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Asymmetric modes of three phase three leg transformer with zigzag connection

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Asymmetric modes of three phase three leg transformer with zigzag connection

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Connection.

Bosneaga V., Suslov V.

Power Engineering institute, Academy of sciences, Chisinau, Moldova

valeriu.bosneaga@gmail.com

for the case of isolated neutral on the medium voltage side and

Abstract. Based on the previously proposed model the simulations grounded neutral on the low voltage side. For calculations let

were made and characteristic features of steady asymmetric use the catalogue data of Minsk (Belorussia) transformer plant

modes of three-phase core type (three leg) transformer were (http://metz.by/) for distribution transformers for direct

investigated for zigzag winding connection, taking into

sequence. For the transformer type TMG, rated power 100 kVA,

consideration the electromagnetic coupling of windings, located on

different legs. Calculations and analysis were conducted based on rated voltages 10/0.4 kV we have the following data: no load

distribution transformer 100 kVA, 10/0.4 kV and include the most (excitation) current I0 =2,6%, short-circuit voltage Usc= 4,7 %,

typical steady unbalanced conditions, arising at various short no load active power losses 0=270 W, short circuit losses

circuits, including those, accompanied by the presence of zero sc=2270 W.

sequence magnetic flux. For the considered modes vector

In addition, for this transformer the manufacturer provided

diagrams of currents and voltages, as well as the relative values of measured from the high voltage (HV) side zero sequence

the magnetic flux were constructed, which provide a clear visual impedance (for the scheme Y/y0) Z0 = 1.3 Ohm, and active

representation of their features. It was demonstrated, that if the power losses at no load conditions P = 2 kW. Based on these

0

numbers of secondary windings turns are unequal, zigzag scheme

data, in accordance with known formulas (see for example [22,

no longer has advantages in asymmetric modes. These advantages

also disappear at single-phase short-circuit of one secondary pp. 185-190]), one can calculate effective (RMS) values of the

winding. Additional measures should be taken for the reliable windings rated currents for HV and low voltage (LV) sides: IHV

protection against such short-circuits and prevention of = 5.8 A and ILV = 152 A, excitation current on HV side I0 =

0.15 A, rated windings voltages on HV and LV sides UHV=5.77

transformer damage.

kV and ULV = 127 V, resistances and windings pairs shortIndex Terms- Power Transformer, core type, three limbs, circuit reactance, as well as all other variables, needed to

asymmetric modes, zigzag, zero sequence, magnetic flux.

elaborate the model.

A similar version of the transformer is considered, for

I. INTRODUCTION

example, in [11], [12]. In [12] it is presented some data on the

values of short-circuit currents for different windings

Investigations and calculations of power transformers connections of distribution transformers with highest voltage of

asymmetrical modes were conducted in many publications, the 6 kV, including for zigzag diagram, but for a correct comparison

basics were laid in the classic books by Petrov G.N., Voldek with results, obtained here, it is necessary to have more detailed

A.I., Vasiutynski S.B., [1]-[4], etc., then the study was data on transformers parameters, used in [12]. For greater

continued in [5]-[10], etc. (the list is not exhaustive). clarity, let us present the results of calculations not in the form

Nevertheless, the publications, developing various aspects of the of tables with values, but rather in the form of vector diagrams

problem, including the creation of new models of three-phase (VD), and numerical values only as needed. On Fig. 1, 2 are

transformers continue to appear, including in the recent years shown the voltages of the primary and secondary windings of

[13]-[20]. However, there is no publication where it is discussed transformer with zigzag diagram in initial symmetric mode (for

in detail asymmetric modes for the scheme with zigzag windings the case, when the turns numbers of both secondary windings,

connection. To perform this work a three-phase model for three connected in zigzag, are the same). The windings, located on the

limb core transformer, proposed by the authors and described in same limb and belonging to one of the phases are designated by

[21] was used.

the letters A, B, C, the numbers 1, 2, 3 refer to the primary and

secondary windings. Accordingly, the loads voltages include the

II. CALCULATION ANS ANALASYS OF ASYMMETRIC MODES notation of windings, which are connected together to obtain the

corresponding load voltage (wherein the first is recorded the

Let us consider with the help of elaborated model typical winding, connected to the neutral point, for example, a load

features of steady asymmetrical modes of three phase, core type voltage U

A2B3).

distribution transformer with zigzag windings connection Y/z0

form of vector diagrams for various asymmetrical modes

calculations. Fig. 3 shows the voltages of LV windings and

loads for the single-phase short circuit to ground (shorted load is

A2B3), as initial mode is taken the symmetrical loading

according to Fig. 1, 2. As it can be seen from VD on Fig. 3,

voltages of "healthy" loads UB2C3 and UC2B3 (shown in dashed

lines) are somewhat less than the nominal voltage, and the phase

angle is more than conventional of 120. Voltages system of

secondary windings, forming zigzag (voltage of primary

windings A1,B1,C1 look very similar, so are not shown) is

distorted, wherein the voltages on the shorted windings A2,B3

(as expected ) are equal and much less, than nominal value. The

voltages of remaining windings A3,B2, forming healthy loads,

are much lower than the nominal value of 127 V and have a

phase shift much less than normal of 120, and the voltages of

windings C2, C3 are also equal, and their value is close to

nominal value. Current of one load phase short-circuit, obtained

here by calculation, is equal to 113 A, this value is

approximately consistent with the result (102 A), presented in

[12], taking into account that in [12] the voltage was equal to 6

kV. Pattern of magnetic fluxes in the limbs of magnetic core for

this mode is shown in Fig.4, from which it is seen, that the sum

of limbs fluxes is close to zero, and hence the zero sequence flux

in the air under these conditions is missing, which, as is known,

is a significant advantage of the zigzag connection. In addition,

the calculations fulfilled confirm that the star of HV windings

voltages remains symmetrical, and no displacement of the

neutral is observed. It should be noted, that these beneficial

1 r.u.

windings

voltages

for

symmetric load conditions.

windings voltages for zigzag connection at symmetrical conditions.

200 V

equal numbers or turns of windings, constituting zigzag (see Fig.

2, voltages UA2=UB3 and so on.). At Fig.5, 6 are presented VD

for the considered mode of short-circuit in one phase of load,

corresponding to the ratio of secondary windings turns of 2:1 (in

this case the angle between load and respective winding voltages

will be less than 30, and will be close to 15). From Fig.5,

which shows the relative values of fluxes in the core limbs, it

follows the appearance in this case of significant zero sequence

flux. Besides, the displacement of neutral point appears at HV

side of the transformer. Dramatically changes not only the

picture of magnetic fluxes in the limbs, but also the VD of

windings voltages and load voltages (see Fig.6).

300 V

phase of load.

in the core limbs at one phase of

load short-circuit and the ratio of

secondary windings turns of 2:1.

voltages at one phase of load shortcircuit and the ratio of secondary

windings turns of 2:1.

"shoulders" of zigzag connection, the beneficial properties,

inherent to this scheme in asymmetric modes of operation,

practically are lost.

Let consider next the less likely, but also possible mode of

short-circuit on the LV side between the two arms of load

without earth. At such fault, obviously, respective voltages will

have the same value (U23=U23). Fig. 7 shows VD for the

windings and loads voltages on the LV side at short-circuit

between the two arms of loads without earth. The voltage on

short-circuited loads sharply decreases and three phase voltages

system on the loads is greatly distorted.

phase B of the power supply source and is equal to 150 A.

Next, let consider short-circuit of two phases of load to

ground. In this case two voltages of load shoulders are equal

to zero (U23=U23 =0). At Fig.9, 10 are presented VD,

obtained for the considered case. At Fig .9 are presented the LV

side windings voltages, it is obvious, that at such fault windings

voltages are decreased further in comparison with previous case,

but the power source currents still remain balanced and become

even more symmetrical, although the largest value of the fault

current (see Fig. 10) remains practically the same, as in previous

case. Power source currents in this mode are more symmetrical,

than at short-circuit of two phases of load without ground, and

also are balanced.

Let consider further for completeness specific unbalanced

mode, associated with possible internal fault in transformer namely, short-circuit to ground of one secondary winding on LV

side, adjacent to the neutral (in this case, in phase A). At Fig.11

- 14 are presented VD, obtained as a result of calculations, made

for the considered case. As follows from Fig.11, this shows

250 V

voltages on LV side at shortcircuit between two arms of loads

without ground.

on HV side at short-circuit between

the two arms of loads without earth.

windings coincide and are almost invisible because of their

relatively small value. Besides, the voltages on all LV side

windings are much lower, than the nominal one. As it could be

seen from Fig.8, the sum of source phase currents is zero, which

is understandable, since the HV side has no way for the flow of

zero sequence current. Due to calculations performed, the

neutral current on the LV side is also zero, and, respectively,

there is no zero sequence current in the secondary windings and

no zero sequence flux.

short-circuit of two phases of load

to ground.

side at short-circuit between two

arms of loads with ground.

power source at short-circuit of

phase A secondary winding

(connected to neutral).

loads voltages and currents at

short-circuit to ground of phase A

secondary winding.

the fault currents from the power source, they are relatively

small in comparison with usual short-circuit currents

(approximately twice bigger than rated current), so, at such fault

voltages at short-circuit to

ground of phase A secondary

winding.

magnetic fluxes and total zero

sequence air flux at short-circuit to

ground of phase A secondary winding.

the usual protection will not work, but the transformer will be

overloaded with these currents and could be damaged. So, it

would be desirable to provide protection against this regime.

Loads currents and voltages (see Fig. 12) in this mode are close

to symmetric; the voltages of short-circuited phase A are close

to zero (so, they are not shown on VD), but the voltages of

"healthy" windings B2, B3 and C2, C3 are strongly shifted by

phase relative to their normal positions. From Fig. 13, which

shows the voltages of the primary star connected windings with

isolated neutral, it is seen, that the system of primary windings

voltages is sufficiently asymmetrical, has essential shift of the

neutral point and is similar to the VD of secondary voltages.

Furthermore, in this mode, due to calculations made, (see VD

with results on Fig.14) significant zero sequence flux, caused by

unbalanced windings currents, appeared.

III.

CONCLUSIONS

1.

Based on elaborated model the calculation of modules and

angles of windings currents and voltages in three-phase three

limb core transformer with "zigzag" connection of secondary

windings at various short-circuit modes was performed.

Electromagnetic coupling between windings on different limbs,

based on zero sequence parameters, was considered. Obtained

vector diagrams for windings voltages and currents and relative

values of magnetic fluxes give clear visual representation of

different asymmetric modes peculiarities.

2.

At usual single-phase and two-phase short-circuits the

"zigzag" connection (at equal secondary windings turns number)

ensures absence of zero-sequence current and flux and,

accordingly, less distortion of voltages and currents (in

comparison with Y/y and D/y connections) at asymmetric shortcircuits and loads. However, if the numbers of secondary

windings turns are unequal, this scheme no longer has

mentioned advantages. Furthermore, these advantages also

disappear at single-phase short-circuit of one secondary

winding, that, in turn, seemingly means, that a similar effect will

also occur at internal short-circuits between loops in the

windings.

3.

The currents, arising from short-circuit of one secondary

winding, are approximately twice bigger than rated load currents

and are significantly smaller, than usual short-circuit currents.

Due to this, they are insufficient for the reliable operation of

protection against short-circuits, so this may require additional

measures to protect against such faults and prevent transformer

damage.

4.

To enable more accurate accounting of asymmetric modes

processes associated with the appearance of zero sequence

current and magnetic flux, transformer manufacturers should

present in the catalogue data sheets of transformers, along with

for the zero sequence, due to the fact that the latter are difficult

to obtain by calculation.

REFERENCES

[1]

G.N. Petrov. Transformers. Fundamentals of theory. Vol.1, GEI, 1934,

445 pp. (In Russian).

[2]

G.N. Petrov. Electrical machines. In 3 parts. Part 1. Introduction.

Transformers. M. , Energia, 1974, 240 pp.(In Russian). [3]

A.I. Voldek.

Electrical machines. L.: Energia, 1978, 832 pp.(In Russian).

[4]

S.B. Vasyutinsky. Problems of theory and design of transformers. L.,

Energia, 1970, 432 pages. (In Russian).

[5]

B.N. Sergeenkov. Electrical machines. Transformers. Edited by Kopylov

I.P., M. Vishaia shkola, 1989, 352 pp. (In Russian). [6] E.I. Zabudski. Electrical

machines. Part 1. Transformers. M , 2002, 168 pp.(In Russian).

[7]

S.B. Losev, A.B. Chernin. Calculation of electrical values in asymmetric

modes of electrical systems. M., Energoatomizdat, 1983, 527 pp. (In Russian).

[8]

A.P. Berman. Calculation of asymmetric modes of electrical systems

using phase coordinates. Elektrichestvo, 1985, number 12 , pp. 6-12. (In

Russian). [9]

A.M Guseynov. Calculation of asymmetric steady-state

modes in complex systems using phase coordinates. Elektrichestvo, 1989, Nr.

3.(In Russian). [10] D.D. Karasev, E.D. Karasev. Calculation of electrical

networks with FAZAN software. Editor A.I. Artemov. Moscow: Moscow

Power Engineering Institute, 1989.(In Russian).

[11] B. Fishman, A. Fedorovskaia. Power transformers 10 (6 ) / 0.4 kV. Areas

of application of different connection schemes. Novosti Elektrotehniki, Nr.5,

2006. (In Russian). [12]

B. Fishman, A. Fedorovskaia. Power

transformers 10 (6 ) / 0.4 kV. Areas of application of different connection

schemes . Novosti Elektrotehniki, Nr.6 (60), 2009. (In Russian). [13]

G.A. Evdokunin, M.V. Dmitriev. Transformers in the electrical network.

Simulation of transient processes taking into account the configuration of

magnetic system. Novosti Elektrotehnik" Nr. 5 (53), 2008. (In Russian). [14]

V.P Zakaryukin, A.V. Kriukov. Complicated asymmetric modes of

electrical systems. Publisher Irkutsk State University, 2005 - 274 p. (Transformer

model at page 45.), (In Russian). [15]

A.S. Gusev, S.V. Svechkarev, I.L.

Plodisty. Universal mathematical model of three-phase transformers and autotransformers. Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. 2007. Vol. 311. Nr.

4, pp.77-81. (In Russian).

[16] V.A. Martynov. Unbalanced modes of power transformers with windings

connection Y/y0. Bulletin of Irkutsk State Power University, issue 2, 2009, pp. 15.(In Russian). [17] M. Iu. Pustovetov. Mathematical model of three-phase

transformer, Proceedings of Tomsk Polytechnic University. 2012. Vol. 321. Nr.4.

(In Russian).

[18] Three-Phase Transformer Inductance Matrix Type (Two Windings). 2012.

URL:http://www.mathworks.com/help/toolbox/physmod/powersys/ref/threephas

etransformerinductancematrixtypetwowindings.html (date of access:

06.04.2012).

[19] Three-Phase Transformer 12 Terminals. 2012. URL:http://www.mathworks.com/help/toolbox/physmod/powersys/ref/threephasetransformer12ter

minals.html (date accessed: 06.04.2012).

[20] URL:http://www.mathworks.com/help/physmod/powersys/ref/threephasetransformer-inductancematrixtypethreewindings.html

(date

of

access:

20.09.2013).

[21] V.A. Bosneaga, V.M. Suslov. Investigation of asymmetrical modes of

three-phase three leg transformer with windings connection in zigzag.(In

Russian) (http://journal.ie.asm.md/en/contents/elektronnyij-zhurnal-n-3232013). [22]Electrical Engineering Handbook: In 3 volumes, Vol. 2. M,

Energoatomizdat , 1986, 712 pp.(In Russian).

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