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A)

B)
C)
D)

1.Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version of
unconditional positive regard.
the spotlight effect.
unconscious wishes.
self-serving bias.

A)
B)
C)
D)

2.Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from
friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these
people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a(n)
inferiority complex.
external locus of control.
weak superego.
oral fixation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

3.According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated


with
an oral fixation.
free association.
the spotlight effect.
the Oedipus complex.

A)
B)
C)
D)

4.Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so
she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's
reaction to her children illustrates
identification.
reaction formation.
displacement.
projection.

A)
B)
C)
D)

5.Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly
challenge Freud's concept of
erogenous zones.
reaction formation.
displacement.
repression.

A)
B)
C)
D)

6.According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers
to the motive for
reciprocal determinism.
the reality principle.
self-transcendence.
unconditional positive regard.
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A)
B)
C)
D)

7.Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality


development?
Gordon Allport
Albert Bandura
Carl Rogers
Alfred Adler

A)
B)
C)
D)

8.The MMPI was originally developed to identify


a hierarchy of needs.
psychosexual stages.
unconditional positive regard.
emotional disorders.

A)
B)
C)
D)

9.Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that are consistent
with a set of factors called
defense mechanisms.
psychosexual stages.
the hierarchy of needs.
the Big Five.

A)
B)
C)
D)

10.The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of


unconditional positive regard.
an internal locus of control.
factor analysis.
trait theories.

A)
B)
C)
D)

11.We can better predict drivers' behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the
lights than from knowing the drivers' personalities. This best illustrates the importance of
collectivism.
the spotlight effect.
self-transcendence.
situational influences.

A)
B)
C)
D)

12.The social-cognitive perspective highlights the interaction of personal traits with our
environment, a process that Albert Bandura called
free association.
self-actualization.
reciprocal determinism.
reaction formation.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

13.After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her
husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering.
Her reaction best illustrates
the spotlight effect.
an Electra complex.
learned helplessness.
defensive self-esteem.

A)
B)
C)
D)

14.Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop
drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates
the Barnum effect.
the spotlight effect.
the false consensus effect.
unrealistic optimism.

A)
B)
C)
D)

15.Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best
illustrate
unconditional positive regard.
reciprocal determinism.
the spotlight effect.
self-serving bias.

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Answer Key
1.C
2.C
3.D
4.C
5.D
6.C
7.C
8.D
9.D
10.D
11.D
12.C
13.C
14.D
15.D

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