0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 416 стр.Proposta de otimização e gestão para sistemas hibridos de aquecimento de água

Oct 15, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

Proposta de otimização e gestão para sistemas hibridos de aquecimento de água

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 4

Proposta de otimização e gestão para sistemas hibridos de aquecimento de água

© All Rights Reserved

- Wallingford-Town-of-Residential-Solar-Hot-Water-Incentive-Program
- heat pump
- Vuilleumier Heat Pump
- 112752498 Eslami Nejad Bernier 2011 Coupling of Geothermal Heat Pumps With Thermal Solar Collectors Using Double U Tube Boreholes With Two Independent Circ
- Air Conditioning
- Profile of CES
- Aramu Marco Summary
- Employee Quiz
- Solar Energy
- Presentation on Solar Energy
- Dhp Install Vmbma202 En
- Refrigerant Unit
- Let 8217 Sdosomething
- Special Offers Sheet October 2009
- AHU Catalogue
- Lecture 8 ChE v2 [Compatibility Mode]
- Sponsor-TRNSYS.pdf
- 04_Jesko.pdf
- Solar+Product+catalogue
- geo exchange heat pump

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild

Oussama Ibrahim a,c , Farouk Fardoun a , Rac Younes b, , Hasna Louahlia-Gualous c

a

Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon

c

Universit de Caen Base Normandie, LUSAC, 120 rue de lexode, 50000 Saint L, France

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 16 May 2013

Received in revised form 26 January 2014

Accepted 7 February 2014

Keywords:

Hybrid water heating systems

Numerical modeling

Heat pump water heater

Solar collector

Energy optimization

Management

a b s t r a c t

This paper presents the dynamic modeling of a domestic hybrid water heating system. The system is

composed of a solar collector, a heat pump water heater, a wind turbine, a battery and a hot water storage tank. Both air-source and geothermal-heat pumps are investigated. Detailed mathematical dynamic

models of the individual components are presented and validated. Simulations for typical days in summer

and winter for Beirut and Cedars, two Lebanese locations with different meteorological and demographic

conditions, are conducted using Matlab software. A renewable coverage factor (RCF) is dened, representing the renewable energy share with respect to the total delivered energy. Results reveal that the

proposed hybrid system is capable of securing all hot water needs in all case studies and RCF is always

above 63%. Furthermore, an energetic, economic optimal management model is developed for the proposed hybrid system. It is applied to the considered case studies, where results illustrate the optimum

size of each of the system components as well as the optimum energy-ow distributions among them

over two investigated time periods, ve and ten years. It is noticed that the initial cost of the hybrid

system is acceptable and important annual savings are obtained.

2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Life is facing three major problems, which are negatively affecting health, peace and security. They are: (1) the dramatic increase

in the energy demand corresponding to the global population evolution as well as the development of living standards, (2) the great

consumption increase of the current primary energy source-the

non-renewable fossil fuels and (3) the aggravation of global warming and environmental pollution as a result of the preceding two

stated problems.

Lebanon is a developing country that meets the majority of its

energy needs from oil imports. The country suffers a huge shortage in the electricity generation which is compensated through

thousands of backup self-generators that are estimated to represent up to 30% of all electricity generated [1]. Thus, end use

electrical energy management is dispensable in this country,

because it can participate in minimizing the energy consumption

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: oibrahim@etu.unicaen.fr (O. Ibrahim), ffardoun@ul.edu.lb

(F. Fardoun), ryounes@ul.edu.lb (R. Younes), hasna.gualous@unicaen.fr

(H. Louahlia-Gualous).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.02.023

0378-7788/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

environmental pollution.

Water heating is a major energy consumer all around the world.

For instance, its share of the total residential energy consumption

is about 11% in USA [2], 14% in Europe [3], 22% in Canada [4], 25% in

Australia [5], 25% in Russia [6], 30% in Japan [7], 29% in Mexico [8],

27% in China [9], 32% in South Africa [10], etc. Although no clear

statistics for energy consumption corresponding to the domestic

water heating in Lebanon, it is known that the country almost has

$4010 per capita GNI (Gross National Income) [11], which reects

the good standards of living and consequently the large energy

demand. This fact together with the illustrated worldwide statistics reveal that the residential hot water production constitutes an

important portion of the total consumed energy in Lebanese homes.

Furthermore, 75% of residents rely on electric heaters for domestic

hot water production [12], which add an unsustainable burden on

the Lebanese electricity sector. Therefore, an important portion of

the residential electrical consumption may be saved by the proper

choice and management of the domestic water heating system.

This paper presents the detailed numerical modeling of a proposed hybrid water heating system. The performance of this system

is investigated for two case studies in Lebanon, where one is located

in the capital-Beirut, a coastal metropolitan city, and the other

is in Cedars, a mountainous town. The main reason for choosing

Nomenclature

A

a

C

Cb

COP

Cp

D

dt

E

E

g

g(t)

h

H

h(t)

I

k

L

Lc

m

m

P

P

Q

Q

R

r

T

t

Ut

Ubp

Ubw

Upw

u

V

W

x, y, z

Z0

a

area [m2 ]

thermal diffusivity [m2 /s]

battery capacity [Wh]

bond conductivity [W/mK]

coefcient of performance

specic heat [J/kgK]

diameter [m]

time step [s]

electrical energy [kWh]

electrical capacity [W]

gravitational acceleration [m/s2 ]

hot water ow rate from storage tank [kg/s]

enthalpy [J/kg]

height/ground heat exchanger depth[m]

domestic hot water demand prole [kg/s]

solar radiation [W/m2 ]

thermal conductivity [W/mK]

length [m]

characteristic length [m]

mass [kg]

mass ow rate [kg/s]

pressure [Pa]

power [W]

heat energy [kWh]

heat capacity [W]

thermal resistance [m2 K/W]

radius [m]

temperature [K or C]

time

overall loss heat transfer coefcient from the top of

collector [W/m2 K]

loss heat transfer coefcient from the bottom of the

absorber plate [W/m2 K]

loss heat transfer coefcient from the bottom of the

tube wall [W/m2 K]

overall heat transfer coefcient between absorber

plate and tube-wall [W/K]

velocity [m/s]

volume [m3 ]

width [m]

spatial coordinates

surface roughness length [m]

absorptance of coating

convective heat transfer coefcient [W/m2 K]

radiative heat transfer coefcient [W/m2 K]

combined-convective and radiative-heat transfer

coefcient [W/m2 K]

coefcient of thermal expansion [1/K]

thickness [mm]

emittance

dynamic viscosity [Pa s]

density [kg/m3 ]

StefanBoltzmann constant

transmittance of glass cover

Subscripts

1,2,3

1st, 2nd, 3rd region

a

air

b

borehole

battery

bat

c

condenser

consume consumed water

d

cs

e

eq

gr

HP

HTF

i

L

l

o

p

r

s

st

tap

u

w

WB

wat

343

downward

cross section

evaporator

equivalent

grout

heat pump

heat transfer uid

in, inside

load

lower part

out

absorber plate

refrigerant

soil

storage

tap water

upper part/upward

wall

wind-battery system

water in storage tank

Dimensionless numbers

Symbol

Explanation

Relation

Gr

Grashof number

Gr =

Nu

Nu =

Pr

Ra

Re

Prandtl number

Rayleigh number

Reynolds number

Pr =

Ra = Gr Pr

uD

Re =

D

k

Cp

k

2

these case studies is the evaluation of the proposed system in different climatic and demographic conditions, which represent the

extreme conditions of the country. Furthermore, an optimal management model for the presented system is suggested and solved

for these two case studies. The main objective of this model is the

optimization of: the energy-ow distributions among the system

components, the size of each component and system cost.

2. Literature review

A Taiwanian research group presented and studied an integraltype solar assisted heat pump water heater (ISAHP) [1317]. In

this design, the storage tank and the Rankine cycle units were integrated together to make a more compact size and a thermosyphon

loop was used to transfer heat from the condenser to the water

storage tank. Furthermore, the condenser was of tube-in-sheet,

unglazed type and the solar collector was itself the evaporator.

The ISAHP absorbs energy from solar radiation and ambient air

simultaneously. It was found that the thermal performance of

an ISAHP is marginally inuenced by the variation of ambient

temperature. Guoying et al. [18] performed a simulation study of

solar-air source heat pump water heater with a specially designed

at-plate heat collector/evaporator with spiral-nned tubes. The

designed collector/evaporator was exposed directly to both ambient air and solar radiation and hence, it could collect solar energy

through the plate and ambient-air energy through the natural

convection between the tubes and the ambient. It was proved that

this system could produce 55 C-hot water all around the year,

overcoming the problem of direct expansion solar assisted heat

pump (DX-SAHP) that fails in rainy days. Anderson and Morrison

[19] studied a solar-boosted heat pump heater with at unglazed

aluminum solar evaporator panels to absorb solar and ambient

energy. A wrap-around condenser coil on the outside of the water

344

tank was adopted. They proved that the system performance could

be improved by concentrating the condenser coils in the lower

portion of the tank. Nuntaphan et al. [20] studied the performance

of an indirect solar assisted heat pump water heater using the

refrigerant mixture R22/R124/R152a, where hot water leaving the

solar collector is circulated into a water-heated evaporator. It was

noticed that the hot water temperature is 40% greater than that

obtained from conventional solar water heating systems. Li and

Yang [21] developed a simplied mathematical model of solar

assisted air source heat pump system which mainly consists of

two loops: the solar collector loop and the airwater heat pump

unit. The effects of various parameters, including circulation ow

rate, solar collector area, solar collector tilt angle and initial water

temperature in the preheating solar tank, are investigated. The

results show that the system performance is governed strongly by

the change of circulation ow rate, solar collector area and initial

water temperature in the preheating solar tank. Huang et al. [22]

designed, built and tested a heat-pipe enhanced solar-assisted

heat pump water heater (HPSAHP). It is a heat pump with dual

heat sources that combines the performance of conventional solar

assisted heat pump and solar heat pipe collector. The HPSAHP can

operate in two modes: the heat-pump mode when solar radiation

is low and the heat-pipe mode, without electricity consumption,

when solar radiation is high and can thus achieve high energy

efciency. Experimental results have shown that COP of the hybridmode is greater by 28.7% compared to the heat-pump mode. Biaoua

and Bernier [23] performed a TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation

program) simulation study of four alternative means for domestic

hot water production in zero net energy homes (ZNEH) for two

climates (Montreal and Los Angeles). The studied systems were: (i)

a regular electric hot water tank; (ii) the desuperheater of a ground

source heat pump (GSHP) with electric backup; (iii) thermal solar

collectors with electric backup; and (iv) a heat pump water heater

(HPWH) indirectly coupled to a space conditioning GSHP. Results

revealed that the third alternative provided the best performance

and that the fourth alternative is better than the second from

an energy point of view. Trillat-Berdal et al. [24] presented an

experimental study of a ground-coupled heat pump combined

with solar thermal collectors which can meet domestic hot water

and heating-cooling building energy needs. Solar heat is used as a

priority for domestic hot water heating and when the preset water

temperature is reached, excess solar energy is injected into the

ground via boreholes. Experiments over 11-month period showed

that the heat pump COP in heating mode had an average value of

3.75. Kjellsson et al. [25] studied the combination of solar collectors

with GSHP systems for heating and domestic hot water, using

TRNSYS. The study focused on the comparison among four different

system designs: (1) a base system with no solar heating (conventional GSHP); (2) a system where all solar heat recharges the

borehole; (3) all solar heat is used for domestic hot water; and (4)

all solar heat recharges the borehole in November-February, and is

used for domestic hot water during the rest of the year. It was recommended that the optimal design is the fourth one. Bakirci et al.

[26] constructed an experimental set-up of a solar assisted-GSHP

system. The experimental results obtained from October 2008 to

May 2009 revealed that COP of the heat pump and the whole system were in the range of 33.4 and 2.73, respectively. It is worth

to mention that the temperature of the condenser water outlet was

between 43 and 73 C which is very good for oor heating. Although

the study did not mention water heating, it is obvious that the system could be used for instantaneous or storage domestic hot water

production.

This overview reveals that research concerning hybrid domestic

hot water systems could be dealt with in more details (load prole,

losses, coverage portion from each energy source, renewable share,

system optimization). Moreover, most investigations studied the

design and performance of solar, air dual source HPWHs or examined the solar assisted ground source heat pump water heaters. In

this study, a detailed investigation of a domestic hybrid water heating system is presented, for different climates and annual periods,

using specied numerical simulation models. Additionally, optimal management of the proposed system has been suggested and

examined.

3. System description

The objective of this study is to propose a domestic hybrid water

heating system, model it and study its optimal management in

different meteorological conditions.

The proposed hybrid water heating system consists of a solar

collector, a heat pump water heater either of air source (ASHPWH)

or of ground source (GSHPWH) type, a wind turbine, battery storage

and a hot water storage tank. Fig. 1 illustrates a schematic of the

proposed system.

The HPWH (air source or ground source) is connected in parallel

with the solar collector to the storage tank. Both systems can operate simultaneously to transfer heat to water. The solar collector is

initiated when the temperature difference between the uid at its

outlet and the water in the tank exceeds 8 K. On the other hand, the

operation is denied when this temperature difference is less than

2 K. The wind turbine generates electricity from the available wind

energy and stores it in the battery. In its turn, the battery feeds the

heat pump with the necessary electrical load; however, when its

capacity is minimal, the electricity needed is secured from the grid.

The collector is supposed to transfer heat to water as long as solar

energy is sufcient and the temperature of the heat transfer uid is

greater than the water-tank temperature by a certain amount. On

the other hand, the HPWH operates when the average temperature

of water in the storage tank is below 48 C and stops when this temperature exceeds 55 C. This functioning procedure is illustrated in

Fig. 2.

4. Mathematical formulation

The mathematical model of each of the presented individual

systems is illustrated in the following subsections.

4.1. Flat-plate solar thermal collector

A at-plate solar thermal collector is modeled in this section. The

collector consists of parallel rows of copper-tubes connected to two

headers; a bottom header and an upper header, which collects the

HTF before being transferred into a water tank, either directly or via

a heat exchanger. The tubes are bonded under the absorber plate.

In addition, a glass cover is situated at a certain distance above the

absorber plate.

Finite volume numerical method is used, where the absorber

plate as well as each single tube is divided into a certain number of

control volumes. The following assumptions are considered:

Pressure drop along the tubes is neglected and thus the momentum equation is not needed.

During a time step, the density of HTF is constant. In addition, the

mass ow rate is always constant.

Same mass ow rate per each of the parallel tubes is considered.

HTF ow through the tubes is one-dimensional.

Axial conduction of HTF is neglected.

Conduction in the glass cover is neglected.

Absorber-plate area is assumed to be the same as that of the glasscover area.

345

through the glass-cover is considered.

Adiabatic boundary condition at the edges is considered.

kp

Tp

|x=0,L = 0;

x

kw

Considering the above stated assumptions, modeling the atplate solar collector could be simplied by dividing the absorber

plate in the direction perpendicular to the tubes (y-direction), such

that each tube is covered by one division of the absorber. This division is, in turn, bordered by two adjacent divisions that have no

tube beneath. Hence, taking advantage of the obtained symmetrical conguration, the collector could now be modeled only by a

single tube as shown in Fig. 3.

The energy balance for the absorber plate, the tube wall and the

HTF are given by Eqs. (1)(3), respectively.

(VCp )p

Tw

|x=0,L = 0;

x

Tw

2 Tw

+ i Di (THTF Tw )

= (kAcs )w

t

x2

Upw

(Tp Tw ) + Ubw Do (Ta Tw )

dx

THTF

THTF

p )HTF

(Acs Cp )HTF

= i Di (Tw THTF ) (mc

t

x

(2)

(3)

THTF (x, 0) = Tw (x, 0) = Tp (x, y, 0) = Ta ;

THTF (0, t) = Ti

evaluated using Eq. (4) [27]:

(a)eq = 0.96(a)beam

(4)

related to the beam radiation only, noting that the calculation of

the transmittance of the cover is given in [27].

Upw =

(1)

Tp

|y=0,W = 0;

y

The heat transfer coefcient for the heat ow between the

absorber plate and the tube-wall is given by Eq. (5):

Tp

2 Tp

2 Tp

+ (kV )p

= (a)eq Idxdy + (kV )p

2

t

x

y2

(Acs Cp )w

kp

1

(p /(kp Dwo dx)) + (1/Cb dx)

(5)

The term (p /kp Dwo dx) is very small and thus, it could be

neglected. Hence, Upw = Cb dx.

The HTF-side heat transfer coefcient is computed from the following Nusselt numbers (Eq. (6)) [28,29]:

Nu =

3.66,

0.023Re0.8 Pr 0.4

Ra

16

)3/4 )

[1 e(16(1/2Ra

],

(6)

346

Fig. 2. Flow chart of the functioning procedure of the proposed hybrid water heating system.

The overall loss heat transfer coefcient for the top part of the

collector (Ut ) is given by Eq. (7):

follow [27]:

1

1

1

=

+

Ut

pcover + apcover

wind + acoversky

p-cover =

(7)

2

)(Tp + Tcover )

(Tp2 + Tcover

(1/p ) + (1/cover ) 1

(8)

347

2

2

coversky = cover (Tcover

+ Tsky

)(Tcover + Tsky )

(9)

Tsky = 0.0552Ta1.5

(10)

the absorber plate and the glass cover is evaluated using equation

(11) [31]:

Nu = 1 + 1.44 1

Ra cos

5830

1708[sin(1.8)

Ra cos

1/3

1.6

1708

Ra cos

+

1

(11)

terms in the square brackets are to be used (i.e., zero value is used

if the term is negative).

The wind heat transfer coefcient is calculated using the following Nusselt numbers (Eq. (12)) when the wind velocity is high

[32]:

Nu =

0.664Re0.5 Pr 1/3

0.037Re0.8 Pr 1/3

for laminar ow

(12)

for turbulent ow

However, if the wind velocity is very small, then natural convection will have a higher inuence than forced convection. This

phenomenon is detected when Gr/Re2 > 10, and the wind heat

transfer coefcient will be calculated using the Nusselt number for

an inclined heated surface with natural convection (Eq. (13)) [32]:

Nu = 0.14[(GrPr)1/3 (Grcr Pr)1/3 ] + 0.56(GrPr sin(slope))1/4

(13)

The thermal resistance between the bottom insulation and the

ambient is neglected, because its magnitude is very small compared

with the thermal resistance through the insulation [27]. Hence,

the heat transfer coefcients for the heat losses from the bottom

of the absorber plate (Ubp ) and from the bottom of the tube-wall

(Ubw ) are evaluated by considering the heat conduction through

the insulation only.

4.1.2. Validation of the model

An experimental test performed by the Testing and Laboratories Division, Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) was employed to

validate the developed dynamic model for the at-plate solar collector [33]. Simulations are conducted using the test conditions and

collector conguration illustrated in [33]. The simulated instantaneous collector efciencies are compared to experimental ones.

Fig. 4. Predicted and experimental efciency with error analysis of the investigated

solar collector.

Fig. 4 shows good agreement between the predicted and experimental results, where the absolute error is less than 3%. Hence, the

developed model is considered to be quite accurate.

4.2. ASHPWH

A typical ASHPWH is modeled in this section. Static models are

chosen to simulate the actuator components since the dynamics

of compressors and expansion devices are generally much faster

than those of the heat exchangers [34,35], where the compressor

is considered as an adiabatic rotary one and the throttling device

is considered as a thermostatic expansion valve. Concerning the

heat exchangers, lumped parameter, moving boundary dynamic

models are chosen. The modeled evaporator is a tube and ns heat

exchanger type, while the condenser is a smooth copper helical

coiled tube, immersed inside the water tank.

4.2.1. Heat exchangers

The dynamics of a vapor compression system are assumed to

be dominated by the dynamics of the heat exchangers, since those

of the actuator components are much faster. The heat exchanger

dynamic models are generally classied into three groups: lumped

parameter models, nite volume/nite difference models, and

moving boundary models. In this work, the moving boundary

approach is chosen to model both the evaporator and condenser,

principally because of its capability to handle all transient load

changes [36] as the load in our case-the hot water-may change

a lot in its quantity and temperature. Furthermore, this approach

is capable to capture important dynamics due to the complex heat

exchanger behavior [37] and perform fast computer simulations

[36,38,39], while preserving the simplicity of lumped parameter

models [37] and the accuracy of nite volume/nite difference

models [36].

348

Rasmussen and Alleyne [37] have developed a moving boundary model for the multi-phase heat exchangers in the air to air

heat pump. In this work, this approach will be applied for air to

water heat pump system. The mathematical formulations of the

heat exchanger models are developed, where each is divided into

a number of control volumes (regions) according to the phase of

refrigerant and thus, the evaporator is divided into two regions

(two-phase and superheated) while the condenser is divided into

three (superheated, two-phase and subcooled). Considering several simplifying assumptions [37], the governing partial differential

equations (PDEs) are simplied to one dimensional PDEs illustrated

in Eqs. (14) and (15). In addition, the tube wall energy balance is

given by Eq. (16) [37]:

Fig. 5. Predicted and experimental Pe and Pc vs. tank water temperature (Ta = 5 C)

with error analysis.

(Acs )

(m)

+

=0

t

z

(14)

(Acs h Acs P)

(mh)

+

= Di i (Tw Tr )

t

z

evaporator is given by Eq. (20) [41]:

(15)

Nu = 102 .(Re2 Kf )

(Cp A)w

Tw

= Di i (Tr Tw ) + Do o (Ta Tw )

t

(16)

obtain the governing equations which are independent of spatial

parameters. After that, dening the state vector xe = [L1 Pe ho Tw1

Tw2 ]T for the evaporator and algebraically combining the derived

governing equations, the governing equation of evaporator dynamics reduces to the following compact state space form Eq. (17):

11

Y12

(18)

The heat transfer coefcient of the two-phase region inside the

condenser is calculated by the correlations given in Eq. (19) [40]:

Nu =

Nu =

(1 + (0.559/Pr)

9/16 8/27

5.03Re1/3 Pr 1/3 ,

0.0265Re0.8 Pr 1/3 ,

(21)

(17)

Y55

The single-phase refrigerant side heat transfer coefcient is

computed from the well-known Gnielinski correlation (Eq. (18)):

1 + 12.7

where Kf = (h/L g)

The water-side natural heat transfer coefcient is calculated

using the following correlation for Nusselt number (equation 21)

[42]:

and Tw2 are the temperatures of the evaporator tube wall in the rst

region and the superheated region (second region), respectively.

Expressions of all elements in matrix [Y] are given in [37].

Similar derivation is carried out for the condenser dynamics resulting in equation of the form [B].x c = f , with state vector

xc = [Lc1 Lc2 Pc hco Tcw1 Tcw2 Tcw3 ]T , where B is a matrix, f is a vector, Lc1 and Lc2 are the lengths of the superheated region (rst

region) and two-phase region (second region), respectively, Tcw1 ,

Tcw2 and Tcw3 are the temperatures of the condenser tube wall in

the rst region, second region and subcooled region (third region),

respectively.

Nu =

(20)

m (h h ) + A (L /L )(T T )

g

w1

r1

in in

i1 i 1 total

0

m out (hg hout ) + i2 Ai (L2 /Ltotal )(Tw2 Tr2 )

in m

o

m

0

x e =

0

Y

21 Y22 Y23 0

0

0

0 Y44

Y51

0.4

(19)

= 61.67u0.63

a

(22)

The proposed ASHPWH dynamic simulation model is validated

using the experimental investigations presented by Guo et al. [44].

The experimental setup was composed of a rotary compressor,

thermostatic expansion valve, nned and tube air cooled evaporator, and a condenser, which was made up of a smooth copper helical

coiled tube immersed in an insulated water tank. Using the physical parameters stated in [44], the proposed simulation program

was executed to study the water heating process from an initial

temperature of 15 C to the set temperature (55 C) at 5 C ambient

temperature. Figs. 5 and 6 show respectively, the simulated variations of pressures (condensing and evaporating) and COP versus

tank water temperature with the corresponding experimental data

as taken from Guo et al. [44] as well as the absolute error analysis

for each. It could be noticed from both gures that the simulation

results are in quite good agreement with the experimental results

as the maximum absolute error, considering all studied parameters,

is about 7%. Thus, the developed model could be used in further

studies concerning the illustrated ASHPWH.

4.3. Ground heat exchanger

Re55, 000

i

exchanger that can be coupled to a heat pump is presented in this

(mcp )HTF,u

349

THTF,d THTF,u

THTF,u

Tb THTF,u

+

=

Rub

Rdu

t

THTF,u

(24)

z

THTF,d Tb

THTF,u Tb

2ks dz(Ts (1, j) Tb )

T

(mcp )gr b =

+

+

Rdb

Rub

t

ln(rm (1)/rb )

(25)

p )HTF,u

(mc

The resistances Rd-b , Ru-b and Rd-u are described in [46], where:

Fig. 6. Predicted and experimental COP vs. tank water temperature (Ta = 5 C) with

error analysis.

section. The heat exchanger is a U-tube embedded inside a borehole, where the two pipes (upward and downward) of the tube are

symmetric with respect to the borehole axis and are separated by

a distance 2d.

The borehole and the ground eld surrounding it are divided

into m divisions in the vertical direction. In addition, each vertical division of the ground is divided into n annular divisions,

where the thickness of one annular division is 1.2 times that of the

previous division. Fig. 7 shows a cross section of the system with

the adopted gridding.

Several simplifying assumptions suggested in [45] are considered. In addition, the axial conduction of HTF, pressure drops

along the pipes and thermal capacity of the pipe wall are

neglected. Moreover, the ow of HTF is one dimensional and

only heat transfer by conduction occurs along both the annular and the vertical divisions in the ground surrounding the

borehole.

The energy balance equations of the descending and ascending

HTF as well as that of the borehole are given by Eqs. (23)(25),

respectively:

(mcp )HTF,d

THTF,d

t

THTF,d

z

given by Eq. (26):

(cp )s dzAcs (i, j)

Ts (i 1, j) Ts (i, j)

Ts (i + 1, j) Ts (i, j)

TS (i, j)

=

+

R(i 1, j)

R(i, j)

t

+ ks dzAcs (i, j)

2 Ts

z 2

(26)

barycentric radius rm (i), which is equivalent to (Eq. (27)):

rm (i) =

r 2 (i) r 2 (i 1)

2

(27)

equation (28):

R(i,j) =

2kdz

(28)

Tb THTF,d

THTF,u THTF,d

+

Rdb

Rdu

p )HTF,d

(mc

and the borehole wall;

Ru-b : thermal resistance between the upward-circulating HTF and

the borehole wall;

Rd-u : thermal resistances between the pipes

(23)

THTF,u (z, 0) = THTF,d (z, 0) = Tb (z, 0) = Ts (x, z, 0) = Tground (z); THTF,d (0, t) = Ti

Tb (0, t) = Ts (x, 0, t) = Tground (0); Ts (x, H + dz/2, t) = Tground (H + dz/2);

Ts (rmax , z, t) = Tground (z)

Fig. 7. Cross section of the ground heat exchanger, borehole, and ground with the adopted gridding.

350

4.5. Battery

A lead-acid battery is used as a part of the studied hybrid system.

It stores energy produced by the wind turbine and supplies electrical energy to the load; the electricity needed by the compressor

of the heat pump. At a given time, the excess energy generated by

the wind turbine is stored in the battery that undergoes a charging

state. In this case, the available battery capacity is calculated by Eq.

(32) [51]:

AC/DC

Fig. 8. Simulated and experimental inlet and outlet temperatures of HTF in the

ground heat exchanger vs. time with error analysis.

from equation (29) [47]:

cos

2

365

365 as

0.5

0.5

(29)

where, Tmean = mean surface temperature (average air temperature); Tamp = amplitude of surface temperature (maximum air

temperature minus minimum air temperature); Depth = depth

below the surface; as = thermal diffusivity of the ground (m2 /day);

tnow = current time (day); tshift = day of the year of the minimum

surface temperature.

4.3.1. Validation of the model

The experimental results found in [48] are used to validate the

developed dynamic model of the ground heat exchanger, where the

values of the geometric and thermo-physical properties illustrated

in the considered reference are used as inputs for the developed

model. Simulations are conducted over a period of 12.5 h, where

the temperatures of the heat transfer uid at the inlet and outlet

of the ground heat exchanger are recorded. These temperatures

are then compared to those obtained from the above mentioned

experimental test.

Fig. 8 shows the simulated variation of the HTF-temperature at

the inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger versus time with

the corresponding experimental data as taken from [48]. It also

shows that the absolute percentage error of the simulated results is

less than 4%. Hence, the simulation model is quite reliable and could

be used for further studies concerning the ground heat exchanger.

4.4. Wind turbine

A small wind turbine is modeled by its power output as a function of the wind speed. This power is evaluated using equation (30)

[49]:

PWT =

2

P

(u

u2cut in )/(u2rated u2cut in )

WT,rated wind

PWT,rated

ucut

if

in

ln(Hhub /zo )

ln(Hdata /zo )

ch dt

(32)

On the other hand, when the output energy from the wind turbine is less than the load energy, the battery is in the discharging

state and its capacity is computed by Eq. (33) [51]:

PL (t)

DC/AC

PwT (t)

AC/DC dt

dch

(33)

output nor the battery storage capacities are sufcient, the electrical load is satised by grid electrical energy.

The charging and discharging efciencies (

ch and

dch ) of the

battery are considered 75% and 100%, respectively [52]. Furthermore, the converter efciencies (

AC/DC and

DC/AC ) are considered

in this study as 92%.

The available battery capacity is bounded between minimum

and maximum allowable storage capacity values. In this study, the

maximum battery charge quantity is set as the nominal capacity

of the battery and the minimum capacity is determined using the

maximum allowable depth of discharge (DOD) as shown in Eq. (34)

[53]:

Cbat,minimum = (1 DOD) Cbat,nominal

(34)

According to manufacturers specications, the maximum battery lifetime can be attained using a 3050% DOD [53]. In this study,

a value of 50% is considered.

4.6. Water storage tank

The water storage tank stores heated water, ready for being supplied to the demand site. It has a cylindrical shape and is surrounded

by a mantle heat exchanger connected to the solar collector. The

helical, coiled tube-water condenser of the HPWH is placed inside

the tank to release heat to water by natural convection. The storage tank is installed horizontally and uniform temperature for the

water inside is considered. The energy balance for the tank model

is given by Eq. (35):

d(mCp T )wat

= (Q HP + Q solar Q L Q loss )

dt

where ucut in , ucut off and urated are the cut in, cut off and rated wind

speeds that characterize the wind turbine system.

Using the reference wind speed data at a given height, the wind

speed (uwind ) at a certain hub height is calculated from Eq. (31) [50]:

uwind = udata

(35)

PL (t)

DC/AC

(31)

in

(30)

off

off

Hot water owing out of the tank is mixed with the tap water

before reaching the end user and thus, its ow rate (g(t)) depends on

the domestic hot water prole (h(t)). This ow rate is determined

from the following energy conservation Eq. (36):

g(t)[(Cp T )wat (Cp T )tap ] = h(t)[(Cp T )consume (Cp T )tap ]

(36)

Fig. 9. Ambient temperature for typical winter and summer days in Beirut and

Cedars.

Fig. 10. Solar radiation for typical winter and summer days in Beirut and Cedars.

(Tconsume ) is considered 45 C. As for the tap water temperature

(Ttap ), it is determined using Eq. (37) [54].

Ttap = 1.28 + 0.19Tmean1 + 0.79Tmean2

(37)

same day ( C), Tmean2 : average outdoor air temperature for past

seven days ( C)

Fig. 12. Hot water consumption proles for typical winter and summer days in

Lebanon [57].

[56]. In addition, Fig. 12 shows the daily, domestic hot water consumption proles for typical summer and winter days in Lebanon

[57].

It has been previously stated that one of the hybrid system components is a heat pump water heater, which is either an air-source

or a ground-source type. The choice of the HPWH type depends

on two parameters: the average coefcient of performance (COP)

and the surface availability for a ground heat exchanger. In fact,

Beirut is an urban city, where almost all people live in apartments of

high-story buildings. As a result, the needed surface area to install a

ground heat exchanger as a part of the GSHPWH appears to be very

difcult. Hence, ASHPWH is used as one of the hybrid system components in Beirut. As for Cedars, it is a rural town, where a ground

heat exchanger could be easily installed. Thus, to choose the appropriate HPWH type in Cedars, the average COP for heating 220 L

water volume from 48 C to 55 C, which is the operational interval

considered in this study, is evaluated for both types. Fig. 13 clearly

shows that the average COP of GSHPWH is signicantly greater

than that of ASHPWH for the winter season, while it is slightly

lower in summer at the corresponding mean seasonal temperatures

(Tmean summer and Tmean winter ). Therefore, GSHPWH is employed for

the proposed hybrid system in Cedars.

The average COP is calculated, according to equation (38):

Tfinal

The hybrid system, described in Section 3, is simulated in this

part. Matlab software [55] is utilized to develop the individual subsystems models and then to integrate them in a global model

that represents the proposed hybrid system. Two case studies are

selected to investigate the performance of the proposed system:

one is in Beirut city and the other is in Cedars town. The main reason

for selecting these sites is the evaluation of the hybrid water heating

system in diverse climatic and demographic conditions. Figs. 911

respectively illustrate the hourly ambient temperature, solar radiation and wind speed for typical summer and winter days in the

Fig. 11. Wind speed for typical winter and summer days in Beirut and Cedars.

351

COPaverage =

initial

tfinal

tinitial

(mcp dT )wat

Pconsumed dt

(38)

Subsequently, simulations for the hybrid water heating system in Beirut and Cedar are carried out for typical days of winter

and summer, starting from an average water temperature of 55 C.

Table 1 illustrates values of important parameters used in simulations.

Fig. 14 shows the variation of tank-water temperature during typical summer and winter days in Beirut and Cedars. It is

noticed that the water temperature does not reach its inferior

Fig. 13. Average COP for ASHPWH and GSHPWH in winter and summer seasons of

Cedars.

352

Fig. 14. Variation of tank-water temperature during typical winter and summer days in Cedars and Beirut.

phenomena is observed several times in winter. This is mainly

interpreted by: (1) higher hot water consumption prole in winter,

(2) higher heat losses to the ambient in winter, due to low air temperatures, and (3) low tap-water temperature in winter. Moreover,

the proposed hybrid water heater is capable of providing all hot

water needs in Beirut and Cedars throughout the year without the

need of any other energy sources.

Fig. 15 shows the useful energy transferred to the water tank

from the solar and heat pump systems in all studied cases. It is

shown that the heat pump delivers no energy to water during summer, while both systems participate in delivering energy to the hot

water tank in winter. It is noticed that the collected solar energy

and the period of solar system operation are approximately the

same for both locations in summer; however, in winter, they are

signicantly greater for Beirut. When the solar system is started,

an initial peak value for the useful collected energy is observed due

to high temperature difference between HTF at the collector outlet

and the water in the tank (>8 C). In fact, when the solar system is off

and there is no mass ow rate, the heat transfer from the absorber

plate to HTF is low, because it is done by natural convection and

thus, the plate will have signicant higher temperature than that

of HTF due to large heat storage. Afterwards, when the system is

on, HTF gains heat from both collected solar energy and pre-stored

heat in the absorber plate and thus, an initial peak energy collection

is observed.

Fig. 16 illustrates the total electrical energy consumed during

typical winter day in Beirut and Cedars. In summer, no electrical energy is needed in both case studies, because all necessary

thermal energy is secured by the solar system. As for winter, solar

energy is not sufcient and thus, electrical energy is needed to

drive the HPWH in both locations. For Beirut, it is noticed that

the HPWH intervenes in the morning (7:449:07 AM) and in the

evening (6:167:53 PM), where the electrical energy share from

battery represents about 18% and 65%, respectively. For Cedars, the

HPWH operates in the morning (7:069:34 AM), in the afternoon

(3:235:14 PM) and in the evening between (6:339:29 PM), where

the electrical energy share from battery is marginal due to low wind

speeds.

Fig. 17 illustrates the loss heat transfer rate from the water in

the tank during typical summer and winter days. It shows that heat

loss is higher in winter than it is in summer. This is because winter

has lower ambient temperatures which lead to higher temperature difference between the tank-water and ambient air and thus,

higher heat losses. Similarly, heat loss in Beirut is lower than it is

in Cedars that has lower ambient temperatures. Furthermore, it is

noticed that heat loss varies widely according to the state of the

system components. For example, heat lost from tank-water during a typical winter day in Cedars increases sharply in zones 2, 6 and

8 (Fig. 17); because the heat pump is operating and the water temperature is increasing (Fig. 14). Consequently, the water-ambient

temperature difference increases and thus, heat loss increases. In

zones 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, neither the heat pump nor the solar collector

are operating and hence, heat loss varies according to the variation

of water-ambient temperature difference. In zone 4, the solar system is on, and thus, hot HTF penetrates through the mantle gap and

transfers heat to the water in the tank. In this case, thermal losses

from the water are only from the circular end-edges of the tank and

this interprets the extremely low heat-loss values.

An indicator for the renewable energy share of the system is

dened as the renewable coverage factor (RCF), which is the ratio

of the renewable thermal energy to the total energy delivered to

the water tank. It is calculated from equation (39):

tfinal

RCF =

100 (

where Qtotal =

tinitial QHP

tfinal

tinitial

tfinal

tinitial Qsolar

Qtotal

QHP +

tfinal

tinitial

tfinal

tinitial EgridHP )

(39)

Qsolar .

Calculating RCF for all studied cases, it is found that the value

is 100% for a typical summer day in both investigated locations,

while it is about 86% and 63% for a typical winter day in Beirut

and Cedars, respectively. Therefore, as the studied cases represent

the extreme climatic conditions in Lebanon, it could be concluded

that RCF of this hybrid water heating system is very high all around

the country, year round. Hence, using such a system is supposed to

signicantly reduce the residential energy consumption and operating costs as well as to decrease the greenhouse gas emissions due

to the reduction of grid-electrical energy demand.

6. Management problem

In this section, an energetic-economic optimal management

model is introduced for the proposed hybrid water heating system.

Two objectives are aimed out of this model, where one of these

is energetic tending at minimizing the total grid-electrical energy

consumption and consequently maximizing the renewable energy

share. The other objective is economic aiming at obtaining a positive net present value (NPV) for the proposed hybrid system, which

is also greater than that of conventional electric water heaters over

a pre-specied period of time.

Solving for these objectives will optimize the number of individual systems that compose the proposed hybrid water heating

system as well as determine the optimum energy-ow distributions among different system components. This model is applied for

353

Fig. 15. Useful energy transferred to the water tank from the solar and heat pump systems during typical summer and winter days in Beirut and Cedars.

Fig. 16. Electrical energy consumed during a typical winter day in Beirut and Cedars.

the objective function f is dened as follows:

f =

j +

j x1 x2

(40)

solar units as well as the energy delivered by them, whereas this

minimizes the number of heat pump units and the energy delivered by them. Furthermore, concerning the electricity fed to HPWH,

minimizing f tends to maximize the electricity delivered by the

Fig. 17. Loss heat transfer rate from hot water tank during typical summer and winter days in Beirut and Cedars.

354

Table 1

Values of parameters used in simulation.

Flat-plate solar collector

Slope [ ]

Length, L [m]

Width, W [m]

Area, A [m2 ]

Thermal conductivity (absorber and tube), kp /kw [W/mK]

Density (absorber and tube), p /w [kg/m3 ]

Specic heat (absorber and tube) (Cp )p /(Cp )w [J/kgK]

Number of tubes

HTF [kg/s]

Total mass ow rate of HTF, m

34

1.92

0.96

1.84

401

8940

390

8

0.015

HPWH

Refrigerant

R134a

Compressor

Rated input power, Prated [W]

Swept volume, Vk [m3 ]

920

16.5 106

Length, Lc [m]

Inner diameter, Dci [m]

Outer diameter, Dco [m]

50

0.00915

0.0099

Front surface area, Afrontal [m2 ]

Air-side area, Aair-side [m2 ]

Inner diameter of tube, Dei [m]

Outer diameter of tube, Deo [m]

Pitch of traverse tubes, pttraverse [mm]

Pitch of longitudinal tubes, ptlongitudinal [mm]

Fin thickness, n [mm]

Pitch of ns, ptn [mm]

0.3445

6.17

0.00902

0.00952

25.1

25.1

0.13

1.34

Length, Le [m]

Inner diameter of tube, Dei [m]

Outer diameter of tube, Deo [m]

10

0.00902

0.00952

Borehole

Depth, Hb [m]

Radius, rb [m]

Number of vertical divisions, m

110

0.055

20

Inner radius, rwi [m]

Outer radius, rwo [m]

Spacing (center-to-center), 2d [m]

Thermal conductivity of wall, kw [W/mK]

HTF [kg/s]

Mass ow rate of HTF, m

0.013

0.016

0.06

0.4

0.25

Grout

Thermal conductivity, kgr [W/mK]

Thermal diffusivity, agr [m2 /s]

1.3

3.3 107

Soil (ground)

Thermal conductivity, ks [W/mK]

Density, s [kg/m3 ]

Specic heat (Cp )s [J/kgK]

Thermal diffusivity, as [m2 /s]

Number of annular divisions, n

3.5

2700

830

1.56 106

20

Wind turbine

Rated power, PWT, rated [kW]

Cut in wind speed, ucut in [m/s]

Cut off wind speed, ucut off [m/s]

Rated wind speed, urated [m/s]

Hub height in Beirut/Cedars, HWT [m]

Surface roughness length in Beirut/Cedars, Z0 [m]

1

3

25

10

30/20

2/0.55

Battery

Initial capacity, Ci [Wh]

Inner diameter, Di [m]

Outer diameter, Do [m]

Length, Ltank [m]

Heat transfer coefcient between tank wall and HTF [W/m2 K]

Loss heat transfer coefcient between mantle cover and

ambient air [W/m2 K]

Volume of water [L]

Initial water temperature, Twat,i [ C]

0.46

0.57

1.38

94

0.83

220

55

these units, while it minimizes the grid electricity consumption.

In addition, the dened objective function is minimized such that

the following constraints are satised (Eqs. (41)(43)):

j

tfinal

tinitial

QHPj + j

tfinal

tinitial

Qsolarj

tfinal

tinitial

QLj +

tfinal

tinitial

QLossj

(41)

tfinal

tinitial

Egrid-HPj + j

tfinal

tinitial

Est-HPj = j

tfinal

tinitial

EHPj

(42)

(43)

the optimum energy-ow distributions among the system components in a season (j) typical day. x1 and x2 are the number of solar

collectors and wind-battery base-units, respectively. QHPj and Qsolarj

are the amount of useful energy delivered to the water in the storage tank by the heat pump and solar systems in a season (j) typical

day, respectively. QLj is the energy load of the hot water consumption prole in a season (j) typical day. QLoss j is the energy loss from

the hot water tank in a season (j) typical day. Egrid-HPj and Est-HPj , are

the amount of electrical energy delivered to the heat pump by the

grid electrical network and the battery storage system in a season

(j) typical day, respectively. EHPj is the electrical energy load of the

heat pump in a season (j) typical day. NPV is the net present value.

EWH is the conventional electric water heater.

The net present value (NPV) is calculated using equation (44):

NPV =

[1 (1 + DR)n ]

AS IC

DR

(44)

AS is the annual savings, IC is the initial capital cost, n is the time

period of the study.

The annual savings are considered null for EWH, since it is

considered as the conventional water heater to which the hybrid

system is compared. On the other hand, the annual savings of the

hybrid system are evaluated using Eq. (45).

AShybrid system =

ASj

Given that:

tfinal

tinitial QLj ) +

ASj =

(45)

tfinal

tinitial QLossj

EWH

j

tfinal

tinitial

Egrid HPj

costgrid

electricity

Nd

The initial capital cost of the hybrid water heating system is

calculated from Eq. (46):

IChybrid system = cos ttank + x1 cos tsolar + x2 cos tWB + x3 cos tHP

(46)

where, costtank , costHP , costsolar , costWB and costEWH are the average capital costs for one unit of each of the hot water tank, heat

pump, solar collector, wind-battery system and conventional electric water heater, respectively.

Simulations of the developed hybrid conguration are carried

out with small base-units for the renewable components, solar and

wind systems. They are considered to operate as maximum as possible. Hence, if the optimization solution indicates a higher energy

ow from either of these systems, then this means that a larger

system is needed. This larger system is expressed as a multiplication of the studied base unit. This multiplication is dened, for

the solar unit, by x1 and is computed as a rounding-down of the

maximum between j values to the nearest integer. Similarly,

rounding-down the maximum between j values to the nearest

355

Fig. 18. Optimum energy-ow distributions among system components during typical winter and summer days in Beirut and Cedars for time periods of ve and ten years.

integer, represents the multiple (x2 ) for the case of the wind-battery

unit.

Concerning the HPWH, a small unit is chosen such that it has a

heating capacity sufcient enough to overcome the load capacity

in addition to the heat losses. In this study, a 920 W unit is adopted.

Accordingly, the optimum number of heat pump systems (x3 ) will

be one unless all values of j are zero, then x3 will be also zero.

For special cases that would exist in the optimal management

of the hybrid water heating system, a modied objective function

should be dened. A special case could exist when all values of j

are zero, given that at least one of the values of j is not zero. In

this case, the model tends to maximize the value of x2 as possible.

In addition, j values will be equal to x2 and thus, neither the

optimum number of wind-battery units nor the optimum energy

ow from them is obtained. In such cases, to solve this issue, the

model is resolved with another modied objective function f1

(equation 47), with x2 being now the rounding-up of the maximum

between j values to the nearest integer.

f1 =

j x1 + x2 +

(47)

Another special case could also exist when all values of j are

zero. In this case, the values of j will also be zero and the model

tends to maximize the value of x1 as possible. In addition, j

will be equal to x1 and thus, neither the optimum number of solar

units nor the optimum energy ow from them is obtained. To solve

this issue, the model is resolved with another objective function

f2 (Eq. (48)) with x1 being now the rounding-up of the maximum

between j values to the nearest integer.

f2 = x1 +

(48)

two investigated case studies, Beirut and Cedars, where it is solved

using lingo optimization software [58]. The following assumptions

are considered:

Each year is considered to be divided equally between summer

and winter.

The investigated typical winter and summer days represent all

days of winter and summer, respectively.

The maximum number of solar collector units that could be

installed for one residential unit is two in Beirut and four in Cedars

(x1 = 2 (Beirut); x1 = 4 (Cedars)).

The maximum number of wind-battery units that could be

installed for one residential unit is two in Beirut and four in Cedars

(x2 = 2 (Beirut); x2 = 4 (Cedars)).

An efciency of 90% is considered for the conventional EWH [59].

The mean electricity-tariff is considered to be 0.24 UScent/kWh.

This value is obtained from the average value of the real cost of

grid electricity (about 17 UScent/kWh [60]) and that of the electricity produced by private generators (about 0.31 UScent/kWh

Table 2

Results for the optimum number of system components as well as capital cost and

annual savings of the hybrid system.

No. of units

Time-period

5 (years)

x1

x2

x3

Capital cost (US$)

NPV (US$)

Annual savings (US$)

10 (years)

Beirut

Cedars

Beirut

Cedars

2

0

1

1550

525.5

547.5

1

0

1

2400

532

618

2

1

1

3550

39.5

584

4

0

1

3600

1104

669.5

[61]), because both electricity sources (grid and private generators) constitute the electricity sector in almost all Lebanese zones.

The average initial capital cost of one unit for each of the hot water

tank, solar collector, wind-battery system and conventional EWH,

as obtained from the Lebanese market, are 400, 400, 2000 and 190

US$, respectively.

The average initial capital costs of an ASHPWH and a GSHPWH

are 350 and 1600 US$, respectively. These values are taken from

international markets, because they are not found, to the best of

the authors knowledge, in Lebanon.

The energetic, economic optimal management model is investigated for two time periods: ve and ten years. Fig. 18 shows the

optimal energy-ow distributions among system components for

the two case studies during typical winter and summer days for the

two studied time periods. In addition, Table 2 illustrates, for each

case, the optimal number of units for each system component, as

well as the overall initial capital cost, the annual savings and the

NPV. It is shown that: (1) the initial cost of the hybrid system for

the investigated cases is between 1550$ and 3600$, which could

be considered acceptable, especially if incentive loans were found;

(2) the annual savings range between 574.5$ and 669.5$ and (3)

the greatest NPV of the hybrid system is obtained in cedars and the

lowest in Beirut over 10 year time period.

7. Conclusions

In this study, a domestic hybrid water heating system is proposed and modeled. The system is composed of a solar collector,

air-source/geothermal heat pump water heater, wind turbine, battery and a hot water storage tank. Numerical dynamic models of

each of the individual components is presented and validated. Simulations for typical days in summer and winter of two Lebanese

cities, Beirut and Cedars, are conducted using small base units

(1.84 m2 solar collector, 920 W HPWH, 1 kW wind turbine). Results

show that the solar system alone is sufcient for Beirut and Cedars

in the summer season. As for winter, both heat pump and solar

systems participate in delivering the needed energy for the water

tank. For Beirut, it is noticed that the HPWH intervenes in the

356

the electrical energy share from battery represents about 18% and

65%, respectively. For Cedars, the HPWH operates in the morning (7:069:34 AM), in the afternoon (3:235:14 PM) and in the

evening between (6:339:29 PM), where the electrical energy share

from battery is very marginal due to low wind speeds. In addition, a renewable-share indicator, the renewable coverage factor

(RCF), is dened and evaluated for all case studies. It is shown

that RCF, in Lebanon, is always above 63% and could reach 100%,

as for the case of summer in Beirut and Cedars. Furthermore, an

energetic-economic optimal management model is suggested for

the proposed hybrid water heating system. This model tends to

optimize the size of the hybrid system, where a multiplication of

the base units for each component is to be selected. In addition,

the optimal energy-ow distributions among the system components are also obtained. Economically, the model is solved for a

net present value (NPV) of the hybrid system being greater than

that of a conventional electric water heater. The developed model

is applied for the two considered case studies (Beirut and Cedars),

where two time periods, ve and ten years, are investigated and an

average electricity price is adopted. In Beirut, for the time period

of ve years, the results yield two solar collectors and one heat

pump base units without any wind-battery units. For ten years

time period, same results are obtained with an additional one windbattery unit. In Cedars, for the time period of ve years, the results

yield one solar collector and one heat pump base units. For ten years

time period, four solar collector and one heat pump base units are

obtained. It is noticed that the optimization results yield no windbattery units for Cedars. The main results of the energetic-economic

optimal management model show that: (1) the initial cost of the

hybrid system for the investigated cases is between 1550$ and

3600$, which could be considered acceptable, especially if incentive

loans were found, (2) the annual savings range between 574.5$ and

669.5$ and (3) the greatest net present value for the hybrid system

is obtained in cedars and the lowest in Beirut over 10 year time

period. Finally, the proposed optimal management model yields

reliable results and could be generalized to other locations.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank the Azm research center at

EDST-Lebanese University as well as the Lebanese National Council

for Scientic Research (CNRS) for their support.

References

[1] LEBANON, Social Impact Analysis For the Electricity and Water Sectors. The

World Bank, MENA Knowledge and Learning. Quick notes series, Number 14,

November 2009.

[2] M. Levine, D. rge-Vorsatz, K. Blok, L. Geng, D. Harvey, S. Lang, G. Levermore, A.

Mongameli Mehlwana, S. Mirasgedis, A. Novikova, J. Rilling, H. Yoshino, Residential and commercial buildings, in: B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave,

L.A. Meyer (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working

Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom/New

York, NY, USA, 2007.

[3] Energy Efciency Trends and Policies in the Household & Tertiary sectors

in the EU 27.Lessons from the ODYSSEE/MURE project. ADEME-Agence de

lEnvironnement et la Maitrise de lEnergie, November 2009.

[4] C. Aguilar, D.J. White, D.L. Ryan, Domestic Water Heating and Water Heater

Energy Consumption in Canada, Canadian Building Energy End-Use Data and

Analysis Center-CBEEDAC 2005-RP-02.

[5] State of Australian Cities 2010, Published by the Australian government, Infrastructure Australia, Major Cities Unit under the number: INFRA-09173, March

2010.

[6] Energy Efciency in Russia: Updated Reserves. The World Bank Group report,

2008.

[7] M. Aoshima, Energy Consumption Survey in Japans residential sector,

EDMC/IEEJ The Energy Data and Modeling Center/The Institute of Energy

Economics, February 2010.

[8] J.A. Rosas-Floresa, D. Rosas-Floresa, D.M. Glvez, Saturation energy consumption, CO2 emission and energy efciency from urban and rural households

appliances in Mexico, Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 1018.

[9] N. Zhou, M.A. McNeil, D. Fridley, J. Lin, L. Price, S. de la Rue du Can, J. Sathaye,

M. Levine, Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook. Ernest

Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division-LBNL 61904, January 2007.

[10] Natural resource accounts, Energy accounts for South Africa, Statistics South

Africa (SSA), Discussion document-April 2005, 19952001.

[11] A. Houri, Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon: Practical Applications,

ISESCO Science and Technology Vision 1 (2005) 6568.

[12] Lebanon Social Impact Analysis-Electricity and Water Sectors, The World Bank,

Report No. 48993-LB, 2009.

[13] B.J. Huang, J.P. Chyng, Integral-type solar-assisted heat pump water heater,

Renewable Energy 16 (1999) 731734.

[14] B.J. Huang, J.P. Chyng, Performance characteristics of integral type solar assisted

heat pump, Solar Energy 71 (6) (2001) 403414.

[15] J.P. Chyng, C.P. Lee, B.J. Huang, Performance analysis of a solar-assisted heat

pump water heater, Solar Energy 74 (2003) 3344.

[16] B.J. Huang, C.P. Lee, Long-term performance of solar-assisted heat pump water

heater, Renewable Energy 29 (2003) 633639.

[17] B.J. Huang, C.P. Lee, Performance evaluation method of solar-assisted

heat pump water heater, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007)

568575.

[18] X. Guoying, Z. Xiaosong, D. Shiming, A simulation study on the operating

performance of a solar-air source heat pump water heater, Applied Thermal

Engineering 26 (2006) 12571265.

[19] T.N. Anderson, G.L. Morrison, Effect of load pattern on solar-boosted

heat pump water heater performance, Solar Energy 81 (2007) 1386

1395.

[20] A. Nuntaphan, C. Chansena, T. Kiatsiriroat, Performance analysis of solar water

heater combined with heat pump using refrigerant mixture, Applied Energy 86

(2009) 748756.

[21] H. Li, H. Yang, Study on performance of solar assisted air source heat pump

systems for hot water production in Hong Kong, Applied Energy 87 (2010)

28182825.

[22] B.J. Huang, J.P. Lee, J.P. Chyng, Heat-pipe enhanced solar-assisted heat pump

water heater, Solar Energy 78 (2005) 375381.

[23] A.L. Biaoua, M.A. Bernier, Achieving total domestic hot water production with

renewable energy, Building and Environment 43 (2008) 651660.

[24] V. Trillat-Berdal, B. Souyri, G. Fraisse, Experimental study of a ground-coupled

heat pump combined with thermal solar collectors, Energy and Buildings 38

(2006) 14771484.

[25] E. Kjellsson, G. Hellstrom, B. Perers, Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings, Energy

35 (2010) 26672673.

[26] K. Bakirci, O. Ozyurt, K. Comakli, O. Comakli, Energy analysis of a solar-ground

source heat pump system with vertical closed-loop for heating applications,

Energy 36 (2011) 32243232.

[27] J.A. Dufe, W.A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 3rd edition,

John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2006.

[28] Y.A. Cengel, Heat Transfer, A Practical Approach, 2nd edition, 2002.

[29] J. Padet, Convection thermique et massique, Nombre de Nusselt: partie 1, 2005.

[30] H.M.S. Hussein, M.A. Mohamad, A.S. El-Asfouri, Transient investigation of a

thermosyphon at-plate solar collector, Applied Thermal Engineering 19 (1999)

789800.

[31] K.G.T. Hollands, T.E. Unny, G.D. Raithby, L. Konicek, Free convection heat transfer across inclined air layers, Transactions of the ASME Journal of Heat Transfer

98 (1976).

[32] J.P. Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986.

[33] Solar Collector Test Report on MSC-32 American Energy Technologies Inc.

Florida Solar Energy Center, Testing And Laboratories Division, 1988.

[34] F. Fardoun, O. Ibrahim, A. Zoughaib, Dynamic Modeling of an Air Source Heat

Pump Water Heater, in: 10th International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump

Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 2011.

[35] F. Fardoun, O. Ibrahim, A. Zoughaib, Quasi-steady state modeling of an air source

heat pump water heater, Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 325330.

[36] S. Bendapudi, J.E. Braun, E.A. Groll, A comparison of moving-boundary and

nite-volume formulations for transients in centrifugal chillers, International

Journal of Refrigeration 31 (2008) 14371452.

[37] B.P. Rasmussen, A.G. Alleyne, Dynamic Modeling and Advanced Control of Air

Conditioning and Refrigeration System, ACRC: TR-244, 2006.

[38] B. Li, A.G.A. Alleyne, Full Dynamic Model of a HVAC Vapor Compression Cycle

Interacting with a Dynamic Environment, in: American Control Conference,

Hyatt Regency Riverfront, St. Louis, MO, USA, June 1012, 2009.

[39] T.L. McKinley, A.G. Alleyne, An advanced nonlinear switched heat exchanger

model for vapor compression cycles using the moving-boundary method, International Journal of Refrigeration 31 (2008) 12531264.

[40] L. Fu, G. Ding, C. Zhang, Dynamic simulation of air-to-water dual-mode

heat pump with screw compressor, Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003)

16291645.

[41] E. Granryd, I. Ekroth, P. Lundqvist, . Melinder, B. Palm, P. Rohlin, Refrigerating

Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, 2005.

[42] S.W. Churchill, H.H.S. Chu, Correlating equations for laminar and turbulent free

convection from a horizontal cylinder, International Journal of Heat and Mass

Transfer 18 (1975) 10491053.

[43] N.Z. Jiang, G.Q. Yao, Q.J. Zhou, Technologies and Applications of Heat Pump

for Air-conditioning, Mechanical Industry Press, Beijing, 1997, pp. 125126,

195196 (in Chinese).

[44] J.J. Guo, J.Y. Wu, R.Z. Wang, S. Li, Experimental research and operation optimization of an air-source heat pump water heater, Applied Energy 88 (2011)

41284138.

[45] C.K. Lee, H.N. Lam, Computer simulation of borehole ground heat exchangers

for geothermal heat pump systems, Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 12861296.

[46] G. Hellstrom, Ground Heat Storage, Thermal Analysis of Duct Storage Systems

(Doctoral thesis), Department of Mathematical Physics, University of Lund,

Lund, Sweden, 1991.

[47] T. Kasuda, P.R. Archenbach, Earth Temperature and Thermal Diffusivity at

Selected Stations in the United States, ASHRAE Transactions (1965) 71

(part 1).

[48] G.A. Florides, P. Christodoulides, P. Pouloupatis, An analysis of heat ow through

a borehole heat exchanger validated model, Applied Energy 92 (2012) 523533.

[49] R. Pallabazzer, Evaluation of wind generator potentiality, Solar Energy 55

(1995) 4959.

[50] A. Ouammia, H. Dagdougui, R. Sacile, Mimet, A. Monthly, seasonal assessment

of wind energy characteristics at four monitored locations in Liguria region

(Italy), Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 19591968.

[51] G. Notton, S. Diaf, L. Stoyanov, Hybrid photovoltaic/wind energy systems for

remote locations, Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 666677.

357

[52] S. Diaf, D. Diaf, M. Belhamel, M. Haddadi, A. Louche, A methodology for optimal sizing of autonomous hybrid PV/wind system, Energy Policy 35 (2007)

57085718.

[53] B. Ai, H. Yang, H. Shen, X. Liao, Computer-aided design of PV/wind hybrid

system, Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 14911512.

[54] M. Nabeshima, Techniques of Statistical Data Analysis to Offer Suggestive

Observation for the Facility Designer (PhD thesis), Osaka City University, 1998.

[55] Matlab software, 2009.

[56] Meteonorm, Global Meteorological Database, version 7.

[57] A. Houri, H. Salloum, A. Ali, A.K. Abdel Razik, L. Houri, Assessment of Energy and

Financial Performance of a Solar Hot Water System in a Single Family Dwelling:

Case study from Marjeyoun-South Lebanon, LCEC-The Lebanese Center for

Energy Conservation, 2009.

[58] Lingo users guide, Lindo systems Inc., 2011 www.lindosystems.org

[59] Domestic Water Heating Fuel Cost Comparisons, Nova Scotia Department of

Energy-Publications & Reports, Canada, February 2011.

[60] MEW-Ministry of Energy and Water. The minister: Jebran Bassil. Policy paper

for the electricity sector, June 2010.

[61] Energy Ministry sets price for generator services, The Daily Star, November

2012, Available at: http://dailystar.com.lb/Business/Lebanon/2012/Nov-02/

193610-energy-ministry-sets-price-for-generator-services.

ashx#axzz2SWuN7Y6L

- Wallingford-Town-of-Residential-Solar-Hot-Water-Incentive-ProgramЗагружено:Genability
- heat pumpЗагружено:Jasmine Lau
- Vuilleumier Heat PumpЗагружено:Sylvain Mathieu
- 112752498 Eslami Nejad Bernier 2011 Coupling of Geothermal Heat Pumps With Thermal Solar Collectors Using Double U Tube Boreholes With Two Independent CircЗагружено:Carlos Lehman
- Air ConditioningЗагружено:JayadevDamodaran
- Profile of CESЗагружено:Pavan Kumar
- Aramu Marco SummaryЗагружено:ahmedhand
- Employee QuizЗагружено:Cam Fehr
- Solar EnergyЗагружено:Rositsa Dimova
- Presentation on Solar EnergyЗагружено:Deep Mandloi
- Dhp Install Vmbma202 EnЗагружено:tdecebalus
- Refrigerant UnitЗагружено:Alif Aikal Che Hat
- Let 8217 SdosomethingЗагружено:Silvia_282008ro
- Special Offers Sheet October 2009Загружено:RVR_Energy
- AHU CatalogueЗагружено:Wai Ee Yap
- Lecture 8 ChE v2 [Compatibility Mode]Загружено:Nico Paulo Pedro
- Sponsor-TRNSYS.pdfЗагружено:dpa2007
- 04_Jesko.pdfЗагружено:Hk
- Solar+Product+catalogueЗагружено:Fernando Consuegra
- geo exchange heat pumpЗагружено:api-19775783
- Black Plastic Pipes Solar Heating SystemsЗагружено:User20141
- essayЗагружено:api-302421167
- ABSTRACT (1).docxЗагружено:Chandy Alex Koshy
- e Elective Aren 6Загружено:Ranjith PK
- 226 Water Cooled _ Commercial Solutions)Загружено:kktay
- 17. SolarЗагружено:mitranga
- Essential SkillsЗагружено:Diana Porto
- Solar PowerЗагружено:Beti Perez
- Solar PowerЗагружено:Beti Perez
- Gar CA Rodrguez 2007Загружено:Cristian Neyra

- P0666Загружено:Ramalho12345
- exerc_7.1Загружено:Ramalho12345
- Manual Solution-Norton Cap.3-Exerc 3.3Загружено:Ramalho12345
- Design of Machinery - Problem 5-6Загружено:Ramalho12345
- P0683Загружено:Ramalho12345
- P0664Загружено:Ramalho12345
- Exercise-Chapter 4-Adrian Bejan Advanced Engineering ThermodynamicsЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- Resolucao_cap7_exerc_7.5Загружено:Ramalho12345
- 3_tribologyЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- Resolucao_cap7_exerc_7.4Загружено:Ramalho12345
- Resolucao_cap7_exerc_7.3Загружено:Ramalho12345
- Resolucao_cap7_exerc_7.12Загружено:Ramalho12345
- Resolucao_cap7_exerc_7.2Загружено:Ramalho12345
- Resolucao_cap7_exerc_7.1Загружено:Ramalho12345
- Resolucao_cap6_exerc_6.1Загружено:Ramalho12345
- NortonЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- 7-Flow Boiling of R245fa in 1.1 Mm Diameter Stainless Stell, Brass and Copper TubesЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- 9-Single Phase Flow Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in Rectangular Metallic MicrichannelsЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- 8-Two-phase Flow Patterns and Heat Transfer Characteristics of R134a Refrigerant During Flow Boiling in a Single Retangular Micro-channelЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- 10-Liquefaction of Oxyfuel Flue Gases - Experimental Results and Modeling of Heat Transfer Coefficients for Pure CO2Загружено:Ramalho12345
- 5-Dynamic Model of a Transcritical CO2 Ejector Expansion Refrigeration SystemЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- 4-Flow Pattern Transition Models and Correlations for Flow Boiling in Mini-tubesЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- 3-Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Multiphase Flow in a Flat Plate Solar Energy CollectorЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- 2-Inlet Flow Effects in Micro-channels in the Laminar and Transitional Regimes on Single-phase Heat Transfer Coefficients and Friction FactorsЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- 1-Investigation of Two-phase Heat Transfer Coefficients of Argon-freon Cryogenic Mixed RefrigerantsЗагружено:Ramalho12345
- mpx4115Загружено:Mohamed Awad

- First International Congress on the AnthЗагружено:Edin Bujak
- An e-Readiness Assessment of ICT Integration in Public Primary Schools in Kenya Case of Nyeri CountyЗагружено:ATS
- Hydraulic StructureЗагружено:sahilkaushik
- User Manual - Service Manual - Precision - Durafuge 200 - 36100128 Rev HЗагружено:luroguita
- HonoriumЗагружено:Fauzan Mirza
- Catalogue BrookЗагружено:MaiPrachanart
- Amanda Wallis - Entrepreneurial App WorkbookЗагружено:walliama
- Stanford SR830Загружено:dmcgibb
- UntitledЗагружено:eurolex
- UNOC Vacancies Independent onlineЗагружено:The Independent Magazine
- Advertising and Consumer BehaviourЗагружено:Avinash Mathias
- template for dd pickle gardenЗагружено:api-254032952
- 5383 StatsЗагружено:api-3698598
- honda CP CRF150F (2003 ~ 2005)Загружено:Francisco Castro Rodriguez
- portal vein measurements by real time sonographyЗагружено:dr nuriel anwar
- Air India vs Spice JetЗагружено:Gayathri Atiriya
- SoloPCB Designer Users GuideЗагружено:amit.18.singh2466
- Issue : 10th July 2011Загружено:Lalhlimpuia
- Instrucciones para la inspección y la limpieza de pipetas EppendorfЗагружено:Carlos Roque
- Bidirectional Grid-Tie Flyback Converter Applied ToЗагружено:Arceu Campos
- Drilling Fluids SummaryЗагружено:Suta Vijaya
- 51804254 Project Report of HyundaiЗагружено:Atul Chandra
- Conveyor IdlersЗагружено:Ed Ace
- Deep Web Links .Union SitesЗагружено:Jake Gutierrez
- Me Ha Rad Van Cement in BricksЗагружено:Mehar Babu Ravula
- IQRM_book_2014_Dec8.pdfЗагружено:Jefferson Paul Tarapues Cando
- 35447-1309-69777-1-10-20171114.pdfЗагружено:TRIA NURALIFIANI
- Dear Toronto: Civic leaders pen open letter supporting Sidewalk LabsЗагружено:Toronto Star
- FordításraЗагружено:Robii Vass
- s46mcc8 edisi 2010.pdfЗагружено:Siskal Dd

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.