Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 80

WELL LOGS

Interpreting Geophysical Well Logs

Prof. Dr. Hassan Z. Harraz

Historical Aspect
-Schlumberger brothers, Conrad and Marcel, are credited with
inventing electrical well-logs.
- On September 5, 1927, the first well-log was created in a
small village named Pechelbroon in France.

- In 1931, the first SP (spontaneous potential) log was


recorded. Discovered when the galvanometer began wiggling
even though no current was being applied.
-The SP effect was produced naturally by the borehole mud at
the boundaries of permeable beds. By simultaneously
recording SP and resistivity, loggers could distinguish between
permeable oil-bearing beds and impermeable nonproducing
beds.

Types of Logs
a) Gamma Ray
b) SP (spontaneous potential)
c) Resistivity (Induction)
d) Sonic
e) Density/Neutron
f) Caliper

a) Gamma Ray
The gamma ray measures the natural
radioactivity of the rocks, and does not
measure any hydrocarbon or water present
within the rocks.
Shales: radioactive potassium is a common
component, and because of their cation
exchange capacity, uranium and thorium are
often absorbed as well.
Therefore, very often shales will display high
gamma ray responses, while sandstones and
limestone will typically show lower responses.

The scale for GR is in API (American


Petroleum Institute) and runs from 0-125
units. There are often 10 divisions in a GR
log, so each division represents 12.5 units.
Typical distinction between between a
sandstone/limestone and shale occurs
between 50-60 units.
Often, very clean sandstones or carbonates
will display values within the 20 units range.

b) SP (Spontaneous Potential)
The SP log records the electric potential
between an electrode pulled up a hole and a
reference electrode at the surface.
This potenital exists because of the
electrochemical differences between the
waters within the formation and the drilling
mud.
The potenital is measured in millivolts on a
relative scale only since the absolute value
depends on the properties of the drilling mud.

In shaly sections, the maximum SP response to


the right can be used to define a shale line.
Deflections of the SP log from this line indicates
zones of permeable lithologies with interstitial
fluids containing salinities differing from the
drilling fluid.
SP logs are good indicators of lithology where
sandstones are permeable and water saturated.
However, if the lithologies are filled with fresh
water, the SP can become suppressed or even
reversed. Also, they are poor in areas where
the permeabilities are very low, sandstones are
tighly cemented or the interval is completely
bitumen saturated (ie- oil sands).

c) Resistivity (Induction)
Resistivity logs record the resistance of
interstitial fluids to the flow of an electric
current, either transmitted directly to the rock
through an electrode, or magnetically induced
deeper into the formation from the hole.
Therefore, the measure the ability of rocks to
conduct electrical currents and are scaled in
units of ohm-meters.
On most modern logs, there will be three
curves, each measuring the resistance of
section to the flow of electricity.

Porous formations filled with salt water (which is


very common) have very low resistivities (often
only ranging from 1-10 ohms-meter).
Formations that contain oil/gas generally have
much higher resisitivities (often ranging from 10500 ohms-meter).
With regards to the three lines, the one we are
most interested in is the one marked deep. This
is because this curve looks into the formation at a
depth of six meters (or greater), thereby
representing the portion of the formation most
unlikely undisturbed by the drilling process.
One must be careful of extremely high values, as
they will often represent zones of either anhydrite
or other non-porous intervals.

d) Sonic
Sonic logs (or acoustic) measure the porosity
of the rock. Hence, they measure the travel
time of an elastic wave through a formation
(measured in T- microseconds per meter).
Intervals containing greater pore space will
result in greater travel time and vice versa for
non-porous sections.
Must be used in combination with other logs,
particularly gamma rays and resistivity,
thereby allowing one to better understand the
reservoir petrophysics.

e) Density/Neutron
Density logs measure the bulk electron density of the
formation, and is measured in kilograms per cubic meter
(gm/cm3 or kg/m3).
Thus, the density tool emits gamma radiation which is
scattered back to a detector in amounts proportional to the
electron density of the formation. The higher the gamma
ray reflected, the greater the porosity of the rock.
Electron density is directly related to the density of the
formation (except in evaporates) and amount of density of
interstitial fluids.
Helpful in distinguishing lithologies, especially between
dolomite (2.85 kg/m3) and limestone (2.71 kg/m3).

Neutron Logs measure the amounts of


hydrogen present in the water atoms of a
rock, and can be used to measure porosity.
This is done by bombarding the the formation
with neutrons, and determing how many
become captured by the hydrogen nuclei.
Because shales have high amounts of water,
the neutron log will read quite high porositiesthus it must be used in conjunction with GR
logs.
However, porosities recorded in shale-free
sections are a reasonable estimate of the
pore spaces that could produce water.

It is very common to see both neutron


and density logs recorded on the same
section, and are often shown as an
overlay on a common scale (calibrated
for either sandstones or limestones).
This overlay allows for better
opportunity of distinguishing lithologies
and making better estimates of the true
porosity.
* When natural gas is present, there
becomes a big spread (or crossing) of
the two logs, known as the gas effect.

f) Caliper
Caliper Logs record the diameter of the hole.
It is very useful in relaying information about
the quality of the hole and hence reliability of
the other logs.
An example includes a large hole where
dissolution, caving or falling of the rock wall
occurred, leading to errors in other log
responses.
Most caliper logs are run with GR logs and
typically will remain constant throughout.

WELL LOG
(The Bore Hole Image)
Interpreting Geophysical Well Logs

Prof. Dr. Hassan Z. Harraz

What is well Logging


Well log is a continuous record of measurement made in bore hole respond to
variation in some physical properties of rocks through which the bore hole is drilled.
Traditionally Logs are display on girded papers shown in figure.
Now a days the log may be taken as films, images, and in digital format.

HISTORY

1912 Conrad Schlumberger give the idea of using electrical measurements to map subsurface
rock bodies.

in 1919 Conrad Schlumberger and his brother Marcel begin work on well logs.
The first electrical resistivity well log was taken in France, in 1927.
The instrument which was use for this purpose is called SONDE, the sond was stopped at
periodic intervals in bore hole and the and resistivity was plotted on graph paper.
In 1929 the electrical resistivity logs are introduce on commercial scale in Venezuela, USA and
Russia
For correlation and identification of Hydrocarbon bearing strata.
The photographic film recorder was developed in 1936 the curves were SN,LN AND LAT
The dip meter log were developed in 1930
The Gamma Ray and Neutron Log were begin in 1941

LOGGING UNITS

Logging service companies utilize a variety of


logging units, depending on the location
(onshore or offshore) and requirements of the
logging run. Each unit will contain the
following components:

logging cable
winch to raise and lower the cable in the well
self-contained 120-volt AC generator
set of surface control panels
set of downhole tools (sondes and cartridges)
digital recording system

Work Flow Chart

From Warrior Energy Services Website, www.warriorenergyservices.com

TYPICAL WIRELINE TRUCK

From Welaco

TYPICAL WIRELINE SKID UNIT

Welaco Unit at Ormats Puna Geothermal Venture in Hawaii

TYPES OF LOGS
Geophysical Logs

Resistivity
Porosity
Gamma Ray
Dip Meter
Borehole Imaging
Other

Production Logging

Pressure
Temperature
Spinner
Fluid Density

Well Inspection

Sonic
Caliper
Electro-magnetic
Ultrasonic
RA Tracer
Video

depth to lithological boundaries

lithology identification

minerals grade/quality

inter-borehole correlation

structure mapping

dip determination

rock strength

in-situ stress orientation

fracture frequency

porosity

fluid salinity

Depth Of Investigation Of Logging Tools

LOG INTERPRETATION OBJECTIVES

The objective of log interpretation depends very much on the user. Quantitative analysis of well
logs provides the analyst with values for a variety of primary parameters, such as:
porosity
water saturation, fluid type (oil/gas/water)
lithology
permeability
From these, many corollary parameters can be derived by integration (and other means) to arrive
at values for:
hydrocarbons-in-place
reserves (the recoverable fraction of hydrocarbons in-place)
mapping reservoir parameters
But not all users of wireline logs have quantitative analysis as their objective. Many of them are
more concerned with the geological and geophysical aspects. These users are interested in
interpretation for:
well-to-well correlation
facies analysis
regional structural and sedimentary history
In quantitative log analysis, the objective is to define
the type of reservoir (lithology)
its storage capacity (porosity)
its hydrocarbon type and content (saturation)
its producibility (permeability)

POROSITY LOGS
Neutron tool
Neutron source
High energy neutrons are slowed down by hydrogen atoms in
water (or oil) and detected by tool
Porosity is function rock type and slow neutron count

Density tool

Gamma ray source


Electrons reflect gamma rays back to detector in tool
Electrons in formation proportional to density
Porosity is function of rock type and density

Sonic tool
Measures speed of sound in formation
Porosity slows sound
Porosity is function of rock type and measured speed of sound

GAMMA RAY LOG


Gamma ray detector measures natural
radioactivity of formation
Mostly due to Potassium in Shale
Shale has porosity but no permeability

Uranium and Thorium


Less common sources natural radioactivity
Detected by more sophisticated tools that
measure gamma ray energy

Run with other tools to correlate logs

GAMMA RAY LOG

Gamma Rays are high-energy electromagnetic waves which are emitted by atomic nuclei as a form
of radiation

Gamma ray log is measurement of natural radioactivity in formation verses depth.

It measures the radiation emitting from naturally occurring U, Th, and K.

It is also known as shale log.

GR log reflects shale or clay content.

Clean formations have low radioactivity level.

Correlation between wells,


Determination of bed boundaries,
Evaluation of shale content within a formation,
Mineral analysis,

Depth control for log tie-ins, side-wall coring, or perforating.

Particularly useful for defining shale beds when the sp is featureless

GR log can be run in both open and cased hole

Spontaneous Potential Log (SP)

The spontaneous potential (SP) curve records


the naturally occurring electrical potential
(voltage) produced by the interaction of
formation connate water, conductive drilling
fluid, and shale

The SP curve reflects a difference in the


electrical potential between a movable
electrode in the borehole and a fixed reference
electrode at the surface

Though the SP is used primarily as a lithology


indicator and as a correlation tool, it has other
uses as well:

permeability indicator,

shale volume indicator

porosity indicator, and

measurement of Rw (hence formation


water salinity).

Neutron Logging

The Neutron Log is primarily used to evaluate


formation porosity, but the fact that it is really
just a hydrogen detector should always be kept
in mind

It is used to detect gas in certain situations,


exploiting the lower hydrogen density, or
hydrogen index

The Neutron Log can be summarized as the


continuous measurement of the induced
radiation produced by the bombardment of that
formation with a neutron source contained in
the logging tool which sources emit fast
neutrons that are eventually slowed by
collisions with hydrogen atoms until they are
captured (think of a billiard ball metaphor where
the similar size of the particles is a factor). The
capture results in the emission of a secondary
gamma ray; some tools, especially older ones,
detect the capture gamma ray (neutron-gamma
log). Other tools detect intermediate
(epithermal) neutrons or slow (thermal)
neutrons (both referred to as neutron-neutron
logs). Modern neutron tools most commonly
count thermal neutrons with an He-3 type
detector.

The Density Log

The formation density log is a porosity log that measures electron


density of a formation

Dense formations absorb many gamma rays, while low-density


formations absorb fewer. Thus, high-count rates at the detectors indicate
low-density formations, whereas low count rates at the detectors indicate
high-density formations.

Therefore, scattered gamma rays reaching the detector is an indication


of formation Density.
Scale and units:

The most frequently used scales are a range of 2.0 to 3.0 gm/cc or 1.95
to 2.95 gm/cc across two tracks.
A density derived porosity curve is sometimes present in tracks #2 and
#3 along with the bulk density (rb) and correction (Dr) curves. Track #1
contains a gamma ray log and caliper.

RESISTVITY LOGS
Measure bulk resistivity of formation
Laterlog
The original well log
Electrodes direct current into formation to ground
electrodes on surface

Induction
Magnetic field induces current in formation
Used with low conductivity well fluids

Porosity can be calculated if water salinity is


known
Oil or gas saturation can be calculated if porosity
and water salinity are known

Resistivity Log

Basics about the Resistivity:


Resistivity measures the electric properties of the formation,
Resistivity is measured as, R in W per m,
Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity,
The ability to conduct electric current depends upon:
The Volume of water,
The Temperature of the formation,
The Salinity of the formation
The Resistivity Log:
Resistivity logs measure the ability of rocks to
conduct electrical current and are scaled in units of
ohmmeters.
The Usage:
Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used
to:
Determine Hydrocarbon versus Water-bearing zones,
Indicate Permeable zones,
Determine Resisitivity Porosity.

Acoustic Log

Acoustic tools measure the speed of sound waves in


subsurface formations. While the acoustic log can be
used to determine porosity in consolidated formations, it
is also valuable in other applications, such as:

Indicating lithology (using the ratio of compressional


velocity over shear velocity),

Determining integrated travel time (an important tool for


seismic/wellbore correlation),

Correlation with other wells

Detecting fractures and evaluating secondary porosity,

Evaluating cement bonds between casing, and formation,

Detecting over-pressure,

Determining mechanical properties (in combination with


the density log), and

Determining acoustic impedance (in combination with


the density log).

Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz

DIP METER AND BOREHOLE IMAGING

Dip Meter

Four or six arms with few buttons measure small scale resistivity
Wellbore inclination and orientation
Map bedding planes of sedimentary formations

Imaging Tools
Resistivity imaging tools
FMI - Schlumberger, EMI Halliburton
Pads with many buttons map small scale resistivity

Ultrasonic imaging tools


USIT Schlumberger, CAST Halliburton
Spinning ultrasonic transducer measures I.D. and sonic impedance

Borehole image
Dip and orientation of fractures
Structure and stress of formation
Borehole breakout
Drilling induced fractures

OTHER GEOPHYSICAL
Mineral identification
LOGS
Pulsed neutron source stimulates gamma ray
emissions
Tool measures energy spectrum of returning
gamma rays
Percentage of elements (silica, calcium, etc.)

Magnetic resonance
Detects free water
Determine permeability

GEOTHERMAL APPLICATIONS
Geophysical tools designed for sedimentary
formations
Algorithms for sandstone, shale, limestone, dolomite
Special algorithms required for crystalline rock

Resistivity tool is sufficient to quantify porosity when


water salinity is known
Sonic tool puts seismic surveys on depth
Density tool calibrates gravity surveys
Formation imaging tools map fractures and quantify
stress regime
Neutron and density tools can identify lithology,
if samples are available to create correlations
if there is variation in rock type

Schlumberger Litho-Density Log

PRODUCTION LOGS
Very useful in geothermal wells
Can be run with simple or sophisticated
equipment
Temperature surveys are essential for
exploration work
Pressure & Temperature surveys are
more useful for well testing and
production

TEMPERATURE LOGS
Most important parameter in geothermal wells
Thermocouple wire
easiest for shallow holes

RTD
most accurate

Mechanical tool
Only option for deep hot wells 10 years ago

Electronic surface readout tool in thermal flask


Requires high temperature wireline

Electronic memory tool in thermal flask


State of the art
Slick line or braided cable

Fiber Optics
Instantaneous temperature profile of entire wellbore
Good for measuring transients

High temperature electronics


Not yet commercial

TEMPERATURE
PROFILE
SURFACE
DEPTH

CONDUCTIVE GRADIENT

HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM
OUTFLOW ZONE
UPFLOW
TEMPERATURE
REVERSAL

CONDUCTIVE HEAT SOU


TEMPERATURE

PRESSURE LOG

Second most important reservoir parameter


pressure drives flow
producing drawdown indicates reservoir productivity (or injection buildup)
drawdown curves analyzed to determine reservoir permeability

Water level, easily measured


used in hydrology but less useful in geothermal systems
dependant on wellbore temperature and gas or steam pressure above water

Mechanical pressure tool


common ten years ago

Capillary tubing filled with nitrogen or helium


reservoir pressure is measured at surface
good for long term reservoir pressure monitoring of hot wells

Electronic surface readout tool in thermal flask


requires high temperature wireline

Electronic memory tool in thermal flask


state of the art
slick line or braided cable

STATIC PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES


PRESSURE
0

50

TEMPERATURE
100

150

200

250

200

DEPTH

400
WATER LEVEL

600
STATIC PRESSURE

800

1000

1200

STATIC TEMPERATURE

300

350

STATIC AND FLOWING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES


PRESSURE
0

50

TEMPERATURE
100

150

200

250

300

200
FLOWING
TEMPERATURE

DEPTH

400

600
STATIC PRESSURE

800

STATIC
TEMPERATURE

FLASH DEPTH

FLASH DEPTH
PRESSURE DRAWDOWN

1000
FLOWING PRESSURE
1200

350

SPINNER LOG
Propeller measures flow in wellbore
Identifies production (or injection) zones
Calculate fluid velocity from series of up
and down runs at different cable speeds

FLOWING SPINNER SURVEY


Log down 100 fpm

Log up 100 fpm

SPINNER COUNTS
-10

10

20

200

DEPTH

400

600
FLASH DEPTH
800

1000
MAIN PRODUCTION ZONE
1200

30

40

50

TYPICAL SHALLOW WELL LOGGING UNIT

From USGS website, nc.water.usgs.gov

TYPICAL SLICK LINE WINCH

From BOP Controls Inc. website, bopcontrols.net

WELL INSPECTION LOGS

Sonic Cement Bond Log (Same tool as sonic porosity log)

Caliper

Measures I.D. and thickness of casing, and impedance of material behind casing
Detects corrosion, holes and cement

RA Tracer

Measures metal loss


Detects corrosion, holes and parted casing

Ultrasonic (same as imaging tool)

Measures I.D. of casing


Detects corrosion, scale, washouts, parted casing

Electro-magnetic

Measures quality of cement on outside of casing


Difficulty with large geothermal well casing
Difficulty with micro-annulus caused by temperature and pressure changes

Injects slug of iodine 131 into wellbore


Gamma ray detector measures radioactive slug
Detects leaks in casing and flow behind pipe

Video

Identify well problems


Requires very clear water

PRESSURE CONTROL
Should be used there is any possibility of well flowing
Pack-off

Rubber cylinder tightens around wireline


Few hundred psi

Grease out
Low pressure

Lubricator

Length of pipe below pack-off


Necessary to run tool in pressurized well

Blow out preventor

Valve below lubricator that closes around


wireline
Useful if pack-off fails or wireline gets stuck in
pack-off

Grease tubes for high pressure

Placed below pack-off


For thousands of psi
Grease pumped in high pressure end flows to
low pressure

Grease in
High pressure

PRESSURE-TEMPERATURESPINNER TOOLS FOR SALE


MADDEN SYSTEMS (Odessa, TX)
Flasked surface readout and memory tools

KUSTER COMPANY (Long Beach, CA)


Mechanical tools
Flasked surface readout and memory tools

Anyone with a slickline or braided cable


winch can run memory tools.

GEOPHYSICAL LOGGING TOOLS


AND WIRELINE WINCHES FOR
SALE
Companies that used to make tools and
sell wireline systems went out of
business in the 1990s
Companies that sell systems now are
on the internet

COMMERCIAL BOREHOLE
LOGGING COMPANIES
Geothermal Production Logging

The Big Three

SCHLUMBERGER
HALLIBURTON
BAKER ATLAS

Worldwide Geophysical, Production


& Inspection Logging

WELACO Bakersfield CA
PACIFIC PROCESS SYSTEMS
Bakersfield CA
SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION
SERVICES Houston TX
INSTRUMENT SERVICES INC.
Ventura CA

Pressure-Temperature-Spinner
& some other services

Video
DOWNHOLE VIDEO Oxnard
CA
many other companies

Sell and service equipment


Many other companies in Japan, New
Zealand, Philippines, Iceland,
Kenya (KenGen), etc.

1- Formation Evaluation
A- Virgin Reservoir
(Mainly Open Hole Logs)
B-Developed & Depleted Reservoirs
(Mainly Cased Hole Logs)
2- Monitoring Reservoir Performance
Reservoir Performance Problems
Well Performance Problems
Reservoir Description

Some Well Mechanical Problems

Important Questions
Is the Well Producing at Its Potential?
If It Is Not , Why Isnt It?
What is the Well Production Potential?
Is It: the Well Production on Well Test
OR
Is It: What Well Is Capable to Produce

Causes of Low / Production Disturbance

A- Non- Treatable Problems


1- Low Formation KH
2- Poor Relative permeability
3- High GOR or WOR
4- High Viscosity

B- Treatable Problems
1- Formation Problems
( Organic & Inorganic Precipitates, Stimulation
Fluids, Clay Swelling, Mud Effects)
2- Production Equipments Problems
( Cement & casing, Tubing, Artificial Lifts)

It is fine to Understand Types of


Problems and Their Causes.
But It Is More Important To Determine
That A Problem Does Exist.

Diagnosis of Causes
A- Surface Data Analysis
B- Drilling Report
C- Workover, Completion and
Stimulation Data

Well Log Classification


Overview

Well Log Classification and


Cataloging
Well Log Data Repository

PWLS Class Repository

Well Log Catalog


Industry Data

Company Data

Activities Enabled by PWLS


Meta Data

Classify well logs


Classify well log channels
Query for well logs
Query for well log channels

Classify a Well Log / Channel


/ Parameter
well log well_log_service_class
by interpretation of well log header

channel company_channel_class
validate against dictionary

parameter company parameter spec.


validate against dictionary

Genericity of classification
original acquired data primarily co.
data
company channel class
well log service class

computed data primarily industry


data
well log curve class
well log tool class

processed data combined approach

Query by technology
goal: logs of a given technology
industry classification:well log tool class
company classification: well log service
class
catalog: classification by well log
service class
result: well log data

Query by channel attributes


goal: channels of a given object,
property, function, ...
industry classification:well log curve
class
company classification: company
channel class class
catalog: classification by company
channel class
result: well log data

Query by propery type


goal: channels of a given property type
industry classification: well log curve
class
company classification: company
channel class class
catalog: classification by company
channel class
result: well log data

Parameter-Augmented Query
goal: well logs, subject to parameteric
constraints e. g. total_depth > 33000 ft
industry classification: param spec (property
type) e. g. Bottom_Depth
company classification: company parm spec
e. g. BOTTOM_DEPTH
catalog: parametric classification e. g.
BOTTOM_DEPTH=44000(m)
result: well log data

Existing Data
Well Log Data Repository

query
engine

Dictionary

Well Log Catalog

15:MDL : xxxxxxxxx
150:CDL : xxxxxxxxx
280:SLD : xxxxxxxxx
440:LDS : xxxxxxxxx

Queries
Well Log Data Repository
Where are my density logs?
Dictionary
Well Log Catalog

15:MDL : xxxxxxxxx
150:CDL : xxxxxxxxx
280:SLD : xxxxxxxxx
440:LDS : xxxxxxxxx

Existing Data
PWLS

... density ...


Well Log Data Repository

query
engine Well Log Catalog

Industry Data
Density : xxxxxxxxx
Acoustic : xxxxxxxxx
Neutron : xxxxxxxxx

Dictionary
15:MDL : xxxxxxxxx
150:CDL : xxxxxxxxx
280:SLD : xxxxxxxxx
440:LDS : xxxxxxxxx

Company Data
15:MDL : xxxxxxxxx : Density
150:CDL : xxxxxxxxx : Density
280:SLD : xxxxxxxxx : Density
440:LDS : xxxxxxxxx : Density

Prof. Dr. H. Z. Harraz

Textbook & References


Textbook:
1- Hill, A.D., 1990," Production Logging- Theoretical and
Interpretive Elements", SPE Series, vol.14.
2- Instructor Notes: Production Logging & CasedHole Logging
in Vertical and Horizontal Wells).

References:
1- Schlumberger, 1987," Cased- Hole Log Interpretation:
Principles / Applications", Schlumberger Ltd., Houston.
2- Rollins, D.R., et al, 1995," Measurement While Drilling", SPE
Series vol.40.