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Solubility as a Function of Temperature

HIRIZZA JUNKO M. YAMAMOTO


Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Architecture, Cebu Institute of Technology University

N. Bacalso Ave. Cebu City, 6000 Philippines

The goal of the experiment is to be able to calculate the solubility of oxalic acid at different
temperatures. The solubility of the solute, oxalic acid, in water varies at different
temperatures. The solubility of a solid solute in a liquid solvent is said to be directly
proportional to the temperature. As the temperature of the solution increases, the solubility of
the solute in water also increases. In this experiment, the solubility of the oxalic is determined
by calculating the concentration of the saturated solution at the different temperatures
specified.

1. Introduction
Solubility is a chemical property which refers to the capability of a solute
substance to dissolve in a solvent. There are many factors affecting the solubility. A
thermodynamic cycle made for the formation of a solution indicates that a solution is
formed when the energies of each of the separated solute and solvent is lesser than
that of the strength of interaction between the solvent and the solute. The strength of
interaction between the solvent and solute particles are determined by the structures of
both the solute and the solvent, which means only solutes who have similar structure
or properties with the solvent can be dissolved as the common understanding of like
dissolves like. Other factors that affect solubility are the pressure and the temperature.
In this experiment, the purpose is to determine the solubility of oxalic acid in water at
different temperatures.
Solubility of a solid is determined by the concentration of a saturated solution at a
certain temperature. Saturation is when a maximum concentration of the solute is
dissolved in a solvent. The remaining solute substances can be further dissolved by
adding more amounts of solvent or by increasing the temperature of the solvent. For
most substances, the solubility of the solute in a solvent increases as the temperature
of the solution also increases [1]. When the temperature is gradually lowered, the
crystals of the solute will start to form. The temperature effect of the solubility of a
substance is governed by the entropy of the solution. When solids are dissolved in
water, it becomes less ordered and gives a positive S soln. A positive entropy will lead
to an increase in the solubility of the solute as temperature is increased since G =
H-TS [2]. Another way to understand the temperature effects on the solubility of
solute particles is by using the Le Chateliers principle. The H soln for most solutions
is positive, so the solution is having an endothermic reaction which also leads to the
idea that the solubility of the solute increases with the increase of temperature.

2. Materials and Methods


2.1
Apparatus
2.1.1 Ice bath (copper pot)
2.1.2 4 beakers
2.1.3 0.1 thermometer
2.1.4 10-mL pipette
2.1.5 2 evaporating dish
2.1.6 2 base burettes
2.1.7 8 Erlenmeyer flask
2.1.8 Stirring rod
2.1.9 Aspirator
2.2

2.3

Materials
2.2.1

0.5N sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

2.2.2

Oxalic acid (C2H2O4)

2.2.3

Distilled water

2.2.4

Ice cubes

2.2.5

Salt

2.2.6

8 Filter papers

2.2.7

Phenolphthalein indicator

Method
All materials and apparatus were prepared and thoroughly cleaned. Six grams

of oxalic acid was weighed accurately to the nearest milligram using the analytical
balance and was each added to four 50-mL beakers. The oxalic acid in each beaker
was then dissolved in 30-mL distilled water at different temperatures. The
temperatures specified were 25C, 20C, 15C, and 0C. The temperatures and weight
measurements were recorded in the journal.
The temperatures were achieved by placing the beaker in an ice bath with a
thermostat. As the wanted temperature was achieved, a 10-mL sample was removed
using a pipette with a filter paper secured at its tip with a rubber band. This is to
prevent sucking any small crystals into the pipette.
Each of the 10-mL sample in every temperature was then titrated with 0.5N of
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Titration was done by adding a phenolphthalein

indicator to each sample and was titrated with the titrant until the solution shows a
light pink color which is its end point. A duplicate trial was made at each temperature.
3. Results and Discussion
Solubility of oxalic acid was calculated by obtaining the concentration of
oxalic acid at equilibrium. This is by calculating the molarity of the solution at its end
point when titrated against NaOH. The values for the volume of NaOH displaced are
recorded in Table A.2 in the appendix for both the initial experiments, Trial 1 and
Trial 2, and the repeat experiment, Trial 1 and Trial 2. A sample calculation is given
below at 25C in trial 1:
0.0448 L NaOH

0.5 mol
=0.0224 mol NaOH
1 L NaOH

0.0224 mol NaOH

MC H O =
2

2 mol C2 H 2 O 4
=0.0448 mol C2 H 2 O4
1 mol NaOH

0.0448 mol
mol
=4.48
0.01 L
L
All the other calculations were obtained in the same manner. The solubility

calculated for each temperature in trials 1 and 2 of the initial experiment as well as for
trials 1 and 2 for the repeat experiment are given in the table below:
Table 1. Experimental and Literature Values of the Solubility of Oxalic
Acid at Different Temperatures
Temperatu
re
25
20
15
0

Solubility
Trial
Trial
1
2
4.48
4.57
3.79
3.64
3.08
3.11
1.6
1.62

of Oxalic Acid (mol/L)


Trial
Trial
Literature
1'
2'
Value*
2.45
2.46
2.48
1.57
1.565
0.9552
0.72
0.73
0.7775
0.51
0.53
0.3665

*Literature values were taken from Handbook of Aqueous Solutions Data by Samuel Yalkowsky [3]

The table above shows that the solubility calculated in the initial experiments,
trial 1 and trial 2, were far from what is in the literature value that is why it is
necessary to have a repeat experiment which is named as trial 1 and trial 2. It also

shows that the values obtained in trial 1 is close to the value obtained in trial 2. The
same follows for trial 1 and trial 2.

Temperature vs. Solubility


30
25
20
Temperature (C) 15
10
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Solubility (mol/L)
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 2'

Literature Value

Trial 1'

Figure 1. Graph Comparing the Experimental Values with the Literature


Values of Oxalic Acid
The graph shows a clearer comparison that the values calculated from trials 1
and 2 are far and different from that of the literature values. It also shows that for
trials 1 and 2 some of the values, specifically in the temperatures 25C and 15C,
are close to the experimental values while other values are still far. Thus, a
comparison was made.

Percent error from each of the values was calculated to determine the precision
of the experimental calculations. The experimental value is the calculated value and
the theoretical value is the literature value. A sample calculation from Trial 1 at 25C
is given below:
Percent error=

Percent error=

|experimental valuetheoretical value|


theoretical value

|4.482.48|
2.48

100

100

Percent error=80.6452

In the same way of calculation, the percent errors are shown in table 2.
Table 2. Percent Errors at Different Temperatures
Temperature
25
20
15
0

Trial 1
80.65%
296.78%
296.14%
336.56%

Percent Error
Trial 2
Trial 1'
84.27%
1.21%
281.07% 64.36%
300.00% 7.40%
342.02% 39.15%

Trial 2'
0.81%
63.84%
6.11%
44.61%

In table 2, the precision is numerically expressed in line with what the graph
from figure 1 has shown. Acceptable percent errors have values at less than 10% and
only those from trial 1 and trial 2 at 25 C and 15 C are considered to be
acceptable.
Still, the data obtained from the four trials have shown consistent trend that as
the temperature drops, the solubility of the oxalic acid also decreases. The accuracy of
the laboratory results were affected by errors that have been the cause of the big
differences from the literature value as well as more than 100 % values of the percent
errors.
4. Conclusion
The solubility of most solid solutes is expected to increase as the temperature
of the solution increases. As was stated from the Second Law of Thermodynamics, it
predicts that the solute particles will shift to a more disordered, more highly

dispersed, and therefore, more probably solution state. Increasing the temperature of
the solution makes it easier to move between the solid and solution phase.
From the data acquired and the calculations made, the solubility of the oxalic
acid is seen to increase with the increase in temperature of the aqueous solution.

Appendices
Appendix A. Answers to Guide Questions

What are the factors affecting solubility of oxalic acid?


The factors affecting the solubility of oxalic acid are the temperature, pressure,
and the nature of the solvent and solute particles. The solubility of oxalic acid in water
is expected to increase with an increase of the temperature of the solution. The
relative forces of attraction between the solute and solvent molecules also affects the
solubility. The tendency toward disorder is involved in determining the solubility
along with its interaction where the stronger the interactions between the solute and
solvent molecules, the greater the solubility. As a result, since oxalic acid dissolves in
water readily, it has great relative forces of interaction and it has also been observed
that the solubility of oxalic acid increases with increase of temperature.

Discuss the nature of solubility as a function of temperature.


In general, the solubility of a solid solute particle increases with the rise of
temperature and decreases when temperature falls as well. However, not all has the
same case. According to Le Chateliers principle, when the dissolution process is
endothermic, which means heat is absorbed, solubility increases with rising
temperature. This is the case for the solubility of oxalic acid. When the dissolution is
an exothermic process, which means heat is released, solubility decreases with rising
temperature.

What are the parameters affecting the accuracy of your lab results?

The parameters affecting the accuracy of the lab results are the following:
o Not allowing the solution to settle down after stirring at a certain temperature.
The solution was not given sufficient time to remain in contact with the solute
to achieve equilibrium at a specific temperature.
o Titration errors, there may be bubbles in the burette.
o Reading of the calibrations or measurements errors.

Appendix B. Other Tables


Table A.1 Data for the Mass of Oxalic Acid Used and Volume of Water
Trial 1
mass
Temperature Oxalic Volume
water
acid
(mL)
(g)
25C
6
30
20C
6
30
15C
6
30
0C
6
30

Trial 2
mass
Volume
Oxalic
water
acid
(mL)
(g)
6
30
6
30
6
30
6
30

Trial 1'
mass
Volume
Oxalic
water
acid
(mL)
(g)
6
30
6
30
6
30
6
30

Table A.2 Titration Volume of NaOH at the Initial Experiment

Temperat
ure
25C
20C
15C
0C

Initial Experiment
Trial 1 (mL)
Trial 2 (mL)
Initi Fin Us Initi Fin Use
al
al
ed
al
al
d
45. 44.
45. 45.
1.0
0.1
8
8
8
7
37. 37.
36. 36.
0.0
0.0
9
9
4
4
32. 30.
31. 31.
2.0
0.0
8
8
05
05
16. 16.
16. 16.
0.0
2.4
4
4
5
4

Table A.3 Titration Volume of NaOH at the Repeat Experiment

Trial 2'
mass
Volume
Oxalic
water
acid
(mL)
(g)
6.03
30
5.99
30
6
30
6.03
30

Temperat
ure
25C
20C
15C
0C

Repeat Experiment
Trial 1' (mL)
Trial 2' (mL)
Initi Fin Us Initi Fin Use
al
al
ed
al
al
d
29. 24.
24. 24.
5.4
0.1
9
5
7
6
18. 15.
15. 15.
2.3
0.0
0
7
65
65
1.0 8.2 7.2 1.3 8.6 7.3
28.
35.
23.5
5.1 30.2
5.3
6
5

References:
[1]

Bishop,

M.

(2013).

Temperature

Effect

on

Solubility.

Retrieved

from

http://preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_solubility_temperature.htm
[2] SparkNotes Editors. (n.d.). SparkNote on Solubility. Retrieved October 12, 2016, from
http://www.sparknotes.com/chemistry/solutions/solubility/
[3] Yalkowsky, S. H., He, Y., & Jain, P. (2010). Handbook of aqueous solubility data. Boca
Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Other References:

Bronsted, J. (1920, April). STUDIES ON SOLUBILITY. I. THE SOLUBILITY OF


SALTS IN SALT SOLUTIONS. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 42(4),

761-786. doi:10.1021/ja01449a014
Oxalic
Acid.

(n.d.).

Retrieved

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/oxalic_acid#section=InformationSources

from