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Three-phase Three Legs Power Transformers

Asymmetrical Modes Study for Zigzag Windings

Bosneaga V., Suslov V.
Power Engineering institute, Academy of sciences, Chisinau, Moldova
for the case of isolated neutral on the medium voltage side and
Abstract. Based on the previously proposed model the simulations grounded neutral on the low voltage side. For calculations let
were made and characteristic features of steady asymmetric use the catalogue data of Minsk (Belorussia) transformer plant
modes of three-phase core type (three leg) transformer were (http://metz.by/) for distribution transformers for direct
investigated for zigzag winding connection, taking into
sequence. For the transformer type TMG, rated power 100 kVA,
consideration the electromagnetic coupling of windings, located on
different legs. Calculations and analysis were conducted based on rated voltages 10/0.4 kV we have the following data: no load
distribution transformer 100 kVA, 10/0.4 kV and include the most (excitation) current I0 =2,6%, short-circuit voltage Usc= 4,7 %,
typical steady unbalanced conditions, arising at various short no load active power losses 0=270 W, short circuit losses
circuits, including those, accompanied by the presence of zero sc=2270 W.
sequence magnetic flux. For the considered modes vector
In addition, for this transformer the manufacturer provided
diagrams of currents and voltages, as well as the relative values of measured from the high voltage (HV) side zero sequence
the magnetic flux were constructed, which provide a clear visual impedance (for the scheme Y/y0) Z0 = 1.3 Ohm, and active
representation of their features. It was demonstrated, that if the power losses at no load conditions P = 2 kW. Based on these
numbers of secondary windings turns are unequal, zigzag scheme
data, in accordance with known formulas (see for example [22,
no longer has advantages in asymmetric modes. These advantages
also disappear at single-phase short-circuit of one secondary pp. 185-190]), one can calculate effective (RMS) values of the
winding. Additional measures should be taken for the reliable windings rated currents for HV and low voltage (LV) sides: IHV
protection against such short-circuits and prevention of = 5.8 A and ILV = 152 A, excitation current on HV side I0 =
0.15 A, rated windings voltages on HV and LV sides UHV=5.77
transformer damage.
kV and ULV = 127 V, resistances and windings pairs shortIndex Terms- Power Transformer, core type, three limbs, circuit reactance, as well as all other variables, needed to
asymmetric modes, zigzag, zero sequence, magnetic flux.
elaborate the model.
A similar version of the transformer is considered, for
example, in [11], [12]. In [12] it is presented some data on the
values of short-circuit currents for different windings
Investigations and calculations of power transformers connections of distribution transformers with highest voltage of
asymmetrical modes were conducted in many publications, the 6 kV, including for zigzag diagram, but for a correct comparison
basics were laid in the classic books by Petrov G.N., Voldek with results, obtained here, it is necessary to have more detailed
A.I., Vasiutynski S.B., [1]-[4], etc., then the study was data on transformers parameters, used in [12]. For greater
continued in [5]-[10], etc. (the list is not exhaustive). clarity, let us present the results of calculations not in the form
Nevertheless, the publications, developing various aspects of the of tables with values, but rather in the form of vector diagrams
problem, including the creation of new models of three-phase (VD), and numerical values only as needed. On Fig. 1, 2 are
transformers continue to appear, including in the recent years shown the voltages of the primary and secondary windings of
[13]-[20]. However, there is no publication where it is discussed transformer with zigzag diagram in initial symmetric mode (for
in detail asymmetric modes for the scheme with zigzag windings the case, when the turns numbers of both secondary windings,
connection. To perform this work a three-phase model for three connected in zigzag, are the same). The windings, located on the
limb core transformer, proposed by the authors and described in same limb and belonging to one of the phases are designated by
[21] was used.
the letters A, B, C, the numbers 1, 2, 3 refer to the primary and
secondary windings. Accordingly, the loads voltages include the
II. CALCULATION ANS ANALASYS OF ASYMMETRIC MODES notation of windings, which are connected together to obtain the
corresponding load voltage (wherein the first is recorded the
Let us consider with the help of elaborated model typical winding, connected to the neutral point, for example, a load
features of steady asymmetrical modes of three phase, core type voltage U
distribution transformer with zigzag windings connection Y/z0

978-1-4673-6487-4/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE

On subsequent figures the obtained results are given in the

form of vector diagrams for various asymmetrical modes
calculations. Fig. 3 shows the voltages of LV windings and
loads for the single-phase short circuit to ground (shorted load is
A2B3), as initial mode is taken the symmetrical loading
according to Fig. 1, 2. As it can be seen from VD on Fig. 3,
voltages of "healthy" loads UB2C3 and UC2B3 (shown in dashed
lines) are somewhat less than the nominal voltage, and the phase
angle is more than conventional of 120. Voltages system of
secondary windings, forming zigzag (voltage of primary
windings A1,B1,C1 look very similar, so are not shown) is
distorted, wherein the voltages on the shorted windings A2,B3
(as expected ) are equal and much less, than nominal value. The
voltages of remaining windings A3,B2, forming healthy loads,
are much lower than the nominal value of 127 V and have a
phase shift much less than normal of 120, and the voltages of
windings C2, C3 are also equal, and their value is close to
nominal value. Current of one load phase short-circuit, obtained
here by calculation, is equal to 113 A, this value is
approximately consistent with the result (102 A), presented in
[12], taking into account that in [12] the voltage was equal to 6
kV. Pattern of magnetic fluxes in the limbs of magnetic core for

this mode is shown in Fig.4, from which it is seen, that the sum
of limbs fluxes is close to zero, and hence the zero sequence flux
in the air under these conditions is missing, which, as is known,
is a significant advantage of the zigzag connection. In addition,
the calculations fulfilled confirm that the star of HV windings
voltages remains symmetrical, and no displacement of the
neutral is observed. It should be noted, that these beneficial

1 r.u.

Fig.4. Relative values of limbs magnetic fluxes at one phase short-circuit.

Fig 1. VD of Y-connected primary

symmetric load conditions.

Fig.2. VD of loads and secondary

windings voltages for zigzag connection at symmetrical conditions.

200 V

properties of zigzag connection only take place in case of the

equal numbers or turns of windings, constituting zigzag (see Fig.
2, voltages UA2=UB3 and so on.). At Fig.5, 6 are presented VD
for the considered mode of short-circuit in one phase of load,
corresponding to the ratio of secondary windings turns of 2:1 (in
this case the angle between load and respective winding voltages
will be less than 30, and will be close to 15). From Fig.5,
which shows the relative values of fluxes in the core limbs, it
follows the appearance in this case of significant zero sequence
flux. Besides, the displacement of neutral point appears at HV
side of the transformer. Dramatically changes not only the
picture of magnetic fluxes in the limbs, but also the VD of
windings voltages and load voltages (see Fig.6).

300 V

Fig. 3. VD of loads and secondary windings voltages at short-circuit in one

phase of load.

Fig. 5. Relative values of fluxes

in the core limbs at one phase of
load short-circuit and the ratio of
secondary windings turns of 2:1.

Fig.6. LV windings and loads

voltages at one phase of load shortcircuit and the ratio of secondary
windings turns of 2:1.

Thus, at different numbers of secondary windings turns, forming

"shoulders" of zigzag connection, the beneficial properties,
inherent to this scheme in asymmetric modes of operation,
practically are lost.
Let consider next the less likely, but also possible mode of
short-circuit on the LV side between the two arms of load
without earth. At such fault, obviously, respective voltages will
have the same value (U23=U23). Fig. 7 shows VD for the
windings and loads voltages on the LV side at short-circuit
between the two arms of loads without earth. The voltage on
short-circuited loads sharply decreases and three phase voltages
system on the loads is greatly distorted.

The largest short-circuit current in this mode is reached in the

phase B of the power supply source and is equal to 150 A.
Next, let consider short-circuit of two phases of load to
ground. In this case two voltages of load shoulders are equal
to zero (U23=U23 =0). At Fig.9, 10 are presented VD,
obtained for the considered case. At Fig .9 are presented the LV
side windings voltages, it is obvious, that at such fault windings
voltages are decreased further in comparison with previous case,
but the power source currents still remain balanced and become
even more symmetrical, although the largest value of the fault
current (see Fig. 10) remains practically the same, as in previous
case. Power source currents in this mode are more symmetrical,
than at short-circuit of two phases of load without ground, and
also are balanced.
Let consider further for completeness specific unbalanced
mode, associated with possible internal fault in transformer namely, short-circuit to ground of one secondary winding on LV
side, adjacent to the neutral (in this case, in phase A). At Fig.11
- 14 are presented VD, obtained as a result of calculations, made
for the considered case. As follows from Fig.11, this shows

250 V

.7. Windings and loads

voltages on LV side at shortcircuit between two arms of loads
without ground.

Fig . 8. VD for the source currents

on HV side at short-circuit between
the two arms of loads without earth.

It is also seen on the VD, that the voltages on B2 and B3

windings coincide and are almost invisible because of their
relatively small value. Besides, the voltages on all LV side
windings are much lower, than the nominal one. As it could be
seen from Fig.8, the sum of source phase currents is zero, which
is understandable, since the HV side has no way for the flow of
zero sequence current. Due to calculations performed, the
neutral current on the LV side is also zero, and, respectively,
there is no zero sequence current in the secondary windings and
no zero sequence flux.

Fig. 9. LV side windings voltages at

short-circuit of two phases of load
to ground.

Fig. 10. Source currents on HV

side at short-circuit between two
arms of loads with ground.

Fig.11. Fault currents from the

power source at short-circuit of
phase A secondary winding
(connected to neutral).

Fig.12. LV side windings and

loads voltages and currents at
short-circuit to ground of phase A
secondary winding.

the fault currents from the power source, they are relatively
small in comparison with usual short-circuit currents
(approximately twice bigger than rated current), so, at such fault

Fig.13. HV side windings

voltages at short-circuit to
ground of phase A secondary

Fig.14. Relative values of limbs

magnetic fluxes and total zero
sequence air flux at short-circuit to
ground of phase A secondary winding.

the usual protection will not work, but the transformer will be
overloaded with these currents and could be damaged. So, it
would be desirable to provide protection against this regime.
Loads currents and voltages (see Fig. 12) in this mode are close
to symmetric; the voltages of short-circuited phase A are close
to zero (so, they are not shown on VD), but the voltages of
"healthy" windings B2, B3 and C2, C3 are strongly shifted by
phase relative to their normal positions. From Fig. 13, which
shows the voltages of the primary star connected windings with
isolated neutral, it is seen, that the system of primary windings
voltages is sufficiently asymmetrical, has essential shift of the
neutral point and is similar to the VD of secondary voltages.
Furthermore, in this mode, due to calculations made, (see VD
with results on Fig.14) significant zero sequence flux, caused by
unbalanced windings currents, appeared.
Based on elaborated model the calculation of modules and
angles of windings currents and voltages in three-phase three
limb core transformer with "zigzag" connection of secondary
windings at various short-circuit modes was performed.
Electromagnetic coupling between windings on different limbs,
based on zero sequence parameters, was considered. Obtained
vector diagrams for windings voltages and currents and relative
values of magnetic fluxes give clear visual representation of
different asymmetric modes peculiarities.
At usual single-phase and two-phase short-circuits the
"zigzag" connection (at equal secondary windings turns number)
ensures absence of zero-sequence current and flux and,
accordingly, less distortion of voltages and currents (in
comparison with Y/y and D/y connections) at asymmetric shortcircuits and loads. However, if the numbers of secondary
windings turns are unequal, this scheme no longer has
mentioned advantages. Furthermore, these advantages also
disappear at single-phase short-circuit of one secondary
winding, that, in turn, seemingly means, that a similar effect will
also occur at internal short-circuits between loops in the
The currents, arising from short-circuit of one secondary
winding, are approximately twice bigger than rated load currents
and are significantly smaller, than usual short-circuit currents.
Due to this, they are insufficient for the reliable operation of
protection against short-circuits, so this may require additional
measures to protect against such faults and prevent transformer
To enable more accurate accounting of asymmetric modes
processes associated with the appearance of zero sequence
current and magnetic flux, transformer manufacturers should
present in the catalogue data sheets of transformers, along with

parameters for the positive sequence, also their measured values

for the zero sequence, due to the fact that the latter are difficult
to obtain by calculation.
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