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# CHAPTER

Mechanics of Materials
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
David M. Mazurek

## Review of Centroids and Moment

of Inertia of an Area

Mechanics of Materials
Contents
Center of Gravity of a 2D Body
Centroids and First Moments of
Areas and Lines
Composite Plates and Areas
Polar Moments of Inertia of an Area
Moment of Inertia of an Area

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Mechanics of Materials
Centroids and First Moments of Areas
The earth exerts a gravitational force on each of the particles
forming a body. These forces can be replace by a single
equivalent force equal to the weight of the body and applied
at the center of gravity for the body.
The centroid of an area is analogous to the center of
gravity of a body.
The concept of the first moment of an area is used to
locate the centroid.

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Mechanics of Materials
First Moments of Areas and Lines
The first moment of an area with respect to a
line of symmetry is zero.
If an area possesses a line of symmetry, its
centroid lies on that axis
If an area possesses two lines of symmetry, its
centroid lies at their intersection.
The centroid of the area coincides with the
center of symmetry.

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Mechanics of Materials
Centroids and First Moments of Areas
Centroid of an area

x W = x dW
x (At ) = x (t )dA
x A = x dA = Q y
= first moment with respect to y
yA = y dA = Qx
= first moment with respect to x

Composite area
X A = xA
Y A = yA

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Mechanics of Materials
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Divide the area into a triangle, rectangle,
and semicircle with a circular cutout.
Calculate the first moments of each area
with respect to the axes.

## For the plane area shown, determine

the first moments with respect to the
x and y axes and the location of the
centroid.

## Find the total area and first moments of

the triangle, rectangle, and semicircle.
Subtract the area and first moment of the
circular cutout.
Compute the coordinates of the area
centroid by dividing the first moments by
the total area.

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Mechanics of Materials
Sample Problem

## Find the total area and first moments of the

triangle, rectangle, and semicircle. Subtract the
area and first moment of the circular cutout.

Qx = +506.2 103 mm 3
Q y = +757.7 103 mm 3
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Mechanics of Materials
Sample Problem
Compute the coordinates of the area
centroid by dividing the first moments by
the total area.

x A + 757.7 103 mm 3

X =
=
A 13.828 103 mm 2

X = 54.8 mm

y A + 506.2 103 mm 3

Y =
=
A 13.828 103 mm 2
Y = 36.6 mm

5-8

Mechanics of Materials
Polar Moment of Inertia of an Area
The polar moment of inertia is an important
parameter in problems involving torsion of
cylindrical shafts and rotations of slabs.
J 0 = r 2 dA

## The polar moment of inertia of a circular

cross section,
dA = 2 u du

dJ O = u 2 dA
r

J O = dJ O = u (2 u du ) = 2 u 3du
0

JO =

r4

Mechanics of Materials
Moment of Inertia of an Area

## Second moments or moments of inertia of

an area with respect to the x and y axes,
I x = y 2 dA

I y = x 2 dA

## For a rectangular area,

2

I x = y dA = y 2bdy = 13 bh 3
0

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Mechanics of Materials
Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas
The moment of inertia of a composite area A about a given axis is
obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the component areas
A1, A2, A3, ... , with respect to the same axis.

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Mechanics of Materials
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Compute the moments of inertia of the
bounding rectangle and half-circle with
respect to the x axis.
The moment of inertia of the shaded area is
obtained by subtracting the moment of
inertia of the half-circle from the moment
of inertia of the rectangle.
Determine the moment of inertia
of the shaded area with respect to
the x axis.

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Mechanics of Materials
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Compute the moments of inertia of the bounding
rectangle and half-circle with respect to the x axis.
Rectangle:
I x = 13 bh3 = 13 (240 )(120 ) = 138.2 106 mm 4

Half-circle:
moment of inertia with respect to AA,
I AA = 18 r 4 = 18 (90 )4 = 25.76 106 mm 4

## moment of inertia with respect to x,

4r (4 )(90 )
=
= 38.2 mm
3
3
b = 120 - a = 81.8 mm

a=

A = 12 r 2 = 12 (90 )2
= 12.72 103 mm 2

) (

## I x = I AA Aa 2 = 25.76 10 6 12.72 103 (38.2 )

= 7.20 10 6 mm 4
moment of inertia with respect to x,

## I x = I x + Ab 2 = 7.20 106 + 12.72 103 (81.8)2

= 92.3 106 mm 4

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Mechanics of Materials
Sample Problem
The moment of inertia of the shaded area is obtained by
subtracting the moment of inertia of the half-circle from
the moment of inertia of the rectangle.

Ix

138.2 106 mm 4

92.3 106 mm 4