You are on page 1of 40

FcrmousArtists Course

In3titute of Commerciql Art, ^.



atStR DoRt{t
r. P^rxlr

tRtD luDtxENg

lrN 3laHl



onma toct(wltl

Sltvax DoHr{os






JoN wHrTcoit



' t,o




eiored b/


FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture

In*iiure of Commer.iql Arr, Inc.

Up rc rhis poirr you have rcceived a throgh grounding in rhe te.hniqcs of commcrciat an.
You hrve lca.ncd bow ro drav thc hman figurc as a solid, mving a$. yo hve lered how ro
pla.e gurcs in a convincing setring, clorhc then .ealisli.lly, .d relaie rhem ro eaL rhcr in
a pleasing conposition. No$ $e afc goirrg to puil all rhcse rechnical cconplishmcnrs rogclher
and show you fto, r, drtsn a pictxr t'.r connadat .purpos.s,r .to a
job ror a sp.ifr.
.lient. The mlerial presenred in this le$n \rill be dividcd inro lour 'p{ifc
l. Analyzing dre prblen
2. Crearing rhe picrure idea
3. Nlaking e picne come alivc
4. How four Famosrrisrs makepiclures
Thc fis. secrios will presen! a general procedurc fo. .he eEecrive developmcni oI any
pict!rc. In e lasr sectioi fou embe4 ol rbe Fclry vill show you how rhey eatc rhe tind
otpicrurcswhich hvc nadc rheir namesfamousin rhe eld of comoercial rr.

Gommerciol Pictures Are Gustom-Built

Aside fron the ver) rcal plcasre of creation, ere is oly on
lcason lor an rtisr ro make a com, picru., and ibai
reason - to setl itl Comnercial 2ri is a busine$. The rtisr
is, in a sense,the nanufacrur.r. Arr is his prdcr
Lite every oer sccessiul busiDessmar, rhe artisr msl
a p p r.a .h h i . so ,k o n a \p pr a,r i,dl bdn,. His pnr u,e r a)
have intrinsic merits oI irs o$n as a work ol "pure an, bur
rha! is not his primary .nsider2tion. Fi.s! and foremos!, rhe
rtist desiSns e.h pa.ticlar picrure in every respecr to do a
specitt iob lor d rpifc.ltc",
bertei dran ny olhcr picrre
From a rcalisti. point of vie{, advertises, edilon and olhcr
purchsen of commercil aft will buy yor picirs or be.use
thcse men arc patrons of thc a s, bur simply be.usc whr rhey
by can bc imncnsely vluable and selul to em.
Commcial art is uselul and rherefo.e vatable and suc.estul - if it does .hese things:
A. lt mst stop thc obscNcr in his tracks and make him took
a. lt,nust crete the inleDdcd ldnd of enolional reaciion in
C. ri st case .hc obscner ro take the lpecifc kind. of, which the prchascr or rhe piclure desires.
In order to meet th$e reqiremeDts, every picture must be
custorbuilt. trvery adveniser, every editor, has se! oI specific
problems which vary Iron day to day. The picture shich ,ry
be very hclptl ro him as ot dris Thuhday ny be uscles to
him shon dne hter.

l. Anolyzing the Problem

It is therefo.c obvious rhr every profc$ional ardst bcgins noi
wirh a pi.rre idea, bur with rhe nceds oI his client. As a busi
ne$'nn, he ust discovcr cxacrly the knrd of p.odcr he can
sell to a panicula. marker. Here arc some or rhe qtrcsrions he
should ask-and arswer bclore hc begiN his Rtst doodlc.
Wh.t. is this pi.h. gotng ,o c zr..rl Will il run as an
a d^.
ve l .i rg ,l l ,F r tr,i o n.or r r or u illu.r r ation. a m dgr /r nei over

or a calcndan Or does the prchaser intend b use n ior some

intended 1o dcconplish? Docs rhc
8. wht is th
l " p( r hdl i ' w i l l ( r bc l hc ol ,* r v ,r t" l ,'r .1,.
'J v r 'nr '
.i6c producl or docs hc irk
il wiu nrcrcasc good.sill
1r rhe cop2ny as an iNrirulio? ls the picturc inten<lcd
!o stop the obsover ar mgzire stand ard akr hin by
the magzinc? or is it.o
be sed d a slo.y iuusrration,
dcsigncd t srop e observer as he leals thrugh the nagazine,
arouse his inteiest and curiosity, ard thus .asc him ro rcad
the stry? Ir the piclure is to be used as a caledar, the .hief
purpGe oI the artvill be 1o.rere a desire b keep the calendar
i vicw - and by e same token, to remind e obscNer co..
stutly ot thc comp2.y whi.h isscd rhe clcndr. In short {hat r.lliag job does the purchser of the pi.ture hpe this
pictu.c will accomplish?
a. Hou tn the Pictuft be designedto do.its seUingiob nost
r&...rrlrll)? Whar cnorional reaction should thc ptcturc.rete?
slrold n an6c the observer,or bd.g 1eab to his eyes?Shold
iI c.carc a lcchtg oI feat, of hoor, ol suspese- or should n
arose emotions oI .lcsi.c, oI curiosiry, of vanity or sclf.
nrtqest? Whcthcr thc appcal of c pictre is rc bc bascd on
one of thc emotions tetrrioned, or some entirely differenr
cnnti{r:, }ou musr dccide well in advaDce shat the mood o{
)our nishcd pidrc should be ard e exct e,nodooal re
lctioD yo desnc 1roft e observer.
D. Irhat aft the technicaL
Is tour pnlure to be
rcproduced oD nesprint or slick paper? Is n to be done in
black ard
or in color? Is it to be billbord size, poster
sizc, or tailorcd to t rhc requirenents of dble spred?
'Ichnical rc$rictions shold no211) bc thc
bcginning. Ir lhe lc$ons Nhich lollow, rve \!iU discu$ thc
rcchnical rcquiremenB oI spc.ilic mediurts ir detil. This
prcsent lc$on is cocemc.l s'i!h e basic p.inciplcs $hih
apply to ny pi.tre, no
altd shar mcdiu
is used.
snplil) thigs, sc $ill a$ue e dis.u$ion oI this
lcsor thar lou arc able ro choosean) Drediem Iou plcase and
can rofk Nidro! technical resrrictions,


FomousArlisls Course

Moking the piclure

Insliluleol Co.rciolA.t, Inc.

A su((ossful picturo qlwoyr hqs ihese three quolitigs

LcCs look at three qulides which every picrure yo nakc
mst have, ir ir is ro besucce$lul.
First, it mst be INTERESTING. Yor pictre ms nop rnc
ob$tuet and nahe him laoh at it. There are many dilicrci
kinds of "stoppere.'Yu can catch the observer's ele {ith a
unique chra.ter, ar nusul prop, n ppealing "human irter
est siiuaiion, a striling use of color, or sheer poser ot dmlts
nanship and composilion. Whalcvcr you. stoppcr lhc s! stcp
But dul is orly e beginning. Your pidure must ho draw
the obsc.vcr into its own $orld. lr nust absorb his thughts
and allow hi ro pa.ti.ip2te in the nood, pleasr nd ex.,te
Denr the picrurc suggesls.k mus! involve thc obse.ver pcrrordll}, and ppeal to his orvn experienceand emorions so at
he .a 'get in1o e picrure' himseu be completely absorbcd
by it, b.oe part Iit.
tt is ipo$ible to male d"cry,nt,g intercstitg t e"eryon.
Bt yo can male you piciure efictive il )ou dNcover hov to
irterest the particular group you are trying to rcach. Lcam ro
.reate pi.rure ides tht appel to basi. emotions $ch as love,
desir., sadsfactior, Iear, rger, jy, expectation, surprise. srudy
pcoples likes and dislits - their habits, moods, and pteasres.
Try ro tnd out whal akes pople lugh, and wht mkes them
y. Above all, exaine your own emotioos and tastes.Unle$

)our pi.ture is intereslirg ard ex.iting t )r, it {ill


son subjects arc narrally mo.e nrercsring to a wide a.lience than others. Thcy inherenrly conrain intriguing, dranatic,
or amusing qualides. Comnon, cvqyday subje.ts car olten
be eohanced by a ew poirt ofview, a sfiking .orposnio., or
n nusual handlnryolcolo. and dcsign.
Thc.c is plenty of lalitudc lor,cnt. A picru.c ca bc
deco.ative, siylizcd, realistic, or .aricaru.edi il can be rcndc.ed
in any medium; i! can be big or smau -bu! ir .az,o, be dull
and rinlerestiDg. Ir n is, ,vouhavenl a piclure. All ]ou have is
2 d.awing. The techni.t mcns of an, $r.h as draft$nnship,
are nt eds in theNelves.
composition, color,
They bccome valid otl) vhen ey at used in a picture which
creteslhe dcsird reaction in thcobsc.vcr. Good tcchnique docs
not gurantcc a good pictre; ii simply givcs you thc Iools {idr
which bDald pictu.e goodl
I. o.der io bc intersting, you picture usr b) ncccssirybe
ORICINAL. Ii m6r .cflcd a ncw way ol sccing dt. subje.t
re{ v} of thinking aboul it and feeling aboui it. That {a)
nust be )orf way. hrdiDg a new "slDt,' a nerv $ist, a D6v
"anglc' - ir otherwords, Deir vy oI interesrnrglour rdiencc
in an old subje.t is is ging to be ne of your hardcst jobs.
h is Dot enough to study the 'r.endt and keep p wiih rhc


FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture

Innituie oaCommerciolA.l, Inc.



p$onal anne*ms
othr artisrs a.c scce$lll) bildin8
i n ro
D o n r ,o !) or l,' ..5' udI
l' er . ol ,ou' .( . ir '
'l i ,h (..
' .'
cfio to bfoaden )olfua,
rLay ol thinking; bt .nember
in lhe end n will be yor own nique wy oI seehg a.d re.ord
ing yor subjccls ihr will mate your work laluable. The
pe$on rvho seesyour piclu.e nlus halc ihc rr)$erious, (onde..
lul.crtainiy rhai this pariicular thinghar ncvc. bclofc bccn said
Oginalit) is not achieve<I,
to i,rk, by a
sfaied efior! to be 'difterenf' at y.ost. Usuauy orighlity,
likc hfpine$, is rewrd tht.omes lost unnined s th
o f h r'd No ,l d n d .ound r hinl,nB. ll ) oL L,B,n r o,J.r .
' ^ rt'
an idca {ith rhe gustion, How can I inie.cs mo$ pcople in
this subject?" and follorv thar quesio rLidr anothef, 'lvlut
rould thcy mosr likc io lnow aboi it -!hor you are lcu
on dte road !o being o.iginal. Donl let the app.oadr others
have adc to rour sbject innuence you too much. rnrd dre
most inleresting way to p.csent ir rroni )!l poirt I liervr and
c me.c fa.t tht ir is lolrway Nill mean thal it is als rigin].
In this conne.tion, donl be to .oncernrd abor deaeloping
you. orrr 'lrllc.
Work o chnical taciht, so thai ]ou ca
expre$ yousell rvithout being dclcarcd by tcchni.2i lin,ita.
tios. At the sahe timc etdcavor to nnd a nerL, sound, and
irftresiing r!y oI rcatzg your subject.'l'he llyle" NiU lake

rqb. <o.

cafe ol ilselfl Yo nill realize one day rhat yo la,e a srlle of

your o!o. When tha! happens, it vill en oly that lou have
lealned to expre$ )o!/r./t.
Your pidure nst be not only irtere(ing and o.iginl

m F
Le C O N v IN C IN C ]Il .nB d d.av .nE r on'i n ,nE
" l .o
does noi mcan nhking a lacsimile oI an objed. It is oftcn the
inteipfthtion oI a urh, an crpc.ien.e, of your tecting lol
the subjcct that convinccs the obsener of its honesly. Natrally, eve.y delail oI archiFnure and seltin& ot clothes and
nanrerisE musr be .o,rpletely authenti.. Bur n is the proper
usc ot synbols, t!i!d$ and .hara.te$ plus god drnr&
design and conposilion, t conbine b give )or pictt a
''convincirg" qarity. The.hata.tet ol rhe tuhole Pnture,mhel
thn the prccise or detaih, viu be .esponsible lof its
ultnnarc cfiect. A lundamcntal unde4tanding of the subject
you re <lraNing sill be of 1norevalue |o you lhan tacile peD
or brush. lt is e combination oI the pnlure ide and its tech
ni.rl preserfalion uhdt tau dtu rn.J hu ,o d'1t it
$ill, nr the end, give yor pntrtre a conlincing eftect.
Obviosly, no illusiration can be suc.sstul unle$ it is
hve .hosc the Fanous A.tists pi.rrcs fcpfodu.ed oD thesc
pagcs because,wt,ile they conbire aU three qualities, each ills
rates ho one quatity ca be emphsizedfor pnnulr efiect.



Moking the picture

Inslilulof Comnerciolrr, Inc,

2. recting the Picture ldeq

Perhaps thc os imponanr step in e malnig oI a s,.ccslul
pi.t is thc crcarion of rhe pi.tur idca. You ay cfcrtc thc
most interestn,& original ad pi.rre ever ndc b u r ,f ,h f L " n , ,d ,z i . hr ong ir ir iail. ,o do shr r \our pJ.r i,
laf clieDr wanls it rc do
e picture is sorthlc$ h hn.
Perhaps you (itl anage to sell rhe pidure laler, by ac.idert,
io soeonc .lse who needs that prlicul. idea. Br is is
a vc.y inefrcicnt wa) to work. A profc$ionl a[is! pfidcs hin.
seu o beiS able to tu.n out exdct\ the Pntc his client
Thc pklurc idca tr the pictu.e, and no picrufc can ever bc
bet! thar e basic idca in back o{ it. Thatis hy it Nill
pa) Iou io spcnd all tbe tnne yo nced in this csential prc
limirary \rork. Likc anl other idca, ir may comc to )o nr a
flrsh of suddcn inslrirarion. lvarch our lor such idcas. 'Ihey are
ohcD trnc and unori8nral. rlore lilely you rvill hayc to bcat
your brains ot lor sme rimc bclore yo ardvc ai prc.iscly
Ouc d,ing sbokl govern your Dsic nrkig:
tthat is tlt
Picturc eUing, and hotu is it ylliig itl
Ea.h picture will pfcsei a dinerenr proble,r. It you are
aking ,. ednorial iliusration, your job is snrplied to sonc
cxrcni. You read the nnus.ri. U all) rh.rc afe a Dubcr
of scenesprsented which sold providc Sood illusative na.
ffial. vn, choosc thc onc {hjch appcals most ro }ou
or io
rh. a.i di.e.tor
an<l lrom tht point on you $ork or rhc
tro L l ,n ^ \o u n 'u n i a ,, r r m "lii8,h", r r ,( in,( ' c.r i,' 9. or iSi
nal, and .onvhcing.
An illusfarior Io. a sto.y is \elling tho things. Fist, ir is
seh'g thc .cadcr ad c adlertiser on the appeafce oI a
a8aznrc. sccond, it is selling the reder on spendirrg his I'me
An adlcnising illustrrtion ma) hrvc pfposcs clolely relted
ro editorial illutniion.
In somc insranccs,where drc copy is
selting a inia.giblc pfoducr or svice of srne lid, e
chict prpose ol c illNlration is to sbp" rhc reader an<l ger
him inro e selling.opy. Y(r somccs scc advtising illusfa
tiors which.ould bc uscd, oltcn {ilhout y changc, as cdi
torial illLxatios- such pic!rcs

I0 T - 8 UT
' i 0I S0 IRtD

''insriiutional adverlning, dcsiFed to build p prestigc and

good Nill lor ar nbdtution or conpany.
On c oc. hand, mosr advcrrisemcntsre run ro pcbade
thc rcadcr to tale imncdite action in buying a spc.i6. prod.
uct. seuiDB advdtisencts dcsig.ed to c.crre immcdi,te sales
tau inlo thrcc gcnoal dasifrcations:
A.The dvcrthchcnr may *.c$ c qnaliry. rhc unntc
tcatcs, tbc cln(iecy,.!c., Nhi.h disn,guish llc y'mdB.:rhe advertcmcni mal stt.* 1htt the prc.luct dth do
lor )ou i rcons of sving !nc, labor ad ftoncy in a
lery Prctrcal say,
C.Thc advniscmeni ay strcs ptlclbLagnaL and altunal ,adlt, .hicb $iU a..ruc lio usn,g c product
securill,, poptrlaii), pfidc 01 obnc.ship and so on ih.ogh 2 long lisr ot possiblc rcasons
the prhaser can givc hnrscll lor sperding his nonry
o lhis paniclr product.
a.h oI thesedfte appfochcsdeunds a dificrcD! pi.!c idca.
L$on 23 rvill dcl iD dctil wirh e qucslioo of dcarg
pi.rre ideas lo. advenish8, nd Lesson 2.1 Nill discuss thc
prol,lcDN 01 ocarnrg idcas for illusfadon. This briel
survcy inreDdcd nrerel) to slart you irknrg alo.g lnr.s
Nhich {ill cvcntuau} beco,c rll nnportanr to you as you ad.
van.c in )ou. protc$ional carco.
very nc yo stu<ly iu!li.tions, try !o dncoler why c
a.tisi uscd rhc idea he dnl, rn.t why hc slurcd parlnhr
idca in a paniclar $ay. This wiil hclp yo dcvclop your.fiti
.al facultics
and rhc abiliry ro be )our o\rn scvcrce c.iti.
will bc of n)ofc bcrct to )ou thr al,os! ary orher ralenr o.
te(hDi(al a.con,plishncnr.
Ren,crber that ost oftr the pictu'r idca lor any illNation rvill be dcrived from ihe.opy or licdnrrc rhe copy,vbcthc.
the illusoation is !o Lc scd 1r advcflisirrg or editorial pur
poscs.Threfore bcgin by studying lhc copy vcry ca.clully, ad
al(c surc yor picrurc idea is idcally suited to ponrt p and
illustrte that prti.rar copt better the onl othet dea .ould

,, r.t t1,r , 1,", ,td'


FomousArtisls Course

Moking the piclure

tr c.
"{ r nr r f Com m r cit.t,

o LYrllAlr|lt R[lYfR/drDAi|(f


. ::.t

...t, ily Rl6lr^tR
t{J tRy/


--"- ---* mlcruuxl








or n(i




i b r n {PPd l d







rl. E.sllli.hcri.l,




Fomou! Arlists Cours

Moklng the plcture

Innhut. of Conn.lclalA

, lnc.

tri lor q Pc, *4 r{c ity. pl.r.d !F li

oh ! q!l.r dlurrl. cy.r c rot cl6ri


scild.y r.,r @




qt drqmslltl

ln natint an efictiv illultratiotr the artist must perform mant

of the lunctioft oI rhe diamatilt. Excepr that he i! r$tricted
to t{o dimenrion!, he worls with molt of the factor! com'
mon to th thlre and Hollywood. II his vork i! succesfI,
the ob!r?erlvill b able to Xhinkhim!lt into the picture" and
male the illu,lration live, ju" ai the peruon who enjoF a mo.
tion picture think himlelf into the action on the lcreen.
On the! paSes we will xamine many facto$ whi.h artht
nd dramati& os in .ommon. You hv ltudid m6t ot thse
element! in p.eviou! Ieson& and the le$on! ltill to come will
tate up mant of them in detaiL our problen in this l$!on i!
ro take 11thele diferent elemenk and combine them in a uni.
fred {hole with rh purpore of reuing a !.ort efiectively,
Th objctiv of the artist i! in mnf rrpct! limila. to
that of the dramatist, Lik the dramatist, he tell! a 3tory and
if hir picture tu succ$ful it will eate the d$iled emotional
rea.tion in the ohfver. Someiim$ the lins beinS spoken by
the characteri, or actors, are printed below e illuriiation. II
the aftirt ha! bn ruc.$rful, the oblener il abl to imagine
that thle chracter! porfayed in the illustration are ctully
,paking !h {ord! given !o them.
Hoven the blt illustrtin i! omplte in itlelt lt depend!
on the pntomime of th charice$ to convey its meaning. And
even if the pantomime in rhe picture n not completely underltandabl {ithout fu.ther e+lan ti,on, thc tuccelul contuercial licawe ah1)arseaaer enough .uriosity in the betuet to
nah.c hin tahe san. defiiir, d.rior. In the cale of n editorial
illulrrtion, rhe pi.ture petluades ihe pge.flipper to stop snd
read the story. An adverdlilg ill$tra.ion i0 d$ignd to rnale

the oblefler read the copy. lI picture perlorn it3 proper

fun.tion, it ir Buc.esful lrom a commercial point of view
Easel paintidgs, d$ignd to hng in the home or th muieum, are somwhat difielent from commercil .. in th sense
rht they need not meet the rigid specicatioft of a prticul.r
client. In subject mattea emotionl impact, and technical handlin& they are dpendnt lpon the mood, e imginalion and
the abihy of tlle individual artirt. He {rit, his own specifica.
tion, ro io spek, and hop$ that he will be ble to find a
"marlcf' or an audience lor hn wor!.
Nevnhl$!, if )ou srudy the gleat paintings of the past,
whether you choosMi.helangelo, Rembrandl El Greco, Goya,
Renoir or some other artist, yo will find that these men were
msirs oI the dramatic elements dbcu$ed here and wed thelc
elementr to tell a ltory srprlatively well.
Howven il you inrcnd to design yorpic.utes for connrrcial
u!e; it will save you much time and dkappoirtment if you remmber on thing: Satislring the rcquircn.n ot' ,our .li.nt
must be \out .s.ktial obie.r. Your illusfation will be vluable
to him in term, of dolla$ and .nts chiefly becale it tu able
to lell an idea efiectivly. Th ida hay b thar this rtory ig
inieresting and worth leading; or it na) be that this produ.t
will bring some ratiiaction or reeard which is worth more 1o
the observer thn the money asked in exchrge. But whatever
idea ro be !old, rh pu.pose of the illusfarion b to aura!
the ohetyert auention nd soften hin up enotionally.
I1 you leartr 10 confol th draatic elemnt5 discu$ed on
thele pa8$, )our pi.tur$ will hve the emotional impct they
hst hav to b .ommercially suc.e$ful.


FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture

In,tirutt CommrcialArt,In..

th. S.r


<qtr 4oiG

q 3p<if!


ror q rp.<ii<

rn l Prpt

iob, rh.

R . r . n b d l l '.1 h e d ki i 'h

Ughrlng dnd Color

cdr ot yo!' ibGd


ioy'!r cndior!.

row hyr


uririr,. rhoh n jr, Y


Foous rtisls Course

Moking the picture

Intirut ol Connr.idlArr, In..

bqsic qction

II you a.refrpt 10 rcproduce nature photographically, yor

work pillcontin all lhe confsion ofany sene in nature, itrl
an endle$ number of unexplained delails which mate no con.
brrion. the grcat illustmtor has univeml apqeaLbe.ause he
has Lathed to uoth b, suggeslion, and wherever pGsibb ne
dedh uith littdtion! and qmbols tuhi.h appedLto basi. hunla
etuotioks. Let \s exmire a few 3pe.ic symbols aDd see lDw
they .n be used to crete emotion. Harold Von Sch'ni<l!,who
ade the drawings on this page,dis.ussesthesbjecl in thisvy:

would vall uder the unbraced py.mid. This slmbol frighi

represent the instan! whcn drc bre has slipped. w ate deling
hde with the llr6t i'tense nomeni or d.ama. can .he an
po$ibly escape?Or cousc thcsc arc only lhe m6t eleettary
of pictre symbols, and )et e hve beeo bte to arouse basic


Her, Ior exanple, a rcc basic silhoettcs. As thcy stand,

they appeal to the enotion of self-preseryalion.Obviody thc
man is in a precarious siruarion - and this is a srory in itsell.
But where is he? What is he doingl

Wnh the iNertion oI a lew right anSl$ you can sugges!the

roof vnh doimers, the side oI a
6ttig for ech pi.ture
building, or nontains. Evdy elenent in these three pictures
is a syDbol, redced to its m61 siple forn. nd yet the emotional signi6cnce of each picrure is unmistakable, and ea.h
picture {ill arouse diflerent emotional reaciions in the ob'
seryer. Make the bsener work for youl Give him onty enough
to slart his imagination t.ning ovr, and he will do e rest

Supposc,now, .hat we pla.e symbols in DotioD. The 3teeple

chsepictrcs arc onl) silhoertcs,bt no one hs ny dificulty
in idendlying lhe sbje.t natter, the a.tion, aod the emotionl
Ir rhe fr\r draig,.he silhoee is supported by the outstrctched legs oI rhe lcading hosc. Thc pi.tare conveys a reeling of cxcitemnt. The dcgrec of cx.itenent Nill depend on
rhedrd Ne hale evcr secn srcplechase,{hcer r{e tnow
hos to ride and can lhus 2s*$ rhe diffi.lties and dngeb of
.ling $'.h leap, plus a lariety or othcr pcBonal ta.toN.
In rhe sc.nd d.aBing, ororionrl npact has been heigh!
encd. Dngcl is at hnd. The .hanccs are Srcat tha. the leap
will bc uns,cccsfI, and hose or rnler may be seriosly hutt.
Thc .hird dvnrg cries the emotionl po$ibilities to a cli.
max. Cataslrpbe is lmosr.errain. Will lhc borsc or dder be
killed? Will the oncoming hoses t.ample thcn?
These sinple drawings show how thc bi. story idea in its
simplcst lorm rnd prcscntation can .arry c cmotioal impct.

^*DConsider rhe d.maric qualities f these three illusnations.

Figure I is almost stadc. A tan will valk beside pyramid
r6dng on i$ base without hesitation. But suppose it is titted
and brced, as in Fig. 2. No{ there b a strong pcsibility of
danger. :fhe brace Dight slip or break. The drm 6\ ben
heiAhtened. Now l@k at FiSure 3. No one in hb dght mind


Fomo\rsArlisls Course

Moking the picture

In.ritulol Condr.iol Ad, Inc,





(.) re4cqri!P!b,co,

h rhl




br Nqnoi





Moking the picture

ntnute ot Conr er ciolAr l, In..

From doodle to rough sket.h

Sn,all acdon parcr$, $.h as ihose iUsfarcd, fal] n,to thc
class t "doodlcs," or llNbail sltrLlr6. Doodli,,g 01 r soft
catr bc {ound o cvcry tckphonc pad, br Nhc tl)c artrst
doodlcs d,c pndi.e takcs on Dorc signili.incc. I)oodlcs right
tc dc!:ribcd as dr. r..o.ds oa an ti$ s ndoN ilxrghts.
Pi.k up any ol)jcct )ou hrrc at haDd, pcn, brush, or
st)t). lLgi,r tbi,rking rbor rhc a.tjon )o! \farr to
erprcrs nr touf pi(u.c, rnd the eotioml lofccs irnohcd. Lct
your sb.oDs.ious.ontrol (hat .onr6 or. Don't bc.onrionv of Nhat is gon,g dorvn on drc papcf. No or. liu scc
tbi5 doodlc Lut loursclt, a.l )ou rk onh nikirg r ror. ot
$h1 n pa$inA dogh rou. nrid, the ,frv a uitcf s.fibr)lcs
an nlea lor a no.v on xn old .nv.ltc.
Pc.lapi at nrlt yo! r{ill put dolL oll a t..r' Ii,res or sndBci
irrdi..tiDg tor'f lrclirg abour tl[ nnrr .l dk io.s nolled.
This torillt L.cnrnirrS \Lill pnk p i.ccDts, as )ou. sbco.scious
mi,d lJesnN ro jcll ihcs. l,i6i. rn'ori)al lo.ics no a.fual
aradcrs. A lc( mn,tcs latd, ro rvill hrv. a rdkr jninted
y n of dfar fi ng the w hol .
nr I \c fr r l r nl l r i c a ol I r e\f
'l i nr g
.Dd ore possiblc picruc.I3rt
ioD i5 rrting dcfrnitt
Ionr . N o\y tr ov c to n.l c an r r c . i d bc gi r anodr c r .l oodk l
no(h ad fcrlraps diltcf.nt .1npr ro l)r0scnt drc pi.|rrc
Rcmcnb$ tha! doodl.s arc not supposcd to L,c finhcd
hofks ot art, or clcD rouah skctchcs.Doodles rfc nudc Ly lhe
artisr nr xr artcmpr ro .xplofe r|e psibilitics or subject,
just rhc \fay .orpoi sns do$n ai rhc piao ad lcrs his Nan(icf al,nost !,iout .onsios guidan{:cuDril an cr
ta!.s slape b.rcath thcr. Doodiing, s FarLcc[ sats,is x kirrd
,f r J ,,,l \n 'i ,
l r , t l '\ l
i ' .,'.) i
' ':v " .


FomousAdisls Course

Moking the piciure


ln,riluteof Comnerciol^.r, Inc.


q qrcd{'
trvoyr rhiir r rrc
our dood or ueh *d([.,
wh. y!




Moking the picture

Ins|ituteot ConnrciolArr, Inc.

rom qclion doodle lo rough skeich

rO Da'cq'


FomousArlists Cour5e

Moking the picture


In{ilui ol Commer.iolArt, In..


Action doodles
hi. e6j.d



for stolic aubiects



d ii.



ddiotr ,. !bi.4

o, Fq

i ujrc'jon




FomousArlkls Cou,3

Moklng lhe pl.lure

lF itotc of Con..ial

Arr, In..

II h n {tu


o,.rddd, dfr




o l d o |d |'* ||h .n p h .j l o i r l v
v|.d .|tr |h l l * .1 .|'|'.I'cd l d yd
b i tl .b u l Eu i c.cb y|h . yi h .k


? D.




|rg tlr




dln ohhr
d'rn.'h hbi*', o.y 6i<.

nhE, o6 ccr. idhdiE

hr.h hd Eiu

y.u b<hd6t





FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture


Intriturof CommrciolArr, Inc,



q Drcrdr

r or r oi


G on

r he r o P

'h. $bd



ond .opo.iz.


rhe !bjd.







Moking lhe picture

rn3ritlleol Corrrcicl Ad,Inc,

3. Moking the Picture Come Alive

Creiling a picture is esntially n exercisein imagination -a
proce$ of selecting,chgirg ard reangiDg lacls so tl1 drey
tell your story efiectively. The nore uthertic the rcts with
whi.h yo are worting, the nore .onviocirg your picrure ill be.


ond reseqrch

ven e advanced profesional who depends 1@ huch or his

memory for a.e.ial is likcly to nnd himself gcting into a rt.
In a sho.t .ime he wili discove. rhar he has sed his nccessarily
liited sto.e of mental noies ove. and over again, ntil they
In ordcr to avoid this, it is best to get into the habit ol
orough reserch. Go through your les for uselul '3ap'and rake a ip ro rhe librry ro dig up nterial oD rhe locale
and period of your pairting. Look for archite.turl detail,land
scape detil, clothing detail and prop detail r will be use
ful. NIte rpid sket.hesoI.higs that seen iteting-a
you like, a pie.e of peiod frnilre .har ts into )our pi.turc
well, a colodl frame on a painring, an approp.iatc hai.
Remcmber thar in doing rhis kind of rcscarch, you a.c not
uying to nd material which you can copy down lite.aUy inlo
you pictre. You ar Iooking Io. aendc intonarion which
can be digesied, altered, and recreted to nt your particlar
probleDs. lr you try ro use your resear.h teril too literally,
you {iU probably get into trouble. You nay infringe cpyrjght
lasi and, in addition, you will .u iDto such crtpli.d
problens f li8htir& s.ale and penpectivc .h2t you rvill wish
you had done .realive job with yo. source marcdal tuom c
During is e.tire period 01 dcumcntation and,
your nind should be like a blotter, picling up idcd $hc.cver
)o u frn J ,h fn ,. l r )u u r u^ a,r os d pntr e o{ .o,"cone in d nchs
magazinc rvho sccrs b t nrto ),, picture, ter e pge oi
fo. rclcrcn... Yo may notice a man snting aoss lroD you on
the bus, who is very simila. to onc f yu. charadeb. Mke a
ctal study ot is peson, and as soon as po$iblc put your
obscrvationsdo{r i sketch lorm.
You ust learn to thiok 01 thc situation you arc illu$ratig
as soething that ctually happened, and yor chamden s
living pcoplc whom you knew vcry well. Thc Drore you can
discove. abotrr the, the uore your hnal pictt
wi l b (. In ,h '' F 'p .a th, tr uLhn or t,,F ln' ",a' i\ \^,n'
shat sinrilr to rlDt ol thc writer. An author ntay teU sto.y
n,volvn,g only r len hors nr the liv.s of bis dractc, but if
hc is a Eood author he knows 2 great dcal ,orc aLor ent
an hc has tDkl yu, lb him rhcsc pcoplc arc alivc, be.ausc hc

has lived with em mentauy and cnolionally lil he has

discovercd every importan! detail of their past expe.icnce and
ba.lground. You as .n anist must k,ow your .harcteB in the
,am \dy U v ou do. ,hv w i l l 'i om dl ,v t i n y o,,r l /i nr i ngs
and the observer will joir you in believirg that ey arc rcal.

Finding your .horqcters in reql life

Oncc you lnow" Iour charcteb, rd ndeblnd clearly wht
thcy arc likc, you arc prepared to go ot rd look lor similar
peopte who can seNe as models. vour ntodek need not look
cxactly likc the .hr.acicrs yo havc in hind. lt is cnogh if
they rescmbleyour nnaginary pcoplc in a gcncralsay.
Very o{rcn you will be ablc ro posc lor onc or mo.c or the
roles youbelf, and you cn prc$ nembe$ ot yo. lnily i o
*rvice as Dodels for other .baricreB. Remember aganr, rhat
you are not planning to copy down thesepcople verllarim. what
p6e v o,l
) ou ne.J i : dad,l e Inl or m ati on s heth,r ,,c r r ,i n
invented in your sket.hes is actully narural nd expre$ive;
how the lighr lalh on a cheek or forchcad; what khd oI odd
lirilc wrinklcs and lolds occur it clolhing.
Whenevcr po$ible, it is best to usc adareu$ s mdels. You
cin .hoose thfm c2rellly as typ.J who will t yur chr'
cte6. Thq are almost alsays very co.opcnrivc and anrious
1plese.Best oI aU, rhey lack rhc expcricncc whi.h oltcn lcads
profe$ionl ndels to gdmace nd "ham' in an nn2tral way.
lI you lnow then wetl, you ll probbly nd i! easy to exphnr
cxactly wha. you want,
oI cosc, thc nre .curakty your models .n exprc$ the
action nd the eolion you hve in mind, lhe more useful
they will be. It is yor job r serveas "," just as ough
yo were maling novic. Ac! out.heprr. yuncll iI ncccsafy,
to gel e id. do$. This nay cmban2$ you a lit11c at Nt,
bi wi cxpcdcn.c you wilt lern !o 'let yoursell go -and
ar the sahc dn,c help )our odels get over their selrconrios
Ir is up !o yo ro dccide whelher y wnt to Nork from the
living model or trom p6ed phoiogmphs. The njrity of com
rrcrcial ftists se photogMphs .da), lr reasns.Fist,
it is alns impsibl to Iind r modcl $ho can build up an
cmotiDnal state and hold it i',dclinncly. sccnd, it is a vcry
simple ing ro tatc a dozcr or more phorogrphs in a vcfy
short tine
and.apru.c cracdy e cxprc$ion )ou wat. Since
prote$ional Dodck charyc vc.y largc fees tor eir time, and
anaieuB tend !o be utrdepcndable or to ge. bored nd tired
casily, the canera hs co,ne to lhe rtisCsresce.



Moking the picture

I rh6.


PhobsrcPtu rcPrc'.d


Insritutef CommerciolArr,Inc.

d rnr, it rou r'qyqiy qbirit ro q

From photogroph

to drowing


Whr Norlins hon phologrrplts, thc nporanr ihnrg !o

renember n thar ya! mutt use tlre phatgtutphs inst.a.L al
letting thc phataguphs lk ,o. -rhc photognph is not dre
pcrlecr representatio of you chanctcr, which yo have only
to "lu.ic dovD' on ihc linished skekh. You slbdd usc lhc
pholograph jun as yo rvould se the modcl, taking only dre
nrlornatio you reed, distiUing ir ro irs e$ence, aDd discardn8
rhc rcs. ldcaily, nhcD tllr pi.rure is linishcd ir should b.
imposiblc fo. aryonc .o 1cll vhcrh$ you hale used photo



li illstrare c fi8h! and s&Dg says of handlng plor

q r ,p h 'c rJrcrL l . Ro b fl t t l.J.
th, r n!r nlr n\r nL
' iad,
s k r tch cs.T h cscd cp i c!a dimacr icm omcnttustor ydeah:gsith
p o l i ti .J bos r o ppFUdd- , d) n",n,, ) oung
'rrcrp r
busincsn r r tor governor. The srtrnry is rhe busine$ri holel (rn
ir x nthcr la.gc city. Hc is s!)ing, 'I'il run
bur on oo,r corditiol
thc doodlc and rhc .ogh skcrch
had ben ma.le, rh nodels
$crc phorogmphcd. Now rhe p.ob
lem is ro pull ihcm togciher into a hnishcd picrre organizadon.




qn dchd





Mcking lhe picture

Inrtitute l Commerciol, Inc,

Phologrophs used os referen<e moteriol



( o!


Delicote odiustmenfs mok oll the difierence


h sc id







i ),
. ',':.1

'1 ', , . .




bd .r


srcuP d o'oild

I id

FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture


Intitute ot CommrciolArt,Inc.

r qdrdnit



o rc.r cqh P!

Relqling .hqrq.ters

in dromoiic o<tion

Tbc ln ilhrrntion, shorLing Io bN to "disdU rhe c$encc"

froDr phohSrrl)hir nrarerial, nlv o.c figtrre. Rt ir
dcmonnrxk{i rbni crcn . pi.urc .onhining !ly a singlc (hr
c t 5 t l ) trl l ) or yanized.Not oir ly un r hc gur c
.onnh its or l{,JiicaDd .hytlnn
ir n'ust rlso lit o.gaDnally
hto its s.ui"g, rhc way a singlc pirtr'or iissrw pzle lalls
cxa.tly nrro pli.c. In othc. (oRls, hct|lt yo Iavc one 6ljlrc
or frlir, n,$ be conrpond !) tl'at erc.y cleent
slr ,l" ( l,ng".
m rl .,.,r\ i ,1 1 ,t.'r'1 ,,o ,,r r ihr iu".' h'
l I )d u n (l .r{i n d th is tr nr ci r , r dr \fill h . Do diffielty
r(larins r\,, or ore iD logi(nl nnd torceful o,s.Di

/rtn,r . l r hr s r pr ol ,l or , ol ( ,nr nc , n r o pl x .c r l nr .s phv s nal

l(t \ r Li thi n r h pi c tur r r u. l ,i k c r .tor s , r hc \ nr un | l r s i gc d
rh(if posiLioD"or (nl,(. '
\' r l i . t'{r '. Ir n',r ,1, , ur , ..r l i l ,,r .i ,l ,r ,'.," ,r .,r ..
.,.F .
n, t,r ^1,..1" . ) ,r .,,,r .,
t, r '- .." r !,. " ,,. r ,r ,," | ,r ,j .,,.
lh nr k i IB, fel i gs ,x u( l dx ,iI fc l ai i ons l r i l )to( r ( h,) tl r !nd
h thc s dti r g i n \r hnl l .u hr r . pl a.ed r her i 5 l h( nr r ^hn..
ol lor srorv. \Vhnr aru thc_\Lloing hc.c? \\rhaf! ging o? \\'hr
0c tl tr t| i nk i ng 1nd ft..l i r i Ai T hi s i l l unr r r i on l ) ) _ I{obc r l
F r .c r r dc nr nnr c t ( l tr r l \ l o\L c dfx nr tr tn r ( l i ti ubi p
,n j $" ,,',h.,
!,,.,r i ,9 tn,o,,.'l ,t,.i \" .
c '. i . ,.nr t




Moking the picture

Indituteol Conmrci.l Art, Inc,

Moke sure you're right

before you go too for
The lrther you advn.e as a prolc$ional annt, the more you
Nill pprecite the solid basis ol hard work rhich lies behid
every succesll picture-and e eDdlcsspo$ibilitics ro.
r J l /.. E\.n r he F J ,ul 'v m eaber , J r l i r n^," r r )
a pr r 'r 'c r o
.orplction, only !o discover thi thcy havc filcd ro capru.c rtE
righi mood or have nd soe basic co. lvhich will rcquire
new skrt. Through paintul, such as osc strown
ot dtsc pagcs,thcyhave lcarned that itpays rc.nd.t ldpr.lzre
t every stage al .le@lop"ient. When lfu fa.e rhe choicc of
serllnrg lor soDething "secondbest or dog rhe picire ovcr
from s.itch, you will at lcast have the co.solaion of knorei.g
that cveD thc ncst a.tisls do nor always mal(e picture come
ofi on the rst y. Howcver, you can ofte void the disappoinrmenr oI havhg to dncard *rk nearly corrplctcd, if yu
will srdy your prelimirary sketchcscarcfully aDd impeFonally
Iteforc you bcgin e nisheda.tworl.


lg Moking the picture


In,tnuteof Conmerciqlrt, Inc.

Keep your dolq







Moking the picture

Initiruteof Comm..iolAn, Inc.

How lo .he.k piGlure orgqnirotion

The previous pages in .hir le$on have shown )ou how to
develop picture idea ir th doodle, wo.k p rhe rough sker.h,
do.umet yr naterii th.ogh lrsearch, photogrph .
models for you. .ha.acte$ and abstmc! rhe esFnrial mterial
Irom these pholographs. You have also seen examples which
illst how the difierent chrcrersin pi.rure cn be organized so that !h compdilion seems inevihble and the stry
.rysral,cled ar rsr glan.e. All rhis was by way of preparing you
to nake the nnished 3ketch,which you cn then rce d{n and
rende iq whatever medium you .hoose.
But belore you commit yurseu to es. al steps, it will
pay you to checl your pi.tuie in va.ious ways .o see wherhe. it
relly "pulls to$lher" and is as.horoghly organizcd as)o can
make it. Renember that sound cor.ections and inplovements


' 'h.



nd o sd Pnrr

at this slaSe oI picrure development wiu sve you ha I

Orten, in the haste to .omplete r $ignnent, an arrist
will bri.g hb picture to an dvan.ed stge of rndcring befo.e
he reilizes tht it simply will not jell.'Soething
basic is
{rong. Then he mus! bndon the work hc hd alreidy done,
and cbe.k bck to the beginning b frnd or whcre his misraLes
were made. II you re patient enough ro cxamine your work
r .,eIul l I ds Iou p'u9,,\. \ou w ,l l l noq J r c \( t ...c \i v r
point tht yo hve .he siratior copletly under conrrol.
Or .hese pages ve reproduce a sedes of skerchesby Robert
Fawcetl demonst.atig a nmber oI diftercnt nethods for
checring you picrorial o.ganizatio..



Ivloking the picture

ntitut o{ CmnrciolArr, In..





FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture

hnitut ol CohmrciolArr, Inc.

4. How Four Fomous Arlists Moke Pictures

.Gomposingo pictureideo - rl[/
Thc lollowing sketchesshow my soludon of thc .ompsition
problcm for a Por, illustradon. Thc slory was tirled, "Jack oI
SwoKls' a serial by Gcrald Ke6h. Ratapoil, c hcro, irtcr
rupts a group of men plotting to oler.hrow Napoleon !i a
.orp d llo,. Raspoil throws open rbc door and a su<ldenflood
oI lighr revelsrhe plrter.I seizedthishiShly drDaricnorcnr


I did not atrcmpt ro sow Rrapil as rhe objcc! 01 rheir

attendo. bccuseI felt that would cxposc l orvn lirrle mysrer)
shich, it cficctive, would nate a pc6on siop and read rhe story.
In seue, all illustrtion shold, by some such device, arorse
curiosity enough to indce the reder lo read rhe srory.
With ese though$ in nind, I pro.eeded ro plar my pic.ure.
As Ir as the diagran of action was .on.e.ncd, r kncrv wlur r
santed to say. The work of diagrning e acdon could be
accomplished by ny 6th gradr wi a lirtle inaSiDarion nd

some Datchlick frgures.The dincult prt 01 this prblem ws

to create the desired emotional efte.r throgh rhe sc ot absrracr
shapesnd prterns of form, tone nd .olor. Ir is only rhrough
e sensitive se of thes absEac! shapesaDd prerDs rhar you
prfay the eotions oI your pinted people and male your
I wnted to establisha tremendos drive to the le[t, then e
feelingol impacr nd recoil.In the inds ol rhe en I am going
to pint, this is exctly what happened- rhey s.9! loNard ro
see the tll i\ecing tgure, cxpcricnce lhe inpac! of recog.
nition a.d then they recoil.
AII thesesletches vere done in pen and irk vith ink washes.
They were drawn directly on paper vithour prcliminary pen.iling
meod I Rnd mre spontreos. The sket.hes wre
ll pproximtely 3 iche6 wide, except lor the las! one which

.or Pi.'oG rPo.. I'h. P.cPonioi!

Td bn b n.t rct d
d Yinr
bd <ht.. (r Tq' r Yd odo
I didlrvod.t

h rrir n.rh,


8.r. I hov. eor ny![ oi rh..




Moking the picture

r.rfiiur of CommrciolArr, Inc,



lrnborr, hy tr'. wy, do ({.

iun iunp our or o

qodii b.rv, d.r d n.i rt

.nd Thdhs trrh:;

ird5. rir. i[ir o, hov

'b(ol.,][nl'rhyn,yooe.'do*i diDp|'





FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture

l.elilur of ConmrciolArt, In..

lhe idgq-bqckbon

of story-telling piclures -

In a piciure hich teus a story, the idea itsell p.ob.bly is rhe

nlct imporlant eleDent of the tnti.e illust.aiion. Ce.rainly if
ihc idea is not god rd iI n does no! inreresr and inigue
people, ny olher 8od quahies which the piclure my pG
ses will be lst becase rhey eiU nt be seen. Ir is n utrer
waste oI efiort to pint a beaurilul pictu.e nte$ ir is bded on
good cenrl idea-ore which can be readily undesrood.
I tnow oI no pai.less prGess for givirg binh to a pictre
idea. when I murt produce one, I retire to a quiet room ith
r,u p p l v o r l h e d p p c pr and sh' p pr n,,l,. M v b' r in i, ing
to tate a beting - nd lnows it.
In making my dodles and sltches, I se almosr an) whi!,
lineles pad, usal1y one measring .bout 8 by l0 inches. I
always usc cheap papc be.use as soon as a sketch shows it is
withou! pNibilides, I want to be ble to dis.rd it without
any qalms. If I use good pper, I m likely to nd mysel{ trying to pull a poor ide tgether.
I prefer a 68 pencil, cither Vers or Eagle brard. They re
ft.y so{. ad the arl$ are easyto erde. I use a kreded rubber
emser lor making conecrions. Do not cay your sletches too
far undl you get an idea in which you reatly have coDlidence
becausethis only wstes your time.
Nw, what mal$ i good idea? First, it rst be o.iAinI. By
this, I do not mern tht nothine on the subjecr cver has beet
done bcforc, but you must have a new slant o. approach which
wiu irte.est people. Secod,it mst be p.!o-da!e. People lite
ro .cognize emselves and tleir poblems in picrurd.
A relly good idca should also po$e$ rhird qualiry
shold cntai an elemenr of humor nd of prhos. The nsr
poplar idea is e otre whi.h mkes the reader wart to smile
and sigh t ihe s2me time. Consider a picture of a litde by
bdaging his dog s foot. It is coni.l - but just z little 6d.
ID ying to generate n idea, I sonetie6 reach a dead end
- nthing cons. Then I begin .hurtbing throgh the pictures in magazinesnd books. This slarrs me oft on nother
trocl, and ooce in a while one of the pictures will even suggest
a n i d e a . A t o th e r ti m , I80 ba,k o\r my own etper ien( es.
perhaps things {hi.h happened ro ne s a child or somerhing
which happned only rfterdy. I ink o{ iogs hi.h I hve
se e nm) ,h i l d 'e n o , m) neighbo' ' doing. I xdm in. ver y pd.
ribility, ying to drw out I the other pi.tures or, better yet,
trom dy own exp.iences or the experiences of othes, sne very
humn sirurion rhich wiU make a Bood picture.
It is grcar rill, as I have said, hen the ,,g idea frn2lty
comes. I r delighted iI othe6 .cspond ro n. Br no mirie.
ho much ey like it, I mst believc in ir mlsclf and wanr
very nch to painr n iI ir is to be a good piclure.
Do nt become dircouraged when you cannot develop n
idea but js! keep piugging y. I{, fter an hour, you rd
youBelf t ded end stop {oik nd thmb thbgh soc
mgzires or boots o{ .art@ns- This will rcfrcsh you and perhaps gire you a new angl to pu6e.
I have oilcn - much loo often
found no idea t ll Irer
a lwehour sc$ion of trying, bt have gone bacl !o it the next
day and developed a good ide in a sho.t time. Soeriner a



$orkor or rhis sorr is needed ro.ondirin yur brair ro .rete

ideas and to.use you |o become rc.eptive to the. Redember
l ere are plenty of ided available bt yo have io dig
hard sometimesto rd thcm.
And is diggig fo. a good idea is all-inporrar because
nles yur idea is really good, you are going ro produce a
Iailure regardlessof how well you pain! the picture. The ide
nrt be good. This brinSs up the quesdon of how to identify
good ider when you get one. Dont worry. No one will have
to tl you tht )our ide is god when you really ger god
one. Bclls will ring, lights will ash, sta.s will twinkle. You
wiU how ifrediately that you havc it nd yo 11want b get
busy and paint i1 and noing else.
sometimes yo may have an idea which you know does not
have nu.h med! but you ny try to convince yourselr that it
hs and tlempt to use it anyhow, hoping tht only you will
tnw that rhe ide is nor very good. Mke oo mistke $our it
- ,l ) ou p, Ai :r i n u,i ng ths oedi o.r e i der , tou r Soi ng to
rurn ot a mediocre picture and yo will rot be the only one
And now, a word abot the chara.ters in your picture. II
fiBuresare involved in yor idea, yo can pt it only iI
your characrcF "ring ue' nd are athntic. Howrd Pyle,
the gretest illustrtor Ameri@ evcr prodced, in my opinin,
used to teU his students to climb over the fratue znd get right
in1o {he middle I eir pictures. Wht he meant w tht you
should try to live completely the pi.rure which Io a.e paitr'
ing. This is especilly oue oI the .hrcteb in your picture.
Ifyor illstra.ion is to show n old brber.utdng someone\
hai., t.y ro visualize th barber s people who see him wiu
recognize him as a peson and will ktw, from thr you have
prtray your brber
put down, the sort of peson he is.
cmpletely, you must decide in you own ind in dvan.e
whether he is mnied mn or no!. If he i6 ied, is he
henpccked by his wilel Hs he no children or has he to mny
childrcn? Yo can present your barber !o reades only after
you lnow hi yoEelf.
you cn rell yor .eder uch abt your brber by the way
you draw his features. Is hc a jolly nat {ho lites his worl?
Or is he a frusrrared otd chap, nhappy in his oc.upation
and ncertir ofthe future. Ifhe is the latter, perhaps yu por'
ra) hi as growing bald. Maybe he wea$ thi.k glases fd his
neaHighrcd watery ble eyes, pdsibly his chin is weak, his
necl is long and scrawty, his shouldes na(ow and sr@ped.
By such delinarion, yo can present your barber to rcadeB as
a thoroughly unde.slandable liying pebo.
Putting aco$ a picturc idea is somethiDg like bouncing a
bber bll agiost a wall. No matter how hid to hrl the
b l, it Fturns to you with les sped than you thrcw it. It is
tiLe rhar in telling a story i,r a pi.tre. Yu mst leel lov or
hare or huftor mu.h mre intensely than yo can cxpect the
people who sec yor pictures t re.eive the impre$in. This
ab,l i r y r o ,c ei r n em or on s o ,nr ns el vthar r ou 'an p'oj .'
your leeling t someone eke is one of the real joys of c.eative
work. Il you .ar do this, then tou hale deative abiliry.


FomousArli5ls Course

Moking the picture


Inrritub ot Commer.iqlArr, In..


Here's how I develop on ideo wilh hope ond proyer!

( i $r,'='i



. pnt.

lbid y.dr or

l h .d o d d l q q o o 'Gff'g d h b d {i h d .c|d ,
b.'b r qii. dog' oodc dc . . r li




FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture

In3tilurof ConmerciolAr, Inc.

A pictureis only os good qs the ideo lt expr.ess*-




The main purpose of a magazine cover is to attract

the attention of people and induce em to buy the
magazine. First of all, it must make people stop and
look despire the .ompetition ot many other magazine

The min reson for an illustration accompanymg a

magazine ction story is quite difirent. An illustra
tion is intended to intrigue the curiosity of rhe reader
ad to arousehis desire to rcad the story, but it should
in the case of the magazine cover- tll a
complere ,tory in itself and thus give away the plot

covers on the newssrand.This cn be ccomplished

by a pleasing or startling desig!, by attractive color, a
pretty 8irl, a personality in th public ey - or by the
very subjeci matter of the cover picture. This last is
the appeal I try to make- I lvaDt people to look at my
p i ( r u r e 5 ,r o u n d e r ( r r n d r h e m , L o h a r e a d e ( ir e lo o wn
them and take them hom to shar with othes. A
good magazine cover should possessattractive color
and dsign, it should convey a direct and easily under
stood messageand it should have some lasting interest.
But, mosr impotant of all, it should cause people to
stop and examine it, thus brinSing to therr attenuon
the magazine which it decortes.

of the story. lr should hve an elnnt oI surprise

and, withour disclosing the plot, it should tell the
reader what type of story accompaniesthe illustration,
whether it i! a love story, a myslery story or a hrstor_
ical tale. Of course attractive color, frne dra ing and
good composition are important in the slory illustration, just as they are imporant in any other prcture.
But firsr and foremost, rhe purpose oI the story illustration is to arouse a contpelling desire on the part
of .h reader to know more about the story bcause
of rhe picture he has seen.


FomousArlisls Course

filoking the picture


hltituto ol Cnmer.iql rr, In<,

ntsrlrutsn t


The purpose of a picture lor a calendr difiers from

the pryose oI a picture for a magazine cover or a story
illurtration. Here it is impornt to create a picrure
which will be pleasing to the eye for a pe od of twlve

The tsk of the advertising pictu is still dierent.

It,s purpose can be expressdin a few wods-it
in.nded to sell the producr advertised. No marter
how beautiful an dvertising picture may be, if it does
not sell the product which it adveftises it is a fail-

months. The amusing idea which might be suitable

for a magazine cover often will not seem very funny
after you hve looked at it for a year. Here you do nor
wish to starde but to create something which is quiet,
plaring-and enduring. Calendar malers have discovered that older subjecrs,which people have grown
to understand and love, appeal more than new ideas.
Emotional subjects,containing elements of tenderness
and sympathy, arc more popular than gags and humor.
The color like the subject, should be quic and pleasing, and the characterspictured should be people you
would like to know or with whom you would like
to live.

urc. Pictures to illustrte advertisements usually are

planned in one of two ways. First, there is the dircr
approach- a picture of a boy eating "Ma's Bad" with
a look of surprised sa.isfactionon his face. Hi, expression says he is delighted with the product. The second
approach is used in what is termed institutional advertising. Her the aim is to creale good will for rhe company or confidence in it rather than to arous a dict
and immediate demand fol its product. A picture of
Lincoln, for example, might be used to impute hon'
esty or reliability to a company or its product. My
examples on these pages are far from perfect.



FomousArlists Course

Moking the picture

l.jritote l ComerciolA.r, Inc.

How I moke
c picture
1\ rrrrlt r'r
R rrr:l'rrve ll

| -gltinE

th ido

2 -gofilng

th mod.l!
rhD fodor

3 -golllng

rh prop5

4 -gtirg

, sh. obi.r'

h. id..


eo nro oi,

rh ahied.



3hoe h



D P,.,,d'

qr ore or

th. pGe








5 - n.klng

FomousArlisls Course

Moking the picture


Inslnulol Cnnerci.lA.r, In..

lho prcllnlndrt

- motlng rho .olor rkcr.h

!k6t h

.oYo|' cydoh9

I t..






iob, ond

rqh r.i[

roo iloriyon

obh lo i

whor pu







Moking the picture

In+iiurol ComnerciolArt, Inc.

My pro(edure
from rough sketches to
finished illustrotion



t rhn r, . iin6d ke;s.



dro 01


1 e p od




1 :d



FomousArli.ts Course


Moking the picture


lntnut ol Cone.ciolArt, Inc.


'I an i.

0 a


roi tr! er.ri!.b.













Moking lhe piclure

hlfiiut of CoFmrciolArr,





I ho..


od q toiu




'6oiqr' 'hd

tr* q

) iers c,r! P!b. co.


FomousArlists Course

Moking fhe picture


Inniiul. ol CmmrciolAd,lnc.

An iftusr'oriontromsrqrrro rinish- l:,lt{tl

Reading rhc arhor's mauscriF is ny fiBt step in mting n

illusarion. I do Dol harc any dire.r contaci with him. Hc
has sold his Drtrlsqipt to a nugazine and thc an dircdor hN
a$igned it to ne to ill$rrtc. From now on my jb is ,o p'o,rld
pi.turs ot.lesig\s lat clucidatton or adotnment.
I wiU do Dry bcat to show yo how I illus.are sto.ies. Let us
start ith in utltor\ nnurcripr which I received front the
L a d i e sHo n e l o u tn tl . \aasdtlcd' KinIolL' and{ aswr
The magazinc, Ior rcrsons of ns oNt, wnted tre to or as
nruch ot thc Chin$c lraclgrond as posible- ln the snuatioD
I .hce, rk Chn,c'c gnl, haring rctumcd ro her tutive .ountry,
njo$ a I'aih $'ithout thc modcrn ot an AmericD
bathroon to Nhnh shc as$oned. She plats bathhouscs
for thc roNdspcoplc, vhich is prt of an oveFall plan she has
Ior $isting c poor nnd rcdy among hcr pcoplc. I ino

| 6od



rh. rqiqaier,


? r b&n bid

I ior

I ior di drc p.ying mntis ro give a Dorc ol nrrcrcsr. Irwas some

thirg l {elr would be urusual (but plausible) in a woodcn barhb s.e. an.l thoclorc an eye-carcheror "sropper"
s I call
aoy dclice a. akes the rcadcr look and puse a bit. Haling
pascd, hc is lilly to read the story or rcturn rc.ead it laier
bccrusc ol r li6r impression.
I wortcd a wccl on tbis pankular $i8nncnt. Gcrdng thc
idca a.d thc rescar.h toot p nrost f the tiDe- The actal rendering- the rissuedrbi"g oI my co'nposirion doNn o
the Nater color pper .nd applling thc color - t@l( one day.
Nlost of the week sas spent io plnnnrg the angement and
noring out the conption ot the situarion to br depicted so
no gue$Nork would be lcft lor the day of reDdern]8. lt my
probl.ns had ro be solvcd on thc rou8h. Thu3, as you @n see,
rhc Diggestpn I ny job is not thc rcDdciing but the dys
ol lhoughr spent before my btush iotrches thc paper.



r y '| [ u o l y r 6 d o n o i ! ( l i P l . b c u l o i c d h



qr rh! (rcp mor.'r qn

i\1t- r I i..




Moking the picture

In.rilurol Art, In.,





\- 1'j.


l:rf \
s r . '

i3 ny q! de iof e



'q " d ,

q ron.lode


1 io

h Pidoyoei

q hede



Moking the picture



, lic,




L r ii ird


,{ l:. -t ,*


\ i[,'









One subieclren different pointings

One subie.t-ren
enrirely difirent poi.tingrl When the menbe6 l the lh5|itui Fd.ulry wef commi$ioned t ilruslr6'e th
3;bl;col nofy oI Sonron nd Deiilah, eoch ot them dpproochd lhe rubied in hn.w.
wdy, dtriying 6r erirely disrin.riv re,
5ulk. nd yel they o I enployed lhe sone sound ort p.inciple!. Ihis rouBe will tedch yo! thse bostc p,in.ipler - b!l whot yo!
do with ihem will depend upon /ouf rdsre, /o!r tdlent, ond /ur oyn convidions obul vhlt you wonr l soy .d how you wdnt
to soy il, ther is rooh in illunrdtion lor .n e(dle$
ond (onvi.ins.

vriery ol styl! ond te(hniques. All the publi( der.nd3

ir thor yr piclur be