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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 218

Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

DESIGN OF ROBUST TYPE-2 FUZZY LOGIC POWER SYSTEM


STABILIZER USING HOPF BIFURCATIONS
I.E.S.Naidu*, K.R.Sudha**
*Electrical Engineering Department, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam
** Electrical Engineering Department, Andhra university, Visakhapatnam

ABSTRACT
A power system shifts to a state outside the stability
boundary encountered by unstable limit cycles, at this
point it will not return to the stable operating point. This
resembles an increasing oscillatory behaviour in a
nonlinear continuous time dynamic systems. Locating
the unstable limit cycles and enhancing the stability
margin is a difficult task. The effective devices for
damping these oscillations are Power System Stabilizers
(PSSs). The conventional power system stabilizer
(CPSS) considered is lead-lag PSS. The conventional
power system stabilizer enhances the stability margin of
the power system. The dynamic stability margin of
power system is evaluated by finding the loading
condition that result in Hopf bifurcations. At this load
the power system exhibits a pair of purely imaginary
eigenvalues. Literature shows that a Fuzzy Logic Power
System Stabilizer (FLPSS) is a controller to cover a
wider range of operating conditions. In the present paper
a type-2 fuzzy logic power system stabilizer is used to
damp the power system oscillations. The parameters of
the stabilizer are designed for the loading condition
resulting in Hopf bifurcations of power system with
CPSS. To obtain the best damping characteristics, speed
deviation ( ), derivative of speed deviation ( ) and
power angle ( ) are taken as input to type-2 fuzzy
logic power system stabilizer. The proposed controller is
included in the small signal model of the power system.
The performance of the proposed controller is tested
over varied operating conditions. The efficacy of the
proposed controller is compared to Convectional Power
System Stabilizer.
Keywords - Power system stability, Power System
Stabilizers, Conventional power system stabilizer and
Type-2 Fuzzy Logic power system stabilizer

1. INTRODUCTION
Power
Systems
exhibit
poorly
damped
electromechanical oscillations relating to lightly damped
modes. The lightly damped electromechanical modes
arise from factors, which intended to enhance the
synchronizing torque. For a change in any of the system

parameters such as loading conditions, these modes are


less damped resulting in unstable oscillations, leading to
a phenomenon of Black Out. To prevent such
problems, many significant efforts are made in
developing techniques to identify, predict and control
such stability problems. More research has been carried
out on characterizing and controlling the oscillatory
behavior in power systems [1]. Electromechanical
oscillations are associated with Hopf bifurcations (HB),
which is important to restrain its power transfer
capability. Hopf bifurcation theory computes the
existence of a limit cycle around an operating point and
the stability limit cycle.
The nonlinear system equations are linearized
about an equilibrium point to describe the dynamic
behavior of a power system [2]. At Hopf bifurcation, a
conjugate pair of eigenvalues of the linearized system
migrates across the imaginary axis. It can be proved
from the Hopf bifurcation theory that sustained
oscillations appear on a power system due to a sudden
change in system loading. When the system undergoes
sudden change, sustained oscillations associated with a
pair of eigenvalues of the system at a particular loading
condition crosses the imaginary axis of the complex
plane from the left half-plane to the right half-plane [3].
To analyze such oscillations for a wide range of
operating conditions and to enhance the stability margin
of a power system the sustained oscillations must be
damped out. Hence, the effective devices for damping
these oscillations are Power System Stabilizers (PSS).
A Power System Stabilizer (PSS) which has the
capability of providing proper stabilization signals over
a wide range of operating conditions can be effectively
applied if its parameters are tuned by understanding the
characteristics of the power system under study [4].
Many investigations have been performed on the
methods to explore the existence of limit cycles of a

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 219


Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

particular system [5]. The design of PSS can be made


using various historical methods like trial and error, pole
placement technique, etc. The conventional methods
suffer from two major limitations 1. Long processing
time and 2. Fixed parameters around an operating point.
But the designs of this PSS require the computation of
the system eigenvalues for each operating condition and
compute the damping ratio corresponding to each of the
system modes in all operating conditions [6]. To control
the limit cycles by applying these methods depend on
the dimensional-size of the state space. As the size of the
system increases, the size of the state matrix increases,
thereby increasing the complexity in locating the limit
cycles. And hence the design methods become model
dependent.
The fuzzy logic control technique has been a
good replacement for conventional control techniques,
which require highly complicated models [7]. Many
researchers have realized that fuzzy logic control can
perform very effectively when the operating conditions
change rapidly and also when the system nonlinearities
are significant. Conventional controllers designed for
one operating condition are not effective for strong, nonlinear systems and over a wide range of operating
conditions [8]. The major advantage of the Fuzzy Logic
Controller is its model independent.But the parameters
of Fuzzy Logic Controller are determined by trial and
error method [9]. This method is time consuming and
does not guarantee an optimal controller.
In the present paper, a case study considering Single
Machine Connected to Infinite Bus Bar is presented to
demonstrate the enhancement of the stability margin by
systematically controlling its limit cycles on
plane. The present work investigates on the
enhancement of the stability margin by incorporating
CPSS,type-2 Fuzzy Logic Power System stabilizer in the
excitation system tuned for the loading condution
resulting in hopf bifurcations of power system equipped
with CPSS.

2. POWER SYSTEM MODEL


The power system under study is a single machine
connected to an infinite bus through a tie-line. The
infinite bus is represented by the thevenin equivalent of
a large inter connected power system. The machine is
outfitted with a static exciter. The non-linear model of

the system is described using following differential


equations [1].
=

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

The above equations can be linearized around an


operating point for small deviations and is considered
from [19].
2.1. Tuning of Conventional Power System Stabilizers
For the system considered to analyse the
enhancement of stability margin, the limit cycles are
controlled by designing an adaptive lead-lag PSS, whose
parameters tuned are K, T1, T2 and Washout time
constant, Tw is considered as 10 seconds. The single
stage PSS with Wash-Out is in the form
(5)
U GPSS

GPSS

sTw
1 sT1
K
1 sTw
1 sT 2

(6)

The hopf bifurcations of the power system without


controller can be identified by observing the eigenvalues
of the system state matrix for variations of system real
and reactive power. The eigenvalues state matrix shifts
from left half of s-plane right half. At a particular set of
P,Q the system eigenvalues become imaginary. At this
loading the system exhibits undamped oscillation and
the eigenvalues are said to be under holf bifurcations
[10]
This loading is taken for effectively tuning conventional
power system stabilizer. The power system stabilizer
tuned for this loading condition will work effectively
wide range of operating conditions.

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 220


Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

2.2. Tuning of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Power System


Stabilizer
The analytical structure of three input three output T2
FLPSS similar to PID Controller is designed
heuristically with 27 rules [18].
In the Type-2 FLPSS controller, the gains are converted
to adaptive gains by introducing FLC at the input of the
PID Controller. The parameters are tuned by using a
systematic approach [19].
The analytical structure of fuzzy logic power system
stabilizer is considered similar to PID controller [25].
The loading condition that results in hopf bifurcations of
power system with imaginary eigenvalues for power
system equipped with CPSS is used for tuning of type-2
fuzzy logic power system stabilizer for further
enhancement of stability margin.

Figure 2 speed deviation without controller P=1, Q=0

The real and reactive power loading on the system are


considered as varaibles and the eigen values of system
state matrix is evaluated for each loading contion. The
system exhibits imaginary eigenvalues at a loading of
P+jQ= 1.6-j0.6238.
The response in rotor angle
deviation of SMIB under different loading conditions is
shown in Fig.3

2.3. Test system


The System under study in is a thermal generating station
consisting of four 555MVA, 24KV, and 60Hz units. The
network reactances are in p.u. on 2220 MVA, 24 KV
base(referred to LT side of step-up transformer). Resistances
are assumed to be negligible.

Equivalent generator parameters in p.u:

X d = 1.81, X d = 0.3, X q = 1.76, Tdo = 8sec, H =

Figure 3 Rotor angle deviation without controller under hopf


bifurcations

3.5MJ/MVA, Vt = 1.0
Exciter: k E = 25, TE = 0.05Sec

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The response in rotor angle deviation and speed
deviation of SMIB at P+jQ= 1+j0 is shown in Fig. 1 and
Fig. 2.

Figure 1 Rrotor angle deviation without controller P=1, Q=0

The CPSS is tuned for the loading condition that is


resulting in hopf bifurcation of the power system. The
CPSS tuned for this loading is effectively working under
wide range of operating conditions. The response in
angle deviation and rotor speed deviation of SMIB under
the loading of hopf bifurcation are given in Fig.5 and
Fig. 6.

Figure 4 Rotor angle deviation with CPSS for P=1.6, Q=0.6238

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 221


Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

Figure 5 Speed deviation with CPSS for P=1.6, Q=-0.6238

The same loading condition is used for tuning of type-2


fuzzy logic power system stabilizer. The T2FPSS is
working more effectively over wide range of operating
conditions. Fig. 6 shows the response in rotor angle
deviations of SMIB equipped with T2FPSS under the
hopf bifurcation loading condition.

Figure 8 Speed deviation of SMIB with different controllers


for P=1.2, Q=0.2

From the results it can be observed that the


T2FPSS tuned for loading condition resulting hopf
bifurcation is working effectively when compared to
CPSS over wide range of operating conditions.

4. CONCLUSIONS

Figure 6 Rotor angle deviation of SMIB with T2FPSS for


P=1.6, Q=-0.6238

The response in rotor angle deviation of SMIB with


different controllers for P+jQ = 1.2+j0.2 is shown in Fig.
8.

In this paper a T2FPSS is designed for loading condition


that results in hopf bifurcations of power system with
CPSS is effectively working over wide range of
operating conditions. The proposed controller is showing
its superiority over the CPSS over wide range of
operating conditions. From simulation results we
conclude that the T2FPSS tuned for loading condition
resulting hopf bifurcations is working effectively when
compared to conventional power system stabilizer.

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