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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON SUITABILITY OF

ROBOSAND FOR MOULDING

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree
For
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BY
J. RAJESH KUMAR
Roll no: 160110738301
T SHARATH CHANDRA
Roll No: 160110738049
CH VAMSI KRISHNA
Roll No: 160110738057

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT CHAITANYA BHARATHI


INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HYDERABAD 500 075
1

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT CHAINTANYA BHARATHI


INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HYDERABAD 500 075

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation titled EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON
SUTIABLITY OF ROBO SAND IN CASTING being submitted by (names of students). In
partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING of CHAITANYA BHARATHI INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY is a record of bonafide work carried out by them under my guidance and
supervision. The results submitted in this dissertation have not been submitted to any other
University or Institution for the award of any other Degree

Sri. B.Suryanarayana

Dr. P.V.R. Ravindra Reddy

M.E. (Production Engineering)

M.E, PhD (Manufacturing Engg )

Professor

Associate Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

Mechanical Engineering Department

Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology

Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology

Hyderabad

Hyderabad

Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy


PhD
Professor
Head of Mechanical Engineering Department
Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology
Hyderabad

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We express our gratitude to Professor Sri. B.Suryanarayana and Dr. P.V.R. Ravindra Reddy
Mechanical Engineering Department, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology,
Hyderabad for his guidance, valuable suggestions and encouragement throughout the project
course. He motivated us to work harder and at the same time smarter as well to present this
dissertation successfully.
We are grateful to Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy, Professor & Head, Mechanical Engineering
Department, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology, Hyderabad for granting us the
permission to undertake this project towards fulfilling the requirements for the award of B.E
degree. We also thank all the faculty members of Mechanical Engineering Department for their
encouragement and support.

At the very outset, we express our hearty acknowledgments to all the employees at the casting
industry for their unflinching co-operation without which the project would have not been
possible.

T SHARATH CHANDRA
CH VAMSI KRISHNA
J RAJESH KUMAR

ABSTRACT:

Natural silica sand is extremely used as the molding sand for toward moderate melting point
alloys as it full fills the minimum requirements. Robo sand is cheaper than natural silica sand and
is replacing the silica sand in construction industry. Hence this is where the suitability of Robo
sand molding is being investigated. To achieve this various compositions of Robo sand with
water and Bentonite (clay) were produced. Initially water content in the sand mixture is kept
constant and clay content is varied until the optimum values of green compression strength,
green shear strength, shatter index, permeability were obtained. Same process is repeated by
keeping clay content in the sand mixture as constant and varying the water content until the
optimum values were obtained. From the results obtained, optimum values of clay and water
were selected. The above properties were found to be adequate for casting of aluminum.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 : Introduction

1-6

Chapter 2 : Sand Casting 7-19


2.1 classification in Casting 7-8
2.2 sequence of casting

8-14

2.3 classification of molding sand 14-19


Chapter 3: Types of sands used in Casting
3.1 Mold materials

25-29

3.2 Properties of Molding

25-26

3.3 Types of Base sands

27-29

Chapter 4 : Robo sand

15-18

30-45

4.1 Advantage of Robo sand 30-31


4.2 Application and missing instruction

31-32

4.3 Testing sand properties 32-39


4.4 Molding process

39-45

Chapter 5 : General Safety for Foundries


5.1 Rules in foundry

45-46

46-47

Chapter 6 : Literature Review

49-51

Chapter 7 : Experimentation, Rules and Discussion 51-56


Chapter 8: Results & Discussions
. 56-67

1. Introduction
Manufacturing is the art of transforming raw materials into finished Products. Foundry work
deals with manufacture of products from molten metal, and the products obtained are called
castings. Castings are produced when the molten metal is poured into mould cavity and left to
solidify. Casting or founding is one of the cheapest methods of producing parts to a given shape.
It takes and advantage of molten metal to conform the form of the mould into which it is poured
and it is possible to produce the castings ranging from a few grams to hundreds tons. Casting in
various forms represents one of the most important metal shaping processes used in engineering
manufacture.
Moulding is an important aspect of foundry operation. The soundness of a casting depends on the
nature and properties of the initial molding materials. The molding sand properties play a pivotal
role in the sand casting process. The important moulding sand properties are permeability, green
shear strength, green compression strength, shatter index. For this research work samples were
taken from places where building construction work is done. In general, the standard values for
the permeability number depending on the type of metal being founded are 201202. Addition of
clay and water to the sand influences the mechanical properties of molding sand, thereby the
permeability number. Control over the amount of clay and moisture content should be present as
they have a significant role in improving the strength and permeability of green sand. For
example, green sand properties for a mould prepared by using a jolt /squeeze machine are water
(3-4%), live clay (5-5.5%) and permeability (80-110) while for the mould prepared by using a
high pressure (DISA etc.) are water (2.5-3.2%), live clay (6-10%) and permeability
(80-100)
Clay acts as a binder, mixes with water to bind the sand particles and is maintained in the range
of 9-11% to produce moulds with better refractoriness and higher permeability. The clay content
should not be high in the sand mixture else, the permeability is lowered due to fine clay particles
occupied in the available spaces between the sand grains. Water content in the mixture of 5% to
7%, activates the clay in the sand, causes the aggregate to develop plasticity and mould strength.
Without water addition, no strength would be achieved, as the sand and clay would be just two
different dry materials. Coming to clays, they are flake-like substances and when dry the mass

together with their plane surfaces approximately parallel, often likened to a deck of cards. The
addition of water wets the flakes, they cleave apart, and most become individually dispersed.
Bleak amount of water fails to develop adequate strength and plasticity where sands and clay
grains are combined together, apart thus the permeability is very poor. The clay adsorbs the water
up to a limited quantity. Only the water rigidly held (adsorb) by the clay appears to be effective
in developing strength and permeability. To addition, the development of bond strength between
the grains depends on the hydration of clay. The green strength and permeability of a molding
mixture increases with water content up to an optimum value determined by the proportion of
clay. Above this value, an additional percentage of water causes the permeability to diminish due
to the increase of the thickness of the water films. So, the clay becomes soft, lose its bonding
power and less stiff and the sand grains are held further, apart thus decrease the strength. Hence,
excess moisture must be avoided since it not only lowers the permeability but also increases the
chance of a blown casting.

At the same time, plasticity and deformation of the mould will occur. Low permeability and
green compression strength encourage the entrapment of gases and the washing away of sand by
molten metal.

2. Sand Casting:
2.1 Classification:
Metal Casting Processes are classified as
1. Expendable Mould Casting
(a) Sand Casting
(b) Shell molding
(c) Investment casting
2. Permanent Mould Casting
(a) Pressure die casting
(b) Gravity die casting
(c) Centrifugal casting

Expendable moulds are made of sand, Plaster, Ceramics and similar materials which are
generally mixed with various binders. After the casting has solidified, the moulds in these
processes are broken up to remove the casting.
Permanent Moulds are used repeatedly and are designed in such a way that the casting can be
easily removed and the mould used for the next casting. These moulds are made of metals that
maintain their strength at high temperature i.e. heat resisting materials
Sand Casting is a very old technique but with improved methods it can still compete with other
production process. Roughly 75 % of the total outputs of the casting are made in sand molding
though they do not fully satisfy the required surface finish and accuracy. Therefore more
advanced methods such as shell molding, Investment castings, die casting, centrifugal casting
etc.
2.2 Sequence of Operations:
The sequences of steps involved in casting are:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Pattern Making
Mould and core making
Melting and pouring
Fettling, and
Inspections

PATTERN MAKING:
In casting, a pattern is a replica of the object to be cast, used to prepare the cavity into which
molten material will be poured during the casting process. Patterns used in sand casting may be
made of wood, metal, plastics or other materials. Patterns are made to exacting standards of
construction, so that they can last for a reasonable length of time, according to the quality grade
of the pattern being built, and so that they will repeatable provide a dimensionally acceptable
casting.

MATERIALS USED IN PATTERN MAKING:

Typically, materials used for pattern making are wood, metal or plastics. Wax and Plaster of
Paris are also used, but only for specialized applications. Mahogany is the most commonly used
material for patterns, primarily because it is soft, light, and easy to work. The downside is that it
wears out fast, and is prone to moisture attack. Metal patterns are more long lasting, and do not
succumb to moisture, but they are heavier and difficult to repair once damaged. Wax patterns are
used in a casting process called investment casting. A combination of paraffin wax, bees wax and
carnauba wax is used for this purpose Plaster of Paris is usually used in making master dies and
molds, as it gains hardness quickly, with a lot of flexibility when in the setting stage
Design:
The patternmaker or foundry engineer decides where the sprues, gating systems, and risers are
placed with respect to the pattern. Where a hole is desired in a casting, a core may be used which
defines a volume or location in a casting where metal will not flow into. Sometimes chills may
be placed on a pattern surface prior to molding, which are then formed into the sand mould.
Chills are heat sinks which enable localized rapid cooling. The rapid cooling may be desired to
refine the grain structure or determine the freezing sequence of the molten metal which is poured
into the mould. Because they are at a much cooler temperature, and often a different metal than
what is being poured, they do not attach to the casting when the casting cools. The chills can then
be reclaimed and reused.
The design of the feeding and gating system is usually referred to as methoding or methods
design. It can be carried out manually, or interactively using general-purpose CAD software, or
semi-automatically using special-purpose software (such as AutoCAST).
Types of Patterns:
To compensate for any dimensional and structural changes which will happen during the casting
or patterning process, allowances are usually made in the pattern
Contraction allowances / Shrinkage allowance:
The pattern needs to incorporate suitable allowances for shrinkage; these are called contraction
allowances, and their exact values depend on the alloy being cast and the exact sand casting

method being used. Some alloys will have overall linear shrinkage of up to 2.5%, whereas other
alloys may actually experience no shrinkage or a slight "positive" shrinkage or increase in size in
the casting process (notably type metal and certain cast irons). The shrinkage amount is also
dependent on the sand casting process employed, for example clay-bonded sand, chemical
bonded sands, or other bonding materials used within the sand. This was traditionally accounted
for using a shrink rule, which is an oversized rule.
Shrinkage can again be classified into Liquid shrinkage and solid shrinkage. Liquid shrinkage is
the reduction in volume during the process of solidification, and Solid shrinkage is the reduction
in volume during the cooling of the cast metal.
Generally during shrinkage, all dimensions are going to be altered uniformly, unless there is a
restriction
Draft allowance:
When the pattern is to be removed from the sand mold, there is a possibility that any leading
edges may break off, or get damaged in the process. To avoid this, a taper is provided on the
pattern, so as to facilitate easy removal of the pattern from the mold, and hence reduce damage to
edges. The taper angle provided is called the Draft angle. The value of the draft angle depends
upon the complexity of the pattern, the type of molding (hand molding or machine molding),
height of the surface, etc. Draft provided on the casting 1 to 3 degrees on external surface (5 to 8
internal castings)

Finishing or machining allowance:


The surface finish obtained in sand castings is generally poor (dimensionally inaccurate), and
hence in many cases, the cast product is subjected to machining processes like turning
or grinding in order to improve the surface finish. During machining processes, some metal is
removed from the piece. To compensate for this, a machining allowance (additional material)
should be given in the casting.

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Shake allowance:
Usually during removal of the pattern from the mold cavity, the pattern is rapped all around the
faces, in order to facilitate easy removal. In this process, the final cavity is enlarged. To
compensate for this, the pattern dimensions need to be reduced. There are no standard values for
this allowance, as it is heavily dependent on the personnel. This allowance is a negative
allowance, and a common way of going around this allowance is to increase the draft allowance.
Shaking of pattern causes enlargement of mould cavity and results in a bigger casting
Distortion allowance:
During cooling of the mold, stresses developed in the solid metal may induce distortions in the
cast. This is more evident when the mold is thinner in width as compared to its length. This can
be eliminated by initially distorting the pattern in the opposite direction
Hand Molding Sands:

1) A Molding flask is a type of tooling used to contain a mold in metal casting. A flask has
only sides, and no top or bottom, and forms a frame around the mold, which is typically
made of molding sand. The shape of a flask may be square, rectangular, round or any
convenient shape. A flask can be any size so long as it is larger than the pattern being
used to make the sand mold. Flasks are commonly made of steel, aluminum or even
wood. A simple flask has two parts, the cope and the drag, and more elaborate flasks may
have three or even four parts.
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Figure 1:Moulding Box

Figure 2:Various Moulding Boxes

Types of Flask:
(a) Snap Flask
(b) Box Flask
(c) Wooden molding boxes

2) Shovel:

A shovel is a tool for digging, lifting, and moving bulk materials, such

as soil, coal, gravel, snow, sand, or ore. Shovels are common tools that are used
extensively in agriculture, construction, and gardening.

Figure 3: Shovel used for digging, lifting etc


3) Molding Board

12

Figure 4: Moulding board and shovel


4) Riddle
5) Rammers

Figure 5: various types of Rammers


6) Trowels

Figure 6: various types of Trowels


7) Slick
8) Lifter

Figure 7: various types of Lifters


9) Strike of Bar
13

10) Vent Rods

Figure 8: Various types of vent rods


11) Sprue Pin

Figure 9: Sprue Pin


12) Gate cutter

Figure 10: Various types of Gate cutters

14

13) Swab
14) Draw Spikes
15) Rapper
16) Lifting Plate

Figure 11: Lifting Plate


17) Pouring Weight
18) Gaggers

Figure 12: Bellow gagger


19) Clamps
20) Spirit Level
21) Mallet
22) Water Sprinkler
23) Shake Bag

2.3 Classification of Molding Sand:


15

According to their use in the foundry, molding sands are classified into following categories:
1. Green sand:

It is sand used in the wet condition for making the mould. It is mixture of silica sand with 15-25
per cent clay and 6-8 per cent water
As explained earlier green sand moulds are not dried and metal is poured in them in the wet
condition
Being damp the sand can be easily worked with hand to give it any desired shape
This sand is used for producing small to medium sized moulds which are not very complex

Figure 13: Green sand for casting

3. Dry sand:

Dry sand is the green sand that has been dried or baked after preparing the mould.
16

Drying sand gives strength to the mould so that it can be used for larger castings

Figure 14: Dry sand for casting


4. Loam sand:
Loam sand is sand containing up to 50 % clay which has been worked to the consistency of
builder mortar.
This sand is used for loam sand moulds for making very heavy castings usually with the help of
sweeps and skeleton patterns.

5. Parting sand:
This sand is used during making of the mould to ensure that green sand does not stick to the
pattern and the cope and drug parts can be easily separated for removing the pattern without
causing any damage to the mould.
Parting sand consists of fine grained clay free dried silica sand, sea sand or burnt sand with some
parting compounds.

The parting compounds used include charcoal, ground bone and limestone, groundnut shells, talc
and calcium phosphate.

17

Figure 14: Parting sand used to ensure non sticking of green sand
5. Facing sand:

Facing sand is the sand which covers the pattern all around it. The remaining box is filled with
ordinary floor sand.
Facing sand forms the face of the mould and comes in direct contact with the molten metal when
it is poured.
High strength and refractoriness are required for this sand.
It is made of silica sand and clay without the addition of any used sand.
Graphite, molasses, plumbago etc. may be added to the facing sand. Thickness of the sand layer
varies from 20 to 30 mm.

18

Figure 15: Facing sand on the surface of mould cavity and pattern
6. Backing sand:
Backing sand is the bulk of the sand used to back up the facing sand and to fill up the volume of
the flask.
It consists mainly of old, repeatedly used molding sand which is generally black in color due to
addition of coal dust and burning on contact with hot metal.
Because of the color backing sand is also sometimes called black sand.
The main purpose for the use of backing sand is to reduce the cost of molding.

7. System sand:

This is the sand used in mechanized foundries for filling the entire flask.
No separate facing sand in used in a mechanized foundry.
Sand, cleaned and reactivated by the addition of water and binders is used to fill the flask.
Because of the absence of any fresh sand, systems and must have more strength, permeability
and refractoriness compared to backing sand.

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8. Core sand:

Core sand is the sand used for making cores. This is silica sand mixed with core oil. That is why
it is also called oil sand.
The core oil consists of linseed oil, resin, and light mineral oil with some binders.
For larger cores, sometimes pitch or flour and water may also be used to save on cost.

3. Types of Sands used in Sand Casting:


Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by
using sand as the mold material. The term "sand casting" can also refer to an object produced via
the sand casting process. Sand castings are produced in specialized factories called foundries.
Over 70% of all metal castings are produced via a sand casting process.
Sand casting is relatively cheap and sufficiently refractory even for steel foundry use. In addition
to the sand, a suitable bonding agent (usually clay) is mixed or occurs with the sand. The mixture
is moistened, typically with water, but sometimes with other substances, to develop strength and
plasticity of the clay and to make the aggregate suitable for molding. The sand is typically
contained in a system of frames or mold boxes known as a flask. The mold cavities and gate
system are created by Compacting the sand around models, or patterns, or carved directly into
the sand.

20

Figure 16: Basic layout of Mould cavity for sand casting


Green sand:
These expendable molds are made of wet sands that are used to make the mold's shape. The
name comes from the fact that wet sands are used in the molding process. Green sand is not
green in color, but "green" in the sense that it is used in a wet state (akin to green wood). Unlike
the name suggests, "Green sand" is not a type of sand on its own, but is rather a mixture of:

Silica sand (SiO2), or chromate sand (FeCr2O), or zircon sand (ZrSiO4), 75 to 85%,
or olivine, or Staurolite, or graphite.

Bentonite (clay), 5 to 11%

water, 2 to 4%

inert sludge 3 to 5%

Anthracite (0 to 1%)

There are many recipes for the proportion of clay, but them all strike different balances between
mold ability, surface finish, and ability of the hot molten metal to degas. The coal typically
21

referred to in foundries as sea-coal, which is present at a ratio of less than 5%, partially combusts
in the presence of the molten metal leading to off gassing of organic vapors. Green Sand for nonferrous metals do not use coal additives since the CO created is not effective to prevent
oxidation. Green Sand for aluminum typically uses olivine sand (a mixture of the
minerals forsterite and fayalite which are made by crushingdunite rock). The choice of sand has a
lot to do with the temperature that the metal is poured. At the temperatures that copper and iron
are poured, the clay gets inactivated by the heat in that the montmorillonite is converted to illite,
which is non-expanding clay. Most foundries do not have the very expensive equipment to
remove the burned out clay and substitute new clay; so instead, those that pour iron typically
work with silica sand that is inexpensive compared to the other sands. As the clay is burned out,
newly mixed sand is added and some of the old sand is discarded or recycled into other uses.
Silica is the least desirable of the sands since metamorphic grains of silica sand have a tendency
to explode to form sub-micron sized particles when thermally shocked during pouring of the
molds. These particles enter the air of the work area and can lead to silicosis in the workers. Iron
foundries spend a considerable effort on aggressive dust collection to capture this fine silica. The
sand also has the dimensional instability associated with the conversion of quartz from alpha
quartz to beta quartz at 1250 degrees F. Often additives such as wood flour are added to create a
space for the grains to expand without deforming the mold. Olivine, Chromite, etc. are used
because they do not have a phase conversion that causes rapid expansion of the grains, as well as
offering greater density, which cools the metal faster and produces finer grain structures in the
metal. Since they are not metamorphic minerals, they do not have the polycrystals found
in silica, and subsequently do not form hazardous sub-micron sized particles.

Air set method:

The air set method uses dry sand bonded with materials other than clay, using a fast
curing adhesive. The latter may also be referred to as no bake mold casting. When these are used,
they are collectively called "air set" sand castings to distinguish them from "green sand" castings.
Two types of molding sand are natural bonded (bank sand) and synthetic (lake sand); the latter is
generally preferred due to its more consistent composition.

22

With both methods, the sand mixture is packed around a pattern, forming a mold cavity. If
necessary, a temporary plug is placed in the sand and touching the pattern in order to later form a
channel into which the casting fluid can be poured. Air-set molds are often formed with the help
of a casting flask having a top and bottom part, termed the cope and drag. The sand mixture is
tamped down as it is added around the pattern, and the final mold assembly is sometimes
vibrated to compact the sand and fill any unwanted voids in the mold. Then the pattern is
removed along with the channel plug, leaving the mold cavity. The casting liquid (typically
molten metal) is then poured into the mold cavity. After the metal has solidified and cooled, the
casting is separated from the sand mold. There is typically no mold release agent, and the mold is
generally destroyed in the removal process.[3]
The accuracy of the casting is limited by the type of sand and the molding process. Sand castings
made from coarse green sand impart a rough texture to the surface, and this makes them easy to
identify. Castings made from fine green sand can shine as cast but are limited by the depth to
width ratio of pockets in the pattern. Air-set molds can produce castings with smoother surfaces
than coarse green sand but this method is primarily chosen when deep narrow pockets in the
pattern are necessary, due to the expense of the plastic used in the process. Air-set castings can
typically be easily identified by the burnt color on the surface. The castings are typically shot
blasted to remove that burnt color. Surfaces can also be later ground and polished, for example
when making a large bell. After molding, the casting is covered with a residue of oxides, silicates
and other compounds. This residue can be removed by various means, such as grinding, or shot
blasting.
During casting, some of the components of the sand mixture are lost in the thermal casting
process. Green sand can be reused after adjusting its composition to replenish the lost moisture
and additives. The pattern itself can be reused indefinitely to produce new sand molds. The sand
molding process has been used for many centuries to produce castings manually. Since 1950,
partially automated casting processes have been developed for production lines.
Cold box
Uses organic and inorganic binders that strengthen the mold by chemically adhering to the sand.
This type of mold gets its name from not being baked in an oven like other sand mold types. This

23

type of mold is more accurate dimensionally than green-sand molds but is more expensive. Thus
it is used only in applications that necessitate it.
No bake molds:
No bake molds are expendable sand molds, similar to typical sand molds, except they also
contain a quick-setting liquid resin and catalyst. Rather than being rammed, the molding sand is
poured into the flask and held until the resin solidifies, which occurs at room temperature. This
type of molding also produces a better surface finish than other types of sand molds. [4] Because
no heat is involved it is called a cold-setting process. Common flask materials that are used are
wood, metal, and plastic. Common metals cast into no bake molds are brass, iron ferrous, and
aluminum alloys.
Vacuum molding:

Figure 16: Basic principle of vacuum molding


Vacuum molding (V-process) is a variation of the sand casting process for most ferrous and nonferrous metals, in which unbounded sand is held in the flask with a vacuum. The pattern is
specially vented so that a vacuum can be pulled through it. A heat-softened thin sheet (0.003 to
0.008 in (0.076 to 0.203 mm)) of plastic film is draped over the pattern and a vacuum is drawn
(200 to 400 mmHg (27 to 53 kPa)). A special vacuum forming flask is placed over the plastic
pattern and is filled with free-flowing sand. The sand is vibrated to compact the sand and a Sprue
and pouring cup are formed in the cope. Another sheet of plastic is placed over the top of the
sand in the flask and a vacuum is drawn through the special flask; this hardens and strengthens
the unbounded sand. The vacuum is then released on the pattern and the cope is removed. The
drag is made in the same way (without the Sprue and pouring cup). Any cores are set in place
and the mold is closed. The molten metal is poured while the cope and drag are still under a
24

vacuum, because the plastic vaporizes but the vacuum keeps the shape of the sand while the
metal solidifies. When the metal has solidified, the vacuum is turned off and the sand runs out
freely, releasing the casting.
The V-process is known for not requiring a draft because the plastic film has a certain degree of
lubricity and it expands slightly when the vacuum is drawn in the flask. The process has high
dimensional accuracy, with a tolerance of 0.010 in for the first inch and 0.002 in/in thereafter.
Cross-sections as small as 0.090 in (2.3 mm) are possible. The surface finish is very good,
usually between 150 to 125 rms. Other advantages include no moisture related defects, no cost
for binders, excellent sand permeability, and no toxic fumes from burning the binders. Finally,
the pattern does not wear out because the sand does not touch it. The main disadvantage is that
the process is slower than traditional sand casting so it is only suitable for low to medium
production volumes; approximately 10 to 15,000 pieces a year. However, this makes it perfect
for prototype work, because the pattern can be easily modified as it is made from plastic.

Fast mold making processes


With the fast development of the car and machine building industry the casting consuming areas
called for steady higher productivity. The basic process stages of the mechanical molding and
casting process are similar to those described under the manual sand casting process. The
technical and mental development however was so rapid and profound that the character of the
sand casting process changed radically.

Mechanized sand molding


The first mechanized molding lines consisted of sand slingers and/or jolt-squeeze devices that
compact the sand in the flasks. Subsequent mold handling was mechanical using cranes, hoists
and straps. After core setting the copes and drags were coupled using guide pins and clamped for
closer accuracy. The molds were manually pushed off on a roller conveyor for casting and
cooling
Automatic high pressure sand molding lines

25

Increasing quality requirements made it necessary to increase the mold stability by applying
steadily higher squeeze pressure and modern compaction methods for the sand in the flasks. In
early fifties the high pressure molding was developed and applied in mechanical and later
automatic flask lines. The first lines were using jolting and vibrations to pre-compact the sand in
the flasks and compressed air powered pistons to compact the molds.
Horizontal sand flask molding
In the first automatic horizontal flask lines the sand was shot or slung down on the pattern in a
flask and squeezed with hydraulic pressure of up to 140 bars. The subsequent mold handling
including turn-over, assembling, pushing-out on a conveyor was accomplished either manually
or automatically. In the late fifties hydraulically powered pistons or multi-piston systems were
used for the sand compaction in the flasks. This method produced much more stable and accurate
molds than it was possible manually or pneumatically. In the late sixties mold compaction by fast
air pressure or gas pressure drop over the pre-compacted sand mold was developed (sandimpulse and gas-impact). The general working principle for most of the horizontal flask line
systems is shown on the sketch below.
Today there are many manufacturers of the automatic horizontal flask molding lines. The major
disadvantages of these systems is high spare parts consumption due to multitude of movable
parts, need of storing, transporting and maintaining the flasks and productivity limited to
approximately 90120 molds per hour.

Figure 17: Principle of Horizontal sand flask molding


Vertical sand flask less molding:

26

In 1962, Dansk Industry Syndikat A/S (DISA-DISAMATIC) invented a flask-less molding


process by using vertically parted and poured molds. The first line could produce up to 240
complete sand molds per hour. Today molding lines can achieve a molding rate of 550 sand
molds per hour and requires only one monitoring operator. Maximum mismatch of two mold
halves is 0.1 mm (0.0039 in). Although very fast, vertically parted molds are not typically used
by jobbing foundries due to the specialized tooling needed to run on these machines. Cores need
to be set with a core mask as opposed to by hand and must hang in the mold as opposed to being
set on parting surface.

Figure 18: Principle of Vertical sand flask molding


Match plate sand molding:
The principle of the match plate, meaning pattern plates with two patterns on each side of the
same plate, was developed and patented in 1910, fostering the perspectives for future sand
molding improvements. However, first in the early sixties the American company Hunter
Automated Machinery Corporation launched its first automatic flask less, horizontal molding
line applying the match plate technology.
The method alike to the DISA's (DISAMATIC) vertical molding is flask less, however
horizontal. The match plate molding technology is today used widely. Its great advantage is
inexpensive pattern tooling, easiness of changing the molding tooling, thus suitability for
manufacturing castings in short series so typical for the jobbing foundries. Modern match plate
molding machine is capable of high molding quality, less casting shift due to machine-mold
mismatch (in some cases less than 0.15 mm (0.0059 in)), consistently stable molds for less
grinding and improved parting line definition. In addition, the machines are enclosed for a
cleaner, quieter working environment with reduced operator exposure to safety risks

27

Figure 19: Principle of Match plate sand molding

3.1 Mold materials


There are four main components for making a sand casting mold: base sand, a binder, additives,
and a parting compound.

3.2 Properties of molding sands


Molding sands, also known as foundry sands, are defined by eight characteristics: refractoriness,
chemical inertness, permeability, surface finish, cohesiveness, flow ability, collapsibility, and
availability/cost.
Refractoriness this refers to the sand's ability to withstand the temperature of the liquid metal
being cast without breaking down. For example some sands only need to withstand 650 C
(1,202 F) if casting aluminum alloys, whereas steel needs sand that will withstand 1,500 C
(2,730 F). Sand with too low a refractoriness will melt and fuse to the casting.
Chemical inertness the sand must not react with the metal being cast. This is especially
important with highly reactive metals, such as magnesium and titanium.
Permeability this refers to the sand's ability to exhaust gases. This is important because
during the pouring process many gases are produced, such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon
28

dioxide, and steam, which must leave the mold otherwise casting defects, such as blow holes
and gas holes, occur in the casting. Note that for each cubic centimeter (cc) of water added to the
mold 16,000 cc of steam is produced.
Surface finish the size and shape of the sand particles defines the best surface finish
achievable, with finer particles producing a better finish. However, as the particles become finer
(and surface finish improves) the permeability becomes worse.
Cohesiveness (or bond) this is the ability of the sand to retain a given shape after the pattern
is removed.
Flow ability The ability for the sand to flow into intricate details and tight corners without
special processes or equipment.
Collapsibility this is the ability of the sand to be easily stripped off the casting after it has
solidified. Sands with poor collapsibility will adhere strongly to the casting. When casting metals
that contract a lot during cooling or with long freezing temperature ranges sand with poor
collapsibility will cause cracking and hot tears in the casting. Special additives can be used to
improve collapsibility.
Availability/cost the availability and cost of the sand is very important because for every ton
of metal poured, three to six tons of sand is required. Although sand can be screened and reused,
the particles eventually become too fine and require periodic replacement with fresh sand.
In large castings it is economical to use two different sands, because the majority of the sand will
not be in contact with the casting, so it does not need any special properties. The sand that is in
contact with the casting is called facing sand, and is designed for the casting on hand. This sand
will be built up around the pattern to a thickness of 30 to 100 mm (1.2 to 3.9 in). The sand that
fills in around the facing sand is called backing sand. This sand is simply silica sand with only a
small amount of binder and no special additives.

29

3.3 Types of base sands


Base sand is the type used to make the mold or core without any binder. Because it does not have
a binder it will not bond together and is not usable in this state.
Silica sand
Silica (SiO2) sand is the sand found on a beach and is also the most commonly used sand. It is
made by either crushing sandstone or taken from natural occurring locations, such as beaches
and river beds. The fusion point of pure silica is 1,760 C (3,200 F); however the sands used
have a lower melting point due to impurities. For high melting point casting, such as steels, a
minimum of 98% pure silica sand must be used; however for lower melting point metals, such
as cast iron and non-ferrous metals, a lower purity sand can be used (between 94 and 98% pure).
Silica sand is the most commonly used sand because of its great abundance, and, thus, low cost
(therein being its greatest advantage). Its disadvantages are high thermal expansion, which can
cause casting defects with high melting point metals, and low thermal conductivity, which can
lead to unsound casting. It also cannot be used with certain basic metal because it will
chemically interact with the metal forming surface defect. Finally, it causes silicosis in foundry
workers.

Olivine sand
Olivine is a mixture of orthosilicates of iron and magnesium from the mineral dunite. Its main
advantage is that it is free from silica; therefore it can be used with basic metals, such as
manganese steels. Other advantages include a low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity,
and high fusion point. Finally, it is safer to use than silica; therefore it is popular in Europe.

Chromite sand
Chromite sand is a solid solution of spinels. Its advantages are a low percentage of silica, a very
high fusion point (1,850 C (3,360 F)), and a very high thermal conductivity. Its disadvantage is
its costliness; therefore its only used with expensive alloy steel casting and to make cores.

30

Zircon sand
Zircon sand is a compound of approximately two-thirds zircon oxide (Zr2O) and one-third silica.
It has the highest fusion point of all the base sands at 2,600 C (4,710 F), a very low thermal
expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. Because of these good properties it is commonly
used when casting alloy steels and other expensive alloys. It is also used as a mold wash (a
coating applied to the molding cavity) to improve surface finish. However, it is expensive and
not readily available.

Chamotte sand
Chamotte is made by calcining fire clay (Al2O3-SiO2) above 1,100 C (2,010 F). Its fusion point
is 1,750 C (3,180 F) and has low thermal expansion. It is the second cheapest sand; however it
is still twice as expensive as silica. Its disadvantages are very coarse grains, which result in a
poor surface finish, and it is limited to dry sand molding. Mold washes are used to overcome the
surface finish problem. This sand is usually used when casting large steel work pieces.
Other materials
Modern casting production methods can manufacture thin and accurate moldsof a material
superficially resembling papier-mch, such as is used in egg cartons, but that is refractory in
naturethat are then supported by some means, such as dry sand surrounded by a box, during
the casting process. Due to the higher accuracy it is possible to make thinner and hence lighter
castings, because extra metal need not be present to allow for variations in the molds. These thinmold casting methods have been used since the 1960s in the manufacture of cast-iron engine
blocks and cylinder heads for automotive applications.
Binders
Binders are added to base sand to bond the sand particles together (i.e. it is the glue that holds the
mold together).
Clay and water
A mixture of clay and water is the most commonly used binder. There are two types of clay
commonly used: Bentonite and kaolinite, with the former being the most common.

31

Oil
Oils, such as linseed oil, other vegetable oils and marine oils, used to be used as a binder,
however due to their increasing cost; they have been mostly phased out. The oil also required
careful baking at 100 to 200 C (212 to 392 F) to cure (if overheated the oil becomes brittle,
wasting the mold).

Resin
Resin binders are natural or synthetic high melting point gums. The two common types used
are urea formaldehyde (UF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins. PF resins have a higher heat
resistance than UF resins and cost less. There are also cold-set resins, which use
a catalyst instead of a heat to cure the binder. Resin binders are quite popular because different
properties can be achieved by mixing with various additives. Other advantages include good
collapsibility, low gassing, and they leave a good surface finish on the casting.
MDI (methylene biphenyl diisocyanate) is also a commonly used binder resin in the foundry core
process.
Sodium silicate
Sodium silicate [Na2SiO3 or (Na2O) (SiO2)] is a high strength binder used with silica molding
sand. To cure the binder carbon dioxide gas is used, which creates the following reaction:

The advantage to this binder is that it can be used at room temperature and it's fast. The
disadvantage is that its high strength leads to shakeout difficulties and possibly hot tears in the
casting.
Additives
Additives are added to the molding components to improve: surface finish, dry strength,
refractoriness,

and

"cushioning

properties".

Up

to

5%

of reducing

agents,

such

as coal powder, pitch, creosote, and fuel oil, may be added to the molding material to prevent
wetting (prevention of liquid metal sticking to sand particles, thus leaving them on the casting
32

surface), improve surface finish, decrease metal penetration, and burn-on defects. These
additives achieve this by creating gases at the surface of the mold cavity, which prevent the
liquid metal from adhering to the sand. Reducing agents are not used with steel casting, because
they can carburize the metal during casting.
Up to 3% of "cushioning material", such as wood flour, saw dust, powdered husks, peat,
and straw, can be added to reduces cabbing, hot tear, and hot crack casting defects when casting
high temperature metals. These materials are beneficial because burn-off when the metal is
poured creating voids in the mold, which allow it to expand. They also increase collapsibility and
reduce shakeout time.
Up to 2% of cereal binders, such as dextrin, starch, sulphite lye, and molasses, can be used to
increase dry strength (the strength of the mold after curing) and improve surface finish. Cereal
binders also improve collapsibility and reduce shakeout time because they burn-off when the
metal is poured. The disadvantage to cereal binders is that they are expensive. Up to 2% of iron
oxide powder can be used to prevent mold cracking and metal penetration, essentially improving
refractoriness. Silica flour (fine silica) and zircon flour also improve refractoriness, especially in
ferrous castings. The disadvantages to these additives are that they greatly reduce permeability.
Parting compounds
To get the pattern out of the mold, prior to casting, a parting compound is applied to the pattern
to ease removal. They can be a liquid or a fine powder (particle diameters between 75 and 150
micro meters (0.0030 and 0.0059 in)). Common powders include talc, graphite, and dry silica;
common liquids include mineral oil and water-based silicon solutions. The latter are more
commonly used with metal and large wooden patterns.

4. Robo Sand
The Future of sand is Here: Inspired by nature, Perfected and is an ideal substitute to river sand.
It is manufactured just the way nature has done for over a million Years. It is created by a rockhit-rock crushing technique using state-of-the-art plant & Machinery with world-class
Technology. Created from specific natural rock, it is crushed by a Three-stage configuration
consisting of a Jaw Crusher Followed by a cone crusher and finally a vertical Shaft Impactor
(VSI) to obtain sand that is consistent in its cubical Particle shapes and gradation. Robo sand is

33

the environmental-friendly solution that serves as a perfect substitute for the fast depleting and
excessively mined river sand, which is so essential for percolating and storing rain water in deep
underground pockets and protects the ground water Tables
Robo sand is suitable for all concrete preparations and is used across all segments such as
independent houses, Builders, RMC plants, Concrete Batching Plants and Infrastructure
Concrete Works.
4.1 Advantages of Robo Sand:

The Cubical Particle shape helps make concrete more cohesive


A perfect gradation ensures fewer voids and increases the compressive strength
Well balanced Physical and chemical properties in robosand make for more durable

buildings
Robo sand is produced under controlled conditions with raw material from a single

source resulting in a very consistent quality with no seasonal fluctuations.


The complete absence of deleterious materials eliminates wastage and works out

economical for use in concrete


An optimum level of fines content helps overcome deficiencies of concrete such as

segregation, bleeding, voids and honey combing.


Easy availability of robosand in huge quantities around the year leads to execution of

construction projects on time


Robosand is an eco-friendly Product and its usage helps conserve nature by preventing
depletion of ground water levels

4.2 Application and missing Instructions:

Robo sand can be used both for site mixed Concrete and Ready mix Concrete
Thorough missing of the cement, 20 and 10 mm materials is essential for the production

of the concrete
10% more cement to be added for hand mixed concrete
Machine mixing is recommended for important concrete works
The sequence for loading is : place Half quantity of coarse aggregates followed by fine
aggregates and complete quantity of cement and the balance quantity of coarse aggregate

and fine aggregates evenly spread


The drum must be pre-wetted with 25% water and the balance pured over the dry mix
simultaneously

34

The mixing time for manufactured aggregates is longer and minimum revolutions are 25

to 30 per batch
The use of vibrator is mandatory to prevent fines from surfacing to the top and forming a
layer

Precautions:

Post Concreting activity: The surface has to be inspected after 12 hours of

concreting to seal hair cracks with cement paste


Curing for the first 38 hours is crucial and water ponds must be monitored

Health & Safety:

Aggregate material is non-combustible and non-explosive


Airborne dust may cause irritation to eye and washing with water is recommended
A nose mask may be worn to prevent inhaling of dust
The use of hand gloves is recommended for masons to prevent dry sking and discomfort

Storage and Handling:

The material at site has to be stocked in flat beds of maximum height not exceeding 1mt
to maintain proper gradation and prevent down-sliding of heavier fractions to the bottom

of stock pile
The material may be covered by tarpaulin during rainy season

4.3 TESTING SAND PROPERTIES

Sand Grain Size


Moisture Content
Sample Preparation
Permeability

35

GRAIN FINESSES NUMBER

A system has been developed to rapidly express the average grain size of a given and sample.
The Grain Fineness Number (GFN) is the quantitative indication of the grain size distribution of
the sand sample by carrying out a sand sieve analysis. GFN is important because it provides the
foundry a way to verify that its sand is within specification for the castings being produced and
helps avoid conditions that could lead to potential casting problems. Sand that is too fine (higher
GFN) or too coarse (lower GFN) can affect the quality of castings produced. Sand that is too fine
can create low permeability and result in casting gas defects. Sand with high permeability (too
coarse) can create problems with metal penetration, rough surface finish, burn-in and burn-on.
The grain fineness of sand is measured using a test called Sieve Analysis. A sieve analysis is a
practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material. Sand
sieve analysis is a method for determining the grain size distribution of particles typically
between 1.0mm and 0.062mm. It is a relative accurate method for determining depositional
hydrology and for refining sedimentary environments. With experience, most geologists can
visually measure grain size within accuracy of the Wentworth grade scale at least down to silt
grade. Silt and clay can be differentiated by whether they are crunchy or plastic between ones
teeth. Clay stones and siltstones are not amenable to size analysis from an optical microscope.
Their particle size can be measured individually by electron microscope analysis. Boulder,
cobbles, and gravel are best measured manually with a tape measure or ruler. Sands are most
generally measured by sieving. Both graphic and statistical methods of data presentation have
been developed for the interpretation of sieve data. The percentage of the samples in each class
can be shown graphically in bar charts or histogram. Another method of graphic display is the
cumulative curve or cumulative arithmetic curve. Cumulative curves are extremely useful
because many sample curves can be plotted on the same graph and differences in sorting are at
once apparent. The closer a curve approaches the vertical the better sorted it is, as a major
percentage of sediment occurs in one class. Significant percentages of coarse and fine endmembers show up as horizontal limbs at the ends of the curve. The four statistical measurements
for sieved samples consist of a measure of central tendency (including median, mode, and mean);
a measure of the degree of scatter or sorting; kurtosis, the degree of peakedness; and skewness,
the lop-sidedness of the curve. Various formulae have been defined for these parameters. Within
36

geology accurate sieve analyses are required for petro physical studies which relate sand texture
to porosity and permeability. The distribution of sediment for water wells also requires a detailed
knowledge of the sediment of aquifers. Sieve analysis data can be used as an interpretive tool to
determine the depositional environment of ancient sediments. The philosophy behind this
approach is that modern environments mold the distribution of sediment and these differences
can be quantitatively distinguished. Thus, by comparing the sieve analysis data from modern
depositional environments with samples from the geologic past the depositional environment for
these ancient samples can be determined. The size distribution is often of critical importance to
the way the material performs in use. A representative sample of the sand is weighed and passed
through a series of progressively finer sieves (screens) while being agitated for a 15-min test
cycle. The sand retained on each screen is weighed and the weights are recorded. The weight
retained on each sieve is divided by the total sample weight to arrive at the percent retained on
each screen. In economics, a numerical coefficient showing the effect of a change in one
economic variable on another. One macroeconomic multiplier, the autonomous expenditures
multiplier, relates the impact of a change in total national investment on the nation's total , for
that particular screen and these values then are added together to find the GFN of the sand (Table
1). The factors for the sieves are based on the fact that the sand that is retained on a particular
sieve such as 50 mesh is not all 50 mesh in size, but rather it is smaller than 40 mesh (passed
through 40 mesh screen), but larger than 50 mesh (won't pass through 50 mesh screen). The
result should be rounded to one decimal place decimal place. The position of a digit to the right
of a decimal point, usually identified by successive ascending ordinal numbers with the digit
immediately to the right of the decimal point being first. This number is the weighted
mathematical average of the particle size particle size, also called grain size, refers to the
diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in plastic rocks. After
performing the sieve analysis test, the distribution of sand grains on the screens can be just as
significant as GFN. The distribution refers to how much is retained on each sieve, rather than the
average of all of the sieves. Formula below used to calculate Grain Size Fineness.
F GFN = C X 1

Experimental Procedure:

37

i.

The screens on the sieves wan clean carefully by turning the sieves face down and
striking the rim evenly on the table. The screen must not touch with fingers. The sieves

ii.
iii.

should not beat hard to avoid damage on the rim.


The sand sample was weight 100 grams to accuracy of 0.01 grams.
The stack of sieves was placed on the Sieve Shaker Octagon 2000 machine. The top

iv.
v.

sieve of the sieves shaker contains the bigger mesh size which is 850.
The weighing sand sample was poured into the top sieve of the sieve s shaker.
The sieves were shaken continuously for a period of 15 minutes. vi. After the shaking
operations, the top sieve was taken apart and left over sand of the sieves was wiped using

vi.

brush and carefully weighed. The weight was recorded in column C of Table 1.
Step VI was repeated until the left over sand in the last sieve was weighed and the value
was recorded. viii. The Grain Fineness Number (GFN) was calculated using the formula

vii.

below;
F GFN = C X 1.

Moisture Content:
Moisture is an important element of the molding sand as it affects many properties. To test the
moisture of molding sand a carefully weighed sand test sample of 50g is dried at a temperature
of 1050 C to 1100 C for 2 hours by which time all the moisture in the sand would have been
evaporated. The sample is then weighed. The weight difference in grams when multiplied by
two would give the percentage of moisture contained in the molding sand. Alternatively a
moisture teller can also be used for measuring the moisture content. In this sand is dried by
suspending the sample on a fine metallic screen and allowing hot air to flow through the sample.
This method of drying completes the removal of moisture in a matter of minutes compared to 2
hours as in the earlier method. Another moisture teller utilizes calcium carbide to measure the
moisture content. A measured amount of calcium carbide (a little more than actually required for
complete reaction) in a container along with a separate cap consisting of measured quantity of
molding sand is kept in the moisture teller. Care has to be taken before closing the apparatus that
carbide and sand do not come into contact. The apparatus is then shaken vigorously such that the
following reaction takes place:
CaC2 + 2 H2O C2H2 + Ca (OH) 2

38

The acetylene (C2H2) coming out will be collected in the space above the sand raising the
pressure. A pressure gauge connected to the apparatus would give directly the amount of
acetylene generated which is proportional to the moisture present. It is possible to calibrate the
pressure gauge directly read the amount of moisture.
Clay Content:
The clay content of the molding sand is determined by dissolving or washing it off the sand. To
determine the clay percentage a 50 g sample is dried at 105 to 1100C and the dried sample is
taken in a one liter glass flask and added with 475 ml of distilled water and 25ml of a one
percent solution of caustic soda (NaOH 25 g per liter). This sample is thoroughly stirred. After
the stirring, for a period of five minutes, the sample is diluted with fresh water up to a 150 mm
graduation mark and the sample is left undisturbed for 10 minutes to settle. The sand settles at
the bottom and the clay particles washed from the sand would be floating in the water. 125 mm
of this water is siphoned off the flask and it is again topped to the same level and allowed to
settle for five minutes. The above operation is repeated till the water above the sand becomes
clear, which is an indication that all the clay in the molding sand has been removed. Now, the
sand removed from the flask and dried by heating. The difference in weight of the dried sand
and 50g when multiplied by two gives the clay percentage in the molding sand.

Methodology:
Materials used for this work were Robo sand collected from construction sites located in our
College, Kapra. Clay (Bentonite) is used as binder. Tap water was used for tempering.
Equipment used is weighing balance, measuring cylinder, specimen rammer, permeability meter,
sieve shaker and sets of sieve.
The sand was collected from the site, washed to remove clay and other impurities. It was
properly dried and after drying, it was sieved using shaker on which meshes of different aperture
were mounted. The clay was collected from the site. Pebbles were removed from it. The sieve
analysis was done to determine the grain fineness number. Main factors in optimizing the
parameters are percentage clay (Bentonite) and percentage moisture. Firstly, the percentage clay
is kept constant and percentage moisture content is varied from 5% to 7% and the results were

39

obtained for various parameters. Further, the percentage moisture content is kept constant and the
results were obtained for various parameters.

(a) Green Compressive Strength Test & Green Shear Strength Test:
Determination of green compressive strength values was carried out using the universal sand
testing machine. The specimen to be tested was mounted on a stripping post and a compressive
load was gradually applied by turning a hand wheel until fracture. The fracture load was
automatically recorded on the attached scale.[2] Similarly green shear strength is found using
universal sand testing machine but the plates used for compression are replaced with the shear
plates

40

Figure 19: Machine used for calculating Green Compressive Strength & Green Shear Strength of
moulding sand.
(b) Permeability Test:
Permeability of the Robo sand is determined using constant head apparatus. The prepared
specimen is kept in the apparatus and the value of the permeability is noted.

Figure 20: Machine used for calculating Permeability of moulding sand.


(c)Shatter Index Test
This is also a measure of sand toughness particularly while withdrawal of pattern at that time
sand is subjected to sudden stresses. Shatter Index is determined by using shatter index tester.

41

Figure 21: Machine used for calculating shatter index of molding sand.

Specification:
Pillar, Top Housing Bracket, Anvil, 12.5 mm Sieve, Lid, pan. The apparatus for shatter index test
has a provision for standard specimen to fall through a given height on to a steel anvil. The
broken pieces are kept on 12mm mesh sieve. The ratio of the weight retained to the total weight
gives the value of shatter index.
Binders:
Foundries employ various methods for metal casting according to the alloy type and the size of
castings. Bentonite is used in blended product formulae with carbonaceous materials and other
additives. It serves as a binding agent for the sand grains in the making of the molds. Most of
our foundry products are destined for the automotive industry and the production of industrial
and agricultural machinery. A binder is any material that imparts strength to the sand. This
material may be adds to sand or provided by nature. The foundry sand binders may be classified
into three types

1) Clay binder
2) Organic binders
3) Inorganic binders

42

Clay binders:
The binding properties of clay are generally low compared with cement and, as already noted,
reversible with water. Buildings of unsterilized earth face the risk of erosion unless special
design precautions are taken to reduce exposure to rain and moisture. On the other hand,
stabilizers and other additives or methods such as good compaction and grain size optimization
can reduce swelling, shrinkage, and cracking, increasing strength and water resistance, thus
allowing economy in building. When clay is mixed with water it becomes malleable, plastic or
liquid, allowing it to be shaped. When drying, clay sets and recovers its cohesive properties, and
so can bind the soil together. Most soils consist of clay together with proportions of silt, sand and
gravel. The larger particles give structure to a soil, while the clay holds it together and to a great
extent provides the cohesion. Earth is a ready building material and needs little further
processing. Generally, a fairly wet mix with higher proportions of clay is used in molding and
spreading applications, while a mix with less clay is best suited to compaction in a moist or damp
state.
Organic Binders:

A binder is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a
cohesive whole. Often materials labeled as binders in different proportions or uses can have their
roles reversed with what they are binding. An example would be straw helping to bind clay
together as in cob, and clay helping to bind straw together as in a natural insulation. Liquid
binders are added to a dry substance in order to draw it together in such a way that it maintains a
uniform consistency. Classical world Painters use Materials like egg, wax, honey, or bitumen as
binders to mix with pigment in order to hold the pigment particles together in the formation of
paint. Egg-based tempera was especially popular in Europe from the middle Ages until the early
16th century. However, since that time, the binder of choice for paint has been oil. Today in the
art form of sculpture, organic binders are what are traditionally used. An organic binder is
glue made from an animal source or a gum made from a vegetative source. Glue is often made

43

by the boiling of hoofs, bones, or skin of animals and then mixing the hard gelatinous residue
with water. Gum-based binders are made from, alternatively, the boiling of plants.

Inorganic Binders:

An inorganic binder is an inorganic ingredient used to bind together two or more other materials
in mixtures. Its two principal properties are adhesion and cohesion.

Binder Materials, Inorganic Physical State Binder Types:


A) Liquid- i.e., water, oil, and sodium silicate
B) Solid- i.e., Bentonite and corn starch
c) Semisolid- i.e., tar

Binder Materials, Inorganic Chemical Type Binders:


a) OrganicI) Hydrophobic- i.e., tar, pitch & bitumen
ii) Hydrophilic- i.e., starch, lignosulfonate & molasses
b) InorganicI) Insoluble- i.e., cement, clay & lime
ii) Soluble- i.e., sodium silicate

44

4.4 Molding Process:


The Molding process may be classified as follows
1) According to the method used
(a) Bench molding
(b) Floor molding
(c) Pit molding
(d) Machine molding

2) According to the mould materials used


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

Green sand molding


Dry sand molding
Skin-dried sand molding
Loam molding
Cement bonded molding
Ceramic molding
Co2 process
Shell Moulding

3) Special Casting Methods:


(a) Die Casting
(b) Permanent Mould casting
(c) Centrifugal Casting
Defects in Casting:
A casting defect is an irregularity in the metal casting process that is much undesired. Some
defects can be tolerated while others can be repaired, otherwise they must be eliminated. They
are broken down into five main categories: gas porosity, shrinkage defects, mold material
defects, pouring metal defects, and metallurgical defects
Terminology:
The terms "defect" and "discontinuity" refer to two specific and separate things in castings.
Defects are defined as conditions in a casting that must be corrected or removed, or the casting

45

must be rejected. Discontinuities, also known as "imperfections", are defined as "interruptions in


the physical continuity of the casting". Therefore, if the casting is less than perfect, but still
useful and in tolerance, the imperfections should be deemed "discontinuities"

Types:
There are many types of defects which result from many different causes. Some of

the

solutions to certain defects can be the cause for another type of defect. The following defects can
occur in sand castings. Most of these also occur in other casting processes.
Shrinkage Defects:
Shrinkage defects occur when standard feed metal is not available to compensate
for shrinkage as the thick metal solidifies. Shrinkage defects can be split into two different
types: open shrinkage defects and closed shrinkage defects. Open shrinkage defects are open to
the atmosphere, therefore as the shrinkage cavity forms air compensates. There are two types of
open air defects: pipes and caved surfaces. Pipes form at the surface of the casting and burrow
into the casting, while caved surfaces are shallow cavities that form across the surface of the
casting. Closed shrinkage defects, also known as shrinkage porosity, are defects that form within
the casting. Isolated pools of liquid form solidified metal, which are called hot spots. The
shrinkage defect usually forms at the top of the hot spots. They require a nucleation point, so
impurities and dissolved gas can induce closed shrinkage defects.

Gas Porosity:
Gas porosity is the formation of bubbles within the casting after it has cooled. This occurs
because most liquid materials can hold a large amount of dissolved gas, but the solid form of the
same material cannot, so the gas forms bubbles within the material as it cools. Gas porosity may
present itself on the surface of the casting as porosity or the pore may be trapped inside the
metal, which reduces strength in that vicinity. Nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen are the most
encountered gases in cases of gas porosity. In aluminum castings, hydrogen is the only gas that
46

dissolves in significant quantity, which can result in hydrogen gas porosity. For castings that are
a few kilograms in weight the pores are usually 0.01 to 0.5 mm (0.00039 to 0.01969 in) in size.
In larger casting they can be up to a millimeter (0.040 in) in diameter.
To prevent gas porosity the material may be melted in a vacuum, in an environment of lowsolubility gases, such as argon or carbon dioxide, or under a flux that prevents contact with the
air. To minimize gas solubility the superheat temperatures can be kept low. Turbulence from
pouring the liquid metal into the mold can introduce gases, so the molds are often streamlined to
minimize such turbulence. Other methods include vacuum degassing, gas flushing, or
precipitation. Precipitation involves Reacting the gas with another element to form a compound
that will form dross that floats to the top. For instance, oxygen can be removed from copper by
adding phosphorus; aluminum or silicon can be added to steel to remove oxygen. A third source
consists of reactions of the molten metal with grease or other residues in the mould.
Hydrogen is normally produced by the reaction of the metal with humidity or residual moisture
in the mold. Drying the mold can eliminate this source of hydrogen formation.
Gas porosity can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from micro shrinkage because micro
shrinkage cavities can contain gases as well. In general, micro porosities will form if the casting
is not properly risered or if a material with a wide solidification range is cast. If neither of these
are the case then most likely the porosity is due to gas formation tiny gas bubbles are called
porosities, but larger gas bubbles are called a blowholes or blisters. Such defects can be caused
by air entrained in the melt, steam or smoke from the casting sand, or other gasses from the melt
or mold. (Vacuum holes caused by metal shrinkage (see above) may also be loosely referred to as
'blowholes'). Proper foundry practices, including melt preparation and mold design, can reduce
the occurrence of these defects. Because they are often surrounded by a skin of sound metal,
blowholes may be difficult to detect, requiring harmonic, ultrasonic, magnetic, or Xray (i.e., industrial CT scanning) analysis.

Pouring Metal Defects:

47

Pouring metal defects include misruns, cold shuts, and inclusions. A misrun occurs when the
liquid metal does not completely fill the mold cavity, leaving an unfilled portion. Cold shuts
occur when two fronts of liquid metal do not fuse properly in the mould cavity, leaving a weak
spot. Both are caused by either a lack of fluidity in the molten metal or cross-sections that are too
narrow. The fluidity can be increased by changing the chemical composition of the metal or by
increasing the pouring temperature. Another possible cause is back pressure from improperly
vented mold cavities.
Misruns and cold shuts are closely related and both involve the material freezing before it
completely fills the mold cavity. These types of defects are serious because the area surrounding
the defect is significantly weaker than intended. Theca stability and viscosity of the material can
be important factors with these problems. Fluidity affects the minimum section thickness that can
be cast, the maximum length of thin sections, fineness of feasibly cast details, and the accuracy
of filling mold extremities. There are various ways of measuring the fluidity of a material,
although it usually involves using a standard mould shape and measuring the distance the
material flows. Fluidity is affected by the composition of the material, freezing temperature or
range, surface tension of oxide films, and, most importantly, the pouring temperature. The higher
the pouring temperature, the greater the fluidity; however, excessive temperatures can be
detrimental, leading to a reaction between the material and the mold; in casting processes that
use a porous mould material the material may even penetrate the mould material.
The point at which the material cannot flow is called the coherency point. The point is difficult to
predict in mold design because it is dependent on the solid fraction, the structure
Of the solidified particles, and the local shear strain rate of the fluid. Usually this value ranges
from 0.4 to 0.8.
An inclusion is a metal contamination of dross, if solid, or slag, if liquid. These usually are
metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, calcides, or sulfides; they can come from material that is eroded
from furnace or ladle linings, or contaminates from the mold. In the specific case of aluminum
alloys, it is important to control the concentration of inclusions by measuring them in the liquid
aluminum and taking actions to keep them to the required level.

48

There are a number of ways to reduce the concentration of inclusions. In order to reduce oxide
formation the metal can be melted with a flux, in a vacuum, or in an inert atmosphere. Other
ingredients can be added to the mixture to cause the dross to float to the top where it can be
skimmed off before the metal is poured into the mold. If this is not practical, then a special ladle
that pours the metal from the bottom can be used. Another option is to install ceramic filters into
the gating system. Otherwise swirl gates can be formed which swirl the liquid metal as it is
poured in, forcing the lighter inclusions to the center and keeping them out of the casting. If
some of the dross or slag is folded into the molten metal then it becomes anentrainment defect.

Metallurgical Defects:
There are two defects in this category: hot tears and hot spots. Hot tears, also known as hot
cracking, are failures in the casting that occur as the casting cools. This happens because the
metal is weak when it is hot and the residual stresses in the material can cause the casting to fail
as it cools. Proper mold design prevents this type of defect.
Hot spots are areas on the surface of casting that become very hard because they cooled more
quickly than the surrounding material. This type of defect can be avoided by proper cooling
practices or by changing the chemical composition of the metal.

Process Specific Defects:

Die casting
In die casting the most common defects are misruns and cold shuts. These defects can be caused
by cold dies, low metal temperature, dirty metal, lack of venting, or too much lubricant. Other
possible defects are gas porosity, shrinkage porosity, hot tears, and flow marks. Flow marks are
marks left on the surface of the casting due to poor gating, sharp corners, or excessive lubricant
49

Continuous casting
A longitudinal facial crack is a specialized type of defect that only occurs in continuous
casting processes. This defect is caused by uneven cooling, both primary cooling and secondary
cooling, and includes molten steel qualities, such as the chemical composition being out of
specification, cleanliness of the material, and homogeneity.

Sand Casting:
Sand casting has many defects that can occur due to the mold failing. The mold usually fails
because of one of two reasons: the wrong material is used or it is improperly rammed.
The first type is mold erosion, which is the wearing away of the mold as the liquid metal fills the
mold. This type of defect usually only occurs in sand castings because most other casting
processes have more robust molds. The castings produced have rough spots and excess material.
The molding sand becomes incorporated into the casting metal and decreases the
ductility, fatigue strength, and fracture toughness of the casting. This can be caused by sand with
too little strength or a pouring velocity that is too fast. The pouring velocity can be reduced by
redesigning the gating system to use larger runners or multiple gates. A related source of defects
are drops, in which part of the molding sand from the cope drops into the casting while it is still a
liquid. This also occurs when the mold is not properly rammed.
The second type of defect is metal penetration, which is when the liquid metal penetrates into the
molding sand. This causes a rough surface finish. This caused by sand particles that are too
coarse, lack of mold wash, or pouring temperatures that are too high.
If the pouring temperature is too high or a sand of low melting point is used then the sand can
fuse to the casting. When this happens the surface of the casting produced has a brittle, glassy
appearance.
A run out is when the liquid metal leaks out of the mold because of a faulty mold or flask.

50

Scabs are a thin layer of metal that sits proud of the casting. They are easy to remove and always
reveal a buckle underneath, which is an indentation in the casting surface. Rattails are similar to
buckles, except they are thin line indentations and not associated with scabs. Another similar
defect is a pull down, which are buckles that occur in the Cope of sand castings. All of these
defects are visual in nature and no reason to scrap the work piece. These defects are caused by
overly high pouring temperatures or deficiencies of carbonaceous material.
A swell occurs when the mold wall gives way across a whole face, and is caused by an
improperly rammed mold. Burn-on occurs when metallic oxides interact with impurities in silica
sands. The result is sand particles embedded in the surface of the finished casting. This defect
can be avoided by reducing the temperature of the liquid metal, by using a mold wash, and by
using various additives in the sand mixture.
Safety Precautions:
Safety is extremely important when working with molten metal because of the temperature at
which the metal is at. For this reason it is important that you have a clear work area and make a
plan for how you are going to move the molten metal prior to making any movements with metal
in hand. Listed below are some primary safety concerns and as always this list is incomplete but
with some common sense and by following these rules sand casting can be a fun and exciting
time.
1) Wear the personal protective equipment as shown below in the image.
2) Clear any hazards those are in the workspace.
3) Do not spill any metal onto the floor, especially concrete floor as it can cause an explosion.
4) Be cautious of your surroundings.
5) Be wary of any surfaces that may be hot.
6) As with any unfamiliar task be cautious and pay attention to your surroundings.
7) USE COMMON SENSE, often forgotten but a very useful tool to always use.
5. General Safety for Foundries:

51

The methods and materials involved in any form of metal casting operation are VERY
hazardous. Educate yourself on the proper safety precautions before attempting any metal
casting. We will go over proper safety precautions, things to keep in mind are:
1. Even trace amounts of MOISTURE and MOLTEN METAL don't mix!!! Steam explosions
are the #1 cause of death in foundries.
2. NEVER put water on a metal fire. This can cause a HUGE EXPLOSION!
3. Have a DRY pile of sand and a shovel ready to put out fires or to control metal spills.
4. Have a sand bed under all areas. The sand bed should be at least 3 inches thick. This will
help in containing metal spills and will help protect flooring.
5. Never pour over wet ground. Remember, even TRACE AMOUNTS of MOISTURE can
cause EXPLOSIONS.
6. Molten metal spilled on concrete will cause the concrete to explode. Use a thick sand bed
over concrete.
7. Always use clean metal as feedstock. Combustion residues from some lubricants and paints
can be very toxic.
8. Always operate in a well-ventilated area. Fumes and dusts from combustion and other
foundry chemicals, processes and metals can be toxic.
9. Use a NIOSH rated dusk mask. Dusts from sand, parting dusts and chemicals can be
hazardous or cancer causing. Protect your lungs!
10. Always use safety glasses. Even minor mishaps can cause blindness.
11. Never use a crucible that has been damaged or dropped. It's just not worth the risk.
Imagine what would happen if a white-hot crucible of brass crumbled as you were carrying
it!

52

12. Always charge crucibles when cold. Adding metal to a hot crucible is really dangerous. If
there is moisture on the metal, even just a haze, the metal can cause the entire contents of
the crucible to explode.
13. Spilled molten metal can travel for a great distance. Operate in a clear work area.
14. Think about what you are doing at all times. Focus on the job at hand and the next step.
Have all moves planned and rehearsed prior to any operation.
15. Educate yourself beforehand and always be careful of your own and bystander safe

5.1 Rules in Foundry


All students must follow these rules. These rules are made not only with your safety in
mind, but also with the safety of those around you in mind. Not following these rules
could cause the injury or death of you or someone else.
1. Read, understand and follow the General Safety rules for the foundry listed above.
2. Wear safety gear. This includes, but is not limited to:
a. This includes, but is not limited to
I. Leather shoes
ii. Fireproof apron
iii. Foot and leg protection
iv. Proper gloves, wire mesh face shield
v. Safety glasses

53

vi. Cotton baseball hat. A leather foundry hat is the best choice. These hats look
like a sailors hat, with the brim turned down to cover your ears. Even
wearing a baseball hat with the brim towards the back will help prevent metal
from getting down your back. Don't laugh; ever had a weld splatter get into
your shirt? Imagine what a tablespoon of molten metal would do!
vii. A long sleeve cotton shirt.
b. Clothes and shoes should be made from cotton or natural fibers. Synthetics melt and
stick to the skin.
c. Wear safety glasses as well as the mesh face shield.

3. During a pour no one but the pouring crew is permitted in the foundry area.
a. Do not distract anybody during a pour.
b. Do not look into the furnace or kilns without a wire mesh shield or appropriate eye
safety gear for splattering and infrared radiation.
4. Only 1 pour will take place at a time, the large furnace has priority
.5. Do not participate or go near pours if you
A. has been taking medication that may impair your coordination, judgment, or
reflexes.
B. has been using drugs or alcohol in the last 24 hours.
C. is very tired of feel in any way impaired (for example you feel like you are getting
sick).
D. unless you have planned and rehearsed the moves

54

E. feels that you do not understand in any way your part in the pour.

6. No running of goofing around in the foundry.

6. Literature Review

Moulding is an important aspect of foundry operation. The soundness of a casting depends on the
nature and properties of the initial molding materials. The molding sand properties play a pivotal
role in the sand casting process. The important moulding sand properties are permeability, green
shear strength, green compression strength, shatter index. For this research work samples were
taken from places where building construction work is done. In general, the standard values for
the permeability number depending on the type of metal being founded are 201202. Addition of
clay and water to the sand influences the mechanical properties of molding sand, thereby the
permeability number. Control over the amount of clay and moisture content should be present as
they have a significant role in improving the strength and permeability of green sand. For
example, green sand properties for a mould prepared by using a jolt /squeeze machine are water
(3-4%), live clay (5-5.5%) and permeability (80-110) while for the mould prepared by using a
high pressure (DISA etc.) are water (2.5-3.2%), live clay (6-10%) and permeability(80-100) Clay

55

acts as a binder, mixes with water to bind the sand particles and is maintained in the range of 911% to produce moulds with better refractoriness and higher permeability. The clay content
should not be high in the sand mixture else, the permeability is lowered due to fine clay particles
occupied in the available spaces between the sand grains. Water content in the mixture of 5% to
7%, activates the clay in the sand, causes the aggregate to develop plasticity and mould strength.
Without water addition, no strength would be achieved, as the sand and clay would be just two
different dry materials. Coming to clays, they are flake-like substances and when dry the mass
together with their plane surfaces approximately parallel, often likened to a deck of cards. The
addition of water wets the flakes, they cleave apart, and most become individually dispersed.
Bleak amount of water fails to develop adequate strength and plasticity where sands and clay
grains are combined together, apart thus the permeability is very poor. The clay adsorbs the water
up to a limited quantity. Only the water rigidly held (adsorb) by the clay appears to be effective
in developing strength and permeability. To addition, the development of bond strength between
the grains depends on the hydration of clay. The green strength and permeability of a molding
mixture increases with water content up to an optimum value determined by the proportion of
clay. Above this value, an additional percentage of water causes the permeability to diminish due
to the increase of the thickness of the water films. So, the clay becomes soft, lose its bonding
power and less stiff and the sand grains are held further, apart thus decrease the strength. Hence,
excess moisture must be avoided since it not only lowers the permeability but also increases the
chance of a blown casting. At the same time, plasticity and deformation of the mould will occur.
Low permeability and green compression strength encourage the entrapment of gases and the
washing away of sand by molten metal. Many researchers have researched in these areas in order
to

Nuhu A. Ademoh and AT Abdullah have investigated that the exudates of grade 4 Nigerian
acacia species are suitable for both green and dry molding sand. The mechanical properties of
molded sand specimen showed that the material added in solutionized form gave weaker bonds
than when it is applied in the dried powdered form. Sand Mould bonded with 4.5 to 8% of the
powdered material is suitable for green and dry casting of non-ferrous alloys, malleable and
heavy grey permeability is below standard.

56

Nuhu A Ademoh have investigated that the benefits of mixing neem oil with Nigerian gum
Arabic as hybrid binder is more pronounced when cores are baked at about the melting
temperature of grade of gum Arabic involved. Baking below melting point marginally improves
bond strength while baking at well above melting point and holding for long depresses tensile
strength of moulds.
J.Jakubski*,St. M. Dobosz, K. Major Gabry have investigated that the determination of active
Bentonite content in molding sand using the methods of data mining is very complicated. Neural
network models developed for given molding sand, even if they predict well the required
properties, in the case of change in molding sand are not always useful.
Nuhu A Ademoh have investigated that Bentonite clay addition to acacia moulds has beneficial
effects on only permeability of cores. It reduced the shatter index, green compressive and tensile
strength of moulds bonded with acacia species exudates. This means that when acacia exudates
are used as main binders for molding sand Bentonite clay addition will help to improve
permeability to desired values without wide adversity on other important properties like intricate
iron and steel casting.
S.ymankowska-Kumon*, M.Holtzer, J.Lelito, R.Dako investigated that the computer
simulation performed for the wedge casting, indicated that only a small fraction of the molding
sand with Bentonite underwent heating to temperatures which could cause the montmorillonite
degradation at such degree that it would lost its binding properties in molding sands.
Petr Ptek, Ji Brandtetr, Frantiek oukal and Tom Opravil investigated that the building
engineering of soil-dwelling termites shows us that the relationships between the particle size
distributions, particle shape, packing density of aggregate grains and the plasticity as well as the
amount of binding phase (clays) are sufficient to cover the surface of the aggregates by the
continuous thin layer as well as the amount of mixing water has the same relevance for the
construction of clay buildings as for the preparation of concrete structures. Therefore the
research that finds out and describes the mutual influence of these factors and condition of
treatment on the resulting properties of clay based material (similarly as for preparation of
concrete mixtures) is required.
J St. Kowalski investigated that the highest thermal dilatation has the molding mixture based on
Krzeszwek sand. Probably, in this case, it is not so much the sand granulation that plays the
57

leading role as rather the shape of grains and the content of polymorphic quartz variations. The
domestic ZGM Bentonite causes larger dilatation than Entomic. Probably it is due to the lower
content of montmorillonite (about 47%), characterized by low sintering point. The highest
thermal dilatation has the molding mixture in which the water-clay ratio (w/g) is about 0.2, and
this is related with the transformation of quartz to -quartz at about 600 [0C].

S.ymankowska-Kumon*, M.Holtzer, J.Lelito, R.Dako investigated that Box- Behnken design


can be used to optimize the parameters which could efficiently be applied for finding the
percentage porosity in porous gray cast iron, they help to identify optimal conditions, and the
factors that most influence porous castings are Pouring Temperature, % of Bentonite in sand ball
mixture and Sand ball size. There exists a definite relation between casting weight and porosity.
The visual inspection of castings reveals the interconnectivity of the pores and the pore sizes are
almost equal to the diameter of the cores used. Therefore the measuring of pore sizes is not
needed for the castings produced by this technique, gave an insight into the pore structure, reveal
information of pore distribution and the interconnections of the open cells.
M. giewka investigated that the AlSi10Mg alloy cast in the metal mould has exhibited the
castability, measured as the achieved length of the cast bar of 8 mm diameter, decreased by 10%
as compared with its castability determined using the oil sand mould. The time of flow of the
alloy before its final arresting is slightly different for these two cases; it has been equal to 0.95
for the expendable mould, while for the permanent one it has been 0.85 s.
Simbarashe Fashu*, Li Jianguo and Hu Qiao Dan investigated that the critical stirring intensity
required under an optimum casting speed to produce aluminum ingots of high purity during OCC
was determined by numerical simulation. This was done through melt stirring near the phase
change region to produce a special axial rotating melt flow field of adequate magnitude and
direction. The industrial aluminum alloy is very dilute, and continuous flow into the heated mold
makes it possible to produce long and pure ingots before their purity level falls below the initial
alloy composition. Thus, with optimization of casting speed ad stirring intensity, high purity
ingots at high production rates are possible to achieve during OCC process. This, of course
should be accomplished with a good stirrer design, effective in mechanically stirring near the
whole interface region.

58

M. Cholewa, M. Dziuba Kaua investigated that during simulation effect at mould filling
process for the skeleton casting was analyzed. During pouring moulds distribution of the
temperatures was analyzed. In the beginning metal is flowing at the external surface of the
skeleton casting. The external surfaces are perpendicularly to ingate. First metal is filling the
horizontally channels of a core, next filling perpendicularly channels of mould. Metal is flows at
the external surfaces and fills internal channels of skeleton, until the moment of overall filling of
the mould.
S.ymankowska-Kumon*, M.Holtzer * investigated that Casting at establishes thermal and
geometrical parameters was investigated. It was obtained satisfactory filling the channels
creating the skeleton shape and prepared in form of a core. Based on obtained results of research
it was determined directions of following experimental and simulation studies. Numerical studies
enable determination of regions, in which heat give up is slow and these regions solidify longer.

7. Experimentation:
Materials used for this work were Robo sand collected from construction sites located in our
College, Kapra. Clay (Bentonite) is used as binder. Tap water was used for tempering.
Equipment used is weighing balance, measuring cylinder, specimen rammer, permeability meter,
sieve shaker and sets of sieve.
The sand was collected from the site, washed to remove clay and other impurities. It was
properly dried and after drying, it was sieved using shaker on which meshes of different aperture
were mounted. The clay was collected from the site. Pebbles were removed from it. The sieve
analysis was done to determine the grain fineness number
Main factors in optimizing the parameters are percentage clay (Bentonite) and percentage
moisture. Firstly, the percentage clay is kept constant and percentage moisture content is varied
from 5% to 7% and the results were obtained for various parameters. Further, the percentage
moisture content is kept constant and the percentage clay is varied from 9% to 11% and the
results were obtained for various parameters.
(a) Green Compressive Strength Test & Green Shear Strength Test
59

Determination of green compressive strength values was carried out using the universal sand
testing machine. The specimen to be tested was mounted on a stripping post and a compressive
load was gradually applied by turning a hand wheel until fracture. The fracture load was
automatically recorded on the attached scale.[2] Similarly green shear strength is found using
universal sand testing machine but the plates used for compression are replaced with the shear
plates

Figure 21: Preparation of Robo sand for moulding

Figure 22: Pouring molten aluminium metal into the mould box.

60

Table No: 1
Various values of GCS with varying water content:

Water (%)

GCS (Kn/mm2)
48.5

52.38

38.6

35.2

28.3

19

10

Table No: 2
Various values of GSS with varying water content:

Water (%)

GSS (Kn/mm2)
11.9

14.062

16.8

17.36

19.9

19.92

10

61

Table No. 3

Various values of GCS with varying clay content:

Clay (%)

GCS
31.6

52.38

10

40.07

11

Table No: 3
Various values of GSS with varying clay content:

Clay (%)

GSS
16.1

14.07

10

12.6

11

(b) Permeability Test

Permeability of the Robo sand is determined using constant head apparatus. The prepared
specimen is kept in the apparatus and the value of the permeability is noted.

Table No: 4
Various values of permeability with varying clay content:

62

Clay (%)

Permeability
185

90

10

190

11

(c) Shatter Index Test


This is also a measure of sand toughness particularly while withdrawal of pattern at that time
sand is subjected to sudden stresses. Shatter Index is determined by using shatter index tester.
Table No: 5
Various values of shatter index with varying clay content:
Clay (%)

shatter index
0.17

0.13

10

0.1

11

Specification: Pillar, Top Housing Bracket, Anvil, 12.5 mm Sieve, Lid, pan. The apparatus for
shatter index test has a provision for standard specimen to fall through a given height on to a
steel anvil. The broken pieces are kept on 12mm mesh sieve. The ratio of the weight retained to
the total weight gives the value of shatter index.

8. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS:

Basically, the cost of a casting depends on the availability of molding materials. These casting
materials include various types of foundry sand: silica, olivine, zirconium etc. The availability of
63

river sand which is used for many purposes is diminishing day by day. Hence to cope with this
problem an alternative for river sand is required. After an extensive research, scientists found out
that Robo sand is a perfect substitute for river sand in building constructions. Whether Robo sand
can be used for foundry or not is discussed in this paper.
Firstly, Robosand is the sand obtained from specific natural granite using the
state-of - the art European technology. Its numerous advantages over river sand have made it a
favourite and a Must- to- use with quality conscious builders the following features of
robosand makes it a best choice over river sand:
Particle Shape, High-Compression Strength, Greater Durability, Superior Quality, Greater
Economy Savings & Easy availability. Not only the above features, Robo sands unique qualities
like zero impurities, surface texture and durability can be well used for castings and is one of the
important advantages. The major advantages of robosand are that its cheaper, less wastage,
consistent gradation and eco friendly nature.
The aim of this paper is to find the optimized mixture of robosand, Bentonite and water for
casting of aluminium.
To start off, the robosand has been acquired from a construction site and is purified for impurities
.Then it has been sieved for GFN of 50 by the use of a siever and 200gm sample was considered.
In this sample, the percentages of Bentonite and water have been varied from 4-12 while the rest
being robosand mixture itself (GFN 50). Now this sample was weighed and thoroughly mixed
with clay until a homogenous mixture is made. Now water of required percentage was added to
this mixture and was mixed swiftly so that the moisture content in the mixture is not lost. After
thorough mixing of the sample, 160gm of the sample was taken and made to take the shape of
cylinder of diameter 35mm and height of 50mm.This sample was tested for various parameters.
After experimenting with various mixtures of water and clay, we have obtained the following
results. Properties obtained at 10% clay with varied water content are given below

64

Table No: 6
Comparison Values of GCS and Permeability of Robo sand with river sand.

S.no

Parameters

Water (5%-7%) & Clay

GCS

PERMEABILITY

(5 %-6%)
Robosand
0.3-0.5
95-195

Green sand
0.5-0.7
40-70

CONCLUSION:
The following conclusions are encountered from the current work.

The properties obtained are found to be suitable for casting of aluminum castings.

The surface finish of the final product is rougher than that of river sand.

Casting defects like porosity is eliminated by using Robo sand.

65

66

Using RIVER SAND and ROBO SAND

67

Figure 22: Final product using Robo sand.

68

Figure 22: Final product using River sand.

69