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A)

B)
C)
D)

1.Motivation is best understood as a state that


reduces a drive.
aims at satisfying a biological need.
energizes an organism to act.
energizes and directs behavior.

A)
B)
C)
D)

2.Which of the following is a difference between a drive and a need?


Needs are learned; drives are inherited.
Needs are physiological states; drives are psychological states.
Drives are generally stronger than needs.
Needs are generally stronger than drives.

B)
C)
D)

3.One problem with the idea of motivation as drive reduction is that


because some motivated behaviors do not seem to be based on physiological needs,
they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction.
it fails to explain any human motivation.
it cannot account for homeostasis.
it does not explain the hunger drive.

A)
B)
C)
D)

4.Some scientific evidence makes a preliminary link between homosexuality and


late sexual maturation.
the age of an individual's first erotic experience.
atypical prenatal hormones.
early problems in relationships with parents.

A)
B)
C)
D)

5.Increases in insulin will


lower blood sugar and trigger hunger.
raise blood sugar and trigger hunger.
lower blood sugar and trigger satiety.
raise blood sugar and trigger satiety.

A)
B)
C)
D)

6.One shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation is that it


places too much emphasis on environmental factors.
focuses on cognitive aspects of motivation.
applies only to animal behavior.
does not explain human behaviors; it simply names them.

A)
B)
C)
D)

7.The text suggests that a neophobia for unfamiliar tastes


is more common in children than in adults.
protected our ancestors from potentially toxic substances.
may be an early warning sign of obesity.
only grows stronger with repeated exposure to those tastes.

A)

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A)
B)
C)
D)

8.The brain area known as the arcuate nucleus is notable in the study of motivation because
it
secretes hormones that affect appetite.
secretes hormones that affect the sex drive.
is enlarged in heterosexuals.
is enlarged in homosexuals.

A)
B)
C)
D)

9.Instinct theory and drive-reduction theory both emphasize ________ factors in


motivation.
environmental
cognitive
psychological
biological

A)
B)
C)
D)

10.The correct order of the stages of Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle is
plateau; excitement; orgasm; resolution.
excitement; plateau; orgasm; resolution.
excitement; orgasm; resolution; refractory.
plateau; excitement; orgasm; refractory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

11.Few human behaviors are rigidly patterned enough to qualify as


needs.
drives.
instincts.
incentives.

A)
B)
C)
D)

12.Which of the following is NOT true regarding sexual orientation?


Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed.
Some homosexuals struggle with their sexual orientation.
Men's sexual orientation is potentially more fluid and changeable than women's.
Women, regardless of sexual orientation, respond to both female and male erotic
stimuli.

A)
B)
C)
D)

13.In their study of men on a semistarvation diet, researchers found that


the metabolic rate of the men increased.
the men eventually lost interest in food.
the men became obsessed with food.
the men's behavior directly contradicted predictions made by Maslow's hierarchy of
needs.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

14.When asked what makes life meaningful, most people first mention
good health.
challenging work.
satisfying relationships.
serving others.

A)
B)
C)
D)

15.Castration of male rats results in


reduced testosterone and sexual interest.
reduced testosterone, but no change in sexual interest.
reduced estradiol and sexual interest.
reduced estradiol, but no change in sexual interest.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

16.Research on genetic influences on obesity reveals that


the body weights of adoptees correlate with that of their biological parents.
the body weights of adoptees correlate with that of their adoptive parents.
identical twins usually have very different body weights.
the body weights of identical twin women are more similar than those of identical
twin men.
17.It has been said that the body's major sex organ is the brain. With regard to sex education
transmission of value-free information about the wide range of sexual behaviors
should be the primary focus of the educator.
transmission of technical knowledge about the biological act should be the
classroom focus, free from the personal values and attitudes of researchers, teachers,
and students.
the home, not the school, should be the focus of all instruction about reproductive
behavior.
people's attitudes, values, and morals cannot be separated from the biological
aspects of sexuality.

A)
B)
C)
D)

18.Research on obesity indicates that


pound for pound, fat tissue requires more calories to maintain than lean tissue.
given an obese parent, boys are more likely than girls to be obese.
one pound of weight is lost for every 3500-calorie reduction in diet.
when weight drops below the set point, hunger increases.

A)
B)

19.The best predictor of on-the-job performance for all but less-skilled jobs is
age.
general mental ability.

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C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

motivation.
stated intentions.
20.To increase employee productivity, industrial-organizational psychologists advise
managers to
adopt a directive leadership style.
adopt a democratic leadership style.
instill competitiveness in each employee.
deal with employees according to their individual motives.

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Answer Key
1.D
2.B
3.A
4.C
5.A
6.D
7.B
8.A
9.D
10.B
11.C
12.C
13.C
14.C
15.A
16.A
17.D
18.D
19.B
20.D

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