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Part 1.

Major Equipment Design


Section 2. Major Mechanical Design
Table of Contents
Reactor Mechanical Data Sheet ----------------------------------------------------------- (2)
1

Design Conditions --------------------------------------------------------------------- (4)

Shell Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- (5)

End Cap Design ------------------------------------------------------------------------ (6)

Impeller and Baffle Design ----------------------------------------------------------- (6)

Nozzle Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (7)

Flange Design ------------------------------------------------------------------------- (12)

Legs and Supports Design---------------------------------------------------------- (12)

Compensation for Openings and Branches ------------------------------------- (13)

Vessel and Piping Testing ----------------------------------------------------------- (15)

References ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (15)


Reactor Mechanical Drawing ------------------------------------------------------------ (16)

Reactor Mechanical Data Sheet


Equipment specification sheet of CSTR
Equipment Name
Equipment Code
Operating Pressure (atm(g))
Operating Temperature (C)
Service Fluid
Material of Construction
Applicable Code
Number of Reactor

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)


CSTR-402
1
Design pressure (atm(g))
1.1
60
Design temperature (C)
66
Organic Mixture
Carbon Steel
AS 1548-7-430R.N.T
1
SHELL
Material of Construction
Carbon Steel, AS 1548-7-430R.N.T
Shell Class
Class 3
Shell Type
Cylindrical
Type of Welded Joints
Double-welded butt joint
Shell Inside Diameter (mm)
1262
Shell Thickness (mm)
7
Shell Outer Diameter (mm)
1276
Shell Height (mm)
1262
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
2
Aspect Ratio
1
3
Shell Volume (m )
1.58
END CAP
Material of Construction
Carbon Steel, AS 1548-7-430R.N.T
End Class
Class 3
End Type
Flat End Plate
Type of Welded Joints
Double-welded butt joint
End Thickness (mm)
16
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
2
REACTOR (SHELL AND TWO END CAPS)
Material of Construction
Carbon Steel, AS 1548-7-430R.N.T
Reactor Class
Class 3
Type of Welded Joints
Double-welded butt joint
Reactor Inside Diameter (mm)
1262
Reactor Thickness (mm)
7
Reactor Outer Diameter (mm)
1276
Reactor Height (mm)
1294
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
2
Aspect Ratio
1
3
Reactor Volume (m )
1.58
IMPELLER AND BAFFLES
Impeller Diameter (mm)
378.6
Off-bottom Distance (mm)
210
Impeller Width (mm)
47.3
Baffle Width (mm)
105
Baffle Offset Distance (mm)
189.3

NOZZLES AND FLANGES


Material of Construction
Carbon Steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T
Nozzle and Flange Class
Class 3, Seamless ASTM-A-106-C grade
Oil Inlet Nozzle
DN 10 Schedule 40
CH3OH Inlet Nozzle
DN 6 Schedule 80
Biodiesel Outlet Nozzle
DN 15 Schedule 40
Drainage Nozzle
DN 32 Schedule 40
Oil Inlet Flange
PN 20 Class 150 DN 10 Socket Weld (SW)
CH3OH Inlet Flange
PN 20 Class 150 DN 6 Socket Weld (SW)
Biodiesel Outlet Flange
PN 20 Class 150 DN 15 Socket Weld (SW)
Drainage Flange
PN 20 Class 150 DN 32 Socket Weld (SW)
Gaskets
Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion
SUPPORTS
Type of Supports
Conical Skirt Supports
Number of Supports
2
Reactor Orientation
Vertical
ACCESSORIES AND OTHERS
Access Hole
450 mm Diameter of Manhole
Pressure Relief Valve
With Blowdown Drum or Catch Tank
TESTING AND INSPECTIONS
Vessel Testing
1. General testing and inspections (AS 1210 Section 5 and 6)
2. Welding procedure qualification (AS 3992)
3. Hydrostatic testing (Ph = 0.16725 MPa)
Piping Examination and Testing
1. Visual (100%)
2. Pressure tests (including hydrostatic pressure test and
pneumatic pressure test)
3. Initial service leak test (permitted)

1. Design Conditions
Design Pressure
It has been determined in the major process design of Section 1 that the reaction
pressure inside the reactor is the atmospheric pressure of 1 atm. The design pressure is
normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set and generally the surge
pressure is not expected to be higher than 10% above the normal working pressure to
avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets [1].
Then, = P (1 + 10%) = 1 atm 1.1 = 1.1 atm . Therefore, the design
pressure is 1.1 atm.
According to the Figure 1.3.1 in AS1210 which has been shown in Figure 1 as below,
the equation of the curve has been given: P =

104
3(+6)2

Figure 1. Vessels subject to internal pressure.

104
104
P=
=
= 63.21
3( + 6)2
3 (1.262 + 6)2
Since the internal pressure is 0.1 atm = 10.13 kPa, thus, the internal pressure is lower
than 63.21 kPa. Therefore, the reactor designed here is a non-pressure vessel. Still, a
good record of design must be kept and hazard analysis must be performed as well.
Design Temperature
The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the
maximum working temperature of the material, with due allowance for any
uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperatures [2]. It will be 10% above
the normal working temperature.
Then, = T (1 + 10%) = 60 1.1 = 66 . Therefore, the design
temperature is 66.

Components of the Reaction System


In the reaction system, the components involved inside the reactor are triglycerides
(TGs), diglycerides (DGs), monoglycerides (MGs), free fatty acids (FFAs), fatty acid
methyl esters (FAMEs), CH3OH, CH3ONa, glycerol and other lipids.
The organics are all flammable and combustible, but only at high temperatures. They
are not corrosive at the reaction temperature of 60 and pressure of 1 atm. CH3ONa
solution is a kind of strong alkali but it is not corrosive to common metals such as iron.
CH3OH should be paid particular attention to because it is a colorless, volatile and
flammable liquid with high toxicity. However, it is a very good solvent and not
corrosive as well.

2. Shell Design
Preliminary Design
In this design, vertical shell will be selected and used here because CSTRs are vertical
reactors. As has been determined in the process design, the height and diameter of the
reactor are both 1.262 m because the aspect ratio of 1 is applied. Since the design
pressure is not high which is 1.1 atm, thus, flat plate end will be utilized here instead
of dished end or domed head due to economic considerations.
Material Selection
As has been mentioned before, the components of the mixture in the reactor are not
corrosive. So carbon steel can be chosen as construction material for the reactor.
Furthermore, carbon steel is good enough to meet all of the demands for the design
conditions discussed before and it is relatively cheap in terms of the construction cost
as well. More specifically, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T will be selected and
used here. Then, the design tensile strength at the design temperature of 66 is f =
108 MPa.
Shell Thickness Calculation
For cylindrical shells, the circumferential thickness is designed and given by:
=

The design pressure is 1.1 atm. Thus, P =

1.1101325
106

= 0.1115 MPa.

The inside diameter of shell is 1.262 m, i.e. D = 1.262 m = 1262 mm.


According to the Table 3.3.1(A) in AS 1210, the design tensile strength of carbon steel
AS 1548-7-430R.N.T at 66 is f = 108 MPa.
Since the components of the reaction system are not corrosive or highly toxic (except
CH3OH), class 3 vessel type will be attempted. As the design pressure is not high (1.1
atm), double-welded butt joint (or other butt joint with equivalent quality) is selected.
Thus, according to the Table 3.5.1.7 from AS 1210, the welded joint efficiency is
= 0.70.
5

Hence,

0.1115 1262
=
= 0.931
2 2 108 0.70 0.1115
Because the components in the reactor are not corrosive, the corrosion allowance is
evaluated to be 2 mm, i.e. c = 2 mm. Additionally, 0.1 mm/year corrosion is expected
under normal conditions and the design life of the reactor is 20 years. Based on these
conditions, it can also be estimated that = 0.1 20 = 2 .
Thus,
= + c = 0.931 + 2 = 2.931 mm
Therefore, the total thickness of the shell required is 2.931 mm. According to the
standard thickness values, the thickness of 5 mm is chosen here.
As a general guide, the minimum practical wall thickness is set to ensure that any
vessel is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight [1]. Then, when the vessel
diameter lies between 1.0 m and 2.0 m, the minimum wall thickness is 7 mm.
Therefore, the shell thickness is determined to be 7 mm.
=

3. End Cap Design


Since flat end caps are comparatively cheap and easy to construct, they will be tried

first. According to the welding configuration (f) in Figure 3.15.1 of AS 1210, m = ,

K=

but not more than 5.0 for circular ends C.

Hence, m =

0.931

= 0.133, K =

3
0.133

= 22.56.

0.5
0.5
0.1115
) = 1262 (
) = 10.2

22.56 108 0.7

t = D(

10.2 mm thick flat end plate is reasonable and practical.


For the end plate, the corrosion allowance of 2 mm will be used here as well.
= t + = 10.2 + 2 = 12.2
Therefore, the standard end thickness value of 16 mm will be selected and used here
and it is feasible.

4. Impeller and Baffle Design


It has been determined in the major process design of Section 1 that the hub-mounted
flat-blade turbine impeller will be utilized in the design. Since the impeller to tank
diameter ratio of 0.3 is selected and the tank diameter is 1.262 m, thus, the impeller
diameter will be: = 0.3 = 0.3 1.262 = 0.3786 . As the impeller is placed
at 1/6 the tank height off the bottom and the tank height is 1.262 m, then, the
1

off-bottom distance will be: h = = 1.262 = 0.21 . The impeller width to


1

diameter ratio is 1/8, so the impeller width will be: w = = 0.3786 =


6

0.0473 .
It has also been determined in the process design that four baffles will be used in the
design. Since the baffle width is one-twelfth the tank diameter and the tank diameter
is 1.262 m, thus, the baffle width will be: w =

1
12

1
12

1.262 = 0.105 . As

the baffle length extends from one half the impeller diameter from the tangent line at
the bottom to the liquid level and the impeller diameter is 0.3786 m, then, the baffle
1

offset distance will be: h = = 0.3786 = 0.1893 .

5. Nozzle Design
For nozzle and piping design, statutory requirements and national standards must be
complied with. In this design, Australian Standards AS 4041 will be the basis of
design because AS 4041 takes the best of the overseas standards.
In addition, two inlet nozzles will be placed at the top of the reactor while the outlet
nozzle and the drainage nozzle will be located at the bottom.
Stream 4.13 Inlet Nozzle Design
Since the mixture of Stream 4.13 is flammable but not harmful, the design
temperature is moderate and the design pressure is much lower than 4.0 MPa, thus,
class 3 piping type is selected. Moreover, class 3 piping is cheap compared to class 1
and class 2 piping types.
As the mixture is not corrosive, then, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T, seamless
ASTM-A-106-C grade (AMSE-A-106-C grade) has been chosen here.
Based on the simulation raw data given in Appendix 5, for the Stream 4.13, the mass
flow rate is: = 742.11 / and the mass density is: = 896.5 /3 . Thus,
the volumetric flow rate can be calculated by:

742.11
Q= =
= 0.828 3 = 2.3 104 3

896.5
Because it is a normal case that liquid velocity is set in the range of 1 to 3 m/s, then,
assume the inlet velocity is 2 m/s.
As Q =

2
4

, thus, D = .

4
4 2.3 104
=
= 0.0121 = 12.1

D=

In terms of the table of Carbon Steel Linepipe Dimensions, the nominal size of
DN10 will be chosen here. And Schedule 40 will be tried first.
According to the table [1], the outside diameter is 17.1 mm and the standard wall
thickness is 2.31 mm.
Thus, the inside diameter is 17.1 2 2.31 = 12.48 mm = 0.01248 m.
Double check the liquid velocity:
4
4 2.3 104
=
=
= 1.88 /
2
0.012482
7

The inlet velocity given above is still in the range of 1 to 3 m/s. Therefore, this value
will be kept.
Use the equation based on inside diameter of pipe to calculate pipe wall thickness.

=
2
From the Table 3.12.3 of AS 4041, class design factor M = 0.7 for class 3 piping.
From the Table D2 of AS 4041, design tensile strength f = 166 MPa.
From the Table 3.12.2 of AS 4041, weld joint factor e = 1.00 for
ASTM-A-106-Seamless material.
The design pressure P = 0.1115 MPa.
The inside diameter of pipe d = 12.48 mm.
Hence,

0.1115 12.48
=
=
= 5.99 103
2 2 166 1 0.7 0.1115
Since the mixture is not corrosive, it can be assumed that corrosion allowance is 2mm.
As = + and G = c + 0.125 , thus, it can be obtained that: = + c +
0.125 = 5.99 103 + 2 + 0.125 .
Hence, tm = 2.293 mm.
The minimum wall thickness required is 2.293 mm, which is smaller than the standard
wall thickness 2.31 mm of DN 10, Schedule 40. In other words, the choice of DN 10,
Schedule 40 is very reasonable.
Therefore, DN 10, Schedule 40 has been used for the Stream 4.13 inlet nozzle.
Stream 4.18 Inlet Nozzle Design
Since the mixture of Stream 4.18 mainly contains CH3OH which is toxic and
flammable, the design temperature is moderate and the design pressure is much lower
than 4.0 MPa, thus, class 3 piping type is selected. Moreover, class 3 piping is cheap
compared to class 1 and class 2 piping types.
As the mixture is not corrosive, then, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T, seamless
ASTM-A-106-C grade (AMSE-A-106-C grade) has been chosen here.
Based on the simulation raw data given in Appendix 5, for the Stream 4.18, the mass
flow rate is: = 156.5 / and the mass density is: = 749.8 /3 . Thus,
the volumetric flow rate can be calculated by:

156.5
Q= =
= 0.209 3 = 5.8 105 3
749.8
Because it is a normal case that liquid velocity is set in the range of 1 to 3 m/s, then,
assume the inlet velocity is 2 m/s.
As Q =

2
4

, thus, D = .

4
4 5.8 105
D=
=
= 6.08 103 = 6.08

2
In terms of the table of Carbon Steel Linepipe Dimensions, the nominal size of DN6
will be chosen here. And Schedule 80 will be tried first.
8

According to the table [1], the outside diameter is 10.3 mm and the standard wall
thickness is 2.41 mm.
Thus, the inside diameter is 10.3 2 2.41 = 5.48 mm = 5.48 103 m.
Double check the liquid velocity:
=

4
4 5.8 105
=
= 2.46 /
2 (5.48 103 )2

The inlet velocity given above is still in the range of 1 to 3 m/s. Therefore, this value
will be kept.
Use the equation based on inside diameter of pipe to calculate pipe wall thickness.

=
2
From the Table 3.12.3 of AS 4041, class design factor M = 0.7 for class 3 piping.
From the Table D2 of AS 4041, design tensile strength f = 166 MPa.
From the Table 3.12.2 of AS 4041, weld joint factor e = 1.00 for
ASTM-A-106-Seamless material.
The design pressure P = 0.1115 MPa.
The inside diameter of pipe d = 5.48 mm.
Hence,

0.1115 5.48
=
=
= 2.63 103
2 2 166 1 0.7 0.1115
Since the mixture is not corrosive, it can be assumed that corrosion allowance is 2mm.
As = + and G = c + 0.125 , thus, it can be obtained that: = + c +
0.125 = 2.63 103 + 2 + 0.125 .
Hence, tm = 2.289 mm.
The minimum wall thickness required is 2.289 mm, which is smaller than the standard
wall thickness 2.41 mm of DN 6, Schedule 80. In other words, the choice of DN 6,
Schedule 80 is very reasonable.
Therefore, DN 6, Schedule 80 has been used for the Stream 4.18 inlet nozzle.
Stream 4.19 Outlet Nozzle Design
Since the mixture of Stream 4.19 is flammable and a bit toxic, the design temperature
is moderate and the design pressure is much lower than 4.0 MPa, thus, class 3 piping
type is selected. Moreover, class 3 piping is cheap compared to class 1 and class 2
piping types.
As the mixture is not corrosive, then, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T, seamless
ASTM-A-106-C grade (AMSE-A-106-C grade) has been chosen here.
Based on the simulation raw data given in Appendix 5, for the Stream 4.19, the mass
flow rate is: = 898.61 / and the mass density is: = 811.6 /3 . Thus,
the volumetric flow rate can be calculated by:

898.61
Q= =
= 1.107 3 = 3.076 104 3

811.6
Because it is a normal case that liquid velocity is set in the range of 1 to 3 m/s, then,
assume the outlet velocity is 2 m/s.
9

As Q =

2
4

, thus, D = .

4
4 3.076 104
=
= 0.0140 = 14.0

D=

In terms of the table of Carbon Steel Linepipe Dimensions, the nominal size of
DN15 will be chosen here. And Schedule 40 will be tried first.
According to the table [1], the outside diameter is 21.3 mm and the standard wall
thickness is 2.77 mm.
Thus, the inside diameter is 21.3 2 2.77 = 15.76 mm = 0.01576 m.
Double check the liquid velocity:
4
4 3.076 104
=
=
= 1.58 /
2
0.015762
The outlet velocity given above is still in the range of 1 to 3 m/s. Therefore, this value
will be kept.
Use the equation based on inside diameter of pipe to calculate pipe wall thickness.

=
2
From the Table 3.12.3 of AS 4041, class design factor M = 0.7 for class 3 piping.
From the Table D2 of AS 4041, design tensile strength f = 166 MPa.
From the Table 3.12.2 of AS 4041, weld joint factor e = 1.00 for
ASTM-A-106-Seamless material.
The design pressure P = 0.1115 MPa.
The inside diameter of pipe d = 15.76 mm.
Hence,

0.1115 15.76
=
=
= 7.565 103
2 2 166 1 0.7 0.1115
Since the mixture is not corrosive, it can be assumed that corrosion allowance is 2mm.
As = + and G = c + 0.125 , thus, it can be obtained that: = + c +
0.125 = 7.565 103 + 2 + 0.125 .
Hence, tm = 2.294 mm.
The minimum wall thickness required is 2.294 mm, which is smaller than the standard
wall thickness 2.77 mm of DN 15, Schedule 40. In other words, the choice of DN 15,
Schedule 40 is very reasonable.
Therefore, DN 15, Schedule 40 has been used for the Stream 4.19 outlet nozzle.
Drainage Nozzle Design
Regular cleaning and hydrostatic pressure test are required for reactors. So drainage
nozzle is necessary to remove water out of the reactor.
Since water is neither harmful nor flammable, thus, class 3 piping type is selected.
Moreover, class 3 piping is cheap compared to class 1 and class 2 piping types.
As water is a non-corrosive liquid, then, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T, seamless
ASTM-A-106-C grade (AMSE-A-106-C grade) has been selected here.
Because it is a normal case that water velocity is set in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 m/s,
10

then, assume water velocity is 2 m/s. Also assume that it will take about 15 minutes to
discharge water out of the reactor.
The volumetric flow rate of water is: Q =
As Q =

2
4

1.58
1560

= 1.756 103 3 /.

, thus, D = .

4
4 1.756 103
=
= 0.0334 = 33.4

D=

In terms of the table of Carbon Steel Linepipe Dimensions, the nominal size of
DN32 will be chosen here. And Schedule 40 will be tried first.
According to the table [1], the outside diameter is 42.2 mm and the standard wall
thickness is 3.56 mm.
Thus, the inside diameter is 42.2 2 3.56 = 35.08 mm = 0.03508 m.
Double check the liquid velocity:
4
4 1.756 103
=
=
= 1.817 /
2
0.035082
The water velocity given above is still in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 m/s. Therefore, this
value will be kept.
Use the equation based on inside diameter of pipe to calculate pipe wall thickness.

=
2
From the Table 3.12.3 of AS 4041, class design factor M = 0.7 for class 3 piping.
From the Table D2 of AS 4041, design tensile strength f = 166 MPa.
From the Table 3.12.2 of AS 4041, weld joint factor e = 1.00 for
ASTM-A-106-Seamless material.
The design pressure P = 0.1115 MPa.
The inside diameter of pipe d = 35.08 mm.
Hence,

0.1115 35.08
=
=
= 0.0168
2 2 166 1 0.7 0.1115
Since water is not corrosive, it can be assumed that corrosion allowance is 2 mm.
As = + and G = c + 0.125 , thus, it can be obtained that: = + c +
0.125 = 0.0168 + 2 + 0.125 .
Hence, tm = 2.305 mm.
The minimum wall thickness required is 2.305 mm, which is smaller than the standard
wall thickness 3.56 mm of DN 32, Schedule 40. In other words, the choice of DN 32,
Schedule 40 is very reasonable.
Therefore, DN 32, Schedule 40 has been used for the drainage nozzle.
Compensation for Nozzles
As a kind of opening on the reactor, nozzles can weaken the strength of the shell and
give rise to local stress (George, 2015). Therefore, compensation for nozzles is very
necessary and the compensation method of inset nozzle has been shown in Figure 2 as
11

below [1].

Figure 2. Compensation method of inset nozzle.

6. Flange Design
Flanges are used for connecting pipes and instruments to reactors when ease of access
is required (Sinnott, 2005). Therefore, the flanges to be used need to match with the
sizes of nozzles and pipes.
Since socket weld flanges are relatively cheap and also stronger than butt weld,
therefore, socket weld flanges will be selected here.
ANSI class 150 and 300 are most commonly used. According to the table of Flange
ASME B16.5 Forged Flanges, PN 20 is good enough for this design because the
design temperature and pressure are not very high in this design. Therefore, PN 20
Class 150 DN 10 and DN 6 flanges are chosen for the Stream 4.13 and 4.18 inlet
nozzles respectively. PN 20 Class 150 DN 15 flange is selected for the Stream 4.19
outlet nozzle. Meanwhile, PN 20 Class 150 DN 32 flange is chosen for the drainage
nozzle as well.
Gaskets will be used in the flanges to make a leak tight joint. In terms of the Table
3.21.6.4(A) of AS 1210, gasket material of elastomers with cotton fabric insertion will
be selected because its minimum design seating stress is 2.8 MPa and compared to the
design pressure which is 0.1115 MPa, the minimum design seating stress of 2.8 MPa
is much higher and this kind of gasket can be used in this design here.

7. Legs and Supports Design


Since skirt supports are used for tall, vertical columns, they can be applied to the
vertical reactor as well. Then, the skirt supports will be chosen for the reactor here
because they are recommended for vertical vessels as they do not impose concentrated
loads on the vessel shell [2]. Moreover, the type of conical skirt will be selected here
and it has been shown in Figure 3 as below.

12

Figure 3. Conical skirt-support design.

In addition, the skirt may be welded to the bottom head of the vessel, or welded flush
with the shell, or welded to the outside of the vessel shell [2]. The skirt welded flush
with the shell will be used in this design because this arrangement is usually preferred
due to its high strength and convenience for maintenance. The skirt support welded
flush with the shell has been given in Figure 4 as follows.

Figure 4. Skirt support welded flush with the shell.

8. Compensation for Openings and Branches


All process vessels have openings for connections, manways and instrument fittings.
The presence of an opening weakens the shell and gives rise to stress concentrations.
The stress at the edge of a hole will be considerably higher than the average stress in
the surrounding plate. Therefore, in order to compensate for the effect of an opening,
the wall thickness is increased in the region adjacent to the opening. Sufficient
reinforcement must be provided to compensate for the weakening effect of the
opening without significantly altering the general dilation pattern of the vessel at the
opening [2].

13

Calculation of Reinforcement Required


In this design, the equal area method will be used here.
The basic principle of this method is to provide reinforcement local to the opening,
equal in cross-sectional area to the area removed in forming the opening, which has
been shown in Figure 5 as below [2].

Figure 5. The equal area method of compensation.

According to the Table 3.20.9 of AS 1210, for the type of manhole, the circular
openings of 450 mm will be selected, i.e. the diameter of manhole is dh = 450 mm.
Hence, 1 =

0.452
4

= 0.159 2 .

Since 2 = 1 , thus, reinforcement area 2 = 1 = 0.159 2 .


As the total area = 1 + 2 =

2
4

, then, it can be obtained that:

= 0.159 + 0.159 = 0.318 =

2
4

4
4 0.318
=
=
= 0.6363 = 636.3

Double check: The outer diameter of the pad is usually between 1.5 to 2 times the
diameter of the hole or branch.
636.3
=
= 1.414

450
Because the ratio is 1.414 which is close to 1.5, therefore, the compensation design is
acceptable and practical.

14

9. Vessel and Piping Testing


Hydrostatic Test
In terms of the equation given in AS 1210 (5.10.2): = 1.5

, f = 108 MPa, fh

is the design strength at test temperature. It can be assumed that the test temperature is
equal to the design temperature which is 66. Then,
Hence, = 1.5

= 1.

= 1.5 0.1115 1 = 0.16725 .

Therefore, the hydrostatic test pressure is 0.16725 MPa.


Vessel Testing
The class 3 vessel type has been chosen here. Before the reactor can be put into
operation, according to the Table 1.6 of AS 1210, several testing and inspections must
be done, which have been listed as below.
General testing and inspections (in section 5 and 6 of AS 1210)
Welding procedure qualification (AS 3992)
Hydrostatic testing (Ph = 0.16725 MPa)
Piping Testing
In the nozzle design, class 3 piping has been selected. Therefore, based on the Table
1.5 of AS 4041, the class 3 piping examination and testing have been listed as below
(in section 6 of AS 4041).
1. Visual (100%)
2. Pressure tests (including hydrostatic pressure test and pneumatic pressure test)
3. Initial service leak test (permitted)

References
1.

Franks, G., Process Equipment Design (Lecture Notes). 2015, Department of Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering: University of Melbourne.

2.

Sinnott, R.K., Chemical Engineering Design. Fourth Edition ed. Vol. 6. 2005, UK: Elsevier
Butterworth-Heinemann.

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