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1.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

2. The process of encoding refers to


the persistence of learning over
time.
the recall of information
previously learned.
getting information into memory.
a clear memory of an emotionally
significant event.

3.
A)
B)
C)
D)

4.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

The persistence of learning over


time most clearly depends on
the serial position effect.
proactive interference.
visual encoding.
memory.

The retention of encoded


information over time refers to
effortful processing.
implicit memory.
repression.
storage.

Storage is to encoding as
________ is to ________.
recognition; recall
retention; acquisition
explicit memory; implicit memory

The process of getting


5. information out of memory is
called
encoding.
relearning.
retrieval.
rehearsal.

6. An information-processing model

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

that views memories as


emerging from the simultaneous
activation of interconnected
neural networks is known as
LTP.
mnemonics.
connectionism.
the peg-word system.

The original Atkinson-Schiffrin


three-stage information7.
processing model introduced
distinctions among
recall, recognition, and
relearning.
shallow processing, semantic
processing, and deep processing.
sensory memory, short-term
memory, and long-term memory.
the serial position effect, the
spacing effect, and the testing
effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Some information in our fleeting


8. ________ is encoded into shortterm memory.
repressed memory
sensory memory
flashbulb memory
long-term memory

A)
B)
C)
D)

Your activated but limited9. capacity memory is called


________ memory.
short-term
implicit
mood-congruent
explicit

Shelly was able to remember the

A)
B)
C)
D)

names of three new class


members for only a minute or
two after they had been
introduced to her. The new class
members' names were briefly
stored in her ________ memory.
flashbulb
implicit
short-term memory
iconic

A)
B)
C)
D)

According to Allen Baddeley, we


consciously process incoming
11. auditory and visual-spatial
information in our ________
memory.
implicit
working
procedural
state-dependent

A)
B)
C)
D)

Highly durable memories can


12. often be retrieved from ________
memory into ________ memory.
sensory; working
working; sensory
working; long-term
long-term; working

A)
B)
C)
D)

The integration of new incoming


information with knowledge
13.
retrieved from long-term memory
involves the activity of
implicit memory.
iconic memory.
proactive interference.
working memory.

14. Conscious rehearsal of what you


just heard a friend tell you

requires
implicit memory.
automatic processing.
working memory.
deep processing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

In Alan Baddeley's model of


working memory, the
15.
hypothetical central executive
engages in
repression.
focusing attention.
automatic processing.
long-term potentiation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Encoding that requires attention


16. and conscious awareness is
called
priming.
effortful processing.
long-term potentiation.
proactive interference.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Consciously repeating the name


17. of a new classmate you want to
remember illustrates
implicit memory.
the peg-word system.
effortful processing.
the self-reference effect.

18.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Automatic processing most


clearly occurs without
encoding.
conscious rehearsal.
implicit memory.
long-term potentiation.

19. The difference between

automatic and effortful


processing best illustrates
the two-track mind.
the misinformation effect.
mood-congruent memory.
the serial position effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

We encode implicit memories by


means of
recall.
repression.
automatic processing.
the peg-word system.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Remembering how to solve a


puzzle without any conscious
21.
recollection that you can do so
best illustrates ________ memory.
working
flashbulb
implicit
sensory

A)
B)
C)
D)

Retention of skills and classically


conditioned associations without
22.
conscious recollection is known
as ________ memory.
state-dependent
flashbulb
short-term
implicit

A)
B)
C)
D)

23. Explicit memory is also known as


procedural memory.
context-dependent memory.
declarative memory.
mood-congruent memory.

20.

24. A conscious memory of the name

of the first president of the


United States is a(n) ________
memory.
iconic
explicit
procedural
state-dependent

A)
B)
C)
D)

25.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Effortful processing most clearly


requires
iconic memory.
implicit memory.
flashbulb memory.
working memory.

Implicit memory is to explicit


26. memory as ________ is to
________.
context-dependent memory;
state-dependent memory
automatic processing; effortful
processing
short-term memory; long-term
memory
proactive interference;
retroactive interference

Procedural memories for welllearned skills such as how to ride


27.
a bicycle are typically ________
memories.
working
implicit
sensory
flashbulb

28. Cheri doesn't remember that she


got sick after eating oatmeal on
several occasions in early
childhood. However, whenever

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)

she smells oatmeal she


experiences a classically
conditioned feeling of nausea.
Cheri's conditioned reaction
indicates that she retains a(n)
________ memory.
flashbulb
echoic
iconic
implicit

During her psychology test,


Kelsey could not remember the
meaning of the term proactive
interference. Surprisingly,
however, she accurately
29. remembered that the term
appeared on the fourth line of a
left-hand page in her textbook.
Her memory of this incidental
information is best explained in
terms of
automatic processing.
the spacing effect.
imagination inflation.
the serial position effect.

You are most likely to


30. automatically encode information
about
politicians' names.
friends' birthdays.
new phone numbers.
the sequence of your day's
events.

The ability to unconsciously


process how many times you
31.
checked your e-mail during the
past 24 hours best illustrates
working memory.

B)
C)
D)

automatic processing.
implicit memory.
the serial position effect.

32.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

The effortful processing of


information
cannot occur simultaneously with
automatic processing.
refers to the process of getting
information out of memory
storage.
can become automatic through
practice.
occurs less frequently among
adults than children.

When Sperling visually displayed


three rows of three letters each
33.
for only one-twentieth of a
second, research participants
recalled only half the letters
because they did not have
enough time to see all of them.
recalled only about seven of the
letters due to storage limitations.
had a momentary photographic
memory of all nine letters.
formed a sensory memory of no
more than a single letter.

A momentary sensory memory of


34. visual stimuli is called ________
memory.
echoic
short-term
iconic
flashbulb

35. The address for obtaining tickets


to a popular quiz show flashes on

the TV screen, but the image


disappears before Sergei has had
a chance to write down the
complete address. To his
surprise, however, he has
retained a momentary mental
image of the five-digit zip code.
His experience best illustrates
________ memory.
iconic
flashbulb
echoic
state-dependent

A)
B)
C)
D)

36.
A)
B)
C)g
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)

An iconic memory is a ________


memory.
sensory
short-term
flashbulb
procedural

37. Echoic memory refers to


the encoded meanings of words
and events in long-term memory.
a vivid memory of an emotionally
significant event.
the automatic retention of
incidental information about the
timing and frequency of events.
a momentary sensory memory of
auditory stimuli.

For a moment after hearing his


dog's high-pitched bark, Mr.
Silvers has a vivid auditory
38.
impression of the dog's yelp. His
experience most clearly
illustrates ________ memory.
short-term
iconic
procedural

D)

echoic

A)
B)
C)
D)

Some of the information in our


39. ________ memory is encoded into
________ memory.
iconic; short-term
short-term; sensory
flashbulb; short-term
long-term; iconic

A)
B)
C)
D)

George Miller proposed that


about seven information bits
40.
constitutes the capacity of
________ memory.
short-term
explicit
flashbulb
implicit

A)
B)
C)
D)

Peterson and Peterson


demonstrated that unrehearsed
41. short-term memories for three
consonants almost completely
decay in as short a time as
12 seconds.
1 minute.
12 minutes.
1 hour.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After being asked to remember


three consonants, participants in
42. a study by Peterson and Peterson
counted aloud backward by
threes to prevent
source amnesia.
retroactive interference.
encoding failure.
rehearsal.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Imagine seeing a letter of the


alphabet, then a simple question,
then another letter, followed by
another question, and so on.
43. People who can consciously
process and recall the most
letters, despite such
interruptions, are demonstrating
effective
echoic memory.
procedural memory.
implicit memory.
working memory.

44. Chunking refers to


getting information into memory
through the use of visual
imagery.
the organization of information
into meaningful units.
the unconscious encoding of
incidental information.
the tendency to recall best the
first item in a list.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Varsity basketball players can


recall the positions of the players
45. after a 4-second glance at a
basketball play. This ability is
best explained in terms of
the spacing effect.
chunking.
the serial position effect.
mood-congruent memory.

A)

Sherry easily remembers the


telephone reservation number for
46. Holiday Inn by using the
mnemonic 1-800-HOLIDAY. She is
using a memory aid known as
chunking.

B)
C)
D)

imagination inflation.
the serial position effect.
the peg-word system.

A)
B)
C)
D)

47. A mnemonic is a
sensory memory.
test or measure of memory.
long-term memory.
memory aid.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Tim, a third-grader, learns the


sentence George Eats Old Gray
48. Rats and Paints Houses Yellow to
help him remember the spelling
of geography. Tim is using
a mnemonic technique.
the spacing effect.
implicit memory.
the peg-word system.

A)
B)
C)
D)

We are more likely to remember


the words typewriter, cigarette,
49. and fire than the words void,
process, and inherent. This best
illustrates the value of
long-term potentiation.
flashbulb memory.
imagery.
iconic memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Associating carrots with a mental


image of a bun, milk with a
50. mental image of a shoe, and
paper towels with a mental
image of a tree best illustrates
implicit memory.
the peg-word system.
iconic memory.
the serial position effect.

51.
A)
B)
C)
D)

The use of mnemonics such as


the peg-word system illustrates
automatic processing.
the self-reference effect.
effortful processing.
echoic memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Using the mnemonic ROY G. BIV


to remember the colors of the
52.
rainbow in the order of
wavelength illustrates the use of
the serial position effect.
chunking.
the spacing effect.
the peg-word system.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Sabrina went to the store for


furniture polish, carrots, pencils,
ham, sponges, celery, notebook
paper, and salami. She
remembered to buy all these
items by reminding herself that
53.
she needed food products that
included meats and vegetables
and that she needed nonfood
products that included school
supplies and cleaning aids.
Sabrina made effective use of
the spacing effect.
hierarchical organization.
the peg-word system.
procedural memory.

Jamille is taking French in school.


She gets her best grades on
vocabulary tests if she studies for
54. 15 minutes every day for 8 days
than if she crams for 2 hours the
night before the test. This
illustrates what is known as

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

the spacing effect.


the serial position effect.
state-dependent memory.
automatic processing.

Students who study throughout


the term and then restudy course
material at the end of a semester
55. to pass a comprehensive final are
especially likely to demonstrate
long-term retention of the course
material. This best illustrates
implicit memory.
the serial position effect.
chunking.
the spacing effect.

56.
A)
B)
C)
D)

The testing effect is also known


as
the spacing effect.
the serial position effect.
the self-reference effect.
a retrieval practice effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The importance of effortful


57. processing for long-term
retention is best illustrated by
the testing effect.
implicit memory.
the misinformation effect.
repression.

A)
B)
C)

Encoding a written word


semantically rather than on the
58. basis of the word's written
appearance illustrates a
distinction between
implicit and explicit memory.
deep and shallow processing.
iconic and echoic memory.

proactive and retroactive


interference.

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Encoding verbal information


semantically involves
shallow processing.
echoic memory.
deep processing.
iconic memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Encoding words based on the


60. appearance of the word's letters
involves
the spacing effect.
shallow processing.
flashbulb memory.
deep processing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Craik and Tulving experimentally


demonstrated that people
effectively remember seeing a
specific word after they decide
61.
whether that word fits into an
incomplete sentence. This
research highlighted the
effectiveness of
the serial position effect.
the peg-word system.
deep processing.
echoic memory.

A)
B)
C)

Using your working memory to


associate an unfamiliar textbook
glossary term with other familiar
62.
words that are similar in meaning
to the glossary term best
illustrates
automatic processing.
the serial position effect.
deep processing.

59.

D)

the peg-word system.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which of the following questions


would best enable you to
63.
remember that you saw the word
PEACH on today's test?
Does the word rhyme with teach?
Is the word italicized?
Does the word contain 5 letters?
Is the word a type of fruit?

A)
B)
C)
D)

When people are asked to recall


a list of words they had earlier
memorized, they often substitute
64.
synonyms for some of the words
on the original list. This best
illustrates the effects of
implicit memory.
source amnesia.
semantic processing.
state-dependent memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Ebbinghaus found that


memorizing familiar words
required much less effort than
65.
memorizing nonsense syllables.
This best illustrates the
advantage of
the spacing effect.
implicit memory.
source amnesia.
semantic processing.

A)
B)

Children can better remember an


ancient Latin verse if they
66. rehearse the meanings of the
Latin words. This best illustrates
the value of
iconic memory.
deep processing.

C)
D)

procedural memory.
the peg-word system.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Instead of simply repeating a


series of numbers he wants to
remember, David mentally
67. associates the numbers with
meaningful dates such as his
friends' birthdays. This best
illustrates
the serial position effect.
automatic processing.
procedural memory.
deep processing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

We are more likely to recall


adjectives if asked how well they
68. describe us than if asked how
well they describe someone else.
This illustrates
source misattribution.
imagination inflation.
the self-reference effect.
context-dependent memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

To remember the information


presented in her psychology
textbook, Susan often relates it
69.
to her own life experiences.
Susan's strategy is an effective
memory aid because it facilitates
iconic memory.
deep processing.
proactive interference.
the serial position effect.

70.
A)
B)

Which type of memory has an


essentially limitless capacity?
echoic memory
short-term memory

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

long-term memory
iconic memory

Karl Lashley trained rats to solve


a maze and then removed pieces
71. of their cortexes. He observed
that storage of their maze
memories
was restricted to their right
cerebral hemispheres.
was restricted to their left and
right frontal lobes.
was restricted to their left and
right temporal lobes.
was not restricted to specific
regions of the cortex.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Recalling information and holding


it in working memory requires
72.
that many brain regions send
input to your
basal ganglia.
hypothalamus.
frontal lobes.
cerebellum.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Recalling an old password and


holding it in working memory
73.
would be most likely to activate
the
right frontal lobe.
left frontal lobe.
right cerebellum.
left cerebellum.

A)
B)

Which neural center in the limbic


74. system helps process explicit
memories for storage?
hypothalamus
basal ganglia

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

cerebellum
hippocampus

Damage to the hippocampus


75. would most likely interfere with a
person's ability to learn
to ride a bike.
eat with a fork.
a classically conditioned fear
response.
the names of newly introduced
people.

Chickadees and other birds who


store food in hundreds of places
76. cannot remember the food
storage locations months later if
their ________ has been removed.
amygdala
basal ganglia
hippocampus
cerebellum

Damage to the ________ is most


likely to interfere with explicit
memories of newly learned
77. verbal information. Damage to
the ________ is most likely to
interfere with explicit memories
of newly learned visual designs.
right hippocampus; left
hippocampus
left hippocampus; right
hippocampus
right cerebellum; left cerebellum
left cerebellum; right cerebellum

78. After recovering from a stroke,


Farina was able to learn how to
hit a tennis ball. She is unable,

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

however, to learn and remember


the name of the rehabilitation
therapist who has been working
with her each day to develop her
tennis swing. Farina is most likely
to have suffered damage to her
cerebellum.
hypothalamus.
basal ganglia.
hippocampus.

Removing a rat's hippocampus


48 hours after it learns the
location of some tasty food does
79. not prevent it from forming a
long-term memory of where the
food is located. This best
illustrates the importance of
chunking.
the spacing effect.
memory consolidation.
the serial position effect.

D)

A good night's sleep improves


recall of the previous day's
80.
events by facilitating the transfer
of memories from the
amygdala to the hippocampus.
hippocampus to the cerebral
cortex.
cerebral cortex to the basal
ganglia.
basal ganglia to the cerebellum.

A)
B)
C)

Cortex areas surrounding the


hippocampus and supporting the
81.
processing and storing of explicit
memories are located in the
amygdala.
basal ganglia.
cerebellum.

A)
B)
C)

D)

temporal lobe.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which part of the brain plays a


key role in forming and storing
82.
the implicit memories created by
classical conditioning?
hippocampus
cerebellum
hypothalamus
amygdala

A)
B)
C)
D)

Cerebellum is to ________
83. memory as hippocampus is to
________ memory.
short-term; long-term
long-term; short-term
implicit; explicit
explicit; implicit

A)
B)
C)
D)

Rabbits fail to learn a conditioned


eyeblink response when the
84. function of different pathways in
their ________ is surgically
disrupted.
hypothalamus
amygdala
hippocampus
cerebellum

85.
A)
B)
C)
D)

The basal ganglia facilitate the


processing of
procedural memories.
explicit memories.
echoic memories.
flashbulb memories.

86. Damage to the ________ would


most likely interfere with a
person's memory of how to play

the piano.
hippocampus
amygdala
hypothalamus
basal ganglia

A)
B)
C)
D)

A lack of conscious memories of


87. your first three years of life best
illustrates
dj vu.
source misattribution.
infantile amnesia.
the primacy effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which of the following has been


88. suggested as an explanation for
infantile amnesia?
The hippocampus is one of the
last brain structures to mature.
The emotional reactivity of
infants inhibits the process of
encoding.
The accumulation of life
experiences disrupts the retrieval
of early life events.
Iconic memories last for less than
a second in infants.

A)
B)
C)
D)

90.
A)
B)
C)
D)

91.

Stress hormones provoke


the ________ to initiate a
memory trace in the frontal
lobes and basal ganglia.
amygdala
hippocampus
hypothalamus
cerebellum

After watching a happy


film, patients' happy
emotion persisted even
though they could not

consciously recall the film.


These patients had
suffered damage to the
basal ganglia.
hippocampus.
cerebellum.
amygdala.

A)
B)
C)
D)

92.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Elevated levels of stress hormones


most clearly contribute to developing
source amnesia.
iconic memories.
anterograde amnesia.
flashbulb
memories.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Joshua vividly recalls his


feelings and what he was
doing at the exact moment
when he heard of his
grandfather's unexpected
death. This best illustrates
________ memory.
sensory
implicit
flashbulb
procedural

A)
B)
C)
D)

A flashbulb memory would


typically be stored in
________ memory.
iconic
short-term
echoic
long-term

93.

94.

95.

Research by Kandel and


Schwartz on sea slugs
indicates that memory
formation is associated
with the

structure of DNA
molecules.
release of certain
neurotransmitters.
activity level of the
hippocampus.
development of the
cerebellum.

A)
B)
C)
D)

96.
A)
B)
C)
D)

97.
A)
B)
C)
D)

98.
A)
B)
C)
D)

The increase in synaptic


firing potential that
contributes to memory
formation is known as
chunking.
automatic processing.
long-term potentiation.
the spacing effect.

Long-term potentiation is
believed to be
the elimination of anxietyproducing thoughts from
conscious awareness.
the disruptive effect of
prior learning on recall of
new information.
the process of getting
information out of memory.
a neural basis for learning
and memory.

After long-term
potentiation has occurred
sending neurons release
their neurotransmitters
more easily.
it takes longer to process
new information.
a receiving neuron's
receptor sites are reduced.
you more readily forget

facts that you once knew.

89.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Stress hormones promote


stronger memories by
decreasing the availability of
serotonin.
increasing the availability of
glucose.
decreasing the availability of
epinephrine.
increasing the availability of
propranolol.

A)
B)
C)
D)

By activating the amygdala,


stress hormones facilitate
repression.
source amnesia.
the misinformation effect.
long-term potentiation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Passing an electric current


through the brain during
100.
electroconvulsive therapy is most
likely to disrupt ________ memory.
long-term
procedural
short-term
flashbulb

A)
B)
C)
D)

The neurotransmitter glutamate


101. ________ LTP and the protein
CREB ________ LTP.
disrupts; disrupts
facilitates; facilitates
disrupts; facilitates
facilitates; disrupts

99.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Sea slugs, mice, and fruit flies


have displayed enhanced
102.
learning following enhanced
production of the protein
LTP.
CREB.
GABA.
THC.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which measure of memory


retention assesses the ability to
103.
draw information out of storage
and into conscious awareness?
rehearsal
relearning
recognition
recall

A)
B)
C)
D)

When an eyewitness to an auto


accident is asked to describe
104.
what happened, which measure
of memory is being used?
recognition
rehearsal
recall
relearning

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which test of memory typically


105. provides the fewest retrieval
cues?
recognition
recall
relearning
rehearsal

Which measure of memory is


used on a test that requires
106.
matching glossary terms with
their correct definitions?

A)
B)
C)
D)

recognition
relearning
rehearsal
recall

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which memory test would most


effectively reveal that Mr.
107. Quintano, at age 55, still
remembers many of his high
school classmates?
recall
recognition
rehearsal
reconstruction

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which measure of memory


retention assesses the amount of
108.
time saved when learning
material again?
recognition
retrieval
relearning
recall

A)
B)
C)
D)

Ebbinghaus' use of nonsense


109. syllables to study memory led to
the discovery that
the amount remembered
depends on the time spent
learning.
what is learned in one mood is
most easily retrieved in that
same mood.
information that is automatically
processed is rarely forgotten.
our sensory memory capacity is
essentially unlimited.

110. Words, images, and other bits of


information used to access a

A)
B)
C)
D)

stored memory are called


chunks.
retrieval cues.
acronyms.
peg-word systems.

A)
B)
C)
D)

When 80-year-old Ida looked at


one of her old wedding pictures,
she was flooded with vivid
111. memories of her parents, her
husband, and the early years of
her marriage. The picture served
as a powerful
memory trace.
iconic memory.
spacing effect.
retrieval cue.

A)
B)
C)
D)

112. Memories are primed by


repression.
retrieval cues.
retroactive interference.
source amnesia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Hearing the word rabbit may


lead people to spell the spoken
113. word hair as h-a-r-e. This
best illustrates the outcome of a
process known as
chunking.
retroactive interference.
repression.
priming.

114. After hearing the sound of an


ambulance, you may be
momentarily predisposed to
interpret a friend's brief coughing
spell as a symptom of serious
illness. This best illustrates the

A)
B)
C)
D)

impact of
shallow processing.
the self-reference effect.
priming.
retroactive interference.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Watching a TV soap opera


involving marital conflict and
divorce led Andrea to recall
several instances in which her
115.
husband had mistreated her. The
effect of the TV program on
Andrea's recall provides an
example of
the spacing effect.
repression.
the serial position effect.
priming.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In one experiment, participants


primed with words related to
116. ________ were less likely to help
another person who asked for
their help.
food
money
books
computers

A)
B)
C)
D)

Recall of what you have learned


is often improved when your
117. physical surroundings at the time
of retrieval and encoding are the
same. This best illustrates
echoic memory.
the spacing effect.
context-dependent memory.
the serial position effect.

118. Eye witnesses to a crime often

A)
B)
C)
D)

recall the details of the crime


most accurately when they
return to the scene of the crime.
This best illustrates
the spacing effect.
the peg-word system.
source misattribution.
context-dependent memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After learning that kicking would


move a crib mobile, infants
showed that they recalled this
119.
learning best if they were tested
in the same crib. This best
illustrates
the serial position effect.
context-dependent memory.
the spacing effect.
infantile amnesia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After his last drinking spree,


Fakim hid a half-empty liquor
bottle. He couldn't remember
120.
where he hid it until he started
drinking again. Fakim's pattern of
recall best illustrates
the spacing effect.
proactive interference.
the serial position effect.
state-dependent memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Mood-congruent memory best


illustrates that the emotions we
121.
experienced while learning
something become
implicit memories.
retrieval cues.
iconic memories.
source misattributions.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The recall of sad experiences is


often primed by feelings of
122.
sadness. This most clearly
illustrates
the serial position effect.
retroactive interference.
the misinformation effect.
mood-congruent memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Whenever he feels sexually


jealous, David is flooded with
painful memories of instances
123. when he thought his girlfriend
was flirting with other men.
David's experience best
illustrates
source misattribution.
retroactive interference.
mood-congruent memory.
the misinformation effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

When Tony is in a bad mood, he


interprets his parents' comments
as criticisms. When he's in a
good mood, he interprets the
124. same types of parental
comments as helpful
suggestions. This best illustrates
that our emotional states
influence the process of
source amnesia.
encoding.
repression.
retrieval.

A)
B)

The tendency to recall the first


and last items in a list better
125.
than the middle items is known
as the ________ effect.
serial position
misinformation

C)
D)

retrieval practice
spacing

A)
B)
C)
D)

A full week after Usha hears her


mother read her a list of 12
126. different farm animals, Usha is
most likely to remember the
animals ________ of the list.
at the beginning and end
at the end
at the beginning
in the middle

A)
B)
C)
D)

Shortly after hearing a list of


items, people tend to recall the
127. last items in the list especially
quickly and accurately. This best
illustrates
iconic memory.
the spacing effect.
implicit memory.
a recency effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After hearing a list of items,


peoples' immediate recall of the
128. items is more likely to show a
_____ effect than is their later
recall of the items.
spacing
recency
misinformation
self-reference

A)
B)
C)
D)

An inability to retrieve
129. information learned in the past is
called
shallow processing.
anterograde amnesia.
proactive interference.
retrograde amnesia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After having brain surgery to stop


severe seizures, Henry Molaison
could recall events he
experienced prior to the surgery
130.
but was unable to form new
conscious memories. Molaison's
memory difficulty most clearly
illustrates
retrograde amnesia.
proactive interference.
anterograde amnesia.
retroactive interference.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Following brain injury from a


brutal knife attack, Mike is
unable to consciously recall or
recognize what a knife is. But he
131. still shows a conditioned fear
response to the sight of a knife.
His conditioned reaction best
indicates that he retains a(n)
_____ memory.
echoic
flashbulb
working
implicit

A)
B)
C)
D)

The ability of some Alzheimer's


patients to learn how to do
something despite the fact that
132. they have no conscious recall of
learning their new skill best
illustrates the need to distinguish
between
proactive interference and
retroactive interference.
iconic memory and echoic
memory.
infantile amnesia and source
amnesia.
explicit memory and implicit

memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The inability to recall which


numbers on a dial are not
133.
accompanied by letters is most
likely due to
encoding failure.
the spacing effect.
retroactive interference.
source amnesia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Our inability to remember


information presented in the
134.
seconds just before we fall
asleep is most likely due to
motivated forgetting.
the misinformation effect.
retroactive interference.
encoding failure.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The inability to remember how


the side with Lincoln's head
135.
appears on a penny is most likely
due to a failure in
encoding.
storage.
retrieval.
implicit memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The famous Ebbinghaus


forgetting curve indicates that
136.
how well we remember
information depends on
how long ago we learned that
information.
the nature of our mood during
encoding and retrieval.
whether the information is part of
our implicit or explicit memory.
whether the information was

semantically processed.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Ebbinghaus discovered that the


137. rate at which we forget newly
learned information is initially
slow and subsequently stays
slow.
slow and subsequently speeds
up.
rapid and subsequently stays
rapid.
rapid and subsequently slows
down.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A loss of an encoded memory as


a result of a gradual fading of the
138.
physical memory trace best
illustrates
repression.
interference.
storage decay.
the misinformation effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Judy is embarrassed because she


momentarily fails to remember a
139. good friend's name. Judy's poor
memory most likely results from
a failure in
storage.
encoding.
rehearsal.
retrieval.

A)

The title of a song is on the tip of


Gerard's tongue, but he cannot
recall it until someone mentions
140.
the songwriter's name. Gerard's
initial inability to recall the title
was most likely caused by
encoding failure.

B)
C)
D)

automatic processing.
retrieval failure.
repression.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The occasional tip-of-the-tongue


forgetting experienced by older
141. adults can be best explained in
terms of the greater difficulty
older people have with
automatic processing.
iconic memory.
state-dependent memory.
retrieval.

A)
B)
C)
D)

An experiment demonstrated
that people who were better at
forgetting irrelevant word pairs
142. were good at remembering
relevant word pairs. Their
forgetting was adaptive because
it reduced
interference.
implicit memory.
the spacing effect.
semantic processing.

143.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Proactive interference refers to


the
blocking of painful memories
from conscious awareness.
incorporation of misleading
information into one's memory of
an event.
disruptive effect of new learning
on the recall of previously
learned information.
disruptive effect of prior learning
on the recall of new information.

144. Arnold so easily remembers his

A)
B)
C)
D)

old girlfriend's phone number


that he finds it difficult to recall
his new girlfriend's number.
Arnold's difficulty best illustrates
retroactive interference.
retrograde amnesia.
source amnesia.
proactive interference.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The disruptive effect of new


learning on the recall of
145.
previously learned information is
called
repression.
source amnesia.
retroactive interference.
anterograde amnesia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After learning the combination


for his new locker at school,
Milton is unable to remember the
146.
combination for his year-old
bicycle lock. Milton is
experiencing the effects of
source amnesia.
retroactive interference.
proactive interference.
automatic processing.

147.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Retroactive interference involves


the disruption of
automatic processing.
iconic memory.
memory retrieval.
semantic processing.

148. The finding that people who


sleep after learning a list of
nonsense syllables forget less
than people who stay awake

A)
B)
C)
D)

provides evidence that forgetting


may involve
encoding failure.
repression.
implicit memory loss.
interference.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Previously learned information


often facilitates our learning of
149.
new information. This
phenomenon is called
overlearning.
positive transfer.
long-term potentiation.
the serial position effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Memory of your familiar old email password may block the


150.
recall of your new password. This
illustrates
source amnesia.
retroactive interference.
the serial position effect.
proactive interference.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Compulsive gamblers frequently


recall losing less money than is
151.
actually the case. Their memory
failure best illustrates
source amnesia.
the serial position effect.
motivated forgetting.
the spacing effect.

A)

Researchers observed that


people exposed to very
152. convincing arguments about the
value of frequent toothbrushing
tended to
quickly forget the arguments if

B)
C)
D)

they were in the habit of


brushing frequently.
quickly forget the arguments if
they were not in the habit of
brushing frequently.
exaggerate how frequently they
had brushed their teeth in the
past.
exaggerate how infrequently
they had brushed their teeth in
the past.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A type of motivated forgetting in


which anxiety-arousing memories
153.
are blocked from conscious
awareness is known as
retroactive interference.
proactive interference.
repression.
priming.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Sigmund Freud emphasized that


the forgetting of painful
154.
experiences is caused by a
process that involves
retroactive interference.
memory decay.
retrieval failure.
long-term potentiation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Among contemporary memory


researchers, increasing numbers
155.
think that ______ rarely, if ever,
occurs.
long-term potentiation
automatic processing
source amnesia
repression

156. Research on memory

A)
B)
C)
D)

construction indicates that


memories of past experiences
are likely to be
difficult to retrieve but never
completely lost.
distorted by our current
expectations.
much more vivid if they are
seldom rehearsed.
retrieved in the very same form
and detail as they were originally
encoded.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Our assumptions about the past


often influence the manner in
which information is retrieved
157.
from long-term memory. This fact
is most relevant to appreciating
the importance of
long-term potentiation.
automatic processing.
memory construction.
the spacing effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Memory reconsolidation involves


158. the modification of stored
memories during the process of
dj vu.
repression.
retrieval.
source amnesia.

A)

In the study led by Elizabeth


Loftus, two groups of observers
were asked how fast two cars
had been going in a filmed traffic
159.
accident. Observers who heard
the vividly descriptive word
smashed in relation to the
accident later recalled
broken glass at the scene of the

accident.
that the drivers of the vehicles
were intoxicated.
that the drivers of the vehicles
were males.
the details of the accident with
vivid accuracy.

B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Many of the experimental


participants who were asked how
fast two cars in a filmed traffic
accident were going when they
160. smashed into each other
subsequently recalled seeing
broken glass at the scene of the
accident. This experiment best
illustrated
proactive interference.
the self-reference effect.
the spacing effect.
the misinformation effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After reading a newspaper report


suggesting that drunken driving
might have contributed to a
recent auto accident, several
people who actually witnessed
161.
the accident began to remember
the driver involved as traveling
more recklessly than was
actually the case. This provides
an example of
proactive interference.
state-dependent memory.
automatic processing.
the misinformation effect.

162.
A)
B)

The misinformation effect best


illustrates the dynamics of
memory construction.
repression.

C)
D)

proactive interference.
mood-congruent memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Visualizing an object and actually


seeing that object activate
163.
similar brain areas. This most
clearly contributes to
the serial position effect.
proactive interference.
imagination inflation.
mood-congruent memory.

164.
A)

B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Research on memory
construction indicates that
recent events are more
vulnerable to memory distortion
than events from our more
distant past.
false memories of imagined
events are often recalled as
something that really happened.
hypnotic suggestion is a
particularly effective technique
for accurate memory retrieval.
it is very difficult to lead people
to construct memories of events
that never happened.

Faulty memory for how, when, or


165. where information was learned is
called
source amnesia.
the misinformation effect.
repression.
dj vu.

166. The psychologist Jean Piaget


constructed a vivid, detailed
memory of a nursemaid's
thwarting his kidnapping after

A)
B)
C)
D)

hearing false reports of such an


event. His experience best
illustrates
implicit memory.
proactive interference.
source amnesia.
mood-congruent memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After attending group therapy


sessions for adult survivors of
childhood sexual abuse, Karen
mistakenly remembered details
167.
from others' traumatic life stories
as part of her own life history.
This best illustrates the dangers
of
proactive interference.
mood-congruent memory.
implicit memory.
source amnesia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

As a child, Andre dreamed that


he was chased and attacked by a
ferocious dog. Many years later,
168. he mistakenly recalled that this
had actually happened to him.
Andre's false recollection best
illustrates
mood-congruent memory.
proactive interference.
implicit memory.
source amnesia.

A)
B)
C)

169. Dj vu refers to the


emotional arousal produced by
events that prime us to recall
associated events.
tendency to remember
experiences that are consistent
with our current mood.
unconscious activation of

particular associations in
memory.
eerie sense of having previously
experienced a situation or event.

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

170. Source amnesia helps to explain


dj vu.
sensory memory.
the self-reference effect.
flashbulb memory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Experimental participants viewed


symbols on a computer screen
without knowing that these
171. symbols had earlier been
subliminally flashed on the
screen. Half the participants
reported experiencing
the misinformation effect.
anterograde amnesia.
dj vu.
the spacing effect.

172.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Research on memory
construction indicates that
recent events are more
vulnerable to memory distortion
than events from our more
distant past.
false memories often feel as real
as true memories.
hypnotic suggestion is a
particularly effective technique
for accurate memory retrieval.
it is very difficult to lead people
to construct memories of events
that never happened.

173. Dating partners who fall in love


tend to ________ how much they

A)
B)
C)
D)

liked each other when they first


met. Dating partners who breakup tend to ________ how much
they liked each other when they
first met.
underestimate; underestimate
overestimate; overestimate
underestimate; overestimate
overestimate; underestimate

A)
B)
C)
D)

Karl and Dee had a joyful


wedding ceremony. After their
painful divorce, however, they
began to remember the wedding
174.
as a somewhat hectic and
unpleasant event. Their
recollections best illustrate the
nature of
proactive interference.
memory construction.
the spacing effect.
the serial position effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

When asked how they felt 10


years ago regarding marijuana
issues, people recalled attitudes
175. closer to their current views than
to those they actually reported a
decade earlier. This best
illustrates
memory construction.
proactive interference.
the spacing effect.
mood-congruent memory.

A)
B)

Which of the following poses the


greatest threat to the credibility
176.
of children's recollections of
sexual abuse?
the serial position effect
the spacing effect

C)
D)

A)

B)

C)

D)

A)
B)

C)
D)

the misinformation effect


long-term potentiation

When children are interviewed


about their recollections of
177.
possible sexual abuse, their
reports are especially credible if
they are asked specific, detailed
questions about the issue rather
than more general, open-ended
questions.
after responding to an
interviewer, they are repeatedly
asked the same question they
just answered.
they use anatomically correct
dolls to indicate if and where
they had been physically
touched.
involved adults have not
discussed the issue with them
prior to the interview.

Research on young children's


178. false eyewitness recollections
has indicated that
children are less susceptible to
source amnesia than adults.
children are no more susceptible
to the misinformation effect than
adults.
it is surprisingly difficult for both
children and professional
interviewers to reliably separate
the children's true memories
from false memories.
all of these statements are true.

179. Incest survivors who lack


conscious memories of their
sexual abuse may be told they
are repressing the memory. This

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)

explanation for their lack of


abuse memories emphasizes
implicit memory.
encoding failure.
the spacing effect.
retrieval failure.

Which of the following


techniques used by professional
180. therapists is(are) likely to
promote false memories in
patients?
hypnosis
guided imagery
dream analysis
all of these techniques

To help resolve the controversy


over reports of repressed
memories of sexual abuse, the
181.
major psychological and
psychiatric associations suggest
that
all our experiences are preserved
somewhere in our minds.
the more stressful an experience
is, the more quickly it will be
consciously forgotten.
repression is the most common
mechanism underlying the failure
to recall early childhood abuse.
adult memories of experiences
happening before age 3 are
unreliable.

Research reports of repression


182. and recovered memories indicate
that
people rarely recall memories of
long-forgotten events.
most extremely traumatic life

C)

D)

experiences are never encoded


in long-term memory.
only those memories recovered
with the help of a professional
psychotherapist are likely to be
reliable.
extremely stressful life
experiences are especially likely
to be well remembered.

A)
B)
C)
D)

By consciously rehearsing facts


you need to learn in many
separate study sessions
183.
occurring throughout the
semester, you are most clearly
taking advantage of
procedural memory.
the peg-word system.
the spacing effect.
automatic processing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Forming many associations


between new course material
184. and what you already know is an
effective way to build a network
of
retrieval cues.
sensory memories.
state-dependent memories.
serial position effects.

A)
B)
C)
D)

People should avoid back-to-back


study times for learning Spanish
185.
and French vocabulary in order to
minimize
the self-reference effect.
long-term potentiation.
mood-congruent memory.
interference.

Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

D
C
D
C
C
C
C
B
A
C
B
D
D
C
B
B
C
B
A
C
C
D
C
B
D
B
B
D
A
D
B
C
C
C
A
A
D
D
A
A
A

42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.

D
D
B
B
A
D
A
C
B
C
B
B
A
D
D
A
B
C
B
C
C
D
C
D
B
D
C
B
C
D
C
B
D
D
C
B
D
C
B
D
B
C
D

85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.

A
D
C
A
B
A
B
D
C
D
B
C
D
A
D
C
B
B
D
C
B
A
B
C
A
B
D
B
D
C
D
B
C
D
B
D
B
D
C
B
A
C
D

128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
161.
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.

B
D
C
D
D
A
D
A
A
D
C
D
C
D
A
D
D
C
B
C
D
B
B
C
C
C
C
D
B
C
C
A
D
D
A
C
B
A
C
D
D
D
A

171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.
181.
182.
183.
184.
185.

C
B
D
B
A
C
D
C
D
D
D
D
C
A
D