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Engineering Simulations and Computations

Problem # 1: Cantilever Beams Deflection


Introduction:
Measurements have been made of a cantilever beam's detection (stored in the file
ass2q1in.csv). To determine what type of loading has been applied and the
magnitude of the load, following are four possibilities to test:
1. Point load (with units of force) on the end, Eq (1) and Fig 1(a)
2. Moment (with units of force multiplied by length) at the end, Eq (2) and Fig
1(b)
3. Uniformly-distributed load (UDL) (with units of force per unit length), Eq
(3) and Fig 1(c)
4. Uniformly-varying load (UVL) (with units of force per unit length), Eq (4)
and Fig 1(d).
The formulae for the detections are:
2

P x (
v P=
3 Lx )
6 EI
M x
v M=
2 EI

(1)

(2)

x 2 ( 2
v UDL =
x +6 L24 Lx )
24 EI

(3)

0 x 2
( 10 L310 L2 x +5 L x 2x 3 )
v UVL =
120 EI

(4)

The values of the parameters used in above equations are;


E=6.0006 102 GPa

I =4.5928 10 8 mm 4

L=9.0 m

Writing the values of all the parameters in SI units;

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E=6.0006 10 GPa=600.06 10 Pa
I =4.5928 10 8 mm 4=0.00045928 m4
L=9.0 m

Fig 1: Cantilever Beam Loadings

2 | Page

Part_1: Rearranging the Eqs (1) to (4)


After rearranging the Eqs (1) to (4), we get the following equations;
P=

6 v P EI

M=
=

(5)

x 2 ( 3 Lx )
2 v M EI

(6)

x2
24 v UDL EI

(7)

x 2 ( x 2+6 L24 Lx )

0 =

120 v UVL LEI

(8)

x 2 ( 10 L3 10 L2 x+ 5 L x 2x 3 )

Part_2: Calculating the Average value of the Loads


From the file ass2q1in.csv, we get the following values of the first, median
and last data points;
x (m)

v (m)

First Point

0.001009575

Median Point

0.023816610

Last Point

0.058067860

Table 1: First, Median and Last Points


Value of Loads for First Point:
The following parameters values are used to calculate the value of loads for the
first point;
x ( m )=1

v ( m )=0.001009575

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E=600.06 109 Pa

I =0.00045928 m4

L=9.0 m

Using Eq (6)
P=

6 v P EI
2

x ( 3 Lx )
9

6 0.001009575 600.06 10 0.00045928


P=
=64207.9 N
2
(1) ( 3 91 )

Using Eq (7)
M=

2 v M EI
x

M=

2 0.001009575 600.06 10 0.00045928


=556468.7 Nm
2
(1)

Using Eq (8)
=

24 v UDL EI
2

x ( x 2+6 L24 Lx )
24 0.001009575 600.06 10 9 0.00045928
=14806.2 N /m
(1)2 [ (1)2 +6 (9)24 9 1 ]

Using Eq (9)
0 =

120 vUVL EI
x 2 ( 10 L3 10 L2 x+ 5 L x 2x 3 )

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0 =

120 0.001009575 9 600.06 10 0.00045928


=46059.6 N /m
2
2
2
3
3
(1) [ 10( 9) 10 ( 9 ) ( 1 ) +5(9) ( 1 ) (1) ]

Value of Loads for Median Point:


The following parameters values are used to calculate the value of loads for the
median point;
x ( m )=5

E=600.06 10 Pa

v ( m )=0.023816610

I =0.00045928 m

L=9.0 m

Using Eq (6)
P=

6 v P EI
x 2 ( 3 Lx )
9

P=

6 0.023816610 600.06 10 0.00045928


=71604.5 N
2
(5) ( 3 95 )

Using Eq (7)
M=

2 v M EI
x2
9

2 0.023816610 600.06 10 0.00045928


M=
=525100.1 Nm
2
(5)

Using Eq (8)
=

24 v UDL EI
x 2 ( x 2+6 L24 Lx )

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24 0.023816610 600.06 10 0.00045928


=19036.8 N /m
(5)2 [ (5)2+6 (9)24 9 5 ]

Using Eq (9)
0 =

120 v UVL LEI


2

x ( 10 L3 10 L2 x+ 5 L x 2x 3 )
9

0 =

120 0.023816610 9 600.06 10 0.00045928


=66875.9 N / m
2
2
2
3
3
(5) [ 10( 9) 10 ( 9 ) ( 5 ) +5(9) ( 5 ) (5) ]

Value of Loads for Last Point:


The following parameters values are used to calculate the value of loads for the last
point;
x ( m )=9

E=600.06 10 Pa

v ( m )=0.058067860

I =0.00045928 m

L=9.0 m

Using Eq (6)
P=

P=

6 v P EI
2

x ( 3 Lx )

6 0.058067860 600.06 109 0.00045928


=65856.9 N
(9)2 ( 3 99 )

Using Eq (7)
M=

2 v M EI
x

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M=

2 0.058067860 600.06 10 0.00045928


=395141.8 Nm
2
(9)

Using Eq (8)
=

24 v UDL EI
x 2 ( x 2+6 L24 Lx )
24 0.058067860 600.06 10 9 0.00045928
=19513.1 N /m
(9)2 [ (9)2+6 (9)24 9 9 ]

Using Eq (9)
0 =

0 =

120 vUVL EI
2

x ( 10 L 10 L2 x+ 5 L x 2x 3 )
120 0.058067860 600.06 109 0.00045928
=73174.4 N /m
2
2
(9)2 [ 10(9)310 ( 9 ) ( 9 ) +5(9) ( 9 ) (9)3 ]

All of the above calculated loads are summarized below in table 2;


P

First Point

64207.9

556468.7

14806.2

46059.6

Median Point

71604.5

525100.1

19036.8

66875.9

Last Point

65856.9

395141.8

19513.1

73174.4

Table 2: Summary of Loads for each point


Calculating the Average Value of Each Load:
Average value of each load can be calculated from the Table 2;

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Pavg=

64207.9+71604.5+65856.9
=67223.1 N
3

M avg=

avg=

556468.7+525100.1+395141.8
=492236.8 Nm
3

14806.2+19036.8+19513.1
=17785.3 N /m
3

0 avg=

46059.6+66875.9+73174.4
=62036.6 N /m
3

Part_3: Determining the Best Curve Fit from Eq.(1) to (4)


2
To determine the best curve fit from Eq.(1) to Eq.(4), we calculate the r value

for each of the equation for first, median and last points using the average values of
the loads calculated above.
2
Calculation of r for Eq (1):

Eq.(1) is;
2

v P=

P x (
3 Lx )
6 EI

For first point x=1

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v P=

67223.1 12
( 3 91 )=0.0011
6 600.06 10 9 0.00045928

For median point x=5


v P=

67223.1 52
( 3 95 )=0.0224
6 600.06 10 9 0.00045928

For last point x=9


v P=

67223.1 92
( 3 99 ) =0.0593
9
6 600.06 10 0.00045928

Mean of deflection v (t ) obtained from file ass2q1in.csv is;


v avg =0.0262

Using the values from table 1, we get;


J 1=(0.0011+0.001009575 )2 + (0.0224+ 0.023816610 )2 + (0.0593+0.058067860 )2
J 1=3.5331e-06
2

S 1=(0.001009575+0.0262 ) + (0.023816610+ 0.0262 ) + (0.058067860+0.0262 )

S 1=0.0017

r 21=1

J1
3.5331e-06
=1
=0.9979
S1
0.0017

2
Calculation of r for Eq (2):

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Eq.(2) is;
v M=

M x 2
2 EI

For first point x=1


2

v M=

492236.8 1
( 3 91 )=8.9304e-04
2 600.06 109 0.00045928

For median point x=5


v M=

492236.8 52
( 3 95 )=0.0223
2 600.06 109 0.00045928

For last point x=9


2

v M=

492236.8 9
( 3 99 )=0.0723
9
2 600.06 10 0.00045928

Mean of deflection v (t ) obtained from file ass2q1in.csv is;


v avg =0.0262

Using the values from table 1, we get;


2

J 2=(0.000 8904+ 0.001009575 ) + (0.0223+0.023816610 ) + (0.0723+0.058067860 )

J 2=2.0487e-04
2

S 2=(0.001009575+0.0262 ) + (0.023816610+ 0.0262 ) + (0.058067860+0.0262 )

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S 2=0.0017

r 22=1

J2
2.0487e-04
=1
=0.8763
S2
0.0017

2
Calculation of r for Eq (3):

Eq.(3) is;
2

x ( 2
v UDL =
x +6 L24 Lx )
24 EI

For first point x=1


v UDL =

17785.3 12
( 12 +6(9)24 9 1 )
9
24 600.06 10 0.00045928

v UDL =0.0012

For median point x=5


2

v UDL =

17785.3 5
( 52 +6(9)24 9 5 )
9
24 600.06 10 0.00045928

v UDL =0.0223

For last point x=9


17785.3 92
v UDL =
( 92 +6 (9)24 9 9 )
9
24 600.06 10 0.00045928
v UDL =0.0529

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Mean of deflection v (t ) obtained from file ass2q1in.csv is;


v avg =0.0262

Using the values from table 1, we get;


2

J 3=(0.0012+0.001009575 ) + (0.0223+ 0.023816610 ) + (0.0529+ 0.058067860 )

J 3=2.9043e-05
S 3=(0.001009575+0.0262 )2 + (0.023816610+ 0.0262 )2+ (0.058067860+0.0262 )2
S 3=0.0017

r 3=1

2.9043e-05
2.9043e-05
=1
=0.9825
S3
0.0017

2
Calculation of r for Eq (4):

Eq.(4) is;
2

v UVL =

0 x
( 10 L310 L2 x +5 L x 2x 3 )
120 EI

For first point x=1


9

3
10(9) 10(2(1)+5(9)(1)213 )
62036.6 12
v UVL =

120 600.06 109 0.00045928

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v UVL =0.0014

For median point x=5


9

3
10(9) 10( 2(5)+5(9)(5)253 )
62036.6 52
v UVL =

120 600.06 109 0.00045928


v UVL =0.0221

For last point x=9


9

3
10(9) 10 ( 2(9)+5(9)(9)293 )
62036.6 92
v UVL =

120 600.06 109 0.00045928


v UVL =0.0492

Mean of deflection v (t ) obtained from file ass2q1in.csv is;


v avg =0.0262

Using the values from table 1, we get;


2

J 4 =(0.0014+0.001009575 ) + (0.0221+ 0.023816610 ) + (0.0492+0.058067860 )

J 4 =8.1738e-05

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S 4 =(0.001009575+ 0.0262 ) + (0.023816610+0.0262 ) + (0.058067860+0.0262 )

S 4 =0.0017

r 24 =1

8.1738e-05
8.1738e-05
=1
=0.9506
S4
0.0017

Selecting the Best Curve Fit:


It is clear from above calculations that the value of

r2

is maximum for Eq (1)

from all of above given equations, so Eq (1) gives the best curve fit which is for
point loading.
Verification using Excel:
The graph of deflection v(m) as a function of x(m) for cantilever unknown loading
using the data given in the file ass2q1in.csv, is plotted below;

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Fig 2: v(m) as function of x(m) for unknown loading


The average values of the loads (P, M, , 0 ) calculated above in Part # 2 are
rewritten as;
Pavg=67223.1 N

M avg=492236.8 Nm

avg=17785.3 N /m

0 avg=62036.6 N /m

To determine the best curve fit substituting the above average values of the (P, M,

) in Eqs (1) to (4), the deflection v ( m ) is plotted below in Fig 3 to Fig

6 as a function of x (m) for each type of the load.

Fig 3: v(m) as function of x(m) for Point Load

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Fig 4: v(m) as function of x(m) for Moment Load

Fig 5: v(m) as function of x(m) for Uniformly Load

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Fig 6: v(m) as function of x(m) for Uniformly Varying Load


All the calculations required to plot the graphs shown above from Fig (3) to Fig (6)
are given in the file ass2q1in.csv, attached with this report.
By analyzing the graphs plotted above from Fig (3) to Fig (6), it is clear that graph
plotted in Fig (3) is much closer to the graph of deflection of cantilever for
unknown loading shown above in Fig (2).
So depending upon above observation and analysis, it is concluded that Point Load
is applied onto the cantilever beam whose equation is Eq (1), and the average
magnitude of the point load is

67223.1 N

which is already calculated above in

Part # 2.
Note: The MATLAB code for the requirements 4 to 9 is attached with this report in
Problem1.m file.

Problem # 2: Precise Curve Fitting


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Introduction:
Table 1 for containing the data values is;

Equation (5) is;


y=f ( x ) =a1 x 2 +a 3+

(5)

Requirement # 1: Solving Eq.(5) using first two rows of table 1


Put 1 ; y=6 into Eq.(5), we get;
6=a 1(1)2 +a3

6=a 1+a3

(i)

Put 3 ; y=10 into Eq.(5), we get;


2

10=a1 (3) + a3

Putting the value of

a3

10=9 a1+ a3

(ii)

from Eq.(i) into Eq.(ii), we get;

10=9 a16a1
16=8 a1

a1=2

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a1=2

Put

in Eq.(i), we get;

6=2+a 3

a3 =8

Requirement # 2:
The equation (i) and (ii) can be rewritten as;
a1 +a 3=6
9 a1 +a 3=10

Above equations can be written in matrix form as;


Aa= y

a=A

[ ][ ] [ ]
1 1 a1 = 6
9 1 a3
10

[ ]

A= 1 1
9 1

Here;

[]

a=

a1
a3

[ ]

y= 6
10

| |

A= 1 1 =8
9 1

1 1 1
8 9 1
Adj A
A1=

A=

[]

a=

]
][ ] [ ] [ ]

a1
1 1 1 6
1 16
= A1 y=
=
= 2
8 9 1 10 8 64
8
a3

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Requirement # 3:
Eq.(1) is give as;
v P=

P x 2 (
3 Lx )
6 EI

Above equation can be rewritten as in terms of coefficients


3

v P=a1 x +a3 x

a1

and

a3

as;

(iii)

From the ass2q1in.csv file, we get the following first and last point;
First Point:

x=1

v P=0.001009575

Last Point:

x=9

v P=0.058067860

Putting the first point in Eq.(iii), we get;


3

0.001009575=a1 (1) +a3 (1)


0.001009575=a1 +a 3

(iv)

Putting the last point in Eq.(iii), we get;


0.058067860=a1 ( 9)3 +a 3 (9)2
0.058067860=729 a1 +81 a3

(v)

Eq.(iv) and (v) can be written as in matrix form;


Aa= y

a=A

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][ ] [

1
1 a 1 = 0.001009575
729 81 a 3 0.058067860

A=

Here;

1
1
729 81

[]

a=

a1
a3

y=

0.001009575
0.058067860

1 =648
A= 1
729 81

1
1
1
648 729 81
Adj A
A1=

A=

[]

a=

[]

][

a1
1
1
1 0.001009575
= A1 y=
648 729 81 0.058067860
a3

][

a1
1
0.057058285 = 8.8052908e-5
=
0.006122710625
a3 648 3.967516485

Note: The MATLAB code for the requirements 4 to 10 is attached with this report
in Problem2.m file.

Problem # 3: IGBT Analysis


Introduction:
The values are;

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Where

V CC

is the bus voltage.

Requirement # 3.2.1:
Given values of

Ti

and V are;

T i =150 C

V =15V

From the Fig (1) of SEMICKRON datasheet, the following values of


noted down for different values of
I C =25 A

V CE 1.3V

I C =50 A

V CE 1.8V

I C =75 A

V CE 2.4 V

IC

V CE

are

Requirement # 3.2.2:
Given value of

IC

is;

I C =1.0027 5+25=30.0135 A

The above value of

IC

lies between 50 A and 75 A , so using the following

linear interpolation formula between these points to find

V CE

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( x 1 , y 1 )=( 25,1.3 )

V CE = y 1

( x 2 , y 2 )= (50,1.8 )

I C =30.0135

x 2I C
I x
+ y2 C 1
x 2x 1
x 2x 1

V CE =1.3

5030.0135
30.013525
+1.8
=1.039298+ 0.360972 1.4 V
5025
5025

Requirement # 3.2.3:
Given values of

Ti

and V are;

T i =150 C

V =11V

From the Fig (1) of SEMICKRON datasheet, the following values of


noted down for different values of
I C =25 A

V CE 1.4 V

I C =50 A

V CE 2.2V

I C =75 A

V CE 3V

IC

V CE

are

Requirement # 3.2.4:
Given value of

IC

is;

I C =1.0027 5+25=30.0135 A

The above value of

IC

lies between 50 A and 75 A , so using the following

linear interpolation formula between these points to find

V CE

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( x 1 , y 1 )=( 25,1.2 )

V CE = y 1

( x 2 , y 2 )= (50,2.2 )

I C =30.0135

x 2I C
I x
+ y2 C 1
x 2x 1
x 2x 1

V CE =1.2

5030.0135
30.013525
+2.2
=0.959352+0.441188 1.4 V
5025
5025

Requirement # 3.2.5:
Given value of V is;
V =9.78223+ 11=14.261 V

The interpolation formula between points are to find

( x 1 , y 1 )=( 15,1.4 )

V CE = y 1

( x 2 , y 2 )= (11,1.4 )

V CE

V =14.261V

x 2V
V x 1
+ y2
x 2x 1
x 2x 1

V CE =1.4

1114.261
14.26115
+ 1.4
=1.14135+0.25865=1.4 V
1115
1115

Requirement # 3.2.6:
Given value of

IC

is;

I C =1.0027 5+25=30.0135 A

24 | P a g e

From the Fig (3) of SEMICKRON datasheet, the following values of


Eoff

are noted down for above value of

Eon 4.11 mJ

IC

Eon

and

Eoff 3.00 mJ

Note: The MATLAB code for the requirements 7 to 12 is attached with this report
in Problem3.m file.

Problem # 4: Tossing of Coin and Binomial Distribution


Introduction:
The result of tossing of coin is summarized is given below in Table 2;

Requirement # 4.2.1:
Sample Mean =

8+5+5+7+ 4+ 4+7 +4 +7+5+5+5+ 6+6+2+1+6 +3+1+4 95


= =4.75
20
20

SD

(85.1)2 +5(55.1)2 +4 (45.1)2 +3(75.1)2 +(35.1)2 +(25.1)2 +2(15.1)2


=1.8941
20

Requirement # 4.2.2:
1
Population Mean = E ( k )=np=10 2 =50

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Population Variance =

1
1
E ( k 2 ) =np(1p)=10 (1 )=2.5
2
2

Requirement # 4.2.3:
The formula for PDF of (PMF) of binomial distribution is;
p
1

()

f ( k , n , p )=Pr ( X=k )= n p k
k

Put

n=10

p=1/2

1
f ( k , n , p )=Pr ( X=k )= 10
k 2

1
f ( k , n , p )=Pr ( X=k )= 10
k 2

1
2

10k

( )( ) ( )
1

1
2

10k

( )( ) ( )

The MATLAB plot for above binomial distribution is given as;

26 | P a g e

Binomial PDF

0.25

0.2

Probability

0.15

0.1

0.05

k: Number of HEADS

10

Fig 7: Binomial PDF


Requirement # 4.2.4:
Sequence of 10 realization of coin toss is given as;
Realization

10

Sequence

From above table;


Total number of Heads = 6
Total number of Tails = 4
Longest Repeating Sequence = HHH or (3)
Requirement # 4.2.5:
Repeating the above experiment 10 times;

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Realizations

Total H/T

Longest Repeating
Sequence

10

Heads

Tails

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Test 4

Test 5

Test 6

Test 7

Test 8

Test 9

Test
10

Note: The MATLAB code is provided in Problem4.m file.

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