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(Turbulence Modeling)

By:

Dr. Alam Nawaz Khan Wardag

Department of Chemical Engineering (DCHE)

Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS),

Islamabad.

Tel: +92-51-1111 74327, 1111 PIEAS

Fax: +92-51-9248600

Email: alam@pieas.edu.pk

Definition of CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the simulation of fluids

engineering systems using

modeling (mathematical physical problem formulation) and

numerical methods (discretization methods, solvers, numerical

parameters, and grid generations, etc.).

Geometry

Choice of

Physical

Models

Mesh

generation

Solving

Postprocessing

Select

geometry

Turbulence

models

Structured/

unstructured

Numerical

schemes

Result

reporting

Select

domain

Flow

properties

Mesh size

Convergence

criteria

Verification &

Validation

Boundary

conditions

Initial

conditions

Importance of CFD

Cost

Simulation (CFD)

Cheap

Experiment

Expensive

Time

Scale

Information

Repeatable

Safety

Short

Any

All

Yes

Yes

Long

Small/Medium

Selected points

Some

Some danger

Objective

To provide an overview of turbulence and its modeling

Mainly cover

What is turbulence?

Types of turbulent flows

How turbulence is generated

Length and time scales in turbulent flow

Prediction methods

Turbulence models

Selecting turbulence model for your application

Motivation

For the Study of Turbulent Flows

An important characteristic of turbulence is its ability to transport and mix fluid

The vast majority of flows is turbulent.

The transport and mixing of matter, momentum, and heat in flows is of great

practical importance.

And Turbulence greatly enhances the rates of these processes.

Motion of clouds

Characteristics of Turbulence

Turbulence is very difficult to define.

Turbulent flows are diffusive.

Turbulent flows are rotational.

Turbulent flows occur at high Reynolds numbers.

Turbulent flows are dissipative.

Turbulence is a continuum phenomenon.

Turbulence is a feature of fluid flows, and not of fluids.

Turbulent flows are non-local.

8

In laminar flow

viscous stresses.

In turbulent flow

A net transfer of momentum occurs because of the mixing of fluid elements from layers

with different mean velocity.

This mixing is a far more effective means of transferring momentum than viscous

stresses.

Consequently, the mean velocity profile tends to be more uniform in turbulent flow.

10

Two types of turbulent flows:

1) Wall bounded turbulent flows

a) Turbulent boundary layer flows

b) Fully developed flows

2) Free Shear Flows

a) Jet

b) Mixing Layer

c) Wake

11

1. Jet

2. Mixing Layer

3. Wake

Introduction to Transition

13

Unsteady

Convection

Production

Diffusion

Dissipation

14

Turbulent flows are characterized by an infinite

number of time and length scales.

Turbulence can be considered to be composed of

eddies of different sizes

These sizes range from the flow length scale L to

the smallest eddies.

Each eddy of length size l has a characteristic

velocity u(l) and timescale t(l)=u(l)/l

The largest eddies have length scales comparable

to L

15

Each eddy has a Reynolds number

For large eddies, Re is large, i.e. viscous effects are negligible.

The idea is that the large eddies are unstable and break up

transferring energy to the smaller eddies.

The smaller eddies undergo the same process and so on

This energy cascade continues until the Reynolds number is

sufficiently small that energy is dissipated by viscous effects.

16

Kolmogorov Scales

The scales of turbulence can be easily established for smallest

eddies if one uses Kolmogorov universal equilibrium theorem

which states:

Rate of transfer of energy from larger eddies to

smaller eddies is approximately equal to the dissipation

of energy to heat by the smallest eddies

flow, the scale at which the energy is dissipated.

17

Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)

Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Equations (RANS)

Large Eddy Simulation (LES)

Hybrid Method.

18

In DNS, all the length and time scales are resolved.

DNS is highly informative regarding the physics of fluid flow

increases with the Reynolds number

The grid should be as fine as possible

For 2D flows, the number of nodes is proportional to Re(3/4)

For a general 3D flow, the total number of nodes is proportional to Re(9/4)

19

Mathematically the instantaneous flow quantity can be written as

Where

In order to carry out mathematical details, the following averaging

rules are applied:

The continuity equation for 2D flow is

The velocity and density components are replaced by sum of mean and fluctuating

components of velocity and density respectively as:

Once this equation is expanded, it is time averaged according to the rules defined

earlier to provide

The x component of the momentum equation is

The instantaneous values are replaced by time averaged mean and fluctuating

values to provide

The entire equation is time averaged and rearranged as

The energy equation in terms of total energy per unit mass is expressed as

momentum equation and the final result for energy equation is

The above equations can be written in the following form

The governing equations for steady incompressible boundary layer are

It is customary to combine the laminar and turbulent shear stress terms in above

momentum equation as

In order to express turbulent shear in similar form Boussinesq approximation is

used, thus one writes

turbulent heat fluxes

Prandtl Mixing length

Similarly

written

Turbulence Models

A turbulence model is a computational procedure to close the system of mean

flow equations.

We only need to know how turbulence affected the mean flow.

For a turbulence model to be useful it:

o must have wide applicability;

o be accurate;

o Simple;

o and economical to run.

30

Classical models. Based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations

(time averaged):

1. Zero equation model

2. One equation model

3. Two equation models:

k- style models

standard k- model,

k- RNG model,

Realizable k- model

k- model.

4.Algebraic Stress model

5. Seven equation model: Reynolds stress model.

The number of equations denotes the number of additional PDEs that are being

solved.

31

The underlying assumption in zero equation models is that the local rate of production of turbulence

and the rate of dissipation of turbulence are approximately equal.

Generally most models employ an inner region/outer region formulation to

length.

represent mixing

A commonly used models utilizes an exponential function for inner region, whereas the outer region

is proportional to the boundary layer thickness. Mathematically they are expressed as

A turbulence model which is not written in terms of the boundary layer quantities was introduced by

Baldwin and Lomax. For this the inner region is approximated as

The nondimensional space coordinate

can be written as

or

Finally the turbulent viscosity distribution across the boundary layer is determined

from

Advantages

Mathematically simple

Cheap in terms of computing resources

Well established

Good predictions for thin shear layer,

jets, wakes, mixing layer and B.L

Disadvantages

Completely incapable of

describing flows with separation

and recirculation.

One equation models employ a partial differential equation for velocity scale,

whereas the length scale is specified algebraically.

The velocity scale is typically written in terms of turbulent kinetic energy k defined

as

Economical and Accurate for:

Attached wall bounded flows

Flows with mild separation and

recirculation

Weak for:

Massively separated flows

Free shear flows

A commonly used two equation turbulence model is the k- model.

The standard k- two equation model expressed by the turbulent kinetic energy

equation

Advantages

Can handle complex flowfields which include massive separations.

Excellent performance for many industrially relevant flows.

well established: The most widely validated turbulence model.

Leads to stable calculations that converge relatively easily.

Disadvantages

More expensive to implement than zero and one equation models.

Poor prediction for swirling flows, axisymmetric jets, unconfined flows and fully

developed flows in non-circular ducts.

RNG k- Model:

k- equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical

technique (Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous NavierStokes equations.

Similar in form to the standard k- equations but includes:

Additional term in equation for interaction between turbulence

dissipation and mean shear.

The effect of swirl on turbulence.

Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number.

Differential formula for effective viscosity.

Improved predictions for:

High streamline curvature and strain rate.

Transitional flows.

Wall heat and mass transfer.

But still does not predict the spreading of a round jet correctly.

37

Realizable k- Model:

Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as the standard k- model.

Improved equation for .

Variable C instead of constant.

Improved performance for flows involving:

Planar and round jets (predicts round jet spreading correctly).

Boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients or separation.

Recirculation.

Strong streamline curvature

38

RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by solving additional

transport equations for the six independent Reynolds stresses.

Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of the

momentum equations with a fluctuating property.

Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation.

Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided.

Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled.

RSM is good for accurately predicting complex flows.

Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain rates.

o Cyclone flows

o Rotating flow passages,

o Flows involving separation.

39

Model

Strengths

Weaknesses

SpalartAllmaras

record for mildly complex B.L. type

of flows.

(e.g. combustion, buoyancy).

STD k-

Robust, economical,

reasonably accurate; long

accumulated performance

data.

severe pressure gradients, strong streamline

curvature, swirl and rotation. Predicts that

round jets spread 15% faster than planar jets

whereas in actuality they spread 15% slower.

RNG k-

behavior like jet impingement,

separating flows, swirling

flows, and secondary flows.

viscosity assumption. Same problem with

round jets as standard k-.

Realizable

k-

RNG but also resolves the round-jet.

viscosity assumption

Reynolds

Stress

Model

model (history, transport, and

anisotropy of turbulent

stresses are all accounted for).

coupled momentum and turbulence

equations

40

All the effort in a DNS is directed towards the resolution of small scales.

As 99% of the energy is contained outside the dissipation range (the smallest scales).

Therefore, one thinks of modelling these small scales that have a universal character

while fully resolving the larger scales: This is Large Eddy Simulation.

In LES, large (Grid) Scales (GS) are resolved and the small (Sub-Grid) Scales (SGS) are

modelled.

Subgrid model for the SGS turbulent scales

A filter is introduced that would act as an automation technique that tells the

equations what to fully resolve and what to model.

41

42

Example

Consider a two dimensional CFD case of the flow between two parallel plates to

demonstrate the laminar and turbulent nature of the fluid flow. Using CFD observe the

velocity and viscosity profiles in the fully developed region with a working fluid taken

as air for inlet velocities of 0.02m/s and 1m/s.

Contd..(Example)

Velocity profile

Viscosity profile

Turbulent K. E profile

Simulation of turbulent flows require decision based on

Flow physics

to characterize the flow features (turbulence, high gradients, etc.)

Accuracy requirement

to evaluate the grids resolution required for a certain accuracy

Resources requirement

to evaluate the need for sophisticated turbulence models

45

Modeling procedure:

Determine relevant Reynolds number to estimate if the flow is

turbulent

Select a turbulence model option and a near-wall treatment

Estimate the physical dimension of the first grid point off the wall

(y+)

Generate the grid

Select a suitable numerical scheme

Perform the simulation

Reality check (experiments, literature, model consistency, grid

resolution)

46

Some of the recommendations:

Identify flow features present in the problem under consideration.

E.g. Free shear layers, separated flows etc.

features.

In case of no idea, use SA model for external flows otherwise K-epsilon

model is better choice.

Apart from turbulence model, solution accuracy is also dependent on

quality of grid/mesh.

47

Contd..

Effect of Turbulence Models on Flow over an Airfoil

48

Contd..

49

Concluding Remarks

Major worry about turbulence modeling is that one cannot

estimate the errors of computer results

There is no better way to calculate turbulent flows unless we deal with very

low Re and simple geometries.

This may change in future with improvements in computer technology

Expensive and slow process

Has its own limitation

errors

Compare information from various sources i.e. experimental,

numerical, theoretical and industrial

50

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