 

severe / widespread famine

faith

[fei]
n ,
I still have faith in him. (. ).
members of the Jewish / Muslim / Hindu etc faith / 
/ ..

fall

:
v, n (fell, fallen) ; ;

The tree is about to fall.  .


She had a fall and broke her leg. (. )
.
syn drop
ant decrease

[f
l]

false
:
[f
ls]
adj ,
I dont want to give you any false hopes. 
.
familiar

[fmili]
adj ;
The voice on the phone sounded familiar. 
.

famine
[fmin]

A million people are facing famine. 


.

136

F
worldfamous
fancy doing sth .
bus / air fare /
be fascinated by sth .
come back into fashion

famous

[feims]
adj ,
France is famous for its wine. (. 
) .
a nightclub used by the rich and famous

fancy

v, n (pl fancies) ;

Sorry, but I dont fancy going out tonight. , 


.
Wanting to go to Mexico was just a passing fancy. 
.
syn feel like
[fnsi]

fare

[fe]
n, v ; ( )
Children under 14 travel halffare. 14 .
I wonder how Ed has fared in the interview. ,
.
fascinate

[fsineit]
v ,
The idea of travelling through time fascinates me.
.

fashion

[fn]
n, v ;
go out of fashion
Tom could take a piece of wood and fashion it into a wonderful work
of art.
.
137

F
five minutes / an hour fast / /

suffer from physical and mental fatigue



have ones faults
do sb a favour .

fast

:
dv, adj, v, n ; ; 
; ,
How fast can you get the job done? 
?
The subway is the fastest way to get downtown.
.
Muslims fast during Ramadan.
.
Gandhi drank some orange juice to break his threeweek fast.
.
[fst]

fatigue
:
[ftg]
n ,
His face was grey with fatigue. .
syn exhaustion
fault
:
[f
lt]
n, v ; ,
Its your own faulte were late. ,
.
You might not like him, but its hard to fault what he does on the
field. , , ,
, .
favour

n, v , ; 

Paul, can I ask you a favour? , 


?
loose clothing of the type favoured in Arab countries 
, (. )
[feiv]

138

F
a favourite spot for picnickers 

the fear of making mistakes
main / important / significant feature / /

the Federal Government
entrance / entry fee

favourite

[feivrit]
adj, n ;
Whats your favourite colour? ?

You always were Dads favourite. 


.

fear

[fi]
n, v ; ,
As it turned out, their fears were groundless. ,
.
Police fear that there may be further terrorist attacks.
, .
feature

:
n, v , ; ;

An important feature of Van Goghs paintings is their bright colours.


.
[ft]

The exhibition features paintings by Picasso. 


.

federal

[fedrl]
adj
Germany is a federal republic. 
.

fee
:
[f]
n ,
Cable TV subscribers pay monthly fees.
.
139

F
feed a large family
fellow workers / students / countrymen / 
/
have a fever () ,
Truth is stranger than fiction. 
.
survive the fierce competition 

feed

:
v (fed, fed), n ; ;

Several children were feeding bread to the ducks.


.
US intelligence had been feeding false information to a KGB agent.

.
fish feed

[fd]

fellow

[fel]
n, adj ; , 
Tims an easygoing sort of fellow.
.
fellow workers / students / countrymen etc / /
..

fever

:
n , , 

Ann has a fever / is running a fever. .


[fv]

fiction

[fikn]
n ,
romantic / historical fiction /
ant nonfiction
fierce

[fis]
adj
fierce competition between the companies

140

F
fight for freedom
Tell me the exact figures. .
fill (sth) with sth (.) .
make / shoot a film
He finally found a job.  .

fight

v (fought, fought), n , ;
;
Theyre fighting about who should do the dishes.
, .
He got drunk and had a fight with Jim.
(. ) .
[fait]

figure

n, v ; ; ;

Jonn has a head for figures. (.


).
It was worth the trouble, I figured. , .

[fig]

fill

[fil]
v, n ;
Her eyes filled with tears. .
Ive had my fill of screaming kids for one day.
.
film

[film]
n, v ; ;
Have you seen any good films recently? 
?
The love scenes are sensitively filmed.
.
syn movie
finally

[fainli]
adv
After several delays we finally took off at six oclock. 
.
syn eventually, lastly
141

F
financial support from the USA

the findings of the study


Thats fine by / with me. .
be / get fired from ones job
a firm belief

financial

[fainnl]
adj
It was a wonderful film, but not exactly a financial success.
,
.
finding

[faindi]
n ,
Surveys conducted in other countries reported similar findings.
, , 
.

fine

[fain]
adj ;
In theory, the scheme sounds fine. ,
.
Her dark hair accentuates her fine features. 
.
syn OK
fire

[fai]
n, v , ;
The house is on fire! ! (. !)
Soldiers fired on the crowd. .
firm

:
n, adj , ; ; 

She works for an electronics firm.


.
Most doctors recommend sleeping on a firm mattress. 
.
syn secure

[f:rm]

142

F
to keep fit
fix a broken car
wave flags
flat as a pancake
add / give flavour (to sth) / (.)

fit

[fit]
v, adj ;
His clothes did not fit him very well. .
You must be very fit if you do so much running.
, .
ant unfit
fix

[fiks]
v, n ;
I fix dinner. .
Were going to be in a real fix if we miss that bus.
, .
syn set, get; mess
flag

[flg]
n, v ;
Flags were flying at halfmast because of the death of the Premier.
.
I flagged the parts I want to comment on. , 
.
flat

[flt]
adj, n, adv ; ;
Work on a clean, flat surface. 
.
They have a flat in Crouch End. .
That night I lay flat on my back and stared up at the ceiling.
.
syn apartment
flavour

[fleiv]
n ,
The cheese is firm in texture and has a strong flavour.
.
143

F
flee from reality
have a flexible mind
a direct flight to New York /

float on ones back
Birds of a feather flock together. 
.

flee

:
v (fled, fled) , 

His attackers turned and fled. 


.

[fl]

flexible

[fleksibl]
adj
The government needs a more flexible approach to education. 
.
ant inflexible
flight

[flait]
n ,
He immediately booked a flight to London. 
.
float

[flt]
v, n ;
I looked up at the clouds floating in the sky. 
.
Watch the float! !
flock

n, v , , ; / 

a flock of children
Tourists flock to see the towns medieval churches and buildings.

.

[flk]

144

F
in floods of tears
go against the flow
be in bed with flu
speak in fluent French
the focus of attention / interest /

flood

[fld]
v, n ; ,
Refugees are still flooding across the border. 
(. ) .
The UN appealed for help with the flood of refugees crossing the
border.
.
syn pour, flow
flow

[fl]
n, v ;
a new road system to improve traffic flow through the city centre


The number of refugees flowing into the area is still increasing. 
, ,  .
syn pour, flood

flu
:
[fl ]
n
Shes got the flu. .
syn influenza
fluent
:
[fl nt]
adj ,
She is fluent in English, French, and German. 
, .
focus

[fks]
v, n ; ,
He needs to focus more on his career. 
.
The focus of recent research has been on environmental issues.
.
145

F
fold a piece of paper
Russian folk music
follow sbs advice .
be fond of doing sth .
make a fool of oneself ,

fold

[fld]
v, n ; ,
I wish you kids would fold up your clothes. ,
, , .
Her dress hung in soft folds. 
.

folk

[fk]
n, adj , , ;
Thats all for now, folks. , .
folk tales / songs / medicine / remedy / /
/

follow

[fl]
v ;
The patrol car followed the BMW for a few minutes and then lost it.
,
.
The plot was a little difficult to follow. 
.
syn grasp

fond

[fnd]
adj ,
Over the years weve grown very fond of each other.
(. ) .
syn affectionate
fool
:
[f l]
n ,
Like a fool, I accepted straight away. , , 
.
syn idiot
146

F
at the foot of the page
God / Heaven forbid! !
be forced to leave
Whats the weather forecast for tomorrow?
?

foot
[ft]

n (pl feet) , ;

My foot hurts. .
It takes about 20 minutes on foot. 20
.

forbid
[fbid]

v (forbade, forbidden)

He was forbidden to leave the house, as a punishment.


.
syn permit

force
[f
s]

:
n, v ;

The police used force to overpower the demonstrators.


.
I had to force myself to get up this morning. 
.

forecast

::
n, v (forecast / forecasted) ,
;
The weather forecast is good for tomorrow.
.
Rain was forecast for the weekend. .
[f
kst]

147

F
cool / refresh sbs forehead .
learn a foreign language
the Amazon rain forest
be forever doing sth .
forget how / what / when / why , / / /

forehead

[frid]
n
Pete came back from school with a bruise on his forehead.
.

foreign

[frn]
adj
Can you speak any foreign languages? 
?
ant domestic

forest

[frst]
n
Much of Scandinavia is covered in dense forest. @
.

forever
[frev]

adv

Many valuable works of art were lost forever. 


.

forget

[fget]
v (forgot, forgotten)
I know you told me, but I forgot. , ,
.
Sorry I didnt phone. Forget it. , .
(. ).

148

F
forgive sb for (doing) sth . .
fill in the application form
the former President
move back and forth
cost a fortune

forgive

[fgiv]
v (forgave, forgiven)
Ive tried to forgive him for what he said.
, .

form
:
[f
m]
n, v ;
Vitamin C can be taken in capsule or tablet form. 
(.
).
The winning party will form the government.
.
syn mould
former

:
[f
m]
adj
My former husband sent me the flowers. 
.
syn ex

forth
:
[f
]
adv , ;
She started telling me of her bad back, her migraines, and so forth.
,
.
fortune

:
[f
tn]
n
He made a fortune selling property in Spain.
.

149

F
move forward(s)
foster parents / child /
found a company / organization /

door / window / picture frame / /



frankly speaking

forward(s)

:y()
[f
wd(z)]
adv
The crowd surged forwards. .
We put our watches forward by 2 hours.
.
ant backwards, back

foster

v, adj ( );

The couple wanted to adopt a black child they had been fostering.
, 
.
foster father / mother / home / /
[fst]

found

[fand]
v
Eton College was founded by Henry V in 1440.
V 1440 .
syn establish

frame

[freim]
n, v ; ;
They removed the picture from its wooden frame. 
.
Im going to get the picture framed. 
.
frankly

[frkli]
adv
Frankly, I think she is just a fool. , ,
.
150

F
taxfree / dutyfree / 

freeze with horror /


a frequently used word
userfriendly / customerfriendly 
/
frighten sb to death .

free
:
[fr]
adj ; ; ...
Admission is free for children under 9.
.
painfree / troublefree / stressfree / 
/
freeze

:
v (froze, frozen), n ; 
;
I nearly froze to death watching that football match.
, .
a freeze on pay rises

[frz]

frequently
:
[frkwntli]
adv
He was frequently drunk. .
friendly

[frendli]
adj ,
Why is he suddenly so friendly towards you, Kate?
, ?
ant unfriendly, hostile
frighten

[fraitn]
v
Dont stand so near the edge! Youre frightening me.
! .
syn scare
151

F
on the domestic / international front / 

on / at the frontier
get frustrated
add fuel to the fire / flames
fulfil an aim / a goal / an objective /

front

n, v ; ; ; 

She sat down in front of the mirror and brushed her hair.
.
a large building fronted with marble ,

ant back, behind

[frnt]

frontier

[frnti]
n
Lille is close to the frontier between France and Belgium.
.
frustrate
[frstreit]

v ,

The fact that hes working with amateurs really frustrates him. ,
, .

fuel
:
[fj l]
n, v ;
an empty fuel tank

Wed better fuel up at the next town.


.

fulfil

[flfil]
v ,
Visiting Disneyland has fulfilled a boyhood dream. 
, .

152

F
at full speed
make fun of sb / sth . / .
governmentfunded programme 

fundamental mistake / error
what the future holds

full

[fl]
adj ;
Dont talk with your mouth full. .
syn maximum
ant empty
fun

[fn]
n , ,
The kids were having so much fun, I hated to call them inside.
(. ), 
.
fund

n, v ; , 

We give to the Childrens Fund every Christmas. 


.
The project is jointly funded by several local companies.
.

[fnd]

fundamental

adj , , 

Theres a fundamental difference in opinion on this issue. 


.
[ fndmentl]

future
[fj t]

:
adj, n ;

We are now more able to predict future patterns of climate change.



.

What are your plans for the future? 


?
153

G
gain useful information
art gallery
go hunting for big game
the gap between the rich and the poor 

throw away garbage

gain

v, n , ; , 

Janes gained a lot of weight recently.


(. ).
Such research should not be for personal gain.
.
ant lose; loss

[gein]

gallery

[glri]
n (pl galleries)
an exhibition of African art at the Hayward Gallery 

game
[geim]

Dans never liked card games.


.
win / lose a game /

gap
[gp]

n ,

The neighbours dog got in through a gap in the hedge.


.

garbage

:
[gbid]
n
Can you take out the garbage when you go? ,
?
syn rubbish
154

G
run out of gas ( )
open / close / shut a gate / /

as far as I can gather


gaze at the stars
age and gender

gas

[gs]
n (pl gases / gasses) ;
I probably spend over $200 a month on gas. , ,
200 .
gate

[geit]
n ,
I left the engine running and ran back to close the gate.
.
gather
[g]

v ()

Could the brides family all gather together for a photo?


, c.

gaze

[geiz]
v, n ;
Kate sat gazing into space. , .
He didnt dare to meet her gaze.

.
syn stare

gender
[dend]

n , ,

Discrimination on grounds of race or gender is forbidden. 


().

155

G
the gene for eye colour ,
in general
generate electricity
from generation to generation
generous offer / support / donation /
/

gene
:
[dn]
n
the genes that regulate cell division ,

general

adj, n , ; ; 

I have a general idea of what I want to express.


, .
[denrl]

in general ,

generate

[denreit]
v ,
The program would generate a lot of new jobs. 
.
syn create

generation

[ denrein]
n
Like most of my generation, I had never known a war. 
, .
generous

[denrs]
adj
Shes always very generous to the kids.
.
ant mean

156

G
musical / comic / mathematical genius / 
/
gentle voice / smile / touch / / 

genuine love
physical / political geography /

gesture of goodwill / friendship / 


genius

:
[dnis]
n
My father was a genius at storytelling. 
(. ).

gentle

[dentl]
adj ,
Be gentle with the baby. .
ant rough
genuine

[denjuin]
adj
The reforms are motivated by a genuine concern for the disabled.
.
syn sincere, real
ant false

geography

[digrfi]
n ,
The geography of the flats made it hard to get to know our neighbours.
(
) .
gesture
[dest]

n, v ;

Luke made an obscene gesture with his finger.


.
He gestured for her to take a seat. .
157

G
give up the ghost ;
have a gift for languages
in a given situation
Glad to meet you. Me too. . .
glance at the clock

ghost

[gst]
n ,
They say the young girls ghost still haunts the house. ,
.

gift
[gift]

n ,

She has the rare gift of being able to laugh at herself.


.
syn present, talent

given

adj, prep , ; 
,
Candidates will have to give a presentation on a given topic. 
.
F Given the circumstances, youve done really well. 
, .
[givn]

glad

[gld]
adj ,
Were so glad you came. , .
glance
:
[glns]
v, n ;
The man glanced nervously at his watch. 
.
The brothers exchanged glances. (.
).

158

G
global warming
the main goal of this study 

a gift from God


work for the public good
consumer goods

global

[glbl]
adj
global climate change
goal
[gl]

n , ;

His ultimate goal was to set up his own business.


.
syn aim

god
[gd]

Every day is a gift from God.


(. ).

good

adj ; ; ; 
;
Alex is very good at languages. .
ant bad, poor; naughty
[gd]

goods

[gdz]
n pl ()
There will be tax increases on a range of goods and services. 
.

159

G
democratic / totalitarian government / 

grab sth from sb / sth . . / .
Im in the seventh grade. .
gradually become warmer
graduate from school / college /

government

[gvmnt]
n
Neither party has the majority necessary to form a government.
, 
.

grab

[grb]
v, n ; ,
I grabbed hold of his arm to stop myself from falling.
, .
I made a grab for the revolver.
(. ).
syn snatch
grade

[greid]
n, v , ;
The best grades of tea are expensive.
.
Pencils are graded according to softness.
.
gradually

[grdjli]
adv ,
Gradually, my ankle got better.
(. ).
ant suddenly

graduate

n, v ;

a Harvard graduate
He graduated from medical school last year.
.
[grdjueit]

160

G
world grain production
look grand in ones ceremonial uniform

care for ones grandparents / grandchildren
/
take sth for granted .

grain

[grein]
n , ,
Last years grain harvest was the biggest ever. 
.
grand

[grnd]
adj , ,
The party was a grand affair. (.
).
ant humble
grandchild

[grntaild]
n (pl grandchildren) ,
We were happy when our grandchild was born. 
, / .

grandparents

[grn pernts]
n
My grandparents live in the Siberia.
.

grant
:
[grnt]
n, v , ;
The university gets a government grant.
.
A licence to sell alcohol was granted to the club. 
.

161

G
grasp an opportunity
Keep off the grass. .
extremely / deeply / eternally grateful / 
/
the force of gravity
be greeted with / by sth .

grasp
:
[grsp]
v, n ; ,
I grasped the handle and pulled it.
.

He took her arm in a firm grasp and led her through the gate.
(. ) 
.
syn grip

grass
:
[grs]
n ;
She enjoyed the feel of grass beneath her feet.
.
grateful
[greitfl]

adj

She gave me a grateful look.


.
ant ungrateful

gravity
[grviti]

n ,

The penalties should be proportionate to the gravity of the offence.


.

greet
:
[grt]
v
Bill opened the door to Jim and greeted him with cries of welcome.

.
162

G
go / turn grey
come to grief
go to the grocery store
On what grounds do you say that?
?
grow a beard / moustache /

grey

[grei]
adj ,
She was a tall thin woman who had gone grey early. 
, , .
grief
:
[grf]
n , ,
The grief she felt over Marys death was almost unbearable. ,
, .
grocery

[grsri]
n (pl groceries)
I usually buy all foodstuffs at the nearest grocery store. 
, .

ground

n, v ; ; ;
;
There are strong grounds for believing his statement. 
.
All planes are grounded until the fog clears.  
(. ).
syn earth
[grand]

grow

v (grew, grown) , ;

Sales of new cars grew by 10% last year. 


10%.
ant shrink
[gr]

163

G
come with / carry a guarantee
guard sb against sth . .
Guess how old she is. , .
guest of honour
spiritual guide

guarantee
:
[ grnt]
v, n ;
The law guarantees equal rights for men and women. 
.
Is your TV under guarantee? ?
guard
:
[gd]
n, v , ;
Who was on guard the night the fire broke out?
, ?
The Sergeant told Swift to guard the entrance.
.
guess

v, n , ; ,

Id say hes around 50, but Im only guessing. , 


, (. ).
If I had to make a guess, Id say Sam was the youngest.
, ,
.

[ges]

guest

[gest]
n
Ive nearly finished the guest list for the wedding. 
.
guide

[gaid]
n, v , ;
The polls are not a reliable guide of how people will vote.
, .
He guided us through the narrow streets to the central mosque.
.
syn lead
164

H
out of habit / from habit
be a habitat for many wild flowers

sports / exhibition / banqueting hall / 
/
fly off the handle ,
get the hang of sth .

habit

[hbit]
n ,
Jake was in the habit of taking a walk after dinner.
.
habitat

[hbitt]
n
watching monkeys in their natural habitat

hall
:
[h
l]
n
We hung our coats in a cupboard in the hall.
.
syn hallway, corridor
handle

v, n , ; ,

Computers can handle huge amounts of data.


.
Then he turned the handle and went in.
.
[hndl]

hang

v (hung, hung), n ; ; 
,
I wanted to hang the picture in the bedroom.
.
It seems difficult at first, but youll soon get the hang of it. 
, .

[h]

165

H
make sb happy .
hardly the time / place / person (for doing sth)
/ / ( .)
suffer financial hardship 

no harm done
harsh winter / weather / climate / /

happy
[hpi]

adj ,

I loved her and thought I could make her happy. 


, .
ant sad

hardly
[hdli]

:
adv ,

The children were so excited they could hardly speak.


, .

hardship
:
[hdip]
n
Many students are suffering severe financial hardships.
.
harm
:
[hm]
n, v ; ,
Theres no great harm in taking something to relieve a headache.
,  .
chemicals that harm the environment ,

harsh
[h]

:
adj ,

The hostages are being held in harsh conditions.

.
syn severe
166

H
reap a harvest
hate sb doing sth , . .
cant make head or / nor tail of sth ,

thats your headache


heal the sick

harvest
:
[hvst]
n, v ;
Plum growers are expecting a bumper harvest this year.
.
hate

[heit]
v, n ;
He hates his job. .
Her eyes were full of hate. .
ant love
head
[hed]

n, v ; ;

He turned his head and looked at me. 


.
David was asked to head up the technical team. 
.

headache

[hedeik]
n
I had a splitting headache, and couldnt go to work.
, .
heal
:
[hl]
v , ()
It took three months for my arm to heal properly. ( )
.

167

H
be in good / poor health /
in the heat of sth .
heaven on earth
heavy traffic
the height of the tourist season 

health

[hel]
n
Im worried about my husbands health.
.
heat
:
[ht]
n, v ;
Insulating the attic is a good way to reduce heat loss.
.
Heat the milk until it boils. (.
, ).
heaven

[hevn]
n ; ,
For heavens sake, lets all go to sleep. ,
.
syn paradise

heavy

[hevi]
adj, n ; ;
I want something to read on holiday nothing too heavy. 
 
.
ant light

height

[hait]
n , ,
Sams about the same height as his sister now.
, .

168

H
be of great / little / no help (to sb) (.) /
/
helpless with fear
ten days / five months hence / 

cultural / architectural / literary heritage / 


/
national hero

help
[help]

n, v ;

Thank you for all your help. () .


If theres anything I can do to help, just give me a call. 
, .
syn assist, give sb a hand

helpless

[helpls]
adj
He began to feel depressed and helpless.
.
hence

adv , , 

The cost of cotton has been increasing. Hence high prices of the
manufactured goods. .
.

[hens]

heritage

[heritd]
n
the importance of preserving the national heritage 

hero

[hir]
n (pl heroes)
His father was a war hero, a famous fighter pilot.
, .
169

H
dont hesitate to do sth / 
.
hide sth / sb from sb . / . .
think / speak highly of sb / 
.
hills and valleys
for hire

hesitate

[heziteit]
v ,
He hesitated for a moment and then said yes. 
, .
hide

[haid]
v (hid, hidden) (),
He was accused of trying to hide evidence from the police. 
.
highly

[haili]
adv ,
Its highly unlikely that the project will be finished on time.
, .

hill

[hil]
n ,
The house is on a hill overlooking the sea.
.
hire

v, n , ;

The best way to explore the island is to hire a car.
.
a car hire company
[hai]

syn rent

170

H
the first time in history
pursue ones hobby
hold the line /
be in a hole
sbs hometown .

history
[histri]

n (pl histories)

Throughout history the achievements of women have been largely


ignored.
.

hobby

[hbi]
n (pl hobbies) ,
Susans hobbies include reading, cooking, and drama.
, .

hold

v (held, held), n ; ;
;
In April, the President held talks with Chinese leaders.
.
She managed to get a hold of a copy.
.
[hld]

hole

[hl]
n , ,
They climbed through a hole in the fence.
.
hometown

[hmtan]
n
He hired a car and drove up to his hometown.
.

171

H
To be honest, ,
have the honour of doing sth .
broaden / expand sbs horizons . 

have a horror of sth .


be taken to hospital

honest

[nst]
adj
Ann had a honest face. .
syn frank
ant dishonest
honour

n, v ; , 

Earlier this year, I had the honour of meeting the President. 
.
I feel very honoured to be included in the team. ,
.
[n]

horizon

[hraizn]
n
Business is good now, but there a few problems on the horizon.
, .

horror

[hr]
n
To my horror, I realized my shirt was wet with blood. ,
, .
hospital

[hspitl]
n
Hes in hospital recovering from an operation. 
.

172

H
a (whole) host of people / things 
/
hostile attitude to / towards sb (
) .
the head of the household /
shes a bad housewife ()
The play was a huge success. 
.

host

[hst]
n, v ;
the host city for the next Olympic Games , 

Which country is going to host the next World Cup?
?
hostile

[hstail]
adj ,
The boys feel hostile towards their stepfather. 
.
household

[hashld]
n, adj , ;
Most households have at least one computer. 
/ .
washing powder and other household products 

syn house; domestic
housewife

[haswaif]
n (pl housewives)
What is your occupation? Im a housewife. 
? / ? .
syn homemaker

huge
:
[hj d]
adj ,
These shoes make my feet look huge.
.
syn enormous
173

H
Im only human. .
the humanities
black / schoolboy humour /
hungry to do sth .
the hunt for the missing child

human
[hj mn]

:
adj ,

He was also a person with very obvious human failings.


.
ant inhuman

humanity
[hj mniti]

:
n

We want a clean healthy environment for all humanity.


, .
ant inhumanity

humour

:
n, v , ; ,

Its vital to have a sense of humour in this job.


.
Of course, he said, humouring her. , ,
.
[hj m]

hungry

[hgri]
adj
If you get hungry, theres some cold chicken in the fridge.
, .
hunt

[hnt]
v, n ;
The FBI were called in to hunt for the spy. 
, .
lion / rhino / stag etc hunt

syn search
174

/ / ..

H
Whats all (the) hurry? / Why (all) the hurry? ()
?
hurt ones arm / leg / nose / /
exhusband

hurry

[hri]
v, n ;
Well have to hurry otherwise well miss the train.
, .
Why are you in such a hurry to leave?
(. ) ?
syn rush

hurt

:
v, adj, n , ; ,
; ,
My shoulder hurts like hell. .
Fortunately, no one was seriously hurt. , 
.
She saw the hurt in his eyes. .
syn injured
[h:t]

husband

[hzbnd]
n
Have you met my husband Roy? ?

175

I
an ideal place for a walk
identify sb / sth as sb / sth . / . . /
.
be ignorant of / about sth .
ignore sb / sth . / .
become / fall / get ill

ideal

[aidil]
adj, n ;
With so much rain, conditions are far from ideal.
, .
Are your ideals of beauty changing? ?

identify

[aidentifai]
v ,
The police took fingerprints and identified the body.
.

ignorant

[ignrnt]
adj ,
Many people remain blissfully ignorant about the dangers of too much
sun. 
.
ignore

:
v , 

You cant ignore the fact that many criminals never go to prison.
,
.
[ign
]

ill

[il]
adj, adv, n ; ; ,
I was feeling ill that day and decided to stay at home.
(. ) .
She really believes you should never speak ill of the dead.
, .
He wants to cure all the ills of the world.
.
syn sick
176

I
have / suffer from an illness .
have no illusions about sth
.
illustrate that .
every trouble imaginable

an imaginary country

illness

[ilns]
n ,
Have you ever had any serious illnesses? 
?
illusion

:
[il n]
n
She had no illusions about her physical attractions.
.

illustrate

[ilstreit]
v ,
Let me give an example to illustrate the point. 
, .
imaginable

[imgnbl]
adj ,
The travel brochure is full of the most wonderful resorts imaginable.
,
.

imaginary

[imgnri]
adj ,
As she listened, she played an imaginary piano on her knees.
,
.

177

I
an imaginative writer
imitate sbs voice / manner . /

start work immediately 

an immense amount of information 

immigrants from Mexico

imaginative

adj 

Liz is a bright imaginative child.


.
[imgntiv]

imitate

[imiteit]
v ,
The Japanese have no wish to imitate Western social customs and
attitudes. 
.
immediately

:
[imditli]
adv
The telephone rang, and he answered immediately. 
, .
syn at once

immense

[imens]
adj
People who travel by rail still read an immense amount. , 
, 
(. ).
syn enormous

immigrant

[imigrnt]
n
a new wave of immigrants from the Middle East 

178

I
the impact of TV on children
What does her smile imply? ?
cars imported from Japan ,
impose rules on sb .
difficult, if not impossible , 

impact

[impkt]
n, v ; ,
We need to assess the impact on climate change.
, .
This act will progressively impact on the way food businesses operate.
, 
.
imply

[implai]
v ;
The high level of radiation implies that the objects are volcanic in
origin. ,
.
syn suggest

import

:, :
[imp
t, imp
t]
v, n , ;
All the meat is imported from France.
.
ban on beef imports
ant export

impose

[impz]
v
The government imposed a ban on the sale of ivory. 
.
impossible

[impsbl]
adj
His attitude is making life impossible for the rest of the team.
(. )
.
ant possible
179

I
make a deep impression on sb . 

improve ones English ability 

on impulse ,
in spite of the fact that
not give / budge an inch

impression

[impren]
n
I get the distinct impression that were not wanted here.
, .

improve

:
[impr v]
v ()
Many wines improve with age. c
.
syn become better

ant deteriorate

impulse

[impls]
n ,
Bill couldnt resist the impulse to kiss her. 
.
syn urge

in spite of
()
[in spait v (v)]
prep ,
F We went out in spite of the rain.
.
syn despite

inch

n, v ;

The curtains were an inch too short.  (.


) .
I inched forward along the ground.  .

[int]

180

I
without incident
be inclined (to do) sth . (
.)
Service is included in the bill.
.
lowincome families
increase by 20% 20%

incident

[insidnt]
n , ,
Am I at risk because of some incident in my sexual past? 
 ?
inclined

[inklaind]
adj
Arthur has some strange ideas, but on this occasion Im inclined to
agree with him. , 
.

include
:
[inkl d]
v ( )
Does the price include postage? ?
syn comprise
ant exclude
income

[inkm]
n
People on a high income should pay more tax.
.
increase

:, :
v, n (); ,

Food prices increased by 10% in less than a year.


10%.

[inkrs, inkrs]

There has been a marked increase in the use of firearms.


.
ant decrease, reduce

181

I
an incredible story
It is strange indeed. .
be independent of sb .
The data indicate that ,
be indifferent to politics

incredible
[inkredbl]

adj

Its incredible that he survived the fall. ,


.
syn unbelievable

indeed
[indd]

:
adv

The blood tests prove that Vince is indeed the father.


, ().

independent

[indipendnt]
adj
We need a central bank that is independent of the government.
, .
indicate

[indikeit]
v
The study indicates a connection between poverty and crime. 

.
indifferent

[indifrnt]
adj ,
Jane was absolutely indifferent to him, and it hurt.
, .

182

I
indispensable for / in (doing) sth .
a very individual way of dressing 

heavy / light industry /
inevitable consequence / result / 

infant mortality rate

indispensable

[indispensbl]
adj
Mobile phones have become an indispensable part of our lives. 
.
syn essential
individual

[individjul]
adj, n ;
Each individual leaf on the tree is different.
.
Each individual receives two genes, one inherited from each parent.
, 
.
syn distinctive

industry

[indstri]
n (pl industries)
Heavy industry was concentrated in the north of the country. 
.
inevitable

[inevitbl]
adj
Disease was an inevitable consequence of poor living conditions.
.
infant

[infnt]
n
An infants skin is very sensitive.
.
183

I
have a bad influence on sb .
inform sb of sth . .
gather / collect information on / about sb / sth
. / .
the inhabitants of the country
inherit genes from ones parents ()

influence

[inflns]
n, v ;
They had come under the influence of a strange religious sect.
.
Several factors are likely to influence this decision.
.
inform
[inf
m]

:
v

Please inform us of any change of address as soon as possible. 


.

information

[infmein]
n
I need more information. .

inhabitant

[inhbitnt]
n ,
a city of six million inhabitants 

inherit

v , 

I inherited my mothers curly hair. 


.

[inherit]

184

I
initial stage / phase / period / /

be injured in the accident


sbs inner voice .
kill innocent people
make inquiries

initial

[iniil]
adj
an initial investment of $5000
5000
syn first

injure

[ind]
v ,
Two people have been seriously injured in an accident. 
.
inner

[in]
adj
Yoga gives me a sense of inner calm. 
.
ant outer
innocent

[insnt]
adj
The court found him innocent and he was released.
, .
inquiry

n (pl inquiries) ,
,
I dont know who sent the gift, but Ill make some inquiries.
, , .
[inkwairi]

185

I
a deep insight into life
insist on doing sth .
inspire sb to do sth . .
install computers in classrooms 

for instance

insight

[insait]
n ,
The article gives us a real insight into the causes of the present
economic crisis. (. 
) .
insist

[insist]
v
Mike insisted that he was right. , .
inspire
[inspai]

He inspired many young people to take up the sport.

install
:
[inst
l]
v
Weve installed new antivirus software.
.
ant uninstall
instance

[instns]
n ,
They came across many instances of discrimination. 
.

186

I
die instantly ,
use robots instead of people

by instinct
government institutions
instructions on (how to do) sth .

instantly

[instntli]
adv , ,
All four victims died instantly. .
instead

[insted]
adv
You probably picked up my keys instead of yours. , ,
.
instinct

[instinkt]
n
Animals have a natural instinct for survival.
.
institution
:
[institj n]
n ,
I was determined not to put my mother in an institution. 
.
instruction

[instrkn]
n
Press enter and follow the onscreen instructions.
.

187

I
instrument of torture
an insult to women
insurance broker / agent
intellectual property
intend to do sth .

instrument
[instrment]

n , ,

Death was due to a blow on the head with a blunt instrument.

insult

,
[inslt, inslt]
v, n ;
They insult us by ignoring our complaints. ,
.
$200 for all that work? Its an insult.
? .

insurance

[inrns]
n ,
Do you have insurance on your house and its contents?
?

intellectual

adj, n , 
;
a job that requires considerable intellectual effort , 

a leading British intellectual
[intlektul]

intend

[intend]
v
I intend to spend the night there.
.

188

I
intense desire
interaction between teacher and student

express (an) interest (in sth) ( .)
interfere in sth .
internal organs / injuries /

intense

adj , ,

The pain was so intense I couldnt sleep.


, .
[intens]

interaction

[intrkn]
n ,
Price is determined through the interaction of demand and supply.
.

interest

[intrst]
n, v ; ;
My parents encouraged my interest in science. 
.
a controlling interest
Heres an article which might interest you. ,
.

interfere

[intfi]
v
My soninlaw said that I was interfering, but I was only trying to
help. , , 
.
syn meddle
internal

:
[int:nl]
adj
the threat to internal security
syn domestic
ant external
189

I
interpret sth as sth / .
.
Will you stop interrupting me! , !
at regular intervals / 

interview sb about sth . .


be on intimate terms with sb . 

interpret

:
[int:prt]
v ,
They spoke good Spanish, and promised to interpret for me.

.

interrupt

[intrpt]
v ,
Sorry to interrupt, but I need to ask you to come downstairs. 
, ,
.

interval

[intvl]
n ,
The trains run at halfhourly intervals. 
.
interview

:
n, v , ; 

He has an interview next Tuesday for a job on the Los Angeles Times.
 .
The police want to interview you about the accident. 
.

[intvj ]

intimate
[intimt]

adj ,

The virus can only be transmitted through intimate contact.


.

190

I
May I introduce myself? My name is 
. ... ( ).
make the introductions . .
invade sbs privacy .
Who invented the wheel? ?
invest (sth) in sth (.) .

introduce

:
[intrdj s]
v
Jane, let me introduce you to Bob. , 
.

introduction

n () ,

Our first contestant needs no introduction. 


.
[intrdkn]

invade

[inveid]
v , ,
The Romans invaded Britain 2000 years ago.
2000 .

invent

[invent]
v ,
They invented a very convincing alibi. 
.
invest

[invest]
v ,
Kate made a fortune by investing in antique furniture. 
, .

191

I
invite sb for a drink .
be / get involved in sth .
an iron will
It really irritates me when ,

on an island

invite

[invait]
v
Im afraid I wasnt invited. , .

involved

adj , 

Im afraid your sons been involved in an accident. ,


.
[invlvd]

iron
[ain]

n, v, adj ; ;

the absorption of iron from food


Have you ironed my shirt? ?
He runs the company with an iron fist. 
.

irritate

[iriteit]
v ,
This cream may irritate sensitive skin. 
.
island
[ailnd]

No cars are allowed on the island.


.

192

I
feel isolated
raise an issue
item on the agenda

isolated

[aisleitid]
adj ,
Not many people visit this isolated spot.
.
syn remote
issue
:, :
[i , isj ]
n, v , ;
Have you seen the latest issue? ?
to issue a passport / permit / visa / /

item

[aitm]
n ; ;
We went on to the next item on the agenda. 
.

193

J
get in a jam
sbs jaw dropped .
be out of job
join sb for a glass of wine .
play a joke on sb .

jam

n, v ; ();

We got stuck in a traffic jam. .


They all jammed into the car. .

[dm]

jaw
[d
]

:
n, v ;

Youre not serious, are you? Kates jaw dropped.


? .
Stop jawing and let me get on with the work! ,
!

job

[db]
n ,
Do you enjoy your job? ?
join

[din]
v ()
Church leaders have joined the campaign to end foxhunting. 

.
joke
[dk]

n, v , ;

He was always telling jokes and making people laugh.


.
I never joke about money. .

194

J
Have a nice journey! !
be a joy to watch / hear / use / /

judge sb / sth by sth . .


have a strong sense of justice

journey

:
n, v , ; 

We are going on a journey to a strange country.


.
They left the town and journeyed south.
.
syn trip
[d:ni]

joy

[di]
n
I didnt exactly jump for joy when I heard the news. 
, , .
judge
[dd]

n, v ;

federal / high court judge /


Do not judge her too harshly. He .

justice

[dstis]
n ;
Acts of terrorism must not escape justice.
(. ).

195

K
a keen interest in sth / 
.
Hes married with three kids. , 
.
the animal / plant / mineral kingdom /
/
kneehigh grass
a thirst for knowledge

keen

:
adj ,
. /
.
I wasnt keen on going there on my own.
.
syn eager

[kn]

kid

[kid]
n ,
What a pretty kid! !
kingdom

[kidm]
n ,
He left the gas on and nearly blew us all to kingdom come. 
.

knee
:
[n]
n, v ;
She was on her knees weeding the garden.
.
I kneed him in the groin. .
knowledge

[nlid]
n
You need specialist knowledge to do this job.
.

196

L
designer label
laboratory tests / experiments / 

labour market
a relative lack of exercise 

the first step on the ladder of success

label

n, v , ; ,

It says Dry clean on the label. .
The file was labelled Top Secret. 
.

[leibl]

laboratory

[lbrtri]
n (pl laboratories)
tests on laboratory animals

labour

[leib]
n, v ; ;
Many women do hard manual labour. 
.
They laboured all day in the field. .
lack

n, v , ; 
,
There was no lack of willing helpers.
.
Alexs real problem is that he lacks confidence. 
, .
syn shortage
[lk]

ladder

[ld]
n, v ; ( )
He hurt himself falling off a ladder. , .
I have laddered my stocking. .
197

L
ones native land .
landscape artist 
threelane motorway / highway / road /
/
speak a language
largely because of the problem  

land

[lnd]
n, v , ;
Their journey took them to many foreign lands. 
.
Flight 127 landed five minutes ago.
, 127.
ant take off
landscape

[lndskeip]
n, v ;
rural / industrial / urban etc landscape / /
..
The area around the mill pond has also been landscaped.
.
lane

[lein]
n ()
That idiot changed lanes without signalling.
, .
language

[lgwid]
n
How many languages do you speak? 
?
largely
:
[ldli]
adv ,
It had been a tiring day, largely because of all the tedious waiting.
, 
.

198

L
be the last straw
be too late to do sth .
Lately, Ive had trouble sleeping.
.
Whats the latest news on
In the latter case,

last

:
adj, adv, v ;
;
I hadnt seen him since the last meeting. c 
.
When I last saw her, she was working in London.
, .
Each lesson lasts an hour. .
[lst]

ant first

late

[leit]
adj
We apologize for the late departure of flight AZ709.
(. ) AZ709.
ant early
lately

[leitli]
adv
What have you been doing lately?
?
latest

[leitist]
adj ()
His latest film is one of the funniest hes ever made.
(. ).
latter

[lt]
n, adj ;
Where unemployment and crime are high, the latter is due to the
former. , ,
.
the latter part of November
ant former
199

L
launch an attack / assault / offensive / /

by law
lay the table
in layers
lazybones (. )

launch

:
v, n , ;
,
The company hopes to launch the new drug by next October. 

.
the launch of a new womens magazine

[l
nt]

law
:
[l
]
n ;
Elected officials ought to obey the law.
.
lay

[lei]
v (laid, laid) ;
John was laying the table. .
syn put
layer

n, v , , ;

A thick layer of dust lay on the furniture. 


.
Layer the raw sliced vegetables in a shallow baking dish.
.
[lei]

lazy

[leizi]
adj
He felt too lazy to get out of bed. (.
) .
syn idle
200

L
lead the country
lean years
leap year
to say the least
leave sb in peace .

lead
:
[ld]
v (led, led) ,
Agassi was leading by two sets. .
syn win
ant lose
lean

:
v (leaned / leant, leaned / leant), adj 
, ;
He was leaning on the bridge, watching the boats go by. ,
, 
.
He was lean, tall, and muscular. , 
.
ant fatty

[ln]

leap

:
v (leapt / leaped, leapt / leaped), n 
;
The smaller animals can easily leap from tree to tree. 
.
He threw a stick into the lake and the dog went after it in a flying
leap. ,
.
syn bound

[lp]

least
:
[lst]
determ, pron ;
I havent the least idea what you are talking about.
, .
leave
:
[lv]
v (left, left) ,
Never leave children playing near water unattended.
.
201

L
go to / attend a lecture /

make sth legal .
Legend has it that /
at (your) leisure /
let that be a lesson to you

lecture

n, v , ; , 

He regularly gives lectures on modern English literature. 
.
He began to lecture us about making too much noise.
, .

[lekt]

legal
:
[lgl]
adj , ,
He had twice the legal limit of alcohol in his bloodstream. 
.
ant illegal
legend

[lednd]
n
According to legend, he escaped by leaping from the cliffs into the
sea. , , .
leisure

[le]
n ,
Watching television is now the nations most popular leisure activity.

.
lesson

[lesn]
n
Shes started taking driving lessons. 
.
syn class

202

L
let me think
a letter of thanks
a liberal interpretation of the play
do sth without a licence . / 

tell sb a lie . /

let

[let]
v (let, let) ;
I cant ome out tonight my dad wont let me.
.
syn allow, release
letter

[let]
n ;
Barts writing a letter to his parents. ()
.
liberal

adj, n ,
; , 

I had quite liberal parents. 


.
ant conservative
[librl]

licence; license

n, v license , ; 
,
He was arrested for driving without a licence.
() .
a restaurant which is licensed to sell alcohol

[laisns]

lie

[lai]
v (lay, lain), n ; ;
Dont lie in the sun for too long.
.
It was obviously a blatant lie. .
203

L
not lift a finger (to do sth) (
.)
the light of sbs life . (.)
as you like
a likely story

lift

[lift]
v, n ; ,
She lifted her hand to knock on the door once again.
(. ) .
Jim gave me a lift home. (. )
.
syn raise; elevator, ride
light

v (lit / lighted, lit / lighted), n, adj 


, ; ; ;
;
He stopped to light a cigarette. .
He waited for the lights to change. , 
/ .
I had a light lunch in town.
(. ).
ant dark, heavy

[lait]

like

v, prep, adv, conj ; . /


., ...;
I like your jacket. .
F He eats like a pig! !
The water was, like, really cold. , , .
H Like I said, shes not here at the moment. ,
.
[laik]

likely

[laikli]
adj
What are the likely effects of the law going to be?
?
ant unlikely
204

L
Theres no limit to .
You can book tickets on line.
/  .
the linguistic ability of children
link in the chain
literal translation /

limit

[limit]
n, v , ;
My wife and I set a limit on how much we spend on clothes.
, 
.
A lack of formal education will limit your job opportunities. 

.
line

n, v ; ; 

I looked in despair at the long line in front of the ticket office.


.
Are these curtains lined? ?
syn queue

[lain]

linguistic

[ligwistik]
adj ,
a childs linguistic development
link

[lik]
v, n ;
A long bridge links Venice and the mainland. 
.
For elderly people, TV is a vital link with the outside world.
.
syn connect
literal

[litrl]
adj
A trade war is not a war in the literal sense.
.
205

L
take sth literally .
a literary prize
literate people in India
literature on the history of science

Look lively! !

literally

[litrli]
adv
The name of the cheese is Dolcelatte, literally meaning sweet milk.
Dolcelatte, 
.
literary

[litrri]
adj
a literary prize
literary criticism
literate
[litrt]

adj

computer literate / musically literate /

syn illiterate

literature

[litrt]
n
He has read many of major works of literature.
.
lively

[laivli]
adj , ,
The book offers a lively account of her travels. 
.

206

L
the living ()
a load off my mind /
an interestfree loan /
local call
be located in / near sth /
.

living

adj, n , ; , 

Hes one of the greatest living composers.


.
What do you do for a living? ?
ant dead

[livi]

load

n, v , ; , 

The plane was carrying a full load of fuel.


.
Can you load the CD into the player, please? ,
.
ant unload
[ld]

loan

[ln]
n, v , , ;
Ill get a bank loan if necessary. ,
.
Can you loan me $10? 10 ?
local

[lkl]
adj
After the accident he was delivered to the local hospital. 
.
locate

[lkeit]
v ,
We couldnt locate the source of the radio signal. 
.
207

L
accept / follow / see sbs logic / /
.
the lonely ()
a long way from
loose clothes
Lord only knows how / who / where ,
/ /

logic

[ldik]
n
Its easy to understand his logic. .
lonely

[lnli]
adj
Dont you get lonely being on your own all day?
(. ) ?
syn lonesome, remote
long

adj, adv ; , 
; ,
Shes recovering from a long illness. 
.

[l]

Have you been waiting long? ?

loose
:
[l s]
adj ,
Her hair fell loose around her shoulders. 
.
lord
:
[l
d]
n ;
Lord only knows I tried my best to persuade her. : 
, , .

208

L
a loss of $5000 / / 5000
to accept ones lot /

Read it out loud. .
lead a life of luxury

loss
[ls]

n ,

Weight loss should be gradual. 


.

lot

[lt]
pron, adv ;
K They paid a lot of money for that house.
.
She likes you a lot. .
syn much
loud
[lad]

adj, adv ;

The music was so loud that I had to shout.


, .
Youve got the telly on too loud.
.
ant quiet

luxury

n (pl luxuries) , 

We stayed in a fivestar luxury hotel. 


.
ant necessity
[lkri]

209

M
get mad at sb .
a glossy fashion magazine
send sth by mail .
The main thing is not to panic. 
.
maintain high standards /

mad

[md]
adj ,
Are you still mad at me? ?
syn crazy, insane
magazine
:
[mgzn]
n
Shes the editor of a popular womens magazine.
.
mail

[meil]
n, v ;
I sent my application by registered mail.
.

The weekly newsletter is mailed to women all over the country.



.
syn post

main

[mein]
adj ,
The main reason for living in Spain is the weather. 
.
maintain

[meintein]
v
How can you maintain a family on $900 a month? 
900 ?

210

M
major in economics /
be in the majority
Hell make a good husband. .
traditional male values
manage a big company

major

adj, n, v , ; ;

Theres a major problem with parking in London. 


.
Hes majoring in Political Science. 
.
ant minor

[meid]

majority

[mdriti]
n (pl majorities)
In this city, Muslims are in the majority. 
.
ant minority
make

v (made, made), n , ;
,
I need to make a phone call. .
Its one of the most popular makes of automobiles on the market.
.

[meik]

male

[meil]
adj, n ;
Motorracing has largely been a male preserve.
.
Jane described her attacker as a white male aged about 25.
25 .
ant female
manage

[mnid]
v ;
He was asked to manage a new department. 
.
211

M
the history of mankind
Its bad manners to spit. .
on manual ()
manufactured goods
marry late /

mankind

[mnkaind]
n
one of the most important events in the history of mankind

syn humankind, man

manner

[mn]
n ,
It seemed rather an odd manner of deciding things. ,
.
manual

adj, n , ; 
,
People in manual occupations have a lower life expectancy. ,
, .
Consult the manual if you have a problem. 
, .
syn bluecollar
ant automatic

[mnjl]

manufacture

v, n , ; 

If the media can manufacture stories like this, who are we supposed
to believe? ,
?
Cost will determine the methods of manufacture.
.
syn fabricate
[ mnjfkt]

marry

[mri]
v ,
Im going to ask her to marry me on St Valentines Day.
.
212

M
have a marvellous time
mass media
Theyre a perfect match. .
school / class mates /
the material world

marvellous
:
[mvls]
adj
We had a marvellous time. .
syn wonderful
mass

n, adj, v ; ; 

The food had congealed into a sticky mass.


.
a mass protest
Both countries have massed troops along the border.
.
[ms]

match

[mt]
n, v ; ,
That shirts a perfect match for your blue skirt. 
(. ) .
We painted the cabinets green to match the rug.
, .
mate

[meit]
n, v , ;
How do women choose their mates?
?
Rabbits can be mated as early as si months old.
.
material

[mtiril]
n, adj , ;
Anita is collecting material for a novel. 
.
The spiritual life is more important than material possessions. 
.
213

M
study mathematics
a matter of importance
mature for ones age
Maybe theyre right, maybe not. , , 
, .
have three meals a day

mathematics

[ mimtiks]
n
She gets top marks in mathematics and chemistry.
.
syn math(s)
matter

[mt]
n, v ;
There are more important matters we need to discuss.
, .
It mattered a great deal to her what people thought of her.
, .
mature

adj, v , ; , 
,
Laura is very mature for her age.
.
She has matured into a fine writer. 
.
ant immature
[mt]

maybe

[meibi]
adv ,
Do you think hell come back? Maybe. , 
? .
syn perhaps
meal
:
[ml]
n , ,
Why dont you ask her out for a meal?
?
214

M
I mean it. . / .
a man of means
in the meanwhile
safety measures
mechanism for doing sth
.

mean
:
[mn]
v (meant, meant), adj ;
The red light means Stop. 
.
Hes too mean to buy a present for his wife. ,
.
syn stingy
means
:
[mnz]
n (pl means)
For most people, the car is still their main means of transport.

.
meanwhile
:
[mnwail]
adv ,
The flight will be announced soon. Meanwhile, please remain seated.
. 
.
measure

[me]
v, n , ;
She was being measured for her wedding dress. 
.
Measures are being taken to reduce crime in the city. 
.
syn assess
mechanism

[meknizm]
n ,
existing mechanisms for decision making 

215

M
a patients medical history /

a medieval castle
a mediumsized business
Meet me at 8.00. 8.00.
My heart melted when ,

medical

[medikl]
adj
The injury required urgent medical attention.
.
medieval

:
[medivl]
adj
The plumbing in this house is positively medieval!
!

medium

:
adj, n (pl media / mediums) ;
;
What size shirt does he wear small, medium or large?
, ?
Advertising is a powerful medium. 
.

[mdim]

meet
[mt]

:
v (met, met), n (); 
; ,

Pleased to meet you. Me too.

. 
. / .
athletic / swimming meet / 

syn encounter, come across

melt

[melt]
v ,
Melt the butter in a saucepan. .
216

M
longterm memory
a childs mental development
Thanks for the ride home. Dont mention it. ,
. . / .
The Merchant of Venice
Its merely bad luck. .

memory

[memri]
n (pl memories)
She has a terrible memory for names.
.
mental

[mentl]
adj ,
Stress has an effect on both your physical and mental health.
,
.
mention

[menn]
v ;
Some of the problems were mentioned in his report.
.
He made no mention of his wifes illness. (.
) .
merchant
:
[m:tnt]
n ,
He had a job with an Edinburgh wine merchant. 
.
merely

[mili]
adv , ,
Hes merely a boy you cant expect him to understand.
.
syn only, just

217

M
sbs greatest merit .
text message
methods of birth control 
/
at midnight
a mild climate

merit

[merit]
n, v , ;
The film has the merit of being short. 
.
Its a fascinating book which merits attention.
, .
syn deserve
message

[mesid]
n
Did you get my message? ?
method

[med]
n ,
I think we should try again using a different method. ,
, .
midnight

[midnait]
n
We stayed there until way after midnight. 
.
mild

[maild]
adj , ,
Both men looked at her in mild surprise.
.
ant cold

218

M
70 miles per hour 70 (~110 )
take military action
Shes a wife in a million. .
make up ones mind to do sth () .
a mine of information (about / on sth) 
( . / .)

mile

[mail]
n
We walked about half of mile. .
military

[militri]
adj
The United States is prepared to use military force to achieve its
aims.
.
million

[miljn]
n (pl million(s))
The book sold more than a million copies. 
.
mind

n, v , ; ; 

He was a bright child with an enquiring mind.


.
I dont mind the heat, in fact I quite like it.
, .
syn look after, watch
[maind]

mine

[main]
pron, n, v ; ;
K Youve got good legs mine are too thin.
.
one of the largest coal mines in the country

The company first started mining for salt in 1851. 
1851 .
219

M
at a / the minimum
foreign minister
a minor problem
Just a minute! !
make life miserable

minimum

[minimm]
adj, n ;
The minimum age for retirement is 55.
55 .
At a minimum, we must recruit two new teachers.
.
ant maximum
minister

[minist]
n ;
He was the Minister of Agriculture from 2000 to 2004. 2000
2004 . .
minor

adj, n , 
;
We have made some minor changes to the program.
.
This film contains material unsuitable for minors.
, .
ant major

[main]

minute

; :
n, adj , ; , 

Can I have a word? It will only take a minute. 


? .
Her handwriting is minute. .
syn moment
[minit, mainj t]

miserable

[mizrbl]
adj ,
Ive been so miserable since Pat left me.
(. ), .
220

M
These figures are misleading. 
.
Will you miss me? ?
Mission completed. / .
mistake salt for sugar
mix business with pleasure 

misleading
:
[misldi]
adj ,
The article was misleading, and the newspaper has apologized.
, 
.
miss

[mis]
v ;
Im absolutely starving I missed lunch.
.
mission

[min]
n , ,
His main mission in life is to earn as much money as possible. 
.
syn calling, vocation
mistake

n, v (mistook, mistaken) ; 
,
There must be some mistake with the bill. , ,
 .
You cant mistake her. Shes the one with the long red hair.
. .
[misteik]

mix

[miks]
v, n ;
First mix the butter and sugar together, then add the milk.
, .
Add water to the cake mix and bake at 220 degrees for 20 minutes.

220 20 .
221

M
Have you got my mobile number?
?
moderate exercise
modern society
modest ambitions /
modify the plan

mobile

adj, n , ; 

Shes more mobile now that she has her own car. ,
, .
Give me a call on my mobile. .
ant immobile
syn cellphone
[mbail]

moderate
,
[mdrt, mdreit]
adj, v ;
Even moderate amounts of alcohol can be dangerous. 
.
He learned to moderate his anger. .
ant extreme, immoderate
modern

[mdn]
adj
Computers are an essential part of modern life. 
.
syn contemporary, uptodate, progressive
ant traditional
modest

[mdst]
adj
Youre too modest! Youve been a great help to us. 
(. )! .
ant immodest

modify

[mdifai]
v ,
The seats can be modified to fit other types of vehicle.
, .
syn adapt
222

M
My mom says
From that moment on ... /
win a moral victory
Hes kind; moreover, hes clever. , , .
Most people think so. .

mom

[mm]
n
My mom says I have to stay home tonight. ,
.
syn mum, mummy
moment

[mmnt]
n
It was one of the most exciting moments in his life.
.
moral

[mrl]
adj, n ; ,
a moral duty to obey the law
a young woman of loose morals
(. )
ant immoral
moreover
:
[m
rv]
adv ,
The rent is reasonable and, moreover, the location is perfect. 
, , , .
most

[mst]
adv, determ, pron ;
Most of all, I just felt sad that it was over. ,
, .
Most research in this field has been carried out by the Russians.

.
K Shes one of the most experienced teachers in the district.
.
syn the majority
ant least
223

M
The class is mostly Russian. .
when the train is in motion
motive for (doing) sth () .
next move
boots caked with mud ,

mostly

adv ,

Green teas are mostly from China or Japan. 


.
syn mainly

[mstli]

motion

n, v ; , 

The rocking motion of the boat made Liz feel sick. 
, .
He motioned to the barman to refill their glasses. 
.
syn gesture; signal

[mn]

motive

[mtiv]
n, adj , ;
The police believe the motive for this murder was jealousy.
, .
Water provided the motive power for the mill. 
.
move
:
[m v]
v, n (); ; ,
Could you move your car, please? Its blocking the road.
? .
Taking the position was a good career move. ,
, .
mud

[md]
n
By the end of the game, all the kids were covered with mud.
.
224

M
multiply by five
murder victim / weapon /
Relax your stomach muscles. .
the British Museum
by mutual agreement

multiply

[mltiplai]
v ,
Multiply the total by 12. .
murder
:
[m:d]
n, v ;
On the night the murder was committed, he was out of the country.
, , 
.
He was convicted of murdering a policeman. 
.
muscle

n, v , ;

Regular exercise will help to strengthen your muscles.
.
Joe and Tony muscled their way through the crowd.
.

[msl]

museum
:
[mj zim]
n
The museum has an extensive collection of early photographs.
.
mutual
:
[mj tl]
adj ,
Mutual respect is necessary for any partnership to work. 
.

225

M
be a mystery (to sb) ( .)
explode / dispel a myth

mystery

[mistri]
n (pl mysteries) ,
The police never solved the mystery of Grays disappearance.
.
myth
[mi]

n ,

It was important to dispel the myth that Aids was a gay disease.
, 
.
syn fallacy

226

N
the two cities, namely Paris and Madrid , 

have a narrow escape
the worlds leading industrial nations 

a native speaker of English
natural disasters

namely

[neimli]
adv ,
Three students were mentioned, namely John, Sarah and Sylvia.
, : , .

narrow

[nr]
adj, v ;
The stairs were very narrow. .
The track divided into two and narrowed.
.
ant wide; widen

nation

[nein]
n ,
the Presidents radio broadcast to the nation 

native
[neitiv]

adj, n ; , 

They never saw their native land again.


.
He has become a native of Glasgow.
(. ).

natural

[ntrl]
adj ,
My favourite occupation is the study of the natural world. 
.
ant unnatural, abnormal, supernatural
227

N
Did you win? Naturally. ? . /
.
the laws / forces of nature /
nearly 20 years ago 20
Expensive cafe=s arent necessarily the best.
.
do the necessary

naturally

[ntrli]
adv
Naturally, youll want to discuss this with your wife. ,
.

nature

[neit]
n ;
She was by nature a very affectionate person.
.

nearly

[nili]
adv
Michelles nearly twenty. .
syn almost

necessarily

[nesisrili]
adv
Expensive restaurants arent necessarily the best. 
.

necessary

[nessri]
adj
The booklet provides all the necessary information about college.
.

228

N
give a negative answer
years / centuries of neglect / / 

nextdoor neighbours
be neither one thing nor the other ,
have a nervous breakdown

negative

adj, n , ;
,
My drinking was starting to have a negative effect on my work. 
.
answer / reply in the negative /
ant positive; affirmative
[negtiv]

neglect

[niglekt]
v, n ;
She smoked and drunk, neglected the children, and left the clothes
unmended. ,
.
After years of neglect, the roads were full of potholes.
.

neighbour

[neib]
n
FBI agents were interviewing all their friends and neighbours. 
.

neither

[nai]
adv, determ, pron, conj ;
I dont like horror films. Me neither. 
. ( ).
H The equipment is neither accurate, nor safe. 
, .

nervous

:
[n:vs]
adj
Stop looking at me like that. Youre making me nervous.
. (.
).
229

N
Hes rich; nevertheless, hes unhappy. , 
.
of noble birth
nod ones approval / agreement /

Whats that noise? ?


None of it is true. .

nevertheless

[nevles]
conj, adv , ,
What you said was true. It was, nevertheless, a little unkind.
. .
syn nonetheless
noble

[nbl]
adj, n ;
Its very noble of you to spend all your weekends helping the old folk.
, 
.

nod

[nd]
v, n ;
I asked her if she was ready to go, and she nodded. ,
, .
The woman greeted us with a nod of the head. 
.
noise

[niz]
n
Try not to make a noise when you go upstairs. 
(. ), .
syn sound
none

pron, adv , ; ,

K Even an old car is better than none.
, .
I was none the wiser after his explanation.
.

[nn]

230

N
it is (a) nonsense to do sth .
It was not my fault, nor his. ,
.
write a note to sb .
take notice of sb / sth . / .
She had no notion what he meant. ,
.

nonsense

[nnsns]
n ,
Im a prisoner in my own home. Nonsense! 
. !
syn rubbish

nor
:
[n
]
conj, adv
H Neither Matt nor Julie said anything. , 
.
note

n, v ; ; 

I was going to write Kathy a note, but decided to call her instead.
,  
.
Note how she is holding the racket. ,
.
[nt]

notice

[ntis]
v, n ;
I didnt notice any smoke. .
I waved but they took no notice. ,
.

notion

[nn]
n ,
She had only a vague notion of what she wanted to do.
, 
.
231

N
romantic / historical / science fiction novel /
/ 
the poets of nowadays /
too numerous to mention / list ,

a male nurse
nursing home
poor / good nutrition /

novel

[nvl]
n, adj ; ,
a novel by Jane Austen
What a novel idea! !

nowadays

[nadeiz]
adv
Nowadays people are rarely shocked by the sex they see on television.
, 
.

numerous

:
[nj mrs]
adj
Numerous attempts have been made to hide the truth. 
.

nurse

:
[n:s]
n, v ;
The school nurse sent John home. 
.
Hes been nursing an elderly relative.
.

nursing

:
[n:si]
n ( );
Id love to go into nursing. 
.

nutrition
:
[nj trin]
n
Poor nutrition can cause heart disease in later life. 
.
232

O
obey the law
an object of desire
achieve the objective
feel obliged to do sth
.
for some obscure reason /

obey

[bei]
v
Soldiers are expected to obey orders without questioning them. 
, .
ant disobey

object
,
[bdikt, bdekt]
n, v , ;
The object of the game is to improve childrens math skills.
.
If no one objects, I would like Mr Smith to be present.
, ,  .
objective

[bdzektiv]
n, adj ;
The main objective was to improve childrens knowledge of geography.
.
Its hard to give an objective opinion about your own children. 

.
syn goal
ant subjective
oblige

[blaid]
v ,
Circumstances had obliged him to sell his business. 
.
obscure

adj, v , , ;

The details of his life remain obscure.


.
The view was obscured by mist. .
[bskj]

233

O
observe the comet
obstacle race
obtain sth from sb / sth . . / .
for obvious reasons
on special occasions

observe
[bz:v]

:
v ,

It was observed that 40 percent of patients had high blood pressure.


, 40% .

obstacle

[bstkl]
n , ,
Women still have to overcome many obstacles to gain equality. 
,
.
obtain
[btein]

v ,

Further information can be obtained from head office.


.
syn get

obvious
[bvis]

adj ,

For obvious reasons the police cannot give any more details about
the case. 
 .

occasion

[kein]
n
Im saving this bottle of champagne for a special occasion.
.

234

O
We only see each other occasionally. .
a wellpaid occupation
occupy a high position
it occurs to sb to do sth .
.
swim in the ocean /

occasionally

[keinli]
adv ,
Occasionally Alice would look up from her books. 
.

occupation

[kjpein]
n ,
Please state your name, address and occupation. ,
, .
syn pastime
occupy

[kjpai]
v
Football occupies most of my leisure time. @
.
occur
[k:]

:
v ,

The explosion occurred at 18.30. 18:30.

ocean

[n]
n ,
She stood on the beach, gazing at the ocean. ,
.
syn sea

235

O
It is odd (that) (, )
be offended by / at sth .
offer to do sth .
a police officer
official statistics

odd

adj ; ; 

I take the odd day off work. (.


).
syn occasional
ant even

[d]

offend

[fend]
v ,
Liz was offended by such a personal question.
.

offer

[f]
v, n ;
Can I offer you something to drink? 
?
Thank you for your offer of help.
.
officer

[fis]
n
The police officer was injured during the rioting.
.
official

n, adj , ;
,
a government official
You will have to get official permission first.
.
[fiil]

236

O
nce upon a time ... / 
operate in all weather conditions 

in my opinion ,
worthy opponent
take / seize / use an opportunity 

once

[wns]
adv ; ;
Ive only met her once. .
the oncemighty steel industry

operate

[preit]
v ,
The bus is designed to operate in all weather conditions.
.
opinion

[pinjn]
n
The two women had very different opinions about drugs. 
.
opponent

[pnnt]
n ,
He is admired even by his political opponents.
.

opportunity

:
[ ptj niti]
n
This is an ideal opportunity to save money on a holiday to Crete.

.

237

O
oppose sbs marriage .
be optimistic about sth
.
have no option (but to do sth) (
.)
made to order
out of the ordinary ,

oppose

[pz]
v ,
Congress is still continuing to oppose the Presidents healthcare
budget. 
.
optimistic

[ ptimistik]
adj
Andrew took a more optimistic view. 
.
ant pessimistic

option

[pn]
n ;
She had no option but to stay for an extra year. 
, .
order
:
[
d]
n, v ; ;
Goods will be sent within 24 hours of receiving your order.
.
Are you ready to order? ?
ordinary
:
[
dinri]
adj ,
The book is about ordinary people. .

238

O
organ transplants
marine organisms /
World Health Organization 
()
country / place of origin , /

A lot of people think otherwise. .

organ
:
[
gn]
n
In Arizona, 480 people are waiting for organ transplants.
480 .
organism
:
[
gnizm]
n
All living organisms have to adapt to changes in environmental
conditions.
.
organization
:
[
gnaizein]
n
The public expect high standarts from any large organization. 

.
origin

[ridin]
n ,
The tradition has its origins in the Middle Ages.
.
otherwise

[waiz]
adv ,
Youll have to go now, otherwise youll miss your bus. ,
.

239

O
I ought to call Nick. .
the outcome of the election
outer space (. )
Koreas agricultural output

an outstanding scholar

ought to
:
[
t t]
mod v
You really ought to quit smoking. .
outcome
[atkm]

n ;

It was impossible to predict the outcome of the election. 


.
syn result

outer
[at]

adj

Remove the tough outer leaves. .


ant inner

output

[atpt]
n ,
Output is up 10 percent on last year.
10 .
outstanding

[atstndi]
adj ,
His performance was outstanding. 
.

240

O
The overall result is
overcome the fear of death
a room overlooking the sea
overseas travel /
an overwhelming majority

overall

:
adj, adv, n , ; ,
; ,
The overall cost of the exhibition was $400,000.
400 .

[ vr
l]

What will it cost, overall? ?

overcome

v (overcame, overcome) ,

He struggled to overcome his shyness.


.
[ vkm]

overlook

[ vlk]
v ,
It is easy to overlook a small detail like that. 
.
syn miss

overseas
[ vsz, vsz]

:, :
adv, adj , ; 
, ,

Chris is going to work overseas.


.
overseas students / overseas investment /

overwhelming

adj , ,

an overwhelming sense of guilt / an overwhelming force 


/
[ vwelmi]

241

O
owe sb money / $10 . / 10 

own ones own home

owe

[]
v
I still owe you for the taxi. .
own
[n]

adj, pron, v ;

Every dance has its own rhythm.


.
She acts like she owns the place. ,
(. ).

242

P
ease / relieve / kill pain /
You look pale.  .
piece / sheet of paper /
a paragraph in the London papers

have no parallel in history

pain

[pein]
n, v ; ,
I had a nasty pain in my leg. .
It pains me to think that he betrayed me. ,
.
pale

[peil]
adj, v ;
He suddenly went pale. (. ).
Todays economic problems pale in comparison with those of the
1930s. 
, 30 .
paper

[peip]
n ;
Youll read about it in tomorrows paper.
.
paragraph

:
[prgrf]
n , ,
the opening paragraphs of the novel

parallel

n, adj, v ; ;
,
The poverty of hill farmers had no parallel.
.
[prlel]

The railway is parallel with the canal. 


.
His career parallels that of his father. 
.
243

P
Hurry up! Pardon? I said hurry up! !
? ( ) , !
loving parents
a walk in the park
take an active part in sth
.
participate actively in sth .

pardon

:
int, v, n ; , 

L Hurry up, Kate! Pardon? , ! ?


He could never pardon her for the things she had said.
, .
He was convicted but was granted a royal pardon. ,
.
syn excuse me; forgive, excuse
[pdn]

parent

[perent]
n
Children under fourteen should be accompanied by a parent.
14 .

park
:
[pk]
n
Lets go for a walk in the park. .
part
:
[pt]
n, v ; ;
Could someone take the part of Romeo, please? 
?
He has parted from his wife. .
syn role
participate
:
[ptisipeit]
v
Everyone in the class is expected to participate in the discussions.
.
244

P
dust particles
What did you want? Nothing in particular. ?
.
throw / give a party
Read the following passage.
.
passenger seat ( )

particle

:
[ptikl]
n ,
Theres not a particle of truth in what he says. , 
, .

particular

[ptikjl]
adj ; ;
In this particular case, no one else was involved. 
.
party

:
[pti]
n ; ;
He sees himself as the innocent party in this dispute.
.
Are you going to the party tonight? 
?

passage

[psid]
n ,
The bridge isnt strong enough to allow the passage of heavy vehicles.
.

passenger

[psnd]
n
Neither the driver nor the passengers were hurt. ,
.

245

P
love and passion
passive smoking
Its long past your bedtime. .
block sbs path .
doctor and patient

passion

[pn]
n ,
Gardening was her great passion.
.
passive

[psiv]
adj, n ;
Kate seems to take a very passive role in the relationship. ,
.
Transform the sentence into the passive. 
.

past
:c
[pst]
adj, prep, adv ; ;
Judging by her past performance, Jane should do very well.
, .
F It was past midnight when the party ended. 
, .
She waved as she drove past. , .
path
:
[ps]
n (pl paths) ,
Follow the path along the river to the bridge.
.
patient

[peint]
n, adj ;
He was my patient last year.
.
Louise was very patient with me.
.
ant impatient

246

P
pause to do sth / .
pay cash
cast / throw pearls before swine 

feel peculiar /
set sb apart from sbs peers .

pause
:
[p
z]
v, n , ;
He paused for breath, then continued up the hill.
, .
After a long pause, she went on.
.
pay

[pei]
v (paid, paid), n ;
Can I pay by credit card? ?
Teachers were awarded a 6% pay rise. 
.
pearl
:
[p:l]
n ,
Thank you for those pearls of wisdom, Emma.
, .
peculiar

:
[pikj li]
adj ,
It seems very peculiar that no one noticed Kat had gone. 
, , .

peer

n, v , ; 
,
American children did less well in math than their peers in Japan.
,
.
He was peering through the wet windscreen at the cars ahead.

.
[pi]

247

P
the death penalty
perceive danger
perform a task / job / duty / /

Perhaps 200 people were there. , 


.
Im not going, period! , !

penalty

[penlti]
n (pl penalties) ,
No littering. Penalty $500. . 500 .

perceive

:
[psv]
v
Cats are not able to perceive colours.
.

perform
[pf
m]

:
v ,

The leadership cannot be expected to perform miracles.


, .
syn carry out

perhaps
[phps]

adv

Perhaps it will snow tomorrow.

, .

syn maybe

period

[pirid]
n ,
His playing improved in a very short period of time. 
.

248

P
permanent teeth
permit sb to do sth . .
persist in (doing) sth () .
have a personal interest
the artists use of perspective

permanent

:
[p:mnnt]
adj
He gave up a permanent job in order to freelance. 
.
ant temporary

permit

, :
v, n , ; ,

Dogs are not permitted inside the shop.


(. ).
A permit is required for fishing in the canal. 
.
[pmit, p:mit]

persist

v , , 

If the pain persists, you must see a doctor. ,
.
[psist]

personal

:
[p:snl]
adj
Style and colour are matter of personal taste.
.

perspective
[pspektiv]

n ,

The novel is written from a childs perspective.


(. ) .

249

P
persuade sb to do sth . .
be in / out of phase with sth /
.
natural / historic / social phenomenon / 
/
sbs philosophy of life .
physical examination

persuade

[psweid]
v
Dont let yourself be persuaded into buying things you dont want.
,
.
syn convince
phase

n, v , ; 

The work will be carried out in phases. 
(. ).
The closure of the regional offices was phased over an 18month
period. ,
.

[feiz]

phenomenon

[finminn]
n (pl phenomena) ,
Language is a social and cultural phenomenon.
.

philosophy

n (pl philosophies) , 

Emma studies philosophy at university.
.

[filsfi]

physical

[fizikl]
adj
She was in constant physical pain.
.
250

P
Dont pick your nose! !
piles of letters from viewers
take / have pity on sb .
your place of work

pick

[pik]
v, n ; ;
I dont know which colour to pick. , .
Have a look at the menu and take your pick.
.
pile

n, v , ; , 

All that remained of the old house was a pile of rubble. ,


, .
The room was piled up with boxes. 
.
syn stack
[pail]

pity

n, v (pitied, pitying, pities) , 


; ,

Its a pity that he didnt accept the job. ,


.
Sam pitied his grandmother there alone, never going out. 
: , .
syn shame
[piti]

place

[pleis]
n, v ; ;
Make sure you keep the key in a safe place. , 
.
She poured the doctor a cup of coffee and placed it on the table.
.
syn put

251

P
as plain as day
by plane
the planet Earth
a huge chemical plant
it is pleasant to do sth .

plain

adj, n, adv , ; ;

Let me make it plain. We do not want you here.


(. ). .
The grassy plain gave way to an extensive swamp.
.
Its just plain crazy to spend all your pay as soon as you get it.
, 
.
syn obvious, simple
[plein]

plane

n, v, adj ; , 
;
horizontal / vertical plane / 

He planed the edge of the door. .


plane surface

[plein]

planet

[plnit]
n
Is there life on other planets? ?

plant
:
[plnt]
n, v ; ;
Dont forget to water the plants. .
a hillside planted with fir trees ,
pleasant

[pleznt]
adj
Kate! What a pleasant surprise! ! !
syn nice
252

P
have plenty of time
prove ones point /
poison gas
Russias foreign policy
polish up ones English

plenty

[plenti]
pron ,
No need to hurry youve got plenty of time.
.

poem

[pim]
n ,
I decided to write a poem about how I felt. 
, .

point

[pint]
n, v ; ;
I agree with Johns point about keeping the costs down.
.
He stood up and pointed his finger at me.
.
poison

[pizn]
n, v , ; ()
Belladonna and red arsenic are deadly poisons. 
.
He killed several people by poisoning their tea.
, .
policy

[plisi]
n
The company has adopted a strict nosmoking policy.
.

polish

v, n , ; ,
,
Polish the lenses with a piece of tissue.
.
Kates writing lacks polish. (. 
).
[pli]

253

P
be polite to ladies
a political leader /
environmental pollution
across the pond
be popular with / among sb /
.

polite

[plait]
adj , ,
We left the party as soon as it was polite to do so. 
, ,
.
ant rude, impolite

political

[plitikl]
adj
Education is now a major political issue. 
.
pollution

:
[pl n]
n ( )
The chemicals have been identified as a source of pollution.
, .

pond

[pnd]
n ; , ()
my cousins on the other side of the pond

popular

[ppjl]
adj
Coffee is probably the most popular drink in the world. , 
, .
ant unpopular

254

P
population growth
come into / leave port /
a large portion of your salary 

pose a threat / danger /


be in a position to do sth .

population

[ppjlein]
n
India has a population of more than 1 billion.
.
port

:
n, v ;

The ferry ws about to leave port.
.

[p
t]

portion
:
[p
n]
n, v , ;
The main characters childhood takes up a good portion of the film.
@ .
The money was portioned out among them.
.
pose

[pz]
v, n ;
Officials claim the chemical poses no real threat.
,
.
Ann struck a pose and smiled for the camera.
.

position

n, v , ; 
,
I hope youll reconsider your position. , 
.
Position the cursor before the letter you want to delete.
, .
[pzin]

255

P
positive thinking
What possessed you (to do sth)? (,
.)?
Will you come? Possibly. ? .
hold a post
postpone doing sth .

positive

[pzitiv]
adj, n ;
Shes got a really positive attitude to life.
.
Always emphasize the positive. .
ant negative

possess

[pzes]
v ,
He no longer possessed the power to frighten her.
.
possibly

[psibli]
adv
This last task is possibly the most difficult. ,
, .

post

n, v , ; ; 

I applied for the post and was asked to attend an interview.
, .
The winner will be notified by post. 
.
Shes just gone to post a letter. 
.
syn position; mail
[pst]

postpone

[pspn]
v
Theve decided to postpone having a family for a while. 
.
syn put back
ant bring forward
256

P
potential danger / threat / risk /
/
the (British) pound ()
pour wine into the glass
live in poverty /
a practical person

potential

[ptenl]
adj, n ;
new ways of attracting potential customers 

She has the potential to become a champion. 
.
syn possible
pound

[pand]
n, v ;
They spent over a thousand pounds. 
.
Tom pounded on the door with his fist.
.

pour

[p]
v
Why dont you pour yourself another drink? 
?
poverty

[pvti]
n ,
20% of the population now live below the poverty line. 20%
(. 
).

practical

[prktikl]
adj
In practical terms, this means spending more time with each student.
(. ,)
.
ant impractical
257

P
in practice
praise sb for sth . .
precious gem / stone / jewel
arrive at precisely 4 oclock / 4.00
As Liz had predicted, ,

practice

n, v ; , 

It takes hours of practice to learn to play the guitar.


, .
Today were going to practice parking. 
.
[prktis]

praise

[preiz]
v, n ; ,
The Mayor praised the rescue teams for their courage. 
.
His first novel received high praise.
.
ant criticize; criticism
precious

adj, adv , ;
, , ()
We cannot afford to waiste precious time. 
.
I had precious little time for reading.
.

[pres]

precisely

[prisaisli]
adv
He arrived at precisely 4 oclock. .
syn exactly
predict

[pridikt]
v ,
As Kate had predicted, the rumours were soon forgotten.
, .
258

P
prefer tea to coffee
a cultural prejudice against fat people 

prepare to do sth .
those present
preserve forests /

prefer

:
[prif:]
v (preferred, preferring)
She prefers her coffee black. .

prejudice

[preddis]
n, v ;
Asian pupils complained of racial prejudice at the school.
.
My own schooldays prejudiced me against all formal education.

.
prepare

[pripe]
v ()
Prepare the soil, then plant the seedlings 8 inches apart. 
, 20 (.
8 ) .
present

,
[prizent, preznt]
v, n ; ;
He presented a cheque for $5000 to cancer research. 
5000 .
I gave her a very special present for her birthday.
.
syn gift

preserve
:
[priz:v]
v, n ; .
Mother tried to preserve a normal family life in difficult circum
stances.
.
Banking used to be a male preserve.
.
259

P
the president of General Motors 

the freedom of the press


pretend to be asleep
a pretty long time
common sense / reason prevails

president

[presidnt]
n
the President of France / President Kennedy /

press

[pres]
n, v ;
To judge from the press, the concert was a great success.
, .
She pressed the gas pedal and the car leapt forward.
, .
syn push
pretend

v, adj , ; 

She pretended not to notice. , .


We sang songs around a pretend campfire.
.

[pritend]

pretty

adv, adj (prettier, prettiest) ,


; ,

Im pretty sure hell say yes. , .


Mary looks much prettier with her hair cut short.
.
[priti]

prevail

[priveil]
v ,
Justice will prevail. .
260

P
prevent sb from doing sth . .
previous experience
be / fall prey to sb / sth / . /
.
pay a high price
a man in the prime of life

prevent

[privent]
v
The rules are intended to prevent accidents. 
, .

previous
:
[prvis]
adj ,
She has two children from a previous marriage.
.
prey

[prei]
n, v , ;
He was easy prey for the two conmen who called at his house.
, .
Cats prey on birds and mice. .
syn predator
price

[prais]
n, v ;
The price of fuel keeps going up. .
Tickets are priced at $75 each. 75 
. (. 75 ).
prime

adj, n, v ; ,
;
Smoking is the prime cause of lung disease. 
.
Shes still in her prime.  .
Did you prime her with what to say? ,
?
syn main

[praim]

261

P
a primitive society
the principal character in the book
in principle
prior to sth . ()
get your priorities right

primitive

[primitiv]
adj ,
the tools used by primitive man , 

ant advanced, modern
principal

adj, n , ;

Teaching is her principal source of income. 


.
small school with just three teachers and the principal
,
syn main; headteacher
[prinsipl]

principle

[prinsipl]
n
He prided himself on his high moral principles.
.
prior

adj , ,

All the arrangements should be completed prior to your departure.



(. ).
syn previous
[prai]

priority

n (pl priorities) , 

The children are our first priority. .


[prairiti]

262

P
get out of prison
in private
the privilege of doing sth / .
Is she going to come back? Probably not, no. 
? , .
pose / present a problem / 

prison

[prizn]
n
He was sent to prison for attacking a woman with a knife. 
.
syn jail
private

[praivt]
adj, n , ;
There is private ownership of property in a market economy. 
.
I need to speak to you in private.
.
privilege

[privilid]
n
He had no special privileges and was treated just like every other
prisoner. ,
, .
probably

[prbbli]
adv ,
Its probably the best movie I have ever seen. , 
, .
problem

[prblm]
n
Ive been having a few problems with my car. 
.

263

P
the checkin procedure
proceed to do sth .
be in the process of (doing) sth ()
.
produce the desired effect
by profession

procedure
:
[prsd]
n ,
Whats the procedure for applying for a visa?
?
proceed
:
[prsd]
v ,
Sam took off his coat and proceeded to undo his boots.
.
process

[prses]
n, v ;
Repetition can help the learning process. 
.
Two million workers are employed processing goods for electronic
firms. 
.
produce

:, :
[prdj s, prdj s]
v, n ;
The factory produced 100 cars per hour. 100
.
fresh local produce

profession

[prfen]
n
He was an attorney by profession. 
.

264

P
a professor at Boston University /

make a $2 million profit 

a profound sense of guilt


all in the name of progress
prohibit sb from doing sth . .

professor

[prfes]
n ,
Whos your chemistry professor? ?

profit

[prfit]
n, v ;
Our daily profit is usually around $500.
500 .
Some industries, such as shipbuilding, clearly profit from the war.
, , 
, .
profound

[prfand]
adj ,
Tolstoys experiences of war had a profound effect on his work. 
.
syn deep

progress
,
[prgres, prgres]
n, v , ;
Im afraid were not making much progress. ,
.
She started with a cleaning job, and progressed to running the
company.
(. ) .
ant regress
prohibit

[prhibit]
v
Smoking is strictly prohibited inside the factory.
.
syn ban, forbid
265

P
a business project 
a prominent Russian scientist 

Do you promise not to tell? ?


a promising new actress
promote economic growth 

project

, e
[prdekt, prdekt]
n, v ;
The project aims to provide an analysis of childrens emotions.
.
Total expenditure is projected to rise by 25%. ,
25%.

prominent

[prminnt]
adj ,
Mandela played a prominent role in the early years of the ANC.
(
).
promise

[prmis]
v, n ;
Hurry up we promised we wouldnt be late.
, .
Dont make promises you cant keep. , 
.
promising

adj ,

a promising young actor

[prmisi]

promote

[prmt]
v
Fertilizer promotes leaf growth.
.
ant denote

266

P
prompt sb to do sth . .
pronounce the word correctly
the proper way to clean your teeth 

private property
be in direct proportion to
.

prompt

v, adj , ; ,

What prompted you to buy that suit?


?
Lunch is at two. Try to be prompt. .
(. ).

[prmpt]

pronounce

[prnans]
v ;
I now pronounce you man and wife. .

proper

[prp]
adj ;
Everything was in its proper place. (,
).
ant improper
property

[prpti]
n
Some of the stolen property was found in Masons house.
.
proportion

:
n, v , ; 

Whats the proportion of boys to girls in your class? 


?
The amount of damages awarded are proportioned to the degree of
injury caused. 
.
[prp
n]

267

P
propose doing sth .
the future prospects , ,
economic prosperity
protect sb from sth . .
a protest against the Vietnam war

propose

[prpz]
v
The report also proposes extending the motorway. 
.

prospect

,
[prspekt, prspekt]
n, v ; ,
The prospect of marriage terrified Ann. 
.
The company is prospecting for gold in Alaska. 
.

prosperity

[prsperiti]
n ,
a time of economic prosperity

protect
[prtekt]

Are we doing enough to protect the environment?


?
syn cover

protest
[prtest, prtest]

,
n, v ; ,

A small group of demonstrators staged a peaceful protest outside the

UN Headquarters.
.
Thousands of people blocked the street, protesting against the new
legislation. ,
.
268

P
be proud of sth .
prove sth to sb . .
provide sb with sth . .
mob psychology
No smoking in public places. 
.

proud

adj ,

His past record is certainly something to be proud of. 


.
ant ashamed

[prad]

prove
:
[pr v]
v (proved, proved / proven)
Youre wrong, and I can prove it. , .
provide

[prvaid]
n
The project is designed to provide young people with work.
.

psychology
[saikldi]

n (pl psychologies)

You have to use psychology to get people to stop smoking.


, .

public

[pblik]
adj, n ;
Althoug not a public figure, he was a man of great influence.
, .
Her husband was always nice to her in public.
(. ).
ant private

269

P
publish the dictionary on CDROM
CDROM
pull ( )
punish sb for the crime .
a star pupil
day / date / time of purchase / /

publish

[pbli]
v ;
We love reading your letters and we try to publish as many as possible.

.

pull

[pl]
v, n ;
Paul pulled a muscle trying to lift the freezer. ,
.

He gave her a sharp pull forward. .


syn strain
ant push

punish

[pni]
v
They deserve to be punished for putting passengers at risk. ,
, 
.
pupil
:
[pj pl]
n ;
About 20 pupils study music here. 20
.
purchase

:
[p:ts]
v, n , ;
You can purchase insurance online. 
/ .
This product should be consumed on the day of purchase.
.
270

P
pure gold
for / with the purpose of doing sth .
the public purse
pursue the American Dream
push ( )

pure

[pj]
adj ,
Theyre too pure and innocent to know whats really going on.
, , 
.
ant impure
purpose

:
[p:ps]
n
What is the purpose of your visit? ?

purse
:
[p:s]
n, v , ;
I locked the door and dropped the keys in my purse.
.
Nell pursed her lips and shook her head. 
.
syn wallet, handbag
pursue

:
v , ,

She plans to pursue a career in politics.


.

[psj ]

push

[p]
v, n ;
The door didnt move, so she pushed harder. ,
.
If the doors stuck, just give it a push. ,
(. ) .
ant pull
271

Q
highly qualified nurse 

quality of life
a large / small quantity of sth / 
.
What time is it? Its a quarter to two. ?
.

qualify

v (qualified, qualifying, qualifies)

The certificate qualifies you to work as a dental assistant.


.
[kwlifai]

quality

[kwliti]
n (pl qualities)
Much of the land was of poor quality. @
.
quantity

[kwntiti]
n (pl quantities)
Huge quantities of oil were spilling into the sea. 
.
quarter

:
n, v , ; 

Cut the cake into quarters. .
Quarter the tomatoes and place them round the dish.
.

[kw
t]

272

Q
be as quiet as a mouse
quit doing sth .
Im sorry. Thats quite impossible. . 
.

quiet
[kwait]

adj, n , ; ,

Its a nice car. The engines really quiet. .


.
We were enjoying the quiet of the forest. 
.

quit

v (quit / quitted, quit / quitted) ,


,
She has decided to quit show business. 
.
[kwit]

quite

[kwait]
predeterm, adv ,
The food in the cafeteria is usually quite good. ,
.

Thats quite a different matter. .

273

R
children of all races
a victim of racial discrimination 

propose radical changes 

raise funds / money /


choose / select / pick sth at random .

race

[reis]
n, v ;
She finished second in the race. .
I had to race home for my bag.
.
racial

[reil]
adj
a victim of racial discrimination

radical

[rdikl]
adj, n ;
I was shocked by her radical views. 
.
radicals on the extreme left wing of the party 

raise

[reiz]
v ()
Many shops have raised their prices.
.
ant lower
random

[rndm]
adj
The gang picked their victims at random.
.

274

R
range in age / price /
join the ranks of .
make a rapid recovery
I like my steak rare. .
unemployment / crime rate / 

range

[reind]
n, v , ;
The drug is effective against a range of bacteria. 
.
There were 120 students whose ages ranged from 10 to 18.
120 (. )
10 18 .
rank

n, v, adj ; , 
; ,
During the war he had risen to the rank of major.
() .
We rank among the safest countries in the world. 
(. ) .
rank with weeds
[rk]

rapid

[rpid]
adj ,
The patient made a rapid recovery.
(. ).

rare

[re]
adj ,
It is very rare for her to miss a day at school.
.
ant common
rate

[reit]
n, v ; ; ()
They only pay tax at a rate of 5%.
5%.
The company seems to rate him very highly. ,
(. ).
275

R
Youd better ask her. Id rather not.
. .
make a rational decision
catch / touch sb on the raw .
Lets go and catch a few rays. 
.
within reach ,

rather

:
predeterm, adv , ; 
, ,
I was rather surprised to see him with his exwife.
, .
Id rathr have a quiet night in front of the TV.
.
[r]

rational

[rnl]
adj ,
Its impossible to have a rational conversation with him.
.
ant irrational

raw

:
adj, n , ; 
,
Cabbage can be eaten raw. .
He went on the streets to experience life in the raw.
, , .

[r
]

ray

[rei]
n
a treatment that offers a ray of hope for cancer sufferers ,

reach
:
[rt]
n, v ;
Keap chemicals out of the reach of children.
(. ) .
The kids have reached the age when they can care for themselves.
, .
276

R
react by doing sth .
Steady, ready, go! , , !
sbs worst fears were realized when .
, ...
bring up the rear ,
see no reason of sth / to do sth 
. / .

react

[rikt]
v , .
The government reacted by declaring all strikes illegal. 
.
ready

[redi]
adj, adv ;
Everythings packed, and were ready to leave. ,
.
They seemed to live on ready cooked meals. ,
(. ).

realize

[rilaiz]
v ;
It was only later that I realized my mistake.
.

rear

[ri]
n, v, adj ; ;
a garden at the rear of the house
Its a good place to rear young children.
, .
Knock at the rear entrance. .
syn raise
ant front
reason

:
[rzn]
n, v ;
Id like to know the reason why she didnt accept the job.
, .
They reasoned that other businesses would soon copy the idea.
, .
syn sense
277

R
good food at a reasonable price

As I recall,
in recent years / months / days / /

a wedding reception ()
a recognized authority on English poetry 

reasonable
[rznbl]

:
adj ,

Be reasonable you cant expect her to do all the work on her own!

(. ),
!
ant unreasonable

recall

:
[rik
l]
v ,
I dont recall seeing any cars parked outside. ,
 .

recent

:
[rsnt]
adj
The situation has improved in recent years. 
.

reception
[risepn]

The delegates gave him a warm reception.


.

recognize

[rekgnaiz]
v
I didnt recognize you in your uniform.
.

278

R
(strongly) recommend doing sth () 
.
recover conscience
keep recycling old ideas 

reduce sb to tears .
never to refer to sth .

recommend

[rekmnd]
v ,
I recommend that you get some professional advice.
.
recover

[rikv]
v
After a few days of fever, she began to recover.
.

recycle

[risaikl]
v ,
We take all our bottles to be recycled.
.
reduce

:
[ridj s]
v ()
Small business will need to reduce costs in order to survive.
, .
syn cut

refer

:
v (referred, referred, referring) 
, ,
He gave the speech without referring to his notes. ,
.
[rif]

279

R
reflect the mood of the times /

economic / political / educational reform /


/
a refreshing drink
refugee camps in Palestine
refuse to kiss sb .

reflect

[riflekt]
v ()
She could see her face reflected in the cars windshield. 
, .
reform

:
[rif
m]
v, n ;
plans to radically reform the tax system 

Reforms were made to revive the economy. 
.

refreshing

[rifrei]
adj ,
It made a refreshing change to talk to someone new.
.
refugee
:
[ refjd]
n
Refugees were streaming across the border. 
.
refuse

:, :c
[rifj z, refj s]
v, n ();
She asked him to leave, but he refused. ,
.
a refuse dump
syn turn down

280

R
regard sb as a friend .
regardless of age
a mountain / coastal / border region / 
/
register a birth / death / marriage 
/ /

regard

:
[rigd]
n, v ; ,
Ben had high regard for his old law professor. 
.
Paul seemed to regard sex as sinful and immoral. ,
.
syn consider

regardless

:
[rigdls]
adv
The law requires equal treatment for all, regardless of race, religion,
or sex. 
, .

region

:
[rdn]
n
Well make efforts to bring peace to the region. 
.
syn area

register

n, v ; , 

Have you signed the hotel register?


?
How many students have registered for English classes?
?
[redist]

281

R
with regret
on a regular basis ,
regulate traffic
reject the proposal
stressrelated illness ,

regret

[rigret]
v, n ;
I now regret leaving school so young. ,
.
I have no regrets about leaving.
.

regular

adj, n , ; 
,
Regular exercise helps keep your weight down. 
.
The barman knows all the regulars by name.
.
ant irregular
[regjl]

regulate

[regjleit]
v
People sweat to regulate their body heat. ,
.

reject

[ridekt]
v, n , ;
Kate rejected her brothers offer of help.
.
They felt that they were societys rejects.
.
ant accept
relate

[rileit]
v , ()
I dont understand how the two ideas relate. ,
.
syn connect
282

R
relatives and friends
relatively speaking
I need a drink to relax me. , 
.
release sb from sth . .
be relevant to the question

relative

[reltiv]
n, adj ;
Her boyfriend is a distant relative of mine.
.
You may think youre poor, but its all relative. 
, .
syn relation

relatively

[reltivli]
adv ,
Ecommerce is a relatively recent phenomenon. 
.

relax

[rilks]
v ,
Relax! Everythings fine. ! .
release
:
[rils]
v, n ;
Police arrested several men, who were later released. 
, .
Before release, the sea lions are fitted with electronic tracking devices.
(. 
), 
.
relevant

[relvnt]
adj
What experience do you have that is relevant to this position? 
, ,
?
ant irrelevant
283

R
breathe a sigh of relief
Football was a religion in my family.
.
rely heavily on this contract

remain silent
remark on sth .

relief
:
[rilf]
n
No one was hurt, and we all breathed a sigh of relief.
, .
religion

[rilidn]
n ,
The US Constitution promises freedom of religion.
(. ).
rely

[rilai]
v (relied, relying, relies)
I knew I could rely on David. ,
.

remain

[rimein]
v
We remained friends. .
syn stay
remark

:
n, v ; , 

He was fired for making racist remarks during an interview.


.
Anderson left the table, remarking that he had some work to do.
 , , 
.
syn comment

[rimk]

284

R
Please remember me to your wife. ,
.
remind sb of sth . .
live in a remote village
remove wine / blood stains /
rent an apartment

remember

[rimemb]
v
Do you remember Rosa Davies? ?
ant forget
remind
[rimaind]

The girls constantly had to be reminded about their chores. 


.

remote

[rimt]
adj, n ;
a remote border town

Give me the remote. .


syn isolated, distant

remove
:
[rim v]
v ; ;
Remove the old wall paper and fill any holes in the walls.
.
rent

v, n , ; 

Will you rent a car while youre in Spain?
, ?
I pay the rent at the beginning of every month.
.
syn hire
[rent]

285

R
make / carry out / do repairs
repeat a class / grade / year
replace sth with sth . .
make no reply /

repair

[ripe]
v, n ;
Dad was up the ladder, repairing the roof. 
, .
The church tower is in need of repair. 
.
syn mend
repeat

:
[ript]
v, n ;
We must not repeat the mistakes of the past. 
.
Is it a repeat? No, its a new series.
? , .

replace

[ripleis]
v ,
Lectures have replaced the old tutorial system.
.

reply

[riplai]
v, n (pl replies) ;
Has Robert replied to your letter yet?
?
Steven made no reply. (. 
).
syn answer

286

R
represent oneself ( 
)
a hotel with a good reputation for its food
,
at sbs request .
be required to do sth (.) .
scientific research

represent

[reprizent]
v ;
Mr Kobayashi was chosen to represent the company at the
conference. 
(. ) .
reputation

[repjtein]
n
Judge Smith has a reputation for being strict but fair. 
, .
request

[rikwest]
n, v ;
Smith repeated his request that we postpone the meeting.
, .
All club members are requested to attend the annual meeting.
.
require

[rikwai]
v
Most house plants require regular watering. 
.

research
:
[ris:t]
n, v ;
Im still doing research for my thesis. 
.
Hes been researching material for a documentary. 
.

287

R
She resembles her mother. .
reserve a room at a hotel
residents of Moscow ,
I just cant resist chocolate. 
.
resolve never to marry again 
/

resemble

[rizembl]
v ,
Its amazing how closely Brian and Steve resemble each other. 
, .

reserve

:
[riz:v]
v, n , ;
Id like to reserve a table for two.
.
Somehow Debbie maintained an inner reserve of strength. 
(. 
).

resident

n, adj ; ; 

the residents of London


Many retired British people are now resident in Spain. 
.
[residnt]

resist

[rizist]
v , .
She can never resist buying new shoes. 
.

resolve

[rizlv]
v, n ;
Jane was desperate for money. .
Recent events strengthened his resolve to find out the truth. 
.
syn solve
288

R
resort to doing sth .
natural resources
respect the law
respond by doing sth .
take on too much responsibility

resort
:
[riz
t]
n, v ; .
Aspen, a ski resort in Colorado ,

Officials fear that extremists may resort to violence.


, .
resource

:
[riz
s]
n, v ;
She had no financial resources. .
The program wasnt adequately resourced. 
.

respect

[rispekt]
n, v ;
I have the greatest respect for Janes work. 
.
She respected him for his honesty. .
ant disrespect

respond

[rispnd]
v ,
The US responded by sending trops into Laos. 
.
syn react

responsibility

[ris pnsbiliti]
n ,
Its your responsibility to inform us of any changes. 
.
syn duty
289

R
for the rest of sbs life
restaurant car 
restore an old building
restrict freedom of speech
with the result that ,

rest

[rest]
n, v ; ; ;
Hell be in a wheelchair for the rest of his life. 
.
If youre tired, well stop and rest for a while. ,
.
restaurant

[restrnt]
n
We went to a little Italian restaurant near Trafalgar Square.

.
restore
:
[rist
]
v
Vietnam restored diplomatic relations with South Korea on
December 22. 
22 .
restrict

[restrikt]
v
In future we will restrict class sizes to 20 students.
.

result

[rizlt]
n, v ; .
Accidents are the inevitable result of driving too fast. 
.
an accident that resulted in the death of two passengers ,

290

R
retain facts
Both my parents are retired now.
.
in return (for sth) ( .)
reveal a surprising fact
reverse roles / positions /

retain

[ritein]
n
The state wants to retain control of food imports. 
.

retire

[ritai]
v
Most people retire at 65.
65 .

return
:
[rit:n]
v, n ();
Alison decided to return home. .
Were all looking forward to your return.
.
syn go back, come back
reveal

:
[rivl]
v
The violinist revealed himself as a talented interpreter of classical
music. (. ) 
.
ant conceal

reverse

:
v, n, adj ; 
, ;
Our roles as child and guardian had now been reversed.
.
I didnt mean to insult her quite the reverse. 
.
The results were read out in reverse order. 
.
[riv:s]

291

R
carry out / conduct / undertake a review 
/
the French Revolution
a reward for hard work
complicated dance rhythms
go for a bike ride

review

:
[rivj ]
n, v ;
The bands new album has had very good reviews.
.
We will review your situation and decide how we can help you.
, .

revolution
:
[revl n]
n ;
the sexual revolution of the 1960s 60

reward

:
[riw
d]
n, v ;
The job is difficult, but the financial rewards are great.
, .
He gave the children some chocolate to reward them for behaving
well. ,
.

rhythm

[rim]
n ,
She started moving to the rhythm of music.
.

ride

v (rode, ridden), n ,
, ; 
,
He had never learned to ride a bicycle. 
.
He invited me to go for a ride in his new car.
(. ) .

[raid]

292

R
Dont be ridiculous! ! (. 
!)
have no right to do sth .
rigid rules
a diamond ring
a 20% rent rise 20%

ridiculous

[ridikjls]
adj ,
Id look ridiculous in a dress like that.
.

right

[rait]
adj, adv ; ;
He had a knife in his right hand. .
She was standing right in the middle of the room. 
.
syn correct
ant wrong; left
rigid

[ridid]
adj ,
I heard a noise and woke up rigid with terror.
, .
ant flexible

ring

[ri]
n, v (rang, rung) ;
He promised to buy me a diamond ring.
.
I was going to ring you but I dont have your number.
, .
syn call, phone
rise

n, v (rose, risen) , ;
, ()
We are expecting a sharp rise in interest rates. 
.
rise by 20% 20%
syn increase, go up
ant fall

[raiz]

293

R
run the risk of death
a religious ritual
remain bitter rivals
rob the bank of $... ...
scotch / vodka on the rocks /

risk

[risk]
n, v ;
Building work has a high risk of accident. 
.
When children start smoking, they dont realize that theyre risking
their health. , ,
.
syn danger
ritual

[ritl]
n, adj ;
He went through the ritual of lighting his cigar. 
.
The police issued the usual ritual apology. 
.

rival

[raivl]
n, v ;
He finished 29 seconds ahead of his main rival. 
29 .
syn competitor

rob

[rb]
v
They killed four policemen while robbing a bank. 
.
rock

[rk]
n, v , ; ()
During the storm a ship had been driven onto the rocks.
.
The waves rocked the boat from side to side.
.
syn shake
294

R
have / play a role in (doing) sth / .
be rolling in money
live under the same roof
theres room for improvement
have ones roots in .

role

[rl]
n
Costner only plays a minor role in the movie. 
.
syn part

roll

[rl]
v, n , ;
Pizza dough should be rolled thinly. 
.
wallpaper costing $3 a roll 3

roof
:
[r f]
n, v ; ()
I may not have a job, but at least Ive got a roof over my head.
, .
a cottage roofed with the local slate , 

room

:
n, v , ;

Someone was laughing in the next room. 


.
I roomed with Alex at Harvard.
.

[r m]

root
:
[r t]
n, v , ;
The love of money is the root of all evil.
.
She stood rooted to the spot, staring at him. ,
, .
295

R
I had a rough day. .
the shortest route to India
healthy daily routine
sit in the front row
the royal family

rough

[rf]
adj ,
Her hands were rough from hard work.
.
syn tough, approximate
ant gentle, smooth
route
:
[r t]
n, v , ;
the most diret route home
They had to route the goods through Germany. 
.
routine
::
[r tn]
n, adj ;
Johns departure had upset their daily routine. 
.
routine tasks such as washing up , 
,
row

[r]
n, v ;
The children were asked to stand in a row.
.
She rowed across the lake. .

royal

[ril]
adj
The royal family will visit Mexico next week.
.

296

R
rub shoulders with sb .
rude behaviour /
ruin sbs life .
unwritten / unspoken rule
a rumour spreads / goes around

rub

v (rubbed, rubbing), n ; 
,
I hurriedly rubbed myself dry. .
Give the table a good rub with a damp towel. 
.

[rb]

rude
:
[r d]
adj ,
I didnt mean to be rude, but I had to leave early.
, .
syn impolite
ant polite
ruin

:
[r in]
v, n , ;
All this muds going to ruin my shoes.
.
Drinking was the ruin of him. .

rule
:
[r l]
n, v ;
If you break the rules, it just spoils the whole game. 
, .
Alexander the Great ruled over a huge empire. 
.
rumour

:
[r m]
n, v , ; ( )
Rumour has it that Bills getting married again. ,
.
She was rumoured to be a millionaire. , 
.

297

R
run a big company
move to a small rural town 

rush hour

run

[rn]
v (ran, run), n ; ;
I ran down the stairs as fast as I could.
(. , ).
Many people dont care who runs the country.
, .
Sarah left the house at a run. .
rural

[rrl]
adj ,
Its very rural here, isnt it? , ?
ant urban

rush

[r]
v, n ;
Im not rushing into marriage again.
.
Dont worry, theres no rush. , .
syn hurry

298

S
sacrifice everything for love
safe sex
sail the Caribbean 

Saint Valentine
for the sake of the children

sacrifice

[skrifais]
n, v ;
The workforce were willing to make sacrifices in order to preserve
jobs. 
.
He sacrificed a promising career to look after his kids. 
.
safe

[seif]
adj, n , ;
Dont go near the edge it isnt safe.
(. ).
break / force a safe
ant dangerous
sail

[seil]
v, n ( );
She always wanted to sail across the world.
.
The following week the Queen Elizabeth set sail for Jamaica.
(. 
) .
saint

[seint]
n
His wife must have been a saint to put up with him for all those years.
, , :
.
sake

[seik]
n , , (.)
I hope hes told the truth for his own sake. , 
.
299

S
get a high salary
a for sale sign
the salt of the earth
at the same time ,
miles of golden sand

salary

n (pl salaries) ,
,
My annual salary is just under $48,000.
48 .
[slri]

sale

[seil]
n , ;
The use and sale of marijuana remains illegal. 
.
Mardsons department store is having a sale this week.
.
syn auction
salt
:
[s
lt]
n, v, adj ; ;
Could you pass the salt? ?
salted peanuts
salt pork
same

adj, pron, adv ,


; ;
He sits in the same chair every night.
.
K Things just wont be the same without Sam. 
(. ).
I have my pride, same as anybody else. 
, .
[seim]

sand

[snd]
n, v ,
I have sand in my shoe. .
sand a road / a street /
300

S
a communications satellite
satisfy ones curiosity
save time and trouble
on a global / international / world scale

can / could scarcely do sth .

satellite

[stilait]
n
This broadcast comes live via satellite from New York. 
.
satisfy

v (satisfied, satisfying, satisfies) 

A salad wont be enough to satisfy my appetite. 


, .

[stisfai]

save

[seiv]
v ;
She was determined to save her marriage. 
.
scale

[skeil]
n, v ;
There has been housing development on a massive scale since 1980.
1980 
.
Rescuers had to scale a 300m cliff to reach the injured climber.
, 
300 .
scarcely

[skesli]
adv ,
It was getting dark and she could scarcely see in front of her. 
, .
syn hardly

301

S
The noise scares the baby. .
scatter toys on the floor
at the scene
a getrichquick scheme
a great scholar

scare

[ske]
v, n ; ,
I dont scare easily, you know. , ,
.
You really gave us a scare! !
syn frighten

scatter

[skt]
v
The sound of gunfire made the crowd scatter in all directions.
.
scene
:
[sn]
n
The film contains some violent scenes. 
.
scheme
:
[skm]
n, v , ;
A classification scheme was hanging on the wall. 
.
She schemed to kill him with poison. .
syn program
scholar

[skl]
n
the great Dutch schlar Erasmus

302

S
scold sb for doing sth . .
Whats the score? ?
scream for help
search for the stolen car
Do be seated. . / , .

scold

[skld]
v ,
Her father scolded her for upsetting her mother.
, .
syn tell off
score
:
[sk
]
n, v ;
He had an IQ score of 120.  ( 
) 120.
Youll score points with your girlfriend if you send her roses.
, .
syn mark
scream
:
[skrm]
v, n , ; ,
She jumped to her feet, screaming in terror. ,
.
He fell back with a scream of terror and pain. ,
(. ) .
syn shriek
search
:
[s:t]
n, v ;
Rescuers were forced to abandon their search. 
.
Ive searched high and low for my glasses. 
.
seat
:
[st]
n, v , ;
I was in the back seat and Jo was driving. ,
.
The arena seats 60,000. 60 .
303

S
Its a secret. .
national security
plant pumpkin seeds
seek help from the police 

Bills leaving her? So it seems. ?


.

secret

:
adj, n , ; ,

The cookies are made to a secret recipe. 


.
Can you keep a secret? ?
syn secretive
[skrit]

security

[sikjriti]
n
We have been asked not to say anything for security reasons.
.
seed

:
n (pl seeds / seed), v , ;
;
Sow seeds one inch deep in the soil.
2,5 (. ).
Add 1 lime, seeded and sliced. ,
.

[sd]

seek
:
[sk]
v (sought, sought)
Attractive woman, 27, seeks male, 2535, for fun and friendship.
27 2535
.
syn look for
seem
:
[sm]
v
Doesnt it seem strange to you that? 
, ?
304

S
a seemingly impossible task 

seize the initiative
I seldom see him. .
select the best answer
a selfish attitude

seemingly
:
[smili]
adv ,
Alice was standing in the street, seemingly oblivious to the rain.
,  , .
syn apparently
seize
:
[sz]
v ,
When she saw his face, she was seized by fear.
, .
syn grab
seldom

[seldm]
adv
Kate has seldom seen him so angry.
.
select

[silekt]
v, adj , ;
He had hopes of being selected for the national team. ,
.
Honorary degrees are handed out to a select few. 
.
syn choose, pick; exclusive
selfish

[selfi]
adj
How can you be so selfish? 
?

305

S
be two / five / ten years sbs senior / /
.
the sensation of flying
come to ones senses
be sensitive to sth .
a death sentence

senior
:
[sni]
adj, n ,
H is also a diplomat, but senior to me. ,
.
Her husband was nine years her senior.
.
sensation

[sensein]
n , ;
Jim realized that he had no sensation in his legs. ,
(. ) .
sense

[sens]
n, v ; ;
Theres no sense in getting upset about it now. 
.
I could sense there was something wrong. : 
.
syn feeling
sensitive

[sensitiv]
adj
Older people tend to be very sensitive to cold. ,
, .
ant insensitive
sentence

n, v , ; 
,
She received an eightyear sentence.
.
He was sentenced to three years in prison.
.
[sentens]

306

S
separate gold from sand
a series of events /
Marry Frank? You cant be serious! ? 
?!
serve in the army / air force / navy / /

the emergency services

separate

,
[seprit, sepreit]
adj, v ;
My wife and I have separate bank accounts. 
.
Jill and Jake separated a year ago.
.

series
:
[sirz]
n (pl series) ; ,
You can watch a new comedy series this week. 
.
serious

[siris]
adj
Luckily, the damage was not serious. ,
.
serve

:
v , ; 

The waiter was serving another table. 


.

[s:v]

service
:
[s:vis]
n, v ; ;
Our aim is to provide the best service at the lowest price.
.
Im having the car serviced next week.
.

307

S
a diamond ring in a gold setting

Its settled then. Im leaving tomorrow. , . 
.
several years ago
severe penalties /
sewing machine

setting

[seti]
n ,
Cyprus is the perfect setting for a beach holiday. 
.
settle

v , (, 
)
They might be willing to settle out of court. ,
.
[setl]

several

pron, adj ; 
; ,
Have you read any of his books? Yes, several. 
?  / .
They shook hands and went their several ways.
(. ).
[sevrl]

severe

[sivi]
adj ,
Shes suffering from severe depression.
.
syn stern
sew

v (sewed, sewn / sewed) , 

Can you sew a patch on my jeans?


?
[s]

308

S
delicate shades of meaning
without / beyond a shadow of doubt
shake ones head
What a shame ... /
the shape of sbs nose / ear / lips / /

shade

[eid]
n, v ;
in the shade of a large oaktree
Shading her eyes, Ann scanned the horizon. ,
.
shadow

n, v, adj , ; 
;
The room was half in shadow. .
Detectives shadowed him for weeks.
.
Shadow Cabinet

[d]

shake

v (shook, shaken), n , 
; ,
Shake the bottle before you open it. 
, .
Give the bottle a good shake before use.
(. ).
syn tremble
[eik]

shame

[eim]
n, v , ; ,
Theres no shame in saying I dont know.
(. ) , .
It shames me to say it, but I lied. (. )
, .
shape

[eip]
n, v ;
get into shape before summer
Shape the dough into small balls. .
309

S
share a room with a friend / 
/
a sharp rise in prices
clean / blank sheet of paper
shelf life
find shelter from cold

share

[e]
v, n ;
I have an office that I share with some other teachers.
, .
I do my share of the housework.
.

sharp
:
[p]
adj, adv ;
Make sure you use a good sharp knife. ,
.
Were meeting at onethirty sharp. 
.
syn steep
ant blunt
sheet
:
[t]
n
Ill go and change the sheets. (. 
).
shelf

[elf]
n (pl shelves)
Put it back on the top shelf. .
shelter

[elt]
n, v , ;
They are in need of food and shelter. .
We sat in the shade, sheltering from the sun. ,
.

310

S
shift the blame (onto sb) .
rain or shine (. 
)
by ship
shoot a film
rocky / sandy shore /

shift

[ift]
v, n ();
She shifted her gaze from me to Dad.
.
I work shifts. .
shine

[ain]
v (shone, shone), n ; ,
Shine that torch over here, will you? , ?
Janes dark hair seemed to have lost its shine. ,
.
ship

n, v (shipped, shipping) , ;
,
supplies that came by ship ,
(. )
Both products are due to ship at the beginning of June.
.
[ip]

shoot
:
[ t]
v (shot, shot), n ; ,
Smith killed his wife, and then shot himself. ,
.
Tender green shoots will appear in April. 
.
shore
:
[
]
n, v , ;
a holiday resort on the shores of the Adriatic

The roof had been shored up with old timbers.
.
311

S
an acute shortage of manpower

a shoulder to cry on /
shout for help
shower sb with kisses . ( 
)
The shirt will shrink. Its pure cotton. .
.

shortage
:
[
td]
n ,
efforts to solve the housing shortage

shoulder

[ld]
n, v ;
She tapped the driver on the shoulder.
.
The residents are being asked to shoulder the costs of the repairs.
.
shout

[at]
v, n ;
Theres no need to shout! I can hear you! !
!
Tom gave a shout of laughter when he saw them. ,
(. ).
shower

[a]
n, v ; ,
Id like to take a shower if thats all right.
, .
Tom showered Ann with presents. .
shrink

v (shrank, shrunk) , 

The firms staff had shrunk to only four people. 


.
ant grow

[rik]

312

S
Shut your mouth! ! / !
be too shy to do sth .
side by side
give a sigh of relief
love at first sight

shut

v (shut, shut, shutting), adj ,


;
He shut himself in his room and wrote letters.
.
He sat with eyes shut. .
syn close; closed
[t]

shy

adj, v (shied, shying, shies) ;


( )
She was very shy with strangers.
.

[ai]

side

n, v , ; ,

Betty was lying on her side on the bed.


.
Frank sided with David against their mother.
.

[said]

sigh

[sai]
v, n ;
Frankie stared out of the window and sighed deeply. 
.
sight

[sait]
n, v ;
He began to lose his sight six years ago. 
.
The sailors gave a shout of joy when they sighted land.
, .
syn vision
313

S
a sign of spring /
be significant for sth .
Shall we go for a walk? Dont be silly, its dark.
? , .
be similar to each other
To put it simply, ,

sign

[sain]
n, v , ;
Crying is seen as a sign of weakness. 
.
He signed to the maid to leave the room.
.
syn indication; signal
significant

[signifiknt]
adj
Please inform us if there are any significant changes in your plans.
,  
.
ant insignificant
silly

[sili]
adj
I left my keys at home, which was a pretty silly thing to do. 
, .

similar
[simil]

adj ,

Both approaches seem to achieve similar results.

, 

.
ant different

simpl
[simpli]

adv ;

Its not simply a question of money. .


syn only
314

S
leave a sinking ship
Sir! You dropped your wallet. / !
.
a construction site for a new hotel

in a hopeless situation
play with skill

sink

[sik]
v (sank, sunk), n ;
The kids watched as the coin sank to the bottom of the pool.
, .
Dirty plates were piled high in the sink. 
.
ant float
sir
:
[s:]
n ,
Can I help you, sir? , / ?
site
[sait]

n, v , ; ,

He managed to get himself a job on a building site.


.
Some of this new housing has been sited in inner city areas.
.

situation

[ sitjein]
n ;
I explained the situation. .
syn location
skill
[skil]

n ,

Many jobs today require computer skills. 


.
315

S
rub / irritate your skin /
be a slave to / of sth .
Did he mind your smoking? Not in the slightest! 
, ? !
smart alec(k) ,

skin

n, v , ; ,

She had thick black hair and dark skin.
.
Add the tomatoes, skinned and sliced. , 
.
syn peel
[skin]

slave

n, v ; , 

a slave to fashion
Ive been slaving away at this report. .

[sleiv]

slight

adj, v, n , ;
;
a slight problem
Derek felt slighted when no one phoned him back. 
, .
She may take it as a slight on her ability as a mother.
.
ant big
[slait]

smart
:
[smt]
adj, v , ;
His decision to become a director was a smart move.
.
My eyes were smarting with the smoke.
.
syn clever
ant stupid
316

S
the smell of popcorn
smooth sth into / over sth . .
high society
the rich soil of the Nile River

US soldiers in Iraq

smell

n, v (smelled / smelt, smelled / smelt) 


;
Theres a delicious smell coming from the kitchen. 
.
My clothes smelt of smoke. .
[smel]

smooth
:
[sm ]
adj, v ;
Her skin felt smooth and cool.
.
She smoothed back her hair. .
ant rough
society

[ssaiti]
n
Children are the most vulnerable members of society. 
.
soil

[sil]
n, v , ; ()
The bush grows well in a sandy soil.
.
Keep your money I wouldnt soil my hands with it.
.
syn earth
soldier

[sld]
n, v ;
A British soldier was wounded in the fighting.
.
Well just have to soldier on without him. 
.
317

S
as solid as a rock
solve the problem
Somehow I feel lonely.  .
sophisticated computer technology

drown ones sorrows

solid

[slid]
adj, n , ;
Is the baby eating solid food (bread, meat etc) yet?
(, ..)?
the properties of liquids and solids

solve

[slv]
v
Charlie thinks money will solve all his problems. ,
.
somehow

adv ,  

Dont worry, well get the money back somehow. ,


.

[smha]

somewhat

[smwt]
adv
The price is somewhat higher than I expected. ,
.
sophisticated

[sfistikeitid]
adj ,
Linns hair was swept up into a sophisticated style.
.

sorrow

[sr]
n, v , ; ,
He expressed his sorrow at my fathers death. 
.
He was sorrowing over the loss of a child.
.
318

S
sort papers by date
There was not a soul there. .
That sounds true. .
a source of information
an open space

sort
:
[s
t]
n, v , ;
What sort of shampoo do you use?
?
The eggs are sorted according to size. .
syn type, kind
soul

[sl]
n
It was as if those grey eyes could see into the very depths of her soul.
, .
sound

[sand]
n, v ;
There were strange sounds coming from the next room.
.
It sounds to me as if he needs professional help. (.
), .
syn noise
source
:
[s
s]
n, v ; ,
Beans are a source of protein. .
Fish for the restaurant is sourced daily from British ports.
.
space

n, v ; ; 

Who was the first man in space? ?


They used three microphones spaced several yards apart. 
, 
.
[speis]

319

S
the average life span
Spare me a few minutes. .
specialize in Russian history 

many species of birds
be more specific about sth 
.

span

n, v , ; 
,
Over the span of five years, the company has made great progress.
.
The Mongol Empire spanned much of Central Asia.
@ .

[spn]

spare

adj, v, n , ;
(); (, ..)
Bring some spare clothes. .
Id like you to come over when you can spare an hour.
, , .
The batteries are dead. Have you got any spares? .
?

[spe]

specialize

[spelaiz]
v
Smith specializes in contract law. 
.

species

:
[spz]
n (pl species) ()
pandas and other endangered species , 

specific

[spsifik]
adj ;
Now we research a specific example of alcohols effect on the body.

.
320

S
a long dry spell
spend sth on sth . .
spill coffee on the keyboard
be in good spirits
split into two groups

spell

v, n (spelt / spelled, spelt / spelled) 


;
Youve spelled my name wrong. .
I fell under the spell of her charm. .

[spel]

spend

[spend]
v (spent, spent) ;
I cant afford to spend any more money this week. 
.
spill

v (spilt / spilled, spilt / spilled), n 


; ; ,
Oh no! Ive spilt coffee all down my shirt! !
!
the enormous oil spill off the southern tip of the Shetland Islands


[spil]

spirit

[spirit]
n, v , ; ,
Im 85, but I still feel young in spirit. 85 , 
.
After his speech, Jackson was spirited away through a back door.
.

split

v (split, split, splitting), n 


();
The party is split over the issue of immigration. 
.
The argument could lead to a damaging split in the party.
.

[split]

321

S
spoil / ruin ones appetite c
have a weak spot for chocolate 

spread the tablecloth


market square

spoil

v (spoiled / spoilt, spoiled / spoilt), n (pl


spoils) ;
I dont want to spoil your fun. .
the spoils of war / the chase /
syn ruin

[spil]

spot

n, v (spotted, spotted, spotting) ;


,
Why do they want to build a house on this particular spot?
?
Drug addicts are fairly easy to spot. 
.
[spt]

spread

v (spread, spread), n 
, ; ,
Fire quickly spread through the building.
.
an attempt to stop the spread of nuclear weapons 

[spred]

square

adj, n, v, adv ; ;
;
a large square room
First of all, draw a square. .
Some day Ill square up with you.  
.
Look him square in the eye and say no.
.
[skwe]

322

S
a stable environment
go down the stairs
I cant stand this heat. .
high standard of living
a blank stare

stable

adj, n (pl stables) ; 


, ,
He is said to be in a stable condition in hospital. ,
.
be out of the same stable
ant unstable

[steibl]

stairs

[stez]
n pl
We walked up four flights of stairs. 
.

stand

[stnd]
v (stood, stood), n ;
Dont just stand there help me! !
The shop was crowded with display stands and boxes.
.
standard

[stndd]
n, adj , ;
Students have to reach a certain standard or they wont pass. 
, 
.
Searching luggage at airports is now standard practice.
.
ant nonstandard

stare

v, n ;

She sat there staring into space. ,


.
She gave him a long hard stare. 
.
[ste]

323

S
startling results
You must be starving! , !
a state secret
sbs statements on sth . /
.
Statistics show

startle
:
[sttl]
v
Sorry, I didnt mean to startle you. , 
.
starve
:
[stv]
v ,
Theyll either die from the cold or starve to death.
.
state

[steit]
n, v ;
When we bought the house, it was in a terrible state.
, .
Please state your name and address. ,
.
statement

[steitmnt]
n
In an official statement, she formally announced her resignation.
.
statistics

[sttistiks]
n pl
Statistics show that 50% of new businesses fall in their first year.
, (. ) 50%
.

324

S
a bronze statue was erected in sbs honour 
.
the social status of women
Steady, ready, go! , , !
I like my steak welldone.
.
nerves of steel

statue

:
[sttj ]
n ,
A bronze statue was erected in his honour.
.

status

[steits]
n
What is your marital status? () ?

steady

adj, v , ; 

Keep the camera steady while you take a picture.
, .
[stedi]

He reached the car and steadied himself.


, .
syn stabilize
ant unsteady

steak
[steik]

n ,

How would you like your steak welldone or rare? 


?

steel

:
n, v , ; 
,
Sheffield is a major steel town. 
.
He steeled himself not to look away.
.

[stl]

325

S
stem from sth
racial / cultural stereotype /
stick to the rules
still water
stimulate sb to do sth .
.

stem

[stem]
n, v , ;
stem of a wineglass
The measures are meant to stem the decline in profits.
.
syn stalk
stereotype

n, v ; 
.
There are women who dont fit the stereotype of the good mother.
,
.
Homeless people are stereotyped as alcoholics or addicts. 
.
[steritaip]

stick

[stik]
v (stuck, stuck), n ;
Someone had stuck posters all over the walls. 
.
Aunt Liz walks with a stick. .
still

[stil]
adv, adj , ;
I still havent finished painting the spare room. 
.
Still waters run deep. (. 
).
stimulate

[stimjleit]
v
Her interest in art was stimulated by her father. 
.
326

S
the Tokyo stock market ()
be (un)able to stomach seafood () 

to have / suffer from stomachache
store information in a computer

a storm in a teacup

stock

[stk]
n, v ;
Im sorry, that swimsuit is completely out of stock in your size.
, .
Our fridge at college was always stocked with beer. 
.
stomach

[stmk]
n, v ;
You shouldnt take the pills on an empty stomach.
.
Larry found Janes attitude hard to stomach. 
.
syn endure

stomachache

[stmkeik]
n /
This stomachache will be the end of me!
!

store

:
n, v ; ; ; ,

At Christmas the stores stay open late.


.
Squirrels are storing nuts for the winter.
.

[st
]

storm

:
n, v , ; , 

Theres a storm brewing. .
Alan stormed out of the room. .

[st
m]

327

S
so the story goes /
keep a straight face / 

under (a) strain


be no stranger to sth .
develop overall strategy

story

[stri]
n (pl stories) ,
Dont be frightened its only a story.
.

straight

adv, adj ; ; , 

Ive got a meeting straight after lunch.


.
Id like a straight answer, please. 
.

[streit]

strain

n, v ; , 

Its quite a strain on me when hes drinking heavily.


, .
Youll strain your eyes trying to read in this light.
, .

[strein]

stranger

[streind]
n
Children must not talk to strangers. 
.

strategy

[strtdi]
n (pl strategies)
The company must first resolve questions of strategy.
.

328

S
a stream of traffic
strength and weakness
reduce / relieve stress /
stretch ones legs
in the strictest confidence

stream
:
[strm]
n, v ; ,
A steady stream of visitors came to the house.
(. ).
Water came streaming out of the burst pipe.
.
strength

[stre]
n
She didnt even have the strength to stand up.
.
ant weakness
stress

[stres]
n, v ;
Your headaches are due to stress.
.
She stressed the importance of a balanced diet.
.
stretch

v, n (); ,

Always stretch before exercising.
.
She rarely sleeps for eight hours at a stretch. 
.

[stret]

strict

[strikt]
adj ,
The Smiths are very strict with their children. 
.
ant lenient
329

S
strike home ,
striking contrast / similarity /

do a strip
die of a stroke

strike

v (struck, struck), n ; 

Several cars were struck by fallen trees.


.
Teachers went on strike last week to demand higher pay. 
, 
.

[straik]

striking

[straiki]
adj ,
a striking contrast between wealth and poverty 

strip

v (stripped, stripped, stripping), n 


, ;
Eric stood in the hot sun, stripped to the waist.
(. ).
a strip of sand between the cliffs and the sea

[strip]

stroke

[strk]
n, v , ; ,
I looked after my father after he had a stroke. 
, .
He lifted her face and stroked her hair from her eyes.
.

330

S
the structure of the brain
no signs of struggle
Has she got the stuff? ?
say stupid things
have style /

structure

[strkt]
n, v ;
A new management structure has been introduced.
.
The exhibition is structured around three topics. 
.
syn organize

struggle

[strgl]
v, n ; ,
Shes struggling to bring up a family alone. 
.
She spoke of her struggles with shyness.
.
stuff

[stf]
n, v ; ,
Ive got some sticky stuff on my shoe.
 .
She stuffed two more sweaters into her bag.
.
stupid

:
[stj pid]
adj
Whose stupid idea was this? ?
syn silly

style

[stail]
n, v ;
The rooms are furnished in a modern style.
.
These shoes have been styled for maximum comfort.
.
331

S
Lets change the subject. .
an illegal substance ( 
)
a substantial breakfast
He substituted for the worker who was ill. 
.
a subtle difference

subject
,
[sbdkt, sbdekt]
n, adj, v ; ;
Stop trying to change the subject!
!
All flights are subject to delay. (.
).
Police subjected him to hours of questioning.
.
substance

[sbstns]
n
Plutonium 238 is one of the most toxic substances. 238
.
substantial

[sbstnl]
adj ,
The document requires substantial changes. 
.
syn considerable
substitute
:
[sbstitj t]
n, v ;
The coach had to find a substitute for Tim. 
.
The recipe says you can substitute yoghurt for sour cream. 
, .
subtle

[stl]
adj ,
The dish had a subtle hint of ginger.
.
ant obvious
332

S
live in the suburbs of Moscow
a crowded subway station
succeed in doing sth .
be a big / huge / great success /

die very suddenly
suffer heavy damage

suburb
:
[sb:b]
n
Dont you get bored living out here in the suburbs?
?
subway

[sbwei]
n , ,
Boston has the oldest subway system in the US. 
.
syn underground; underpass
succeed
:
[sksd]
v ,
Scientists claim they have succeeded in finding a cure for cancer.
, .
success

[skses]
n
Whats the secret of your success? ?
ant failure

suddenly

[sdnli]
adv ,
Suddenly the eagle opened its wings.
.
suffer

[sf]
v ,
Im suffering from a bad back. .
ant benefit

333

S
sufficient to do sth .
suggest a new way
commit suicide by hanging 
/
suit all tastes
To sum up,

sufficient

[sfint]
adj
The recipe is sufficient for six people.
(. ).
syn enough
ant insufficient
suggest

[sdest]
v ;
She wrote to me and suggested a meeting.
.
suicide
:
[sj said]
n ,
More people commit suicide at Christmas than at any other time.
.
suit
:
[sj t]
n, v ;
She was wearing a black trouser suit.
.
Theres a range of restaurants to suit all needs.
, .
sum

n, v ; , 

Bill wants to spend a large sum of money on modernizing the farm.



.
To sum up, for a healthy heart you must take regular exercise and
stop smoking. (. ), 
, .
[sm]

334

S
Your computer is far superior to mine. 
.
a foolish superstition
gas / electricity supply  /
support sb by doing sth . .
be supposed to do sth , .
.

superior

:
adj, n ; ;

He loves making fun of women. It makes him feel superior. 


. 
.
He had a good working relationship with his immediate superior.
.
ant inferior
[s piri]

superstition
:
[ s pstin]
n ,
the old superstition that walking under a ladder is unlucky
,
supply

n (pl supplies), v (supplied, supplies,


supplying) ;
nations fuel supplies
supplying drugs

[splai]

support

:
v, n , ; 

She supports her family by teaching evening classes. 


, .
He has given us a lot of support in our campaign.
.
[sp
t]

suppose

[spz]
v ,
I suppose youre right. , .
syn guess, presume
335

S
Are you quite sure? ?
begin to surface in the press
be surprised at the news
be surrounded by sb / sth . / .
according to the survey

sure

[]
adj, adv ;
Im not sure if Im pronouncing this correctly. ,
.
Can you give me a ride to work tomorrow? Sure. 
? .
syn certain; certainly
ant unsure
surface
:
[s:fs]
n, v ;
Nearly 10 percent of the Earths surface is covered by ice.
10 .
Rumours about the killings have begun to surface in the press.
.
surprised

[spraizd]
adj
She was surprisd that no one was there to greet her.
, .
surround

[srand]
v, n ;
Hes always been surrounded by people who adore him.
, .
a solid mahogany fire surround

survey
:
[s:vei]
n, v , ;
The survey showed that Britains trees are in good health.
, .
They got out of the car to survey the damage. 
.
336

S
survive in the jungle
suspect sb of doing sth . .
energy to sustain life
swallow ones pride /
in a cold sweat

survive

[svaiv]
v ,
I dont know how you all manage to survive on Johns salary.
, .

suspect

,
v, n, adj ; ;

The position of the body led the police to suspect murder. 


.
Police have issued a description of the murder suspect.
.
hold sb suspect . (. 
)
[sspekt, sspekt]

sustain

[sstein]
v
She found it difficult to sustain the childrens interest.
.
syn maintain
swallow

[swl]
v, n ;
He swallowed the last of his coffee and asked for the bill. 
.
He downed his rum in one swallow. .

sweat

[swet]
v, n ;
I was sweating a lot despite the airconditioning. 
, .
Dave came off the tennis court dripping with sweat.
, .
syn perspire; perspiration
337

S
sweep the floor
a symbol of national pride
Our sympathies are with / 
.
Common symptoms of diabetes are weight loss and fatigue.

.

sweep

:
v (swept, swept), n ; 

Will you sweep the leaves off the patio?


?
The kitchen needs a good sweep. 
(. ).
syn brush

[swp]

symbol

[simbl]
n
The dove is a symbol of peace. .
sympathy

n (pl sympathies) , 

I have absolutely no sympathy for students who get caught cheating


at exams. 
, .

[simpi]

symptom

[simptm]
n
Common symptoms of diabetes are obesity and fatigue.

.

338

T
be on sbs tail .
tell tales ,
a man / woman of many talents / 

cold / hot tap /
not an easy / no easy task /  

tail

[teil]
n, v ;
The dog wagged its tail. .
The police have been tailing him for several months. 
.
tale

[teil]
n ,
He was in the middle of telling me a long tale about how he once met
the Smiths manager. ,
.
talent

[tlnt]
n
Sadly, he inherited none of his fathers musical talent. 
, .
tap

[tp]
n, v (tapped, tapping) ;
She went into the bathroom and turned on the taps.
.
He turned as someone tapped him on the shoulder.  
, .
syn faucet
task
:
[tsk]
n ,
Sara had the task of preparing the agenda for meetings.
.
syn job
339

T
have a sweet / salty taste /
rate of tax
be torn between love and duty 

a great player, with brilliant technique 

advances in technology

taste

[teist]
n, v ;
The medicine had a slightly bitter taste.
.
This yoghurt tastes of plums. .
syn flavour
tax

[tks]
n, v ;
He already pays 40% tax on his income. 40%
.
Cigarettes are heavily taxed in Britain. 
.
tear

[ti]
n, v (tore, torn) ;
The children were all in tears. .
She realized she had torn her jacket on a nail. ,
.

technique
:
[teknk]
n ,
Hes a great player, with brilliant technique.
.
There are various techniques for dealing with industrial pollution.

.
technology

[teknldi]
n ,
Many people are unwilling to embrace new technologies.
.
340

T
teenager=teen; be in ones teens ; 

keep / lose ones temper / 

at a temperature of 100 degrees 100 

an ancient Greek temple


temporary loss of memory

teenager

:
[tneid]
n ,
a TV sex education series aimed at teenagers
,

temper

[temp]
n, v , ;
Kate needs to learn to control her temper.
.
The heat in this coastal town is tempered by cool sea breezes.

.

temperature

[temprit]
n
Liz has a temperature and has gone to bed. 
, .

temple

[templ]
n
She started going grey round the temples. 
.
temporary

[temprri]
adj
Im living with my parents, but its only temporary. 
, .
ant permanent

341

T
tend to do sth .
reduce / relieve / ease tension
longterm planning
terminal cancer ,
Youre making a terrible mistake. 
.

tend

[tend]
v /
My car tends to overheat in the summer. 
.
tension

[tenn]
n
Exercise is the ideal way to relieve tension after a hard day. 
.

term
[t:m]

:
n, v c; ;

Many legal terms have more than one meaning.


.
This condition is sometimes termed repetitive strain injury.
.

terminal

:
adj, n , ; 

The once great industry is now in terminal decline. 


.
the airports passenger terminal 

[t:minl]

terrible
[terbl]

adj ,

Their son had been injured in a terrible accident.


.
syn horrible, awful

342

T
mark ones territory
theatregoer
variations on the same theme

the theory of relativity


The car is small and therefore cheap.
.

territory

[teritri]
n (pl territories)
Hong Kong became Chinese territory in 1997. 1997 .
.

theatre

[it]
n
Hes really interested in literature and the theatre.
.
theme
:
[m]
n
The books theme is the conflict between love and duty. 
.
theory

[iri]
n
Freudian theory has had a great influence on psychology.
.
therefore
[ef
]

:
adv

Their car was bigger and therefore more comfortable. 


, , .

343

T
walk on thin ice
All things considered,
thoroughly cooked meat / 

threaten to do sth .
be thrilled to see / hear / learn sth 
/ / .

thin

[in]
adj ,
The road was covered with a thin layer of ice. 
.
ant thick, fat
things

[iz]
n pl
How are things with you, Sarah? , ?
syn stuff
thoroughly

[rli]
adv ,
She sat feeling thoroughly miserable. ,
.
threaten

[retn]
v ,
Postal workers are threatening a strike if they dont receive a pay
increase. ,
.
thrilled

[rild]
adj ,
We were so thrilled to hear about the baby. 
, , .

344

T
I have a sore throat. .
spread rapidly throughout Europe 

throw a party /
be under sbs thumb .
a face like thunder

throat

[rt]
n
She fingered the pearls at her throat. 
(. ).
throughout

:
[r at]
prep, adv , ;
F The disease spread rapidly throughout Europe.
.
We are open every weekend throughout the year.
.

throw

v (threw, thrown), n ;
;
Throw me that towel, would you. , 
.
That was a great throw! !

[r]

thumb

n, v ();

a baby sucking its thumb ,
I thumbed a lift into town. .

[m]

thunder

[nd]
n, v ;
We could hear the rumble of distant thunder. 
.
Huge lorries thundered past us. 
.

345

T
thus far ,
swim against the tide
tight jeans /
feel a tiny bit sad
be tired of doing sth .

thus

[s]
adv
They diluted the drug, thus reducing its effectiveness. 
, .
tide

n, v ; 

Is the tide going out or coming in? ?


Could you lend me $20 to tide me over till next week?
20 ?
[taid]

tight

[tait]
adj, adv , ;
My shoes were so tight that I could hardly walk.
(. ), .
Hold tight to the handrail! !
ant loose

tiny

[taini]
adj ,
a tiny community in the Midwest

tired

[taid]
adj
He was too tired to argue. (.
), .

346

T
from head to toe
weigh a ton
slip of the tongue
have a sweet tooth
get in touch with sb ., 
.

toe

[t]
n
He stubbed his toe on a rock. .

ton
[tn]

n (pl tons / ton) , ,

Ive got tons of work to do. .

tongue

[t]
n
The girl scowled at me, then stuck out her tongue. 
, .
tooth
:
[t ]
n (pl teeth)
Last time I went to the dentist I had to have two teeth out. 
, , .
touch

[tt]
v, n , ;
If your house has been burgled, you shouldnt touch anything until
the police arrive. ,
.
She remembered the touch of his fingers on her face.

347

T
a tough area /
tourist agency ,
disappear / vanish without a trace
stop (dead) in ones tracks
jackofalltrades ,

tough

[tf]
adj, adv , ;
Its tough being married to a cop.
.
Washington played tough in the second half of the game. 
.
tourist

[trist]
n
The Statue of Liberty is a major tourist attraction. 

.

trace

[treis]
v, n , ; ,
She had given up all hope of tracing her missing daughter. 
.
Officers were unable to find any trace of drugs.
 .
track

[trk]
n, v ; ,
We followed the tyre tracks across a muddy field.
.
Police have been tracking the four criminals all over the country.
.
trade

[treid]
n, v ; ;
My grandfather was a plumber by trade. 
.
India began trading with Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. 
XVXVI .
syn commerce
348

T
by / according to tradition
drugs traffic
make a tragedy out of sth .
personality / character traits
transfer $500 to ones checking account 500 

tradition

[trdin]
n
The university has a long tradition of supporting the arts. 
.

traffic

[trfik]
n
The traffic noise kept me awake. 
.
tragedy

[trddi]
n (pl tragedies) ,
Tragedy struck the family when their twoyearold son was killed in
an accident. ,
.
trait

[treit]
n ()
a mental illness associated with particular personality traits 
, 

transfer

:, :
v (transferred, transferring), n 
;
Theyre transferring him to a special unit at Great Ormond Street
Hospital.
.
Penny has applied for a transfer to head office. 
.
[trnsf:, trnsf:]

349

T
transform beyond recognition () 

translate a novel into Russian

sexually transmitted disease , 



a bone marrow transplant
means / mode / form of transport

transform
:
[trnsf
m]
v ,
The movie transformed her almost overnight from an unknown
schoolgirl into a megastar. ,
.
translate

[trnsleit]
v
Translate the text from Russian into English.
.

transmit

[trnzmit]
v ,
The US Open will be transmitted live via satellite.  
.

transplant

:, :
v, n , 
; ,
Pine trees transplant badly. (.
).
heart transplant surgery
[trnsplnt, trnsplnt]

transport

:, :
n, v ; 
,
Its easier to get to the college if you have your own transport.
(. ),
.
The statue was transported to London.
.
[trnsp
t, trnsp
t]

350

T
fall into a trap
travel by train / car / air / 
/
My wife is a real treasure. .
treat sb like a child .
a tremendous amount of money

trap

n, v , ; , 

Police had set up a trap for hooligans at the match. 
, .
Theres no way out! Were trapped! ! !

[trp]

travel

v (travel(l)ed, travel(l)ing), n 
, ;
Someday Id like to travel abroad.  
.
We went by bus the cheapest means of travel.
.

[trvl]

treasure

[tre]
n, v , ;
My wife is a real treasure. .
Jim treasured the gold watch that his grandfather had given him.
, .
treat

:
v, n o; ; , 
,
She treats me like one of the family.
.
When we were kids, a trip to the beach was a real treat.
, .

[trt]

tremendous

[trmends]
adj ,
She was making a tremendous effort to appear calm.
, .
351

T
current / present / latest trend / /

bring sb to trial .
the eternal triangle
the twelve tribes of Israel (.) 

a trick question ,

trend

[trend]
n
Lately there has been a trend towards hiring younger, cheaper
employees.
.
trial

n, v (trialled, trialling) , 
; , 

Nick was on trial for assault. .


These techniques were trialled by teachers in 300 schools.
300 .
[trail]

triangle

[traigl]
n
rightangled / acute / obtuse triangle / 
/
tribe

[traib]
n
a tribe of Aborigines known as the Dolphin People 
, 
trick

[trik]
n, v , ; ,
He didnt really lose his wallet thats just a trick.
.
She knew shed been tricked, but it was too late. ,
, .

352

T
tropical fruit / diseases /
trouble sb with sth . .
show ones true self
trust ones instincts
to tell (you) the truth /

tropical

[trpikl]
adj , ()
the tropical rain forests
trouble

n, v ; ; 

Were having a lot of trouble with the new computer system.


.
Theres one thing thats been troubling me. 
, .
syn bother

[trbl]

true
:
[tr ]
adj ,
No, honestly, its a true story. , , 
.
ant false
trust

[trst]
n, v ; , ;
At first there was a lack of trust between them.
.
Can they be trusted to look after the house?
?
ant distrust, mistrust
truth
:
[tr ]
n ,
How do we know youre telling the truth? ,
?
ant lie
353

T
try sbs patience .
be tuned to sth .
Now its your turn. .
twist sbs words / .
it is typical of sb to do sth . / 
.

try

v (tried, tried, trying, tries), n (pl tries)


; ;
Would you like to try some biscuits? 
?
She didnt manage to break the record, but it was a good try.
, .
syn taste
[trai]

tune
:
[tj n]
n, v , ;
She was humming a tune. .
Someones coming tomorrow to tune the piano.
.
syn melody
turn

:
v, n (); ;
,
Roses hair was turning grey. .
My career had already taken a new turn. 
.
[t:n]

twist

[twist]
v, n ; ,
He twisted his head slightly, and looked up at her. 
.
By an amazing twist of fate, we met again five years later. 
.

typical

[tipikl]
adj ,
This painting is typical of his work.
.
354

U
as ugly as sin
Our ultimate destination is 

unavoidable mistakes
underestimate the importance / extent / effect / power of sth
/ / / .
undergo treatment / surgery / an operation 
/ /

ugly

adj , , 

ugly duckling
syn hideous
ant beautiful

[gli]

ultimate

[ltimt]
adj ,
Complete disarmament was the ultimate goal of the conference.
.
syn final
unavoidable

[ nvidbl]
adj
There are now fears that war is unavoidable. ,
.

underestimate

[ ndrestimeit]
v
We underestimated how long it would take to get there. 
, .
ant overestimate
undergo

v (underwent, undergone) ,
,
The country has undergone massive changes recently.
.
[ ndg]

355

U
undergraduate course / student /
political ideas which underlay the 1917 revolution 
, 1917
underlying cause / principle / problem
/ /
undertake a task / a project / research 
/ /
mounds that undoubtedly contain human bones , ,
,

undergraduate

[ ndgrdjt]
n
an undergraduate at Oxford 

underlie

v (underlay, underlain)
.
the one basic principle that underlies all of partys policies
,
[ ndlai]

underlying

adj , 
,
There is an underlying assumption that younger workers are easier
to train. (. ),
.
[ ndlaii]

undertake

v (undertook, undertaken)
,
He undertook to pay the money back in six months.
.
[ ndteik]

undoubtedly
[ndatidli]

adv

Undoubtedly, public interest in folk music has declined. 


, .

356

U
unemployment benefit
As the story unfolds,
an unfortunate choice of words
Unfortunately, he didnt come. , 
.
unify the nation

unemployment

[ nimplimnt]
n
The level of unemployment is rising. 
.

unfold

[nfld]
v
He had watched the drama unfold from a nearby ship.
, , 
.

unfortunate

:
adj , , 

Its most unfortunate that your father cant come to the wedding.
(. ),
.
[nf
tnit]

unfortunately

:
[nf
tnitli]
adv
Unfortunately, you were out when we called. ,
, .
ant fortunately, luckily

unify
:
[j nifai]
v ,
His music unifies traditional and modern themes. 
.
syn unite

357

U
trade union
a unique opportunity to do sth
.
hundreds, tens, and units ,
unite to do sth , .
universal time ,

union
:
[j nin]
n
Are you planning to join the union?
?
unique

::
adj , ,

Each persons fingertips are unique. 
.
[j nk]

unit
:
[j nit]
n ,
The man is in the hospitals intensive care unit.
, .
unite

:
[j nait]
v ()
Our goal is to unite the opposition parties. 
.

universal
[j niv:sl]

::
adj ,

a topic of universal interest , (. 


)

358

U
be the centre of sbs universe . 

go to university
Will you go with her? Not unless she wants me to.
? .
Unlike my wife, I get up early. ,
.
the upper class

universe
[j niv:s]

::
n ,

a parallel / an alternative universe / 


university

::
[ j niv:siti]
n
He studied Physics at university. .

unless

[nles]
conj ,
H He wont go to sleep unless you tell him a story.
, .
unlike

[nlaik]
prep
F Unlike most people in the office, I dont come to work by car.
, .
upper
[p]

adj

There is an upper age limit for becoming a pilot.


, .
ant lower

359

U
be upset with sth .
Would you like to see the upstairs?
/ ?
keep / bring uptodate
urban life ,
urge sb to do sth . .

upset

adj, v, n ; ;

Debbie was upset that he didnt spend more time with her.
, .
He upset a bowl of soup. .
stomach upset

[pset]

upstairs

[pstez]
adv , ( )
I went upstairs and had a shower. .
ant downstairs

uptodate

[ ptdeit]
adj
They have access to uptodate information through a computer
database. 
.

urban
:
[:bn]
adj
unemployment in urban areas
ant rural
urge
:
[:d]
v, n ; ,
He urged that a referendum should be held by December. 
, .
He could no longer resist the urge to go and see Amanda.
.
syn desire
360

U
in case of urgency
an urgent message
water / gas / electricity usage / /
/
utter destruction
clear utterance

urgency
:
[:dnsi]
n ,
a matter of great urgency
urgent
:
[:dnt]
adj ,
The report called for urgent action to reduce lead in petrol. 

.
usage

:
n , ,

a book on modern English usage 


[j zid]

utter

adj, v , ; 

Thats utter nonsense! !


Phil nodded without uttering a word. ,
.

[t]

utterance

[trns]
n
Politicians are judged by their public utterances. 
.

361

V
make a vain effort
valley of tears ( )
leave ones valuables in the hotel safe

vanish from sight
vanity table

vain
[vein]

adj , ,

Police searched in vain for the missing gunman. 


.

valley

[vli]
n
The San Fernando Valley is picturesque all year round. 
.

valuable

[vljbl]
adj
Their most valuable belongings were locked in a safe in the bedroom.
.
ant worthless

value

:
[vlj ]
n, v , ;
His research has been of little practical value.
.

vanish

[vni]
v ,
My keys were here a minute ago but now theyve vanished without
a trace. ,
.
syn disappear

vanity

[vniti]
n
She has none of the vanity so often associated with beautiful women.
,
.
362

V
variations on the theme of love
varied in colour
give / add / bring variety (to sth)
.
for various reasons
vary from country to country

variation

[ veriein]
n
French bread is really just a variation of white bread.
.
varied

[verid]
adj
A good teacher is aware of the extremely varied needs of each student.

.

variety

[vraiti]
n
I really like the variety the store has offer.
.
various

[veris]
adj
There are various ways to answer your question.
.

vary

[veri]
v ()
What do you wear when you go out? Well, it varies.
, ? , (.
).
syn differ

363

V
the vast land of Russia
space vehicle
a joint venture with Taiwan 

the latest version of the car 

the very man I was looking for , 


vast
[vst]

:
adj ,

The refugees come across the border in vast numbers.


.
syn huge

vehicle
[vikl]

:
n ,

Have you locked your vehicle? ?

venture

[vent]
n, v ; ,
business / commercial / joint venture / /

I ventured to ask him what he was reading.


, .

version

:
[v:n]
n ,
I think I preferred the television version. , 
.

very

[veri]
adv, adj ;
The fishing industry is very important to the area. 
.
He died in this very room. .

364

V
vessel in distress
Vice President 
innocent victims
lead sb to victory .
an exchage of views

vessel
[vesl]

n ,

a fishing vessel

vice

[vais]
n ,
Smoking is my only vice. 
.
ant virtue

victim

[viktim]
n
He was the victim of an administrative error. 
.

victory

[viktri]
n
It was a surprisingly easy victory.
.
ant defeat

view

:
n, v , ; 
,
Whats your view on the subject?
?
The local people viewed newcomers with suspicion. 
.
syn opinion

[vj ]

365

V
from an ecological viewpoint
domestic violence
violent death
virtual rulers of the country 

virtually every woman

viewpoint

:
[vj pint]
n
Try and think of it from the childs viewpoint. 
.

violence

[vailns]
n
There is too much sex and violence on TV these days.
.

violent
[vailnt]

adj

My father was a violent and dangerous man. 


.
syn aggressive

virtual
[v:tl]

:
adj ,

The website allows you to take a virtual tour of the art gallery.


.

virtually

:
[v:tli]
adv ,
Virtually all the children come to school by bus.
.
syn practically

366

V
symbol of virtue
a virtuous wife
virus disease
make visible progress
children born with poor vision

virtue

::
[v:t ]
n ,
Among her many virtues are loyalty, courage and truthfulness. 
, 
.
ant vice

virtuous

:
[v:ts]
adj
She considered herself very virtuous because she neither drank nor
smoked. ,
.
ant wicked

virus
[vairs]

children infected with the Aids virus

, 

visible

[vizbl]
adj ,
The comet is visible to the naked eye. 
.
ant invisible

vision

[vin]
n
Tears blurred her vision. (. 
).
syn sight
367

V
visual aid
be vital to / for .
vivid imagination
a vocabulary of 3,000 words 3000
raise / lower ones voice / (.
/ )

visual

[vil]
adj ,
The tall tower adds to the visual impact of the building.
.

vital

[vaitl]
adj ,
These measures are vital to national security.
.
syn crucial

vivid

[vivid]
adj ,
Ive got vivid memories of that summer.
.
ant vague

vocabulary

[vkbjlri]
n
Reading is one of the best ways of improving your vocabulary. 
.

voice

[vis]
n
He recognized her voice instantly. .

368

V
a 10,000volume library 10 000 /
voluntary organization / association / agency 
/ / /

a hospital volunteer
get 20% of the vote 20%
the first voyage of Columbus

volume

:
[vlj m]
n ,
Can you turn the volume up? ?

voluntary

adj , ,

She does a lot of voluntary work for the Red Cross.


.
ant involuntary
[vlntri]

volunteer

[ vlnti]
n, v ; ,
I need some volunteers to help with the washingup.
.
Helen volunteered to have Thanksgiving at her house this year. 

.
vote

[vt]
v, n ; ,
Ive voted Democrat all my life.
.
There will be a citywide vote on the matter.
.

voyage

[viid]
n ()
The voyage from England to India used to take six months. 
.
369

W
work for low wages
wake up early
go up the wall (.)
in ones wallet
wander around the streets

wage
[weid]

He earns a good wage. .

wake

v (woke, woken) ; 

Try not to wake the baby. .


[weik]

wall
:
[w
l]
n ,
We climbed over the wall into the orchard.
.
wallet

[wlit]
n
He took a credit card out of his wallet. 
.
wander
[wnd]

Ill wander around the mall for half an hour. 


.

370

W
be at war with sb .
warn sb about sth . .
without (any) warning
industrial waste
wave sb goodbye / wave goodbye to sth
. / .

war
:
[w
]
n
He served as a pilot during the war.
.
warn
:
[w
n]
v ,
I warned you not to go home alone.
.
warning
[w
ni]

:
n

Without warning, the soldiers started firing into the crowd.

waste

n, v, adj , ; 
;
We should never have gone it was a total waste of time.
.
Dont waste your money on that junk!
!
waste life
[weist]

wave

[weiv]
n, v ;
There was a wave of public sympathy for her when she died.
, .
Eric waved at us and we waved back. ,
.
371

W
Come this way, please. , .
weak heart / lungs /
the presidents position has weakened 

a wealth of information /
the wealthy ,

way

[wei]
n ;
Which is the quickest way to the sea from here?
?

weak

:
[wk]
adj
Nina was weak with hunger. (. )
.
syn faint
ant strong

weaken

:
[wkn]
v
Liz was weakened by her long illness. 
.
ant strengthen

wealth

[wel]
n
The countrys wealth comes from its oil.
.

wealthy
[weli]

adj

He left as a poor, working class boy and returned as a wealthy man.


, 
.
syn rich
ant poor

372

W
a laser weapon
wear thin
Whats the weather like? ?
handwoven scarf
a web of lies / intrigue / deceit / /

weapon

[wepn]
n ,
The police are still looking for the murder weapon.
.

wear

v (wore, worn), n (); 


; ;
Usually I wear black, grey, or brown. ,
.
[we]

evening / casual / leisure wear / /


weather

n, v ; ; 
,
Whats the weather like today? ?
weather a storm / a financial crisis / 

[we]

weave

:
[wv]
v (wove, woven) ,
Only a few of the women still weave. 
/ .

web
[web]

n ;

He watched a spider spinning its web. , 


.

373

W
What do you weigh? ? / ?
watch your weight
on welfare
wet oneself @
at / behind the wheel

weigh
[wei]

Do you know how much it weighs?

, ?

weight

[weit]
n
Fruit and vegetables are sold by weight.
.

welfare

[welfe]
n ,
Our only concern is the childrens welfare.
.
syn benefit

wet

dj, v, n , ; ,
;
Take an umbrella or youll get wet. , .
Wet your hair and apply the shampoo. 
.
The path is steep and dangerous in the wet. , 
.
ant dry
[wet]

wheel

:
n, v ; ; ,

The driver must have fallen asleep at the wheel. , 


.
Kate wheeled her bike into the garage. 
.
[wl]

374

W
be uncertain whether to stay or leave , 

whisper in sbs ear .
The whole thing just makes me sick.
.
wholly incompetent
wide open / awake /

whether

[we]
conj
H I didnt know whether to believe him or not. ,
.

whisper

[wisp]
v, n ;
What are you two whispering about over there?
?
Where are you going? she asked in a whisper. ?
.

whole

[hl]
adj, n , ;
You have your whole life ahead of you! !
On the whole, I thought the film was pretty good. 
, .
syn entire
wholly

[hlli]
adv , ,
wholly incompetent
wide

[waid]
adj, adv ;
As he ran toward me, his face broke into a wide grin.
, .
Someone left the back door wide open. 
.
syn broad
ant narrow
375

W
travel widely in the Far East

widen a discussion
widespread use of drugs 

I swam 10 widths. 10 .
exwife / former wife

widely

[waidli]
adv , ,
Organic food is now widely available. /
.

widen

[waidn]
v ()
Theyre widening the road. .
syn broaden
ant narrow

widespread

adj (),

The storm caused widespread damage. 


.
[waidspred]

width

[wid]
n
Whats the width of the desk? ?
syn breadth

wife
[waif]

n (pl wives)

Have you met my wife? ?

376

W
go wild ,
against sbs will .
Im willing to help you. .
willingly do sth .
win a prize ,

wild

adj, adv, n ; ; ,

wild horse / dog / pig etc / / ..
They allow their children to run wild.
(. ).
There are very few pandas living in the wild now. 
.
ant tame
[waild]

will

[wil]
mod v
A meeting will be held next Tuesday at 3 p.m. 
15:00.

willing

[wili]
adj , ,
I told them I was perfectly willing to help. ,
.

willingly

[wilili]
adv ,
Sixty percent of voters said they would willingly pay higher taxes for
better health care. 60% , 
.

win

v (won, won), n , 
;
Who do you think will win the next election? ,
?
In the under16 event England had their first win over Germany.

.
ant lose
[win]

377

W
take sb under ones wing .
wipe ones eyes / nose /
question / doubt the wisdom of (doing) sth
.
Im older and wiser now. .
I wish I could fly. , . /
.

wing

[wi]
n, v ;
The eagle flapped its wings vigorously.
.
A flock of geese is winging towards the south.
.

wipe

[waip]
v, n ; ,
Wipe the table with a damp cloth. .
a pack of babys wipes

wisdom

[wizdm]
n
You can always expect a few words of wisdom from Dave.
 (. 
).

wise

[waiz]
adj ,
I think you were wise to leave when you did. ,
, .
syn sensible
ant unwise

wish

[wi]
v , ;
If you wish to discuss this matter further please do not hesitate to
contact me. , 
, .
She had expressed a wish to see the children. 
.
syn like
378

W
withdraw from the European Union 

the Russian withdrawal from Afghanistan

within sight / earshot (of sth) / 

be witness to sth .
do / work wonders

withdraw

:
v (withdrew, withdrawn) , 
,
Parents have the right to withdraw their children from religious
education.
.
[widr
]

withdrawal

:
[widr
l]
n
the withdrawal of UN forces from the region

within

[wiin]
prep, adv ; ,
F We should have the test results within 24 hours. 
.

witness

n, v , ; 
,
One witness to the accident said the driver appeared to be drunk.
, , , .
Several residents claim to have witnessed the attack.
, .
[witnis]

wonder

[wnd]
v, n ;
What are they going to do now, I wonder?
, ?
the Seven Wonders of the World
379

W
Its wonderful what doctors can do. , 
.
touch wood ,
a ball of wool
keep ones word
at work

wonderful

[wndfl]
adj ,
We had a wonderful time in Spain. (.
) .
syn great, amazing

wood

[wd]
n , ,
Put some more wood on the fire. .
wool

[wl]
n
a pure wool skirt
syn yarn
word

:
n, v ; , ; 

There was still no word from Mary.


.
How should it be worded? ?
[w:d]

work

:
[w:k]
v, n ;
Where do you work? ?
There isnt a lot of work at this time of the year.
.

380

W
bookworm
Dont worry, be happy! , !
worth doing sth .
a knife / gunshot wound /
wrap sth in sth . .

worm

:
n, v , ; , 

have worms
He wormed his way under the fence. .
[w:m]

worry

v, n (pl worries) (); 

I worry about my daughter. .


My main worry is finding somewhere to live. 
.
[wri]

worth

:
[w:]
prep, n ;
F The film is well worth seeing. .
The new computer system has already proved its worth. 
.
syn value

wound
:
[w nd]
n, v ;
It took several months for his wounds to heal.
.
Five people were killed and many others seriously wounded in the
accident. 
.
wrap

v, n ; , , 

Ive still got a few Christmas presents to wrap up.
.
The project has been kept under wraps for years.
.

[rp]

381

X
The Xray showed that ,

Xray
[eks rei]


n, v ;

I had to go to the hospital for an Xray.


.

The problem was only discovered when her lungs were Xrayed.
, .

382

Y
prison / school yard /
(the) Yellow Pages
Is dinner ready? No, not yet. ? .
yield results
youth organization

yard
:
[jd]
n ,
The kids were playing in the back yard.
.
syn garden
yellow

[jel]
adj, v ;
I prefer yellow roses. .
The paper has yellowed with age. .

yet

[jet]
adv ;
Has Edmund arrived yet? ?
I havent asked him yet. .
yield

:
v, n , ; 
, ,
Yield to traffic on the left. 
.
The average milk yield per cow has doubled.
.
syn give way

[jld]

youth
:
[j ]
n ; ; 

Many of popular rock stars had used drugs in their youth.


 .

383

Z
in ones zeal to do sth .
zero hour
add zest to sth .
zip your lip
the Zodiac
danger zone

zeal
:
[zl]
n ,
He approached the job with missionary zeal.
.
zero

[zir]
n (pl zeros / zeroes) ,
The petrol gauge was already at zero.
.
syn nought

zest

[zest]
n
She had a great zest for life. .
zip

n, v ; / 

do up / undo a zip /
He zipped the bag shut / open. /
.

[zip]

zodiac

[zdik]
n
Which sign of the zodiac were you born under? Leo.
? .

zone

n, v ; , 

San Francisco and Tokyo are both in earthquake zones. 


.
The land is currently zoned for residential use.
.
[zn]

384