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Growing

& Cooking
with Culinary Herbs
MekenzieLewis,MPH,RD,Nutrition&WellnessEducator
ChrisEnroth,HorticultureEducator

Seasoning Classifications
Spices roots,bark,buds,berriesorfruitsof
aromaticplantsusuallygrowninthetropics
Herbs leavesofplantsgrowninthetemperate
zone
Seeds fromeithertropicalspiceplantsorherb
plants

Harvesting and Buying Fresh


Herbs
Pickinthemorningafterthedewhasdriedbutbefore
thesungetstoohot
Pickorbuyherbsclosetothetimeyouplantousethem
Pickorbuyherbsinsmallbundles

Washing Fresh Herbs


1. Waittowashherbsjustbeforeyouarereadytouse
them
2. Gentlywashunderrunningwater
3. Shakeoffmoisture
4. Patdrywithcleanpapertowels

Cooking with Herbs


Startwithsmallamountsofherbs
tsp driedherbsper1poundmeat
tsp driedper1pintofsauceorper4servings
Experimentwithbothfreshanddriedherbs
tsp powdered=to1tsp crumbled=3tsp fresh
Thereisnostrictlimitstotheuseofherbs
Ifmixingherbs,use1strongand1ormoremild

Cooking with Herbs


Cutleavesoffreshherbsveryfinebeforeaddingtofood
Freshherbs:chopwithaChefsknife,usekitchenscissors
Dryherbs:rubbetweenfingersorpalmstoreleaseflavor
Stripleavesofffreshherbsforcooking
Sturdystems:runfingersdownthestemfromtopto
bottom
Tenderstems:OKtousesomeofthestem
http://youtu.be/EuRhkopm06A

Cooking with Herbs


Addfreshherbstowardstheendofcooking
Delicateherbs:add12minutesbeforetheendof
cooking
Lessdelicateherbs:addatthelast20minutesof
cooking
Forchilledfoods,addherbsseveralhoursahead

Are Herbs Nutritious?


Addsflavorandaroma
Verylittleifanynutritionalvalue
Mayuseherbstocutdownsaltandsugar

Using Herbs to Reduce Sugar

Allspice
Anise
Cardamom
Cinnamon
Cloves
Ginger
Mace
Nutmeg

Using Herbs to Reduce Salt

Blackpepper
Garlicpowder
Currypowder
Cumin
Dill
Basil
Ginger
Coriander
Onion

Usefresh orpowderedgarlicand
onionratherthantheirsalt form
Checklabelsofstorebought
spicestoseeifsaltorsodium
arelisted

Storing Fresh Herbs


1.
2.
3.
4.

Snipofftheendsofthestemsonthediagonal
Placeherbsinatallglasswith~ 1inchwater
Coverlooselywithaplasticbagorplasticwrap
Placeinrefrigeratorandreplacewaterwhenit
getscloudy
Or

Wrapinadamppapertowel,placeinanopened
plasticbagandplaceintherefrigerator

Freezing Fresh Herbs


Tofreezewholeherbs:
1. Wash,shakeoff,patdrywithcleanpapertowel
2. Wrapafewsprigsorleavesinfreezerwrapandplaceina
freezerbag
3. Sealandfreeze
Tofreezechoppedherbs:
1. Chopandspoonintoicecubetrays
2. Addwaterandfreeze
3. Whenfrozen,wrapcubesindividuallyinplasticorputin
freezersafecontainer
Usefrozenherbswithin46monthsforbestquality

Drying Fresh Herbs


Washherbs,shakeandpatdry.Exposetowarm,dry,well
ventilatedair.SundryingisNOTrecommended
Airdrying
Sturdyherbs Tieinsmallbundlesandhangthemto
airdry
Tenderherbs Tieinsmallbundlesandsuspendina
paperbag,closingthetopwitha
rubberband.Cutsmallholesinbag.
Microwavedrying
Followmanufacturesdirections

Drying Fresh Herbs


Dehydratordrying
Preheatdehydratorto95115F
Placeinsinglelayerontrays
Dryingtimesmayvaryfrom1to4hours
Ovendrying
Layleavesonpapertowel,withoutallowingleavesto
touch
Coverwithanothertowel.5layersmaybedriedata
time.
Dryinaverycooloven.Theovenlightfurnishes
enoughheatforovernightdrying.

Drying Fresh Herbs


Leavesaredrywhencrispyandcrumbleeasilybetween
fingers
Mayleavewholeandcrumbleasusedorcoarsely
crumblebeforestorage
Placeherbsinairtightcontainersandstoreinacool,dry,
darkareas
Forbestflavor,usewithin1year
Formoredryingorfreezinginformation,visittheNationCenterforHomeFood
Preservationwebsite:
http://nchfp.uga.edu/publications/publications_usda.html

Top 10 Herbs
according to the Herb Society of America

SweetBasil(Ocimum basilicum)
CommonThyme(Thymusvulgaris)
Bay(Laurus nobilis)
CommonSage(Salviaofficinalis)
GreekOregano(Origanum vulgare)
Chives(Alliumsschoenoprasum)
Dill(Anethum graveolens)
Parsley(Petroselinum crispum)
Rosemary(Rosmarinus officinalis)
Lavender(Lavandula spp.)

GROWING HERBS WITH HYDROPONICS


FOR THE HOME GARDENER

What is hydroponics
Isthegrowingofplantsinaliquidnutrientsolutionwithor
withouttheuseofartificialmedia.

Wait!
Whatisthedifferencebetweenhydroponics&aquaponics?
Aquaponics isaversionofhydroponics
Combinestwosystemsaquaculturegrowingofaquaticplantsand
animalsandhydroponics

History of Hydroponics

HangingGardensofBabylon
Aztecfloatinggardens
HydroponicswereusedinWWIIinwesternPacific
Plasticschangedtheworld

Trends in food markets


increasing demand for hydroponics
Demandisincreasingformorelocallygrownfood
Increasingdemandforfreshhealthyvegetables
Aneedtoincreaseeconomicandenvironmentalefficiency

A Global Food Crisis

Rapidlyincreasingpopulation
Diversionoffoodstofuel
Water,fertilizerandfuelresourcesarerisingincost
Demandonlandforproduction
Urbansprawl,industrialmining,energygeneration,wildlife
conservation,watershedprotection,etc.

Development of Hydroponics
Efficientuseofwaterandnutrients
Easeofenvironmentalcontrols
canbedoneinArizonaorAlaska

Reductionofpesticidesand
herbicides
Lessdemandonlandresources

SYSTEMS FOR THE HOME GARDENER

Nutrient Film Technique

Nutrient Film Technique

Aeroponics

Aeration Technique

Raft (Floating) System

Aggregate Systems
Usesinertgrowingmediatosupportandsurroundplantroots
Mostcommonmaterials
Rockwool,claypebbles,gravel,perlite,vermiculite,sand,orfoam
chips

Aggregate Systems

Aero Garden
Commercialproductfor
homeowners
Automatedlight,water&
nutrientreminders
Builtingrowlights
Everythingisprepackaged
Growsaladgreens,herbs,
flowers,peppers
Tomatoesdonotgrow
wellwiththissystem

WHAT TO CONSIDER WHEN USING


HYDROPONICS

Managing Your System

Sterilization
Nutrientsolution
ManageyourpH
Providedissolvedoxygen
Monitortemperature
LightingConditions

Troubleshooting
Nutrientdeficiencysymptoms(seehandout)
Whentoreplacenutrientsolution?
710daysintensivecrops
2+monthslowusecrops(lettuceorherbs)

Wastedisposal

WHAT CAN YOU GROW?

Lettuce
Goodcropforbeginners
3085daystoharvest

Basil
Easytogrow;willlastmanymonths
Neverremovemorethanthe
shootduringharvest
Basilneeds12to14hoursof
artificiallight
Twobasilplantswillyield7harvests
in2.5monthsequalinga$28value

Rosemary
Respondswelltohydroponics
though
Slowgrowingandlowyields
Neverremovemorethanthe
plantduringharvest
Growthslowswhendaylengthdips
below11hrs.
Transplanttoharvest
Summer6weeks
Winter812weeks

Watchoutforpowderymildew

Spear & Peppermint


Easytogrow
Rootcuttingsinmildrooting
hormone
Transplanttoharvest
Summer4weeks
Winter67weeks

No.ofharvests Unlimited
Bestinfullsun;cantoleratepart
shade

Sage
Growswellinhydroponicsystems
Transplanttoharvest
Summer45weeks
Winter57weeks

Fullsun;growthslowsbelow11hourdaylengths

Others

Watercress
Chives
Oregano
Marjoram
Arugula
Dill
LemonBalm
Thyme

Sources:
HomeHydroponics.RetrievedfromVirginiaCooperativeExtensiononlinewebsite:
http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426084/426084.html
IntegratedSystemsofAgricultureandAquaculture [PDFdocument].Retrievedfrom
UniversityofArizonaExtensiononlinewebsite:
http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/extension/Classroom/Aquaponics.htm
UsingHydroponics [PDFdocument].RetrievedfromColoradoStateCooperativeExtension
onlinewebsite:http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/adams/gh/pdf/Intro_Hydroponics.pdf

MekenzieLewisemail:meklew@illinois.edu
ChrisEnrothemail:cenroth@illinois.edu

Thankyou

THE END

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