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GENERAL MARITIME ENGLISH

SEMESTER II

A WORKBOOK
BY
NANCY LUMBAN BATU, M.Hum
LAILA PUSPITASARI, M.Pd
SARI KUSUMANINGRUM, M.Hum
ERNIS, M.Pd
Assisted by Hans Heijkoop
STIP JAKARTA
2016

UNIT 1
Compare vessel details; deal with health and safety on board
Grammar: comparative and superlative adjectives; infinitive of purpose; for +
-ing
Vocabulary: nouns and adjectives relating to vessel specifications; diseases and
injuries; parts of human body
Reading and writing: comparing vessel details; health and safety on board
Read the passage!
Panamax & New Panamax
A Panamax would not exceed the dimensional limit of 294,13 m in length, 32,31
m in width and 12,04 m draught in order to easily and safely fit to the lock chambers
and the height of the Bridge of Americas at Balboa.
The authority has initiated the construction of the third lane in order to
accommodate larger ships called New Panamax.
With this the Panama Canal will be equipped to handle large-sized New
Panamax vessels
with
a
cargo
capacity
of
up
to
13,000
TEU.
Currently, Panamax vessels have a cargo capacity of up to 5,000 TEU only.
New Panamax ships will have dimension of 366 m in length, 49 m t in width and
15.2 m in depth.
Based on your reading, fill in the missing information in the chart below
Panamax vs. New Panamax
Panamax

New Panamax

Length
Width
Draught
TEU*
*

Twenty Equivalent Unit

Containers of 20 feet (+/- 6 m)

COMPARING ADJECTIVES

Compare the height of the people in the picture:

John is tall.
Susan is taller than John.
Mum is the tallest.

TALLER is used for comparing TWO


TALLEST is used when comparing MORE THAN TWO
In the examples above ER and EST have been added to the word TALL to show the
comparative height of each boy.
There are many adjectives where ER and EST can be added without any change in spelling:
Cold colder coldest
Clean cleaner cleanest
BUT! Look out for these spelling changes:
Drop the e at the end of:
Nice nicer nicest
Fine finer finest
Change the y to i of:
Lazy lazier laziest
Shady shadier - shadiest

Double the last letter of:


Thin thinner thinnest
Slim slimmer slimmest
3

REMEMBER! Some words cannot be changed at all so you must add MORE when comparing two
and MOST when comparing more than two:
E.g.

Beautiful more beautiful most beautiful


Intelligent more intelligent most intelligent

You must learn these exceptions:


GOOD BETTER BEST
BAD WORSE WORST
Exercise 1

Write down 4 differences of the two vessels using the comparatives of


suitable adjectives.
1
2
3
4
Exercise 2

Write down 4 differences of the two vessels using the comparatives of


suitable adjectives.
1
2
3
4
PREVENTING LOSSES ON BOARD
Watch the video and answer the following questions.
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1. How many losses did you see in the video?


2. Describe 5 different types of losses you saw in the video.
3. How to limit the risk of accident according to the video?

1. Explain why this rating is careless.

2. Tell what the officer will say to the rating

3. Explain in your own words what happened.

4. Tell what is reported to the designated office

UNIT 2

Describe visitors on board; describe seafarer training and education


Grammar: two uses of like
Vocabulary: adjectives describing physical appearance and personality; articles
of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and types of clothing; words and phrases
for seafarer training and education
Reading and writing: describing seafarer training and education and history in
brief
2.1 Describing People
There are many ways to describe a person. One common way to describe somebody is
based on appearance. Among other things, you can describe their build, their height,
their hairstyle, their health, and their complexion.
Build

Appearance: What does he/she/look like?

He/she is . . .

skinn
y

thin
slim
slender

average
build

fat
overweight
chubby

stocky

obese

Height
He/she is . . .

short

average
height

tall
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Health
He/she is . . .

in (good) shape
(physically) fit

out of shape

well-built

General
Looks
He/she is . . .

hot
sexy

good looking
handsome
pretty
beautiful
attractive

plain

ugly
unattractive
funny looking

Hairstyle

He/she has . . .

He is . . .
Complexion:
He/she has . . .

blond hair
brown hair
red hair
black hair
gray hair
dyed hair

straight hair
wavy hair
curly hair

long hair
shoulder-length hair
short hair
a shaved head
long eyelashes
bushy eyebrows

a ponytail
pigtails
bangs
her hair in a bun
a beard
a mustache
sideburns

bald
dark skin
light skin
a pale complexion
a rosy complexion

pimples/zits
a wart
a scar
a mole/ a beauty mark

Other:
He has a tattoo.
She has a pierced ear/nose/lip/tongue.

oily skin
dry skin
freckles
wrinkles

He has braces.
He wears glasses/contacts.

EXERCISE 1
What does the Chief Officer look like?

EXERCISE 2
Do the sentences use he isor he has.?
Tick (v) the correct phrase.
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He is

He has..

1. ..

straight hair.

2. ..

fair.

3. ..

thin.

4. ..

grey hair.

5. ..

medium height.

6. ..

a beard.

7. ..

short.

8. ..

curly, blond hair.

9. ..

a moustache.

10...

medium build.

Personality: What is he/she/look like?

EXERCISE 1
Match the adjectives with the pictures.
messy / lazy / clumsy / shy / cheerful / grumpy / absent-minded / loud/rude
/hardworking / touchy / selfish/ talkative / friendly /easy-going / quiet

EXERCISE 2
Listen to the audio.
Are the sentences True (T) or False (F)?
1. Mr. Antonides wants to speak with the Chief Officer.
2. The 2nd Officer takes him to the bridge.
3. Mr. Antonides speaks to the Captain.
4. The Captain is tall and has dark hair.
5. Mr. Antonides wants a look around the ship.
EXERCISE 3
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)
Read the passage about PPE on the slides , and answer the questions below.
1. What is PPE?
2. Who are responsible for the proper usage of PPE at the workplace?
3. Why is it important to ensure the proper usage of PPE?
4. Employers must detect workplace hazards and make efforts to mitigate them.
What is the meaning of the underlined word?
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5. What are some of the PPE you find on the slide?

EXERCISE4: Reading
History:

Trade by the wind

The development of ships went hand in hand with the development of the mankind.
Ships became integral parts of people's daily life, and war. Ships were the key drivers
for explorations and scientific and technological development in the history. Today, we
can say that the usage of ships enabled the world trade and had shaped the world's
economy.
A boat type named The Chinese Junk was developed in 12th century. Chinese ships
sailed in the South China seas. The Chinese strengthened the hull by a bulkhead a
partition across the interior of the hull but sometimes along its length as well. These
bullheads made the hull rigid and also provided with watertight compartments
invaluable when a leak at the sea needed to be repaired.
As a result of the growing demand for a more rapid delivery of tea from China. Clippers
were very fast sailing ships with three or more masts and a square rig. The decline in
the usage of clippers started with the gradual introduction of steamships. Although
clippers could reach much higher maximum speed than steamships, they depended on
the wind and thus could not be accounted as punctual.
As for steamers, they could keep the schedule and this made the more reliable.
Trade by the engine
The industrial revolution, new mechanical methods of propulsion, and the ability to
construct ships from metal triggered an explosion in ship design. The quest for more
efficient ships and the increased capacity of Maritime Industry created more
specialised ships. Specialised ships built for entirely new functions, such as firefighting,
rescue, and research, also began to appear.
1. Explain the meaning of the phrases below!
a. integral parts of people's daily life:
b. key drivers for explorations:
c. scientific and technological development :
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2. Explain 2 reasons why the bulkhead was very important.


3. Mention 2 important differences between ocean-going merchant ships and clippers.
4. Mention 2 important differences between clippers and steamships in 1850.
5. Explain the meaning of triggered an explosion in ship design.
6. Give 3 examples of specialised ships.

UNIT 3
Describe weather conditions; understand weather forecasts
Grammar: it; going to
Vocabulary: months and seasons; adjectives describing weather conditions;
compass references; lights, buoys, shapes and fog signals; SMCP for briefing on
weather information; SMCP message markers (information and warnings)
Reading and writing: reporting weather conditions

Be Going to or Will ?
Be Going To
Uses
plans and intentions
e.g. Im going to visit my aunt next
Friday

when you can see what's going to


happen
e.g. When the boss sees this, she is
going to go crazy

Will
Uses
immediate decisions
e.g. Ill have the salad and the fish

Predictions
e.g. People will work more from home in
the future

The Forms:

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Affirmative Form

Subject + (am / is / are) + going to + verb + complement


e.g. She is going to sell her house.

Negative Form

Subject + (am not / isn't / aren't) + going to + verb +


complement
e.g. She is not going to sell her house.

Question Form

(Am / is / are) + Subject + going to + verb + complement?


e.g. Is she going to sell her house?

Negative
Question Form

(Am not / isn't / aren't) + Subject + going to + verb +


complement?
e.g. Isn't she going to sell her house?

Time Expressions Used

tomorrow

next week

later

soon

in a few minutes

in three days

EXERCISE 1
Fill in the verbs in the future (going to).

tomorrow night
next month
next year
when he returns
next July
at 5 o'clock

1. Mr Potts (sell) ________________________________________ his house.


2. Our neighbours (spend) ______________________their next holidays in the
Caribbean.
3. I (move) ______________________________ to another town.
4. My husband (build) __________________________________ a tree house for the kids.
5. His friends (learn) _________________________________________ English.

Fill in the verbs in the future (going to).

1. I (tell/not) _____________________________________________ you the secret.


2. She (ring/not) __________________________________________ me.
3. We (invite/not) ______________________________________ him to our party.
4. Greg (work/not) ___________________________________________ abroad.
5. Her parents (lend/not) ____________________________________ her any more money.

Write questions in the future (going to).

1. (you/help/me) ? _________________________________________________________
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2. (she/study/in Glasgow) ? __________________________________________________


3. (they/paint/the room) ? ____________________________________________________
4. (he/apply/for that job) ? ____________________________________________________
5. (what/you/do) about this? ____________________________________________________

ABOUT THE SEASONS

Complete the chart.


Write the correct months for each season.
Season
South Australia

Summer

The Netherlands

13


Autumn

Winter

Spring

To ask about the weather we say:


o

What is the weather like?

To respond we say:
o

Its sunny, or it is cold, or ..it is windy

EXERCISE 2

Describe the weather in summer.

Describe the weather in autumn

Describe the weather in winter


14

Describe the weather in spring

To describe wind direction we say:

Its southerly wind

Theres going to be a northerly wind

To describe the wind we say:


Wind force

From 1 to 12 on the scale of Beaufort


Wind velocity

m/s

kms/hour

Nm/hour

Beaufort Scale

15

UNIT 4

Report events from past voyages; describe main engine and propulsion
Grammar: past simple (positive forms); review of regular & irregular verb
forms
Vocabulary: verbs relating to ship voyages; vocabulary of safety,
navigation and pilotage; repairs; words and phrases for main engine and
propulsion
Reading and writing: narrating a past voyage or marine accident;
describing the functions of engines and propulsion systems

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

16

The simple past is used to talk about a completed action in a time before
now. Duration is not important. The time of the action can be in the recent past
or the distant past.

Examples

John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.

My father died last year.

He lived in Fiji in 1976.

We crossed the Channel yesterday

Notes on affirmative, negative, & interrogative forms

Affirmative
The affirmative of the simple past tense is simple.

I was in Japan last year

She had a headache yesterday.

We did our homework last night.

17

Negative and interrogative


For the negative and interrogative simple past form of "do" as an ordinary verb,
use the auxiliary "do", e.g. Wedidn't do our homework last night.
The negative of "have" in the simple past is usually formed using the auxiliary
"do", but sometimes by simply adding not or the contraction "n't".

The interrogative form of "have" in the simple past normally uses the auxiliary
"do".

Examples

They weren't in Rio last summer.

We didn't have any money.

We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.

We didn't do our exercises this morning.

Were they in Iceland last January?

Did you have a bicycle when you were young?

Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Note: For the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past,
always use the auxiliary 'did''.

EXERCISE 1

A. Change these sentences!


Use the verb into negative form!

1. He shouted for help


2. He reported the incident immediately
3. The fire started in the Engine Room
4. The water in the hold damaged the cargo
5. The chemical containers were near the fire but they exploded

18

EXERCISE 2

A SHIP'S VOYAGE

Look at the map! It shows the area of operation of the MV Karrier on a


voyage last year.

19

Ships
name
Karrier
15
Septem
ber
Left
Nagasa
ki
Sailed
SW
across
East
China
Sea
Carried
ballast

Ships
name
Karrie
r

Ships
name
Karrie
r

17
Septe
mber

18
Septe
mber

Arrive
d in
Shan
ghai

Loade
d
10.00
0
tons
of
rice

Sailed
for
ChiLung
at
08.00

There
was a
Tropic
al
Storm
at
13.00

Ship
s
name
Karri
er

20
Sept
embe
r

Dock
ed at
ChiLung
at
08.00

Load
ed
400
cars

Load
ed
286
conta
iners
of
elect
rical
good
s

The
storm
passe
d at
14.00

Ship
s
name
Karri
er
21
Sept
embe
r
Left
for
Manil
a at
09.00
Head
ed
Sout
h
throu
gh
the
Sout
h
China
Sea

Ships
name
Karrier

22
Septemb
er

Arrived
in Manila
at 12.00

Unloade
d 6000
tonnes
of rice
and 286
containe
rs with
electrical
goods.

1. Calculate the total hours of the sea voyage.


2. Calculate the total hours spent in port.
3. From 15/9 10.00 until 22/9 12.00 =? _____________ hours

EXERCISE 3

Write down the Past Simple forms of these regular verbs!

Infinitive

Past form
20

form
Check
Talk
Look
Dock
Like
Repair
Clean
Steer
Carry
Occur
Board
Load
Start
Paint
Hate

Match the infinitive forms and the Past Simple forms of the irregular
verbs.
Use a dictionary to check the meaning of each verb.

Infinitive form
catch

Past form

lost

hit

caught

go

wrote

did

lose

have

hit

do

had

came

come

write

spoke

speak

went
21

take

burst

took

burst

Completethe sentences with the correct forms of verbs!

1. There (be)an incident at sea last month


2. A hose (burst) and some oil leaked on deck
3. A bad storm (hit) us in the South of Atlantic
4. The A.B. (take) the helm while I checked the chart
5. Because of the weather, we (lose) a lot of cargo

EXERCISE 4

Listen to the recording and complete the chart below

NAME OF
VESSEL

TYPE OF
VESSEL

MV.
FULMAR
WAVE

Oil tanker

MV.
MILAMAR

MV. COLD
STAR

INCIDENTS AT SEA

ROUTE

Refrigerat
or Vessel

CARGO

Crude Oil

Suez
Canal

Fruit

INCIDEN
T

Pirates on
Board

22

UNIT 5
Report incidents that occurred at sea
Grammar: Degrees of Certainty
Vocabulary: types of incident; verbs describing accidents; SMCP message
markers (information, warnings and requests); SMCP distress communications for
collision and grounding; SMCP urgency communications for engine and cargo
Reading and writing: reporting incidents at sea and on board; dealing with
distress and urgency message

Degrees of Certainty in Present Time


1. 100% sure

: if we are sure that something is true in the present, we


dont need
to use a modal.

e.g. He is sick.

2. 95% sure

strong degree of certainty/ logical conclusion.

e.g. He must be sick.

3. 50% or less

: express weak degree of certainty. Same meaning

e.g. He may be/ might be/ couldbe sick.

Degrees of Certainty in Past Time

1. 100% sure

if we are sure that something is true in the past, we


dont need

to use a modal.

e.g. He was sick.


23

strong degree of certainty/ logical conclusion.


2. 95% sure
e.g. He must have been sick.
3. 50% or

: express weak degree of certainty. Same meaning

less
e.g. He may have been/ might have been/ could havebeen sick.

EXERCISE 1
Read the report
Complete the report with numbers from the graph.

Frontier Ship Management Company


Incident report

20 Spill
10 Groundin
0g

Last year there were 62 incidents at sea. This included

oil

spills, 2 of which resulted in pollution.


grounded and

vessels collided in bad weather

conditions.

There were

reports of personal injuries. These injuries usually

occurred because seamen did not take care with machinery or because
they did not wear the correct type of protective clothing.

Ships reported fire on board during the year: in 2 incidents,


fire started in the galley; in another 2 incidents, fires started when
chemical containers exploded; and in 3 incidents, the fires occurred
because of electrical faults.
24

On

occasions vessels lost power because the crew did not follow

correct procedures during maneuverings. There were


accounts of cargo contamination: 1 cargo of grain suffered from heat
damage, and in the other case, water leaked into the hold and damaged a
cargo of fruit.

EXERCISE 2

FRONTIER SHIP MANAGEMENT COMPANY

Read the report.


Complete the sentences in the report with the verbs given.
Change each verb to the past simple.

suffer

los

repor

be

explo
de

lide

col

groun

start

dama
ge

lude

inc

leak

be

Summary of Incidents at Sea

Lastmonth there

These

There werenoreports ofpersonal injury.

Twovessels

18 incidents at sea.
4spills.

becauseoflow waterinportandanother 2ships


infoggyconditions.
25

Sixships
firesonboard: in5 incidentsthefires
intheengine roomand inlincidentthe fire started
whenchemicalcontainers
.

There

Three vessels
intotheholdand

incidentofavesselwhich
shipmaneuverings.

powerduring

~cargocontaminationwhenwater
thecargo.

EXERCISE 3

Complete these sentences.

Use the verbs in negative form.

1. Heshout for help. (shout)


2. Hethe incident immediately. (report)
3. The fire.in the engine room. (start)
4. The water in the holdthe cargo. (damage)
5. The chemical containers were near the fire but they .. (explode)

Complete the questions.

1. ....the fire?

Yes, I saw the fire.

2. ....the fire immediately?Yes, I reported it


immediately.
3. ....the fire?

Yes, I extinguish the fire.

4. ....at 1800?
happened at 1700.

No,

5. Why...?
because of high pressure.
6. What....?
lifeboat.

the
The

accident
hose

burst

The storm damaged the


26

7. What time....?
0800.

He started his watch at

8. How...?
passenger ship.

They

9. ....injured?

No, I wasnt injured.

travelled

by

10.
....any damage?
wasnt any damage.

No,

there

11.
...full?
holds were full.

Yes, the cargo

EXERCISE 4

Listen carefully to the recording and complete the Captains report


form.
The Captain is asking the Cook about an accident that occurred on the
vessel yesterday.

ACCIDENT REPORT FORM

Type of accident

Location

Time

:___________________

Cause

:___________________

Crew Members involved: _________________

:___________________

:___________________

27

Action

:___________________

Safety Equipment used:__________________

Injuries

:___________________

Damage

:___________________

SMCP- Message Markers

Information: INFORMATION. MV. Garland will overtake to the west of


you.
Warning: WARNING. Obstruction in the fairway.
Request: REQUEST. I require two tugs.

EXERCISE 5

AI/1

3 Collision

MV Bulk Charley has collided with MV Seven Seas.


Report damage MV Bulk Charley was overtaking MV Seven Seas.
MV Bulk Charley hit MV Seven Seas with her starboard bow.

Distress traffic

28

Complete the Incident Report.

Radio station Bel Air

This is MV Bulk Charley;

I was collided with MV Seven Seas.

What is the name of the other ship?

The name of the other ship is Seven Seas.

Are there casualties?

I do not know.

All crew abandon the ship and are now in the liferafts.

Is there danger of sinking?

Yes danger of sinking and MV Seven Seas is not under


command.

What kind of assistance is required?

MV Bulk Charley requests to start Search and Rescue


operations.

AI/1

Distress traffic

4 Grounding

MV Past Tense is in heavy weather on the coast of Turkey


MV Past Tense has difficulties with the main engine
MV Past Tense asks radio station Bella Italia for assistance

This is MV Past Tense;

I am grounding and also flooding


MV Past Tense requires tug assistance and pumps

This is Radio station Bella Italia


29

This is MV Past Tense;

Aground forward and amidships and possible also aft.

This is Radio station Bella Italia:

What part of your vessel is aground?

Please repeat, please repeat

MV Past Tense repeats:

I am grounding and also flooding and requires tug assistance. My ship


is in imminent danger.

This is Radio station Bella Italia:

Tug assistance with pumps will arrive at 21.00 Local Time.

This is MV Past Tense;

That is too late. I am sinking. Good bye.

UNIT 6
Request for medical assistance
Grammar: Conjunctions
Vocabulary: articles of protective clothing; parts of the body; verbs describing
injury; items used in basic First Aid; SMCP for urgency communication: medical
assistance request
Reading and writing: reporting injury and medical assistance at sea

CONJUNCTIONS
A conjunction is a part of speech that joins two words, phrases or clauses
together.
30

There are three types of conjunctions:

Coordinating
Conjunctions

for

either...or

after

in order that

and

neither...nor

before

if

nor

not only...but also

although

lest

but

both...and

though

even if

or

whether...or

even though

that

yet

as much as

unless

so

as long as

until

as soon as

when

because

where

since

whether

so that

while

Correlative
Conjunctions

Common Subordinating
Conjunctions

Points to remember
Remember that we say

because tells us the reason

and connects two ideas

but shows contrast

or gives alternatives

so tells us the result

31

EXERCISE 1

Give the correct conjunction in these sentences.


You may use more than one conjunctions.

1. He fell of the ladder. The ladder wasnt secure.


2. The load was too heavy for the crane. The cargo fell.
3. There is a danger of toxic gases in enclosed spaces. You must always check
the air before you enter.
4. There was a storm at sea. A pallet truck broke free in high winds.
5. A seafarer broke his arm. A steel pipe fell on him.

EXERCISE 2

Based on the pictures below, mention the part of the body that
may be protected by the protective clothing.

32

EXERCISE 3

VERBS DESCRIBING INJURIES

Complete the sentences. Change the verb to the Simple Past


Tense and write the body part.

1. The cook ...his.. in the fire (burn)


2. The chief engineer .his... when he fell. (break)
3. The mechanichis..when he lifted some equipment (strain)

33

4. The radio operator .. his when he bumped into the table


(bruise)
5. The electrician .. his when he dropped the tool box
(injure)

FIVE COMMONS KINDS OF INJURY ON VESSEL

Seafarers sometimes break their arms and legs when they slip or fall.
These accidents happen when they dont wear safety boots or when
decks are wet and oily. Seafarers also fall when ladders are not secure. To
prevent broken arms and legs, it is important to wear safety boots.

Seafarers sometimes strain their backs when they lift heavy objects. Back strain
usually happens when seafarers lift objects alone or when they dont use lifting
equipment properly. To prevent back strain, it is important to lift properly.

Seafarers sometimes suffer from burns when there is a fire, explosion or


chemical spill. Seafarers need to be careful when they smoke or when they work
with chemicals. To prevent burns, it is important to obey no smoking signs and
to handle chemicals cargos safely.

Seafarers sometimes suffer from cuts. They often cut their fingers when they are
careless with sharp machinery. To prevent cuts, it is important to use safety
guards and to wear gloves.

Seafarers sometimes injure their eyes when they work with machinery. Dust,
sparks, and chemicals are very dangerous when they enter the eye. To prevent
eye injuries, it is important to wear protective googles.

EXERCISE 4

Listen to the audio.


There are four dialogues between medical officers and injured
seafarers.
What was the injury? What was the cause of the injury?

34

1. Injury : Back strain

Cause : The crewman was careless

2. Injury :

Cause : ..

3. Injury : ..

Cause :

4. Injury :

Cause : ..

UNIT 7

Check task completion in routine operations; VHF communication


regarding bunkering, distress and urgency messages using SMCP
Grammar: Present Perfect; regular and irregular verb forms
Vocabulary: verbs relating to bunkering, maintenance and safety procedures;
terms connected with engine types; fuel oil system; tools
Reading and writing: identifying VHF communications regarding distress,
urgency, safety and bunkering operations

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


[has/have + past participle]

Examples:

You have seen that movie many times.

Have you seen that movie many times?

You have not seen that movie many times.


EXERCISE 1

Write down the missing words.


35

Infinitiv
e

Past
Simple

Past
participle

Pass

Passed

Passed

Enter

Entered

Entered

Close

Closed

Paint

Walk

Write down the missing words

Infinitiv
e

Take

Took

Speak

Spoke

Go

Drink

Past
Simple

Past
participle

Taken

Buy

EXERCISE 2

Fill in the missing boxes with the correct sentences.

The railings are rusty

36

Busy

Finished

Maintenance checklist
Complete the questions

Clean the windows on the


bridge
Secure the pipes?
Seal the bunker pipeline?

Inspect the water pressure


valves?
Paint the poop deck

Service the forklift

Grease the winches

Have they cleaned the windows on the


bridge?
Have they secured the pipes?
Have they

?
Have they

?
Have
they
?
Have they

?
Have they

37

EXERCISE 3
Look at the procedure check list for bunkering below.
Listen to the audio.
The Bargeman is speaking to the Chief Engineer on the telephone.
He wants to check that the crew has completed all procedures before
bunkering.
Put a tick next to the duties that the crew has completed.

38

Global Maritime Communication

Distress
mayday

Urgency
pan pan

Safety
securite

Distress

Mayday

Mayday is an emergency procedure


a distress signal.

word used

internationally

as

It is used to signal a life-threatening emergency mariners.


The call is always given three times in a row ("Mayday Mayday Mayday") to
prevent its being mistaken for some similar-sounding phrase under noisy
conditions.

Urgency

panpan

Three calls of pan-pan are used in to signify that there is an urgency on


board but that, for the time being at least, there is no immediate danger
to anyone's life or to the vessel itself.

This is referred to as a state of urgency.


This is distinct from a mayday call, which means that there is imminent danger
to life or to the continued viability of the vessel itself.

Safety

Securite

39

When a marine radio transmission begins with the phrase "Scurit,


scurit, scurit"

(French: scurit), it means that what follows is important


information.
NAVTEX (Navigation Telex)

The most common use of this is by coast radio


the broadcast of
navigational warnings
meteorological information

safety

stations before

Distress, Urgency and Safety messages on VHF must contain:


The vessels identification; name and call sign
Position of the vessel
The nature of distress or danger
The assistance that is required
Number of persons on board
Any other important information

EXERCISE 4

Compose a VHF alert message for the following situation MV. Pearl
Head (Call sign: Victor Romeo Sierra Echo)
In the position of: 3810 N and 01810 E is on fire.
The fire is in the engine room and hold no. 2.
The vessel is sinking and the crew must abandon vessel.
There are 18 persons on board; 8 are injured. Require tugboat
assistance.

40

UNIT 8

Produce external written and spoken communications to request


and give advice

Grammar: Past Continuous; contrast between Past Simple and Past Continuous;
introduction to reported speech, modal: should
Vocabulary: telex abbreviations; SMCP message markers
Reading and writing: requesting advice

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

We use the Past Continuous to describe repeated or continuous action in


the past.

41

Non-continuous Verbs
Non-continuous verbs are verbs that we do not normally use with
continuous tenses. These "stative" verbs are about state, not action, and
they cannot express the continuous or progressive aspect. Here are some
of the most common non-continuous verbs:

feeling: hate, like, love, prefer, want, wish

senses: appear, feel, hear, see, seem, smell, sound, taste

communication: agree, deny, disagree, mean, promise, satisfy, surprise

thinking: believe, imagine, know, mean, realize, recognize, remember,


understand

other states: be, belong, concern, depend, involve, matter, need, owe,
own, possess

Look at these example sentences, right and wrong:

I want a coffee.

notI am wanting a coffee.


42

I don't believe you are right.

notI am not believing you are right.

Does this pen belong to


you?

notIs this pen belonging to you?

It seemed wrong.

notIt was seeming wrong.

I don't hear anything.

notI am not hearing anything.

Notice that we often use can + see/hear:

I can see someone in the distance. notI am seeing someone in the


distance.

I can't hear you very well. notI am not hearing you very well.

EXERCISE 1

Write sentences using the Past Continuous

1.

The chief officer was checking the chart

2.

3.

3rd Officer/watch TV
____________________________________________________________

Cook/prepare the vegetable


____________________________________________________________

Chief Officer/check the charts.

4.

Ship/leave the port


43

____________________________________________________________

5.

____________________________________________________________

6.

7.

8.

9.

Ratings/stow the ropes


____________________________________________________________

Master/write reports
____________________________________________________________

Engineers/repair a valve
____________________________________________________________

Pilot/board the launch


____________________________________________________________

Helmsman/steer the vessel

10.

Surveyors/check the cargo


____________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 2

Past Continuous with the Past Simple in one sentence.

I was watching TV when she called.


When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
What were you doing when the earthquake started?
I was listening to my iPod, so I didn't hear the fire alarm.
44

Complete the following sentences with the past continuous


and/or the past simple.

1. The vessel...(enter)
.. (begin)

the

port

when

the

storm

2. The steward . (clean) the Captains quarters when he


(spill) the bucket of water.
3. The captain ... (talk) to some crew members on the bridge when
the steering system .. (fail)
4. The crew ... (load) bales of cotton when it .
(start) to rain.
5. The Radio officer .. (sleep) when the ship ..
(receive) the telex.

EXERCISE 3

REPORTED SPEECH

Reported speech is when you tell somebody else what you or a person
said before.

Look at this example.


He said (that) you had an accident
He said to me (that) you had an accident
He told me (that) you had an accident

45

A
d
a
m
R
ol
a
n
d
A
d
a
m
R
ol
a
n
d
A
d
a
m
R
ol
a
n
d
A
d
a
m
R
ol
a
n
d
A
d
a
m
R
ol
a
n
d
A
d
a
m
R

Roland?

Yeah?

Its Adam. Can I come in?

Sure

How are you feeling?

Fine at the moment

I heard about your accident yesterday.

Yeah, it was awful. Who told you about it?

Oh, Chris did. He said that you entered a toxic space.

Yeah, I did. But did he tell you why I wasnt wearing any
safety equipment with me?

No, he didnt. He said thatyou didnt have your breathing


apparatus. Thats all.

Well, the bosun told me that the area I entered was safe.

46

Underline examples of reported speech in the dialogue below.

ASKING FOR AND GIVING ADVICE

In the telex the Master asks for advice in a very short way:

PLS ADVISE = please advise me


When we are speaking, we can ask for advice in other ways.
Can you advise me,
please?
What should I do?
What do you think I should
do?
What do you
recommend/suggest?

Some more ways to give


advice:
I would advise you
to.
I suggest (that)
you.
I recommend (that)
you..

47

Note the different spelling of advice and advise:


Advice is a noun
I need some advice

Advise is a verb
Can you advise me, please?

EXERCISE4Match the questions with the correct answers.


1. My leg hurts, What do
you think I should do?

2. Which tool should I


use?

3. What route do you


suggest?

4.
What
do
you
recommend
on
the
menu?

5. Can you advise me of


the best approach?

A. I suggest you take the coast road.

B. I recommend the fish. Its great!

C. You should use the spanner.

D. Id advise you approach from the


southeast.

E. I think you should see a doctor

Complete the conversations. Use the phrases of asking for


and giving advice.
1. Engineer Cadet:

I dont know how to repair this machine. ..

..?

3rd Engineer
manual.

Well,look at the

2. Junior Engineer : There is air in the fuel line. .


, Chief?

Chief Engineer :
for leak first.

..check theline

Read these situations. Write your advice.


1. Help! The 3rd Engineer is lying in the hold! The air is toxic!What should I do?

2. Careful! Theres oil on the floor of engine room.What do you suggest I do?
3. Captain, this is the bridge. The approaching vessel is asking to change our course.
What do you advise?

EXERCISE 5
The maritime mobile service and safety systems for ships

Read the text on the slide carefully and make notes if you like.
You have 5 minutes for reading the text
After the 5 minutes you are requested to answer 5 questions on paper.
The paper with your questions will be collected by the teacher.

1. What do UN and IMO stand for?


2. Write down 4 responsibilities of IMO.

3. Write down 3 topics provided by Mobile Maritime Communications.

4. Write down what a Distress Alert Message gives for information about a
ship in trouble.

5. Write down what the great importance is of a Distress Alert Message.

MOBILE COMMUNICATION

In the office of Shipping companies

The telex network is a switched network of tele printers similar to a


telephone network,
for thepurposes of sending text- based messages.
On board

VHF Public and Distress communication

NAVTEX
Navigation Safety messages

Weatherforecast messages

EXERCISE 6
Abbreviation in a telex: fill in the full form for each
abbreviation.
s
h
o
r
t
f
o
r
m
s
a
/
s

full forms

e
s
t
y
r
F
A
O

m
s
g
a
r
r
t
k
s

p
l
s
E
T
A
t
l
x
d
i
s
t
E
T
D
t
e
m
p
a
b
t
N
M
r
p
t
a
p
p
r
o
x

r
g
d
s
r
e
c
d
A
S
A
P
U
T
C

Using Abbreviations in a telex


The message in a telex is very short and simple. Words are made
shorter by using abbreviations.
Sentences are made shorter by using only important words.

This means that certain types of words are missing.

Types of Words

Full Form

Possible Short Form

Articles (the, a, an)

an injury to a crewman injury to crewman

Personal pronouns
serious back

I suspect a serious

suspect
injury

(I, you, he, she) back injury


Verb to be
injured

a crewman is badly

crewman
injured

Write these sentences again in telex form.

badly

1. There is a problem with the engine.


_______________________________________________________________________

2. Please advise a doctor as soon as possible.


________________________________________________________________________

3. The ships estimated time of arrival is at 3 oclock.


________________________________________________________________________

4. Thanks. Your message has been received.


________________________________________________________________________

5. We estimate the delivery amount to be 700 tonnes.


_______________________________________________________________________

Read the telex and answer the questions.

28 FEB 1130: INCOMING CALL

DEEP UK G
887201
2134425 TRAN X

TO: DEEP SEA SHIPPING

FM: TRANSIT
MARINER
ATTN: MR ROBERT KELLY
SUBJECT: ETA GIBRALTAR

TKS FOR YR TLX TODAY


ETA GIBRALTAR1730.

BESTRGDS

CAPT. S. SINGH

MARINER
TRANSIT
887201
DEEP UK G
887201 DEEP UK G

Questions:
1. Who wrote the telex?
2. Where was the telex sent from?
3. Which person is the telex for?
4. Which company is the telex for?
5. What is the date and time on the telex?
6. What the subject of the telex?

Modify this NAVTEX message in normal text and inform


your captain

Modify this NAVTEX message in normal text and inform


your captain

REFERENCES
Nisbet, et al. Marlins English for Seafarers Study Pack 1. Marlins. UK.
1997
Blakey, TN. English for Maritime Studies Second Edition. Prentice
Hall International Ltd. UK. 1987
MarEng Plus Learning Tool. Leonardo da Vinci. UK. 2010
www.grammarbank.com