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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


INTRODUCTION
1.1 Sewage Characteristics
water supplied by the water supply projecst to the public is being used and
comes back as sewage which goes down the drains or into the sewage collection
system. This includes water from baths, showers, sinks, dishwashers, washing
machines and water closets. Small businesses and industries often contribute large
amounts of wastewater to sewage collection systems; others operate their own
wastewater treatment systems. In combined municipal sewage systems, water from
storm drains is also added to the municipal wastewater stream.
Wastewater is about 99 percent of water by weight and is generally referred to
as influent as it enters the wastewater treatment facility. Domestic wastewater is
wastewater that comes primarily from individual residences, and does not generally
include industrial or agricultural wastewater.

At wastewater treatment plants, this flow is treated before it is discharged into


to the natural bodies of water environmentsuch as l lakes, or streams. There are no
holidays for wastewater treatment, and most plants operate 24 hours per day every
day of the week. Wastewater treatment plants operate at a critical point of the water
cycle, helping nature defend water from excessive pollution. Most treatment plants
have primary treatment (physical removal of floatable and settelable solids) and
secondary treatment (the biological removal of dissolved solids).
Generation and collection:
Bengalurus rapid urbanization contributes towards the generation of large
amount of waste water . City municipal engineers estimate that roughly 1,000 MLD
of wastewater flows through its three valleys the Vrishabhavathi, the KoramangalaChallaghatta, and the Hebbal(1).
The citys sewage generation estimates vary widely, indicating that authorities
have poor knowledge about the actual water consumed by the population. The
actual amount of sewage generated would be higher since a large number of private
bore wells exist and there is no scientific estimate of the quantity of water withdrawn
from them.
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


Sewerage system in Bengalure has been developed along its major drainage
lines, but this is highly inadequate due to rapid expansion . The total length of trunk
sewers are 243 km (smaller drains are around 3,367 km), all of which are mostly in
the core old municipality areas of the city.
The remaining areas of the city, which also include less developed parts like
slums, revenue pockets and unauthorized colonies, do not have any sewerage
facilities. Slum dwellers and the urban poor draw their water from open sumps and
wells, which contain water of dubious quality and therefore, not fit for human
consumption. Outbreaks of water-borne diseases and malaria are common in these
areas.

1.2 Treatment and Disposal


First sewerage network for Bengaluru city was developed as early as 1922,
and treatment of wastewater started only in 1974. The city has since then built many
new sewage treatment plants (STPs). By 2010, there were 14 plants (Map: Location
of sewage treatment plants) with an installed capacity to treat 721 MLD roughly
equivalent to what the city generates. But in spite of this hardware, the city only uses
half the capacity it treats. about 302 MLD of waste in its sewage plants in 2010
(Table: STPs of Bengaluru). (2)

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Source: Water Supply Board

Figure. No: 1.2.1 Location of Sewage Treatment Plants

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


1.3 Bangalores Wastewater
Bangalore is a mega-city in southern India. The population of the city has
doubled in the last decade (from 4.2 million in 2001 to 8.4 million in 2011). Although
part of this increase has come from expanding Bangalores boundaries to include
neighboring villages and towns. Previously water demand of Bangalore city was met
from the sources within the basin. TG Halli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs used to
supply 135 million litres per day (MLD) of drinking water to Bangalore city. The
consequent growth in water demand as result of population growth has been met by
increasing water imports from the Cauvery River and by increasing ground water
extraction. This has however increased conflict with water users along the Cauvery
River and depleted groundwater resources on the fringes of the city

(8)

The citys wastewater treatment systems have not kept pace with the growth in
water use. While imported water increased from 453 MLD in 1991 to 1360 MLD in
2013, the installed capacity of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) only increased
from 420 MLD (primary treatment level) to 721 MLD (secondary treatment level) in
the same period. The total wastewater generated in the city is estimated to be 1100
MLD although no reliable estimates are available. The city has 14 centralized
sewage treatment plants (STPs) managed by the Bangalore Water Supply and
Sewerage Board (BWSSB) and 612 decentralized STPs managed by private
owners. At present centralized and decentralized STPs are operating at 63.5% and
75% of their designed capacities, respectively. While the lack of an underground
drainage (UGD) system means that the treatment capacity of centralized STPs is
under-utilized, the decentralized STPs are overdesigned to meet the future
wastewater inputs(8).

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


Out of the total treated effluent from centralized STPs, only 4 MLD is reused by
industries for non-potable purposes. The rest of the treated effluent, along with the
untreated sewage, is discharged into open storm drains. There is no official data
available on the reuse of effluent from private STPs. The net result is that an
estimated 64% of Bangalores untreated wastewater enters into its two river
systems.
The city straddles two river basins: the Arkavathy-Vrishabhavathy basin on the
west and the Pinakini basin to the east. Bangalores wastewater enters the
Vrishabhavathy and the Pinakini in almost equal quantities.

Figure. No: 1.3.1Wastewater and its disposal in Bangalore (8)

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


MUNICIPAL AREA - BWSSB
THE CITY
Municipal area

561 sq km

Total area

740 sq km

Population (2005)

6.5 million

Population (2011), as projected in 2005-06

7.5 million

THE WATERATER
Demand
Total water demand as per city agency (BWSSB)

1125 MLD (2010)

Per capita water demand as per BWSSB

173 LPCD

Total water demand as per CPHEEO @ 175 LPCD

1138 MLD

Sources and supply


Water sources

Cauvery and Arkavathi rivers, groundwater

Water sourced from surface sources

93%

Water sourced from the ground

7%

Total water supplied

900 MLD (2010)

Per capita supply

138 LPCD

Leakage loss

40%

Actual supply (after deducting leakage losses)

540 MLD

Per capita supply (after leakage losses)

83 LPCD

Population served by water supply system

100%*

Per capita supply in served area

83 LPCD

Demand-supply gap (after leakage losses)

585 MLD

Treatment
Number of WTPs

Total treatment capacity

810 MLD

Actual treatment

NA

Future demand and supply


Demand (2011), as projected in 2005-06

1298 MLD

Augmentation needed to meet the demand

398 MLD

Required increase in supply

44%

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


SEWAGEDetails
Generation
Sewage generated as per CPCB

819 MLD

Sewage generated as per city agency

1110 MLD

Collection
Length of sewerage network (trunk and small)

3610 km

Population covered by sewerage network

45%

Area covered by sewerage network

40%

Treatment
Number of STPs

14

Total treatment capacity

721 MLD

Actual sewage treated

302 MLD

Disposal

Vrishabhavathi Valley, Hebbal, Koramangala


andChallaghatta tanks

Table 1.3.1 Generation of Wastewater (1)


Year

Quantity In MLD

2006

1000

2011

1125

2021

1464

2036

1949

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


Table No. 1.3.2: Details of STPS existing in Bengaluru city

Location of STPS
Vrishabhavati Valley (V V)

Designed
capacity (MLD)

(1)

Technology Used

180

Secondary: trickling filter

248

Secondary: activated sludge process

Hebbal Valley

60

Secondary: activated sludge process

Madivala (mini STP)

Secondary: UASB + oxidation ponds +

1
10

constructed wetlands
Secondary: extended aeration
activated sludge process + filtration +

Koramangala-Chalaghatta
valley (K & C Valley)

Kempambudhi (mini STP)


Yelahanka
Mylasandra
Nagasandra
Jakkur
K R Puram
Kadabeesanahalli
Raja Canal
Cubban park

75
20
10
20
50
40
1.5

Lalbagh

1.5

Total

721

chlorination
Secondary: extended aeration
Secondary: extended aeration
Secondary: UASB + extended aeration
Secondary: UASB
Secondary: extended aeration
Secondary: extended aeration
Membrane
extended aeration + plate settlers + ultraviolet disinfection

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


Table no. 1.3.3: About sanitary system in Bangalore city (1)
1920 1950
1950 1960
1970 1980

Sewerage system existed


Major sewerage system constructed
K & C Valley wastewater treatment plant (Primary) & V-

1980 2000
2000 2010

Valley STP (Primary)


K & C and V Valley and Hebbal upgraded to secondary
CWSS Stage IV Phase I 7 treatment plants &

2010 2015

sewerage system
CWSS Stage IV Phase II 11 treatment plants - 339
MLD

Objectives:
The report emphasis on the following objectives:

To obtain details the efficiency of each treatment unit in treating sewage at

the selected Treatment Unit.


To evaluate the performance of selected sewage treatment plant.
Analysis of Inlet and outlet wastewater quality.
To suggest suitable suggestions to improve the efficiency of treatment plant.

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

A Historical Perspective

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


The concept of wastewater treatment were first developed in response to the
adverse impact due to

the discharge of wastewater to the environment and the

concern for general public health. Further, as cities became larger; limited land was
available for wastewater treatment and disposal, principally by irrigation and
intermittent filtration. Also, as population grew, the quantity of wastewater generated
increases rapidly and the quality of this huge amount of wastewater exceeded the
self-purification capacity of the streams and river bodies. Therefore, other methods
of treatment were developed to accelerate the forces of nature under controlled
conditions in treatment facilities of comparatively smaller size. In general from about
1900 to the early 1970s, treatment objectives were concerned with:(i) The removal of suspended and floatable material from wastewater,
(ii) The treatment of biodegradable organics (BOD removal) and
(iii) The elimination of disease-causing pathogenic micro-organisms.
From the early 1970 to about 1990s, wastewater treatment objectives were
based primarily on aesthetic and environmental concerns. The earlier objectives of
reduction and removal of BOD, suspended solids, and pathogenic micro-organism
continued, but at higher levels. Removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and
phosphorus also began to be addressed, particularly in some of the streams and
lakes. Major initiatives were taken around the globe, to achieve more effective
treatment of wastewater to improve the quality of the surface waters. This effort was
a result of (i) An increased understanding of the environmental effects caused by wastewater
discharges and
(ii) A developing knowledge of the adverse long term effects caused by the discharge
of some of the specific constituents found in wastewater.
Since 1990, because of increased scientific knowledge and an expanded
information base, wastewater treatment has begun to focus on the health concerns
related to toxic and potentially toxic chemicals released into the environment.

(5)

Sewage treatment involves breakdown of complex organic compounds in the


wastewater into simpler compounds that are stable and nuisance-free, either
physico-chemically and or by using micro-organisms (biological treatment). The
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


adverse environmental impact of allowing untreated wastewater to be discharged in
groundwater or surface water bodies and land is as follows (i) The decomposition of the organic materials contained in wastewater can lead to
the production of large quantities of malodorous gases,
(ii) Untreated wastewater (sewage) containing a large amount of organic matter, if
discharged into a river/stream, will consume the dissolved oxygen for satisfying the
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater and thus, deplete the dissolved
oxygen of the stream; thereby, causing fish kills and other undesirable effects that it
totally hampers the aquatic Flora and Fauna forms of life.
(iii) Wastewater may also contain nutrients, which can stimulate the growth of aquatic
plants and algal blooms; thus, leading to eutrophication of the lakes and streams.
(iv) Untreated wastewater usually contains numerous pathogenic, or disease causing
microorganisms and toxic compounds, that dwells in the human intestinal tract or
may be present in certain industrial waste. These may contaminate the land or the
water body, where such sewage is disposed.
Considering all these factors in mind, the treatment and disposal of wastewater, is
not only desirable but also necessary in any society to protect the general
environment and also the health of the public..

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


Unit operations and processes in sewage treatment
The degree of treatment can be determined by comparing the influent
wastewater characteristics to the required effluent wastewater characteristics after
reviewing the treatment objectives and applicable regulations. The contaminants in
wastewater are removed by physical, chemical and biological means. The individual
methods usually are classified as physical unit operations, chemical unit processes
and biological unit processes. Although these operations and processes occur in a
variety of combinations in treatment systems, it has been found advantageous to
study their scientific basis separately because the principles involved do not
change(5).
Physical unit operations
Treatment methods in which the application of physical forces predominates
are

known

as

physical

unit

operations.

Screening,

mixing,

flocculation,

sedimentation, floatation, filtration and gas transfer are examples of physical unit
operations.
Chemical unit processes
Treatment methods in which the removal or conversion of contaminants is
brought about by the addition of chemicals or by other chemical reactions are known
as chemical unit processes. Precipitation and adsorption are the most common
examples used in wastewater treatment. In chemical precipitation, treatment is
accomplished by producing a chemical precipitate that will settle. In most cases, the
settled precipitate will contain both the constituents that may have reacted with the
added chemicals and the constituents that were swept out of the wastewater as the
precipitate settled. Adsorption involves the removal of specific compounds from the
wastewater on solid surfaces using the forces of attraction between bodies.

Biological unit processes


Treatment methods in which the removal of contaminants is brought about by
biological activity are known as biological unit processes. Biological treatment is
used primarily to remove the biodegradable organic substances (colloidal or
dissolved) in wastewater. Basically, these substances are converted into gases that
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


can escape to the atmosphere and into biological cell tissue that can be removed by
settling. Biological treatment is also used to remove nutrients (nitrogen and
phosphorus) in wastewater.
Factors affecting selection and design of sewage treatment systems
The collection, treatment and disposal of liquid waste (sewage) are referred to
as Sewerage. Sewage systems include all the physical structures required for
collection, treatment and disposal of the wastes. In other words, discharged waste
water that is collected in large sewerage networks, transporting the waste from the
site of production to the site of treatment comprises Sewage treatment networks
(Sewerage system). The most important factors that should be considered in the
selection and design of any sewage treatment system are Engineering factors
Design period, stage wise population to be served and expected sewage flow and
fluctuations,
Topography of the area to be served, its slope and terrain; tentative sites available
for treatment plant, pumping stations and disposal works,
Available hydraulic head in the system up to high flood level in case of disposal into
a river or high tide level in case of coastal discharges,
Groundwater depth and its seasonal fluctuations affecting construction, sewer
infiltration,
Soil bearing capacity and type of strata to be met in construction, and
On site disposal facilities, including the possibilities of segregating sullage and
sewage and reuse or recycling of sullage water within the households.

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


Environmental factors
Surface water, groundwater and coastal water quality where wastewater has to be
disposed after treatment,
Odor and mosquito nuisance which affects land values, public health and wellbeing, and
Public health considerations by meeting the requirements laid down by the
regulatory agencies for effluent discharge standards, permissible levels of microbial
and helminthic quality requirements and control of nutrients, toxic and accumulative
substances in food chain.
Process consideration
Wastewater flow and characteristics,
Degree of treatment required,
Performance characteristics, and
Availability of land, power requirements, equipments and skilled staff for handling
and maintenance.
Cost consideration
Capital costs for land, construction, equipments etc., and
Operating costs including staff, chemicals, fuels and electricity, transport,
maintenance and repairs etc.

Give the line dia of a

a CONVENTIAL treatment

System.also explain briefly about ASP and Trickling


Filters

3.1 Activated Sludge Process


The Activated Sludge Process provides an excellent method of treating either
raw sewage or more generally the settled sewage. The sewage effluent from primary
sedimentation tank, which is, thus normally utilized in this process, is mixed with 20
to 30% of own volume of activated sludge, which contains a large concentration of
highly active aerobic micro-organisms. The mixture enters an aeration tank, where
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


the micro-organisms (coated around the sludge solids) and the sewage, intimately
mixed together, with a large quantity of air for about 4 to 8 hours. Under these
conditions, the moving organisms will oxidize the organic matter, and the suspended
and colloidal matter tends to coagulate and form a precipitate, which settles down
readily

in

the

secondary

settling

tank.

The

settled

sludge

(containing

microorganisms) called activated sludge, is then recycled to the head of the aeration
tank to be mixed again with the sewage being treated. New activated sludge is
continuously being produced by this process, and a portion of it being utilized and
sent back to the aeration tank, whereas the excess portion is disposed of properly
along with the sludge collected during primary treatment after digestion (3).
The effluent obtained from a properly operated activated sludge plant is of
high quality, usually having a lower BOD than that of trickling filter plant, BOD
removal is up to 80-95% and bacterial removal is up to 90-95%. Moreover land area
is required is also quite less. But, however, in this process, a rather close degree of
control is necessary in operation to ensure:
i.
ii.
iii.

That an ample supply of oxygen is present


That there is an intimate continuous mixing of sewage and activated sludge.
That the ratio of volume of activated sludge added to the volume of sewage
being treated is kept practically constant.

Moreover, there is the problem of obtaining activated sludge, at the start of a


new plant. Hence a new plant is put into operation, a period of about weeks may be
required to form a suitable return sludge, and during this period, utmost all the
sludge from the secondary sedimentation tank will be returned to the aeration tank. A
new plant may also sometimes be seeded with activated sludge from another plant,
so as to quickly start the process in the new plant.

3.2 Modifications of Basic Activated Sludge Process


In the basic activated sludge process, also called conventional aeration
process, the re-circulated activated sludge is added to the inlet end of the aeration
tank as a single dose. The regime flow employed in the aeration tank is plug flow
and mixed flow. Plug flow implies that sewage moves down progressively along the
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


aeration tank, essentially unmixed with the rest of the tank contents. The other type
of flow regime, called complete mixed flow, involves the rapid dispersal of the
incoming sewage throughout the tank, and is adopted in the extended aeration
process.
In a conventional aeration tank (of plug flow type), the F/M Ratio and the
oxygen demand will be the highest at the inlet end, and will then progressively
decrease. In the complete mix system on the other hand, the F/M ratio and oxygen
demand will be uniform throughout the tank.
The plug flow regime is achieved in such an activated process by employing a
long and narrow configuration of the aeration tank with length equal to 5 to 50 times
the width. The sewage and the mixed liquor are let in at the head of the tank and
withdrawn at its end. Because of plug flow regime, the oxygen demand at the head
of the aeration tank is high and then tapers down. However, air is supplied in the
process at uniform rate along the length of the tank. This leads to either oxygen
deficiency in the initial zone or wasteful applications of air in the subsequent
reaches.
The conventional system is always preceded by primary setting. The plant
itself consists of an aeration tank, a sludge return line and an excess sludge waste
line leading to digester. The BOD removal in the process is 85.92%.
The main limitations of conventional systems are that:
1. The aeration tank volume requirement is very high.
2. There is lack of operational stability at times of excessive variation in the rate
of inflow or its BOD strength.
In order to overcome such difficulties posed by a conventional system plant,
and to meet specific treatment objectives, several modifications of the
conventional system had been suggested by modifying the process variables. The
important modified processes are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Tapered Aeration Process


Step Aeration Process
Contact Aeration Process
Complete Mix Process
Modified Aeration Process
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


6. Extended Aeration Process
7. Activated Aeration Process
In addition to conventional activated sludge plants, the complete mixed plants
and extended aeration plants has been found a wider acceptance in modern
days, particularly for obtaining high BOD removals.
3.2.1. Extended Aeration Process:
The flow scheme of an extended aeration process and its mixing regime
are similar to that of the complete mix process. Primary sedimentation is frequently
avoided in this process.

But grit chamber or comminutor is often provided for

screenings.
As its name suggest, the aeration period is quite large and extends to
about 12-24 hours, as compared to 4 to 6 hours in a conventional plant. The process
permits low organic loading, high MLSS concentration and low F/M ratio. The BOD
removal efficiency is also quite high, to say about 85-92% of conventional plant.
The air or oxygen requirement is quite high which increases running cost
of the plant considerably. The plant however offers another advantage as no
separate sludge digestor is required, because of the solids undergoing considerable
endogenous respiration and well stabilized over the long detention periods, adopted
in aeration tank. The sludge produced is thus, capable to be directly taken to the
sludge drying beds. Also, the excess sludge production is minimum. The operation is
also simpler due to elimination of primary settling and separate sludge digestion.

Aeration Thanks in Activated Sludge Process: There are two basic methods
of introducing air into aeration tanks i.e,
1. Diffused Air Aeration or Air Diffusion
2. Mechanical Aeration
3. Combination of Mechanical Aeration and Diffuser

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

CHAPTER 3
MAILASANDRA SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

75 MLD MAILASANDRA SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT


Mylasandra Sewage Treatment Plant (12 05508.90N 7702941.07E) of 75MLD
capacity is situated in Mylasandra Village, off Mysore Road, near Rajarajeshwari
Nagar, Bangalore, at an altitude of 2615ft. (797m) above MSL.
In Mylasandra sewage treatment plant, ASP with mechanical surface aerators
are employed for extended aeration purposes.

Figure 3.1.1: Location of the Map showing Sewage Treatment Plant (2)

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

3.3 TREATMENT METHOD


The design of the plant is based on the following principles:

For a peak flow of 155 MLD.


Extended aeration process.

The overall treatment process is divided into Pre-treatment, Biological


Treatment, Disinfections and Sludge Treatment System.
(a) Pre-Treatment system
Receiving / Inlet Chamber
Screen Channel having an automatic fine screening with an aperture

size of 6mm, to remove the floating debris equal or greater than 6mm
Bypass Channel consisting of Manual screening with a bar spacing of

25mm
De-gritting unit with Grit Removal Mechanism, to remove grit and
inorganic solids from sewage as per requirement.

(b) Biological Treatment system


Extended aeration process with anoxic zone
Anoxic tank with submersible mixer.
Aeration tank with surface aerator.
Nitrified effluent Re-circulation.
Secondary clarification with scraper and scum Removal Mechanism.
Return / Excess sludge sump & pump house.

(c) Disinfection system

Chlorination Building
Chlorine Mixing Tank
Chlorine Contact Tank

(d) Sludge Treatment System

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Sludge Thinking - Gravity Sludge Thickener.


Sludge Dewatering - Sludge Drying Beds.
Filtrate collection & Re-circulation Sump with pump.

Raw effluent

Screening

D C- 1

Grit
chambe
r
D C2

D C- 4

Secondar
y clarifier

Disinfecti
on units

Aeratio
n tank

Anoxic
zone

RAS
Wet
well

RAS
Pump
house

D C- 3

Sludge
thickener

Sludge
drying
beds

Sampling
chamber

Figure 3.3.1: Flowchart showing Operational units at Mylasandra STP

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Filtrate
sump

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


3.4 TREATMENT DESCRIPTION
1. Pre-Treatment
a) Inlet Chamber:
The unit is rectangular in shape with its size of 10.0m 2.5m 2.15m LD.
The filtrate will also be received in the inlet chamber. The inlet chamber is provided
with sluice gates and walkway connecting the inlet, screen chamber and de-gritting
system.
b) Screen channels:
Generally the screens are provided ahead of de-gritting chambers to reduce
the effect of rags and other large floating materials on the mechanically scrapped degritting tanks. Sluice gates will be provided at the inlet and at the outlet at each
screen channel for isolation purpose.
c) Fine bar screen channels:
The raw sewage received at the inlet chamber flow into the 3 Nos. of fine bar
screen (2W+1SB), each designed for 77.5MLD. The size of each channel will be
10.0m 1.45m 1.14m LD. The velocity in the channel is designed for 0.31 m/s
during minimum flow conditions and not more than 1.2 m/s during peak flow
conditions.
The fine bar screens shall remove screenings exceeding 6mm in size from the
sewage flow. The raking mechanism shall lift the screenings between the fixed bars
by the movable bars and push upward up to the discharge trough and then convey to
a portable screenings container.
d) Coarse screen at bypass channel:
A bypass channel of size 10.0m 3.0m 1.13m LD is constructed on one side
of fine bar screens to bypass the raw sewage in case of any malfunctioning of the
fine bar screens. A manually raked bar screen comprising MS flats of 10mm thick
and 50mm wide is provided to remove the screenings of size up to 25mm size in the
bypassed sewage. An isolation sluice gate at the inlet channel is provided, to
facilitate bye pass the sewage at inlet chamber through coarse screen channel.
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


e) Distribution Chamber-1
The screened sewage along with the filtrate enters the distribution
chamber-1 of size 18.0 m 1.5 m 1.0m LD which is provided with three
rectangular notches and three division boxes. The division boxes are provided with
individual isolation gates, which open into three independent channels.
f) Grit Chamber (De-gritting System)
The screened sewage will flow to the de-gritting systems by gravity into three
square shaped de-gritting tanks (2W + ISB). The size of each grit chamber is 9.8m
9.8m 0.7 SWD; each unit is capable of handling the design flow of 77.5MLD.
g) Distribution chamber-2
The de-gritted sewage is conveyed to the distribution chamber 2 through a
conveying RCC channel. The size of the distribution chamber is 18m 1.5m 1.34m
LD. The distribution chamber-2 is provided with a bypass overflow weir at 100mm
above the maximum water level so that the de-gritted sewage can find its way to the
treated sewage.
A Sluice gate is provided in the incoming channel so that the de-gritted
sewage can be bypassed to the bypass channel.
The chamber is fitted with three notches at the downstream side, for equally
splitting the de-gritted sewage and filtrate and the three streams enter the three
compartments of distribution chamber-3. The top of the notches is fixed at a level so
that MLSS from distribution chamber- 3 can never have the chance of spilling over to
the bypass channel, even under future flow conditions.
The required sewage for the denitrification of surplus activated sludge is taken
by gravity from the distribution chamber- 2 to the surplus sludge anoxic tank. The
raw sewage flow will be controlled by the magnetic flow meter provided in the pipe
work.

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


2. Secondary Biological Treatment
The secondary biological treatment comprises of distribution chamber 3,
Anoxic tanks, Aeration tanks, Distribution chamber-4 and secondary clarifiers. The
treatment comprises anoxic and aerobic treatment using activated sludge process
under extended aeration mode. The system is designed for carbonaceous BOD
removal with nitrification and degree of de-nitrification. In future, when the plant is to
be upgraded for achieving 10mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen in the plant effluent, the anoxic
tank volume will have to be increased accordingly.
(a) Distribution chamber-3
The distribution chamber is rectangular in shape and of size 18m
3.9m 1.03m LD and is built integral with Distribution chamber-2. Distribution
chamber-3 consists of three compartments and each compartment receives
equal share of de-gritted sewage along with filtrate from distribution chamber2. RAS channel enters the distribution chamber-3 where the degritted sewage
and filtrate mix with the RAS. At present, return activated sludge is designed
for 50%-100% recycle. These three mixed streams then enter the 3 anoxic
tanks via three independent channels provided with liquor from future MLSS
tank also enters the same RAS channel/ chamber and the combined flow of
RAS and mixed liquor will get equally split over the 3 Nos. notches in the RAS
channel/ chamber.
Adequate space is earmarked upstream of Anoxic Tanks for the future
expansion of anoxic tank. Each Anoxic tank is fitted with 5 nos. of 600 SN SI
puddle pipes with blind flanges flushing with the IL of inlet launder, for
connecting to the future anoxic tanks, at the bottom invert level.
(b) Anoxic Tanks
This unit is provided as a combined unit in construction with the
aeration tank. The unit is rectangular in shape. 3Nos. of anoxic tanks are
provided of size 37.2m 7.02m 3.99m LD of each. Each tank is provided
with 3 Nos., slow speed low-shear submersible mixers, so that the solids are
kept in suspension and facilitate the denitrification process in the tank. The
sewage enters the anoxic tank through an overflow weir and after
Page 26

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


denitrification the sewage enters the aeration tanks at the bottom under the
overhanging baffle, running full width of the aeration tanks. Thus the flow at
aeration tanks will get evenly distributed.
(c) Aeration Tanks
Three Nos. of aeration tanks are provided to oxidize the organic matter
by Extended Aeration Process. The tanks are rectangular in shape. The size
of each aeration tank is 148.8 m 37.2 m 3.99m LD. Each tank is provided
with 16 Nos. Of fixed type surface
Aerators of capacity 50 HP each. The capacity of aerators provided in
each tank is also adequate to ensure good mixing conditions in the aeration
tanks. The tanks are provided with platforms constructed on columns and
beams to approach the surface aerators.
Aerators are of Vertical, fixed, slow speed type driven by electrical
motor and helical gear box assembly and are supported on platforms. It is
possible to move the aerator assembly up or down by about 150mm.
Necessary access to the aerator platforms and aeration tank are provided by
walkway. An online DO monitoring system is provided in each aeration tank.
The mixed liquor from aeration tank will overflow the outlet weir, and will be
received at the distribution chamber-4 and from there it will be distributed
equally to each of the secondary clarifiers. Two Nos. of 300 DN DI pipes with
blind flanges are provided at the bottom IL of each Aeration tank at the outlet
end for the purpose of reticulating the MLSS to future anoxic tank via a future
MLSS recirculation tank, for which adequate space is provided.
d) Distribution Chamber-4
The distribution chamber 4 will handle the mixed liquor from aeration
tank, bio-sludge from secondary clarifiers and treated sewage overflow from
secondary clarifiers. The chamber comprises of channels and compartments
with necessary isolation gates for proper routing of the above said flows.
The mixed liquor from aeration tank outlet will enter the central
compartment of the distribution chamber through a duct. The mixed liquor
Page 27

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


overflows into the circular channel provided with flow separation walks to
divide the total flow into equal flows to each of the secondary clarifier (6 Nos.
of secondary clarifier are provided) by means of providing equal weir lengths.
Each mixed liquor channel to a secondary clarifier is provided with isolation
gate.
Two common collection compartments are provided concentric to the
above central mixed liquor compartment to receive the bio-sludge from the
secondary clarifiers. Two Nos. concentric outer circular bio-sludge collection
channels receive the bio-sludge from two no secondary clarifiers into each of
the collection channel. The bio-sludge collected in each of the above
collection channel will be routed to inlet bend of common bio-sludge
compartments where the remaining two secondary clarifiers bio-sludge is
also received. The inlet end of common bio-sludge compartments is provided
with isolation gates to route the bio-sludge on either side of the central mixed
liquor compartment. The sludge will be further collected in the common outlet
compartment provided with isolation gates and routed to RAS suction sump.
The overflow from the secondary clarifiers will be collected in the
outermost peripheral channel of the concentric circular compartments and
routed to chlorine contact tank.
e) Secondary Clarifier
Six secondary clarifiers each of 97m dia 3.5m SWD are provided for
plant. The clarifiers are of circular radial flow type. The mechanism is provided
with slip-ring assembly and torque overload device for safety.
The distributed mixed liquor enters the clarifiers through dedicated
mortar lines MS pipes encased in reinforced concrete laid under the floor of
the tank up to the central piers of the clarifiers. The central feed well shall be
above the maximum sewage level and designed to prevent short-circuiting. A
surface scum baffle mechanism to remove floating sludge / oil & grease is
provided with scum board made up of GRP, about 75mm away from the
overflow weir. The overflow launders are provided inside the clarifiers shall be
governed by considering one clarifier, out of operation.
Page 28

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


The sludge settled, at the bottom of clarifier tank is swept by the rake
mechanism so that the sludge is collected in bottom sludge hopper. Then the
sludge scrapper discharges the settled sludge through the sludge discharge
pipe provided at the bottom of classifier that in turn conveys the sludge
through telescopic valve arrangement to distribution chamber-4 and from
there it is routed to RAS wet well.
The overflow from all the secondary clarifier is collected in the
distribution chamber-4 and from there it is routed to sampling chamber,
through channel. And automatic sampler is installed at sampling chamber for
enabling flow proportionate automated sampling of treated sewage.

3. Disinfection
The disinfection of biologically treated sewage for pathogenic microorganisms comprises of Chlorine Mixing Tank, Chlorine Contact Tank, Parshall flume
and chlorination Building.
a) Chlorine mixing Tank
The tank is square in shape. The tank size is 4.2m 4.2m 3m LD. The
secondary treated sewage will be received in chlorine mixing tank and chlorine
is dosed at a regulated flow rate. The tank is provided with mixer for enabling
the chlorine will dosed through diffuses provided in the tank. The sewage is
then routed to chlorine tank.
b) Chlorine contact Tank
The chlorine contact tank is provided in three modules, and each size of
30m 10m 3.5m LD. The tanks are provided with RCC baffle walls and
inlet/outlet arrangements. Gates are provided at the inlet of each of the
chlorine contact tank for isolation purpose. The tanks are designed for a
hydraulic retention time of 60minutes at average flow. The sewage level in the
tank is maintained constant with the help of outlet weir.
c) Parshall flume
An open channel flow measurement is provided at the combined outlet of
chlorine contact tank to measure the treated sewage flow. The Parshall flume
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


acts as a velocity control device, so that the treated sewage is discharged
without turbulence. The ultrasonic flow meter with totalizer measures the
unfluctuating liquid depths to give accurate measurement of the average
sewage flow. The chlorinated treated sewage channel and the bypass RCC
NP3 pipe from distribution chamber-2 are laid side by side for discharging the
treated sewage/bypassed degritted sewage to the Vrishabhavathi valley, for
disposal.
d) Chlorination Building
Chlorination building is provided with a toner room (23m 9m) and an
adjacent chlorinator room (9m 4m) with no interconnecting door. The toner
room is provided with heavy-duty abrasion resistant tile flooring. The chlorine
building is provided with access ramp for enabling loading / unloading for
toners from the trunks. The chlorine house is provided with necessary crane
facility for lifting of tonners and weighing the tonners.
The chlorination system is provided with chlorinators (1W + 1SB) each of
40kg/hr. capacities and designed as Fail-Safe mode. i.e., closing down of any
duty chlorinator either by failure of gas or operating water supply will raise the
alarm on the control panel.
The alarm System is provided in the chlorination building / control room.
The alarm is provided with the facility to indicate any low pressure in the
system.
Water will be supplied by two nos of motive water pumps (1W + 1SB),
with interconnecting pipe works, valves, pressure gauges etc., the building is
equipped with chlorine leak detectors, which will start the fans and raise alarm
at low level concentration of 2mg/m3 and shut down the chlorination systems
and stop the exhaust fans at high level concentration of 4mg/m3 the room is
equipped with safety equipment and safety gears and a neutralization pit. The
neutralization pit is provided with lime solution in the toner room, and is
suitable for placing two toners. A suitably sized mixer is provided in the lime pit
for effective agitation of lime solution.

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


4. Sludge Handling & Recycling System
The sludge handling system includes RAS sump & pumps, Surplus Anoxic
tank, Sludge thickener, Thickened sludge sump & pumps, Centrifuge, dewatering
polyelectrolyte (DWPE) dosing system, sludge drying beds, Filtrate sump and
pumps.
The sludge handling system is designed for average flow and load of sewage,
and for 16 hours operation of dewatering system. In case of maximum suspended
solids present in average sewage flow, the centrifuge shall operate for 18.4 hours.
The polyelectrolyte dosing system is designed to store the prepared solution for 18.4
hours of operation of centrifuge, as may be required.
a) RAS sump & pumps
These units have wet well & dry well. The wet well is provided concentric
with the distribution chamber-4, at its outer periphery in the form of an
annular ring and connected to the suction camp. The dimension of RAS
wet well provided is 18m outer 6.8 m inner 6.8 m inner 2m LD. The
RAS wet well is in two compartments, each compartment is provided with
the sluice gate for isolation facility the settled sludge from the secondary
clarifier is collected to this RAS sump hydrostatically through telescopic
discharge valve. At the outlet of this wet well a common suction sump is
provided for pumping back the RAS to Anoxic/Aeration tank. The RAS
pumps are vertical centrifugal pumps and are installed dry well. 4 Nos.
RAS pumps each of 1626 m3/h capacity are provided (2W + 2SB), so that
at Anoxic/Aeration tank the flow can be varied from 50% to 100% of the
average flow at any time. A magnetic flow meter on the common discharge
header of RAS pumps to provide to regulate the RAS flow to
Anoxic/Aeration tank. The excess sludge will be diverted to surplus sludge
anoxic tank.

Page 31

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


b) Surplus Sludge Anoxic Tank
The tank size is 12m 5.2m 3.5m LD. The tank will receive the
excess bio-sludge from the RAS pumps and part of the degritted sewage
conveyed by gravity from the distribution chamber-1, the tank is provided
with a slow speed low shear submersible mixers to prevent solid from
settling. The well mixed and denitrified surplus sludge will equally overflow
the weirs into a splitter box provided with cascading steps, so that nitrogen
dissolved in the anoxic sludge is stripped out equal quantity of sludge is fed
to two no. of sludge thickeners provided for thickening.
c) Sludge Thickener
Two no. of sludge thickeners are provided with size of 20m Dia 4m
SWD. The sludge withdrawal pipe is connected to telescopic discharge
pipe, so that the sludge is withdrawn hydrostatically and routed to
thickened sludge sump.
The thickeners are provided with surface scum removal mechanism to
skim the floating sludge/oil % grease. The scum baffle is placed at 75mm
from the overflow weir. The thickeners are provided with adjustable
overflow V-Notch weir as described in secondary clarifier and the overflow
launders are provided outside the tank. The thickener is provided with a full
diameter bridge at Centre for supporting the drive assembly and walkway
up to Centre.
d) Thickened Sludge sump & pumps
This unit has wet well & dry well, the thickened sludge sump is
rectangular in shape and size is 4.5m 4.5m 2.5m LD. The thickened
sludge from the sludge thickener will be collected in this sump and agitated
with a paddle type agitator to prevent solids from settling.
,

Page 32

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Figure 3.1 screen chamber at Mylasandra STP

Figure 3.2 sludge thickener at Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Page 33

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Figure 3.3 thickened sludge pump house at Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Figure 3.4 RAS wet well at Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Page 34

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Figure 3.5 sludge drying beds at Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Figure 3.6 secondary clarifier at Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Page 35

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Figure 3.7 secondary clarifier at Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Figure 3.8 distribution chamber at Mylasandra Treatment Plant

Page 36

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

CHAPTER 4
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Page 37

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


4.1 SAMPLING DETAILS:
4.1.1 Sampling Locations:
The sampling points where the samples collected in the Sewage Treatment
Plant were at the inlet of grit chamber S 1, outlet of grit chamber S 2, outlet of aeration
tank S3 and outlet of secondary clarifier S4 (treated water) as indicated in fig 4.1

S1
Screening

Raw effluent

D C- 1

Grit
chambe
r
D C2

S3
D C- 4

Secondar
y clarifier

Aeratio
n tank

Anoxic
zone

RAS
Wet
well

RAS
Pump
house

D C- 3

Sludge
thickener

S4

Disinfecti
on units

Sludge
drying
beds

Sampling
chamber

Sampling points

Filtrate
sump

DC - Distribution Chamber

Figure 4.1: Flow chart of Sewage Treatment Plant showing the sampling
stations.

Page 38

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


4.1.2 Sample Containers:
The samples for analysis were collected in 2 litre plastic (polyethylene)
bottles and 300mL glass BOD bottles for BOD determination. The containers were
previously rinsed with hot water, acid and distilled water. The bottle containing the
sample was labelled with the name of the sample, details of the type of sample,
place, date and time of sampling.

4.1.3 Duration and Period of Sampling:


The details regarding the Sewage treatment plant was collected on
12/11/2015 and samples at different sampling points were collected on i.e.
17/11/2015, 23/11/2015, and 27/11/2015.

4.1.4 Sample Collection (Grab Sampling):


Grab samples are collected at a specific spot at a site over a short period of
time (typically seconds or minutes). Samples are collected using grab sampling.
By adding manganous sulphate solution and Alkali-iodide azide reagent,
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) of the wastewater sample was fixed in 300mL BOD bottles
at the site. It was then sealed firmly with an air tight stopper and taken into the
laboratory for DO determination.

Page 39

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


4.2 Analysis of Samples:
Grab samples were collected at different sampling points of the Sewage
treatment plant and analysis of the samples has been done by instrumental
methods. Analysis of various parameters,were done in Environmental Engineering
Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE, according to the standard
procedures as shown in Table 4.2.1. Some of the equipments used in the analysis of
the effluent were BOD incubator, hot air oven, weighing balance, etc.

SL
NO
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

UNITS OF

PARAMETER

MEASUREMENT

pH
Total Suspended
Solids (TSS)
Total Dissolved Solids
(TDS)
Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (BOD5)
Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD)
Chlorides

METHODS AND
INSTRUMENTS
ADOPTED

Water Analyzer kit

mg/L

Gravimetric method

mg/L

Gravimetric method

mg/L

Winklers method

mg/L

Closed reflux method

mg/L

Mohrs method

Table 4.2.1: Sewage parameters analyzed and the methods/instruments


adopted to determine them.

Page 40

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


The variation of certain characteristics such as pH, Total Suspended Solids
(TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD 5),
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Chlorides, at different sampling points for the
study phase are represented graphically as in Fig no
The overall performance of the sewage treatment plant is tabulated in table
no. 5.3.1 and represented graphically.

Page 41

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

CHAPTER 5
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Page 42

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:
The Mylasandra Sewage Treatment Plant with a capacity of 75 MLD is in
working condition serving the objectives of the design. The STP receives domestic
sewage from sewer lines from the contributing localities. Apart from the sewer lines
approximately, 12 MLD of sewage, from the residences and commercial
establishments

from

the

contributing

localities

is

pumped

from

ISPS

Subramanyapura Pump House, located around 8 km away from the STP. The plant
also receives pretreated industrial Wastewater. The Mylasandra STP treats the
sewage and releases it safely into Vrishabhavathi Valley. The plant vastly contributes
in reduction of pollution levels by treating the wastewater that would otherwise find
its way into public spaces.
The sewage in the STP is undergoing biological treatment; the outlet
wastewater quality is maintained as per limits suggested by KSPCB before releasing
into the surface water source. The treated wastewater is purchased by industries
and developers for non-consumptive purposes on payment basis. Since the majority
of contribution to the STP is from domestic sewage, the sludge produced will be
highly organic in nature. The dried sludge, which is rich in nutrients are sold for
agricultural practices which fetches revenue .
The flow in the STP from one point to other during treatment processes is
under gravity, so less power is consumed. Moreover the plant has employed Diesel
Generators to run during emergency power failures. The SCADA (Supervisory
Control and Data Acquisition) software system helps in monitoring and efficient
control.
The maintenance procedure is carried out on regular basis in order to prevent
any damage and check the efficiency of all the units. Periodic monitoring of the
performance of the STP is checked by KSPCB.

Page 43

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

5.1 Waste Water Analysis:


The performance analysis studies on the Mylasandra Sewage Treatment plant,
located on the periphery of Vrishabhavathi Valley conducted for a period of 4 days
(alternate), indicated a positive efficiency of the system. The results analyzed for
selected parameters (pH, DO, TSS, BOD5, COD and Chlorides) at the four sampling
points i.e. at the inlet of grit chamber, at aeration tank 1 and 2 and outlet of
secondary clarifier are presented in the below Tables.

Parameter
pH
DO in mg/L
TSS in mg/L
BOD5 in mg/L
COD in mg/L
Chlorides in mg/L
Oil and Grease

S1
7.00
230
280
425
160.00
BDL

S2

S3

S4

7.14
1.1
2700
120

7.18
2.0
2750
78

159.00

157.40

7.24
4.2
7.0
8.14
27
155.50

BDL

BDL

BDL

Table 5.1.1: The wastewater characteristics in different sampling points on


17/11/2015
Parameter
pH
DO in mg/L
TSS in mg/L
BOD5 in mg/L
COD in mg/L
Chlorides in mg/L
Oil and Grease

S1
7.16
260
340
526.68
134
BDL

S2

S3

S4

7.20
1.6
3780
142

7.22
1.8
3810
82

132.50

129.75

7.28
4.0
11
10.25
59.4
128.50

BDL

BDL

BDL

Table 5.1.2: The wastewater characteristics in different sampling points on


23/11/2015

Parameter
pH
DO in mg/L

S1
7.50

S2
7.14
1.2
Page 44

S3
7.17
1.9

S4
7.23
4.2

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


TSS in mg/L
BOD5 in mg/L
COD in mg/L
Chlorides in mg/L

190
320
516
150

2300
128

2350
82

142.50

135.75

6.0
7.4
32
134.50

Oil and Grease

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

Table 5.1.3: The wastewater characteristics in different sampling points on


27/11/2015
The results of analysis for parameters such as pH, DO, Total Suspended Solids
(TSS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD 5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD),
and Chlorides at the four sampling points i.e. at the inlet of grit chamber, at aeration
tank 1 and 2, outlet of secondary clarifier.

7.6
7.5
7.4
7.3
7.2
7.1

17/11/2015

23/11/2015

27/11/2015

7
6.9
6.8
6.7
1

Figure 5.1.1: Variation of pH at different sampling points

Page 45

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


4500
4000
3500
3000
2500

17/11/2015

2000

27/11/2015

23/11/2015

1500
1000
500
0
1

Figure 5.1.2: Variation of TSS at different sampling points

400
350
300
250

17/11/2015
23/11/2015

200

27/11/2015
150
100
50
0
1

Figure 5.1.3: Variation of BOD at different sampling point

Page 46

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


180
160
140
120
17/11/2015

100

23/11/2015

80

27/11/2015

60
40
20
0
1

Figure 5.1.4: Variation of Chlorides at different sampling points

5.2 PERFORMANCE OF EACH UNIT IN TREATMENT:


The wastewater is treated in various units of sewage treatment plant such as
screening, grit chamber, aeration tank and secondary clarifier. The percentage of
pollution load removed for parameters such as Total Suspended Solids (TSS),
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and
Chlorides in various units of sewage treatment plant is calculated by taking an
average of three days (17/11/2015, 23/11/2015, 27/11/2015) analysis.
The aeration tank in the STP is considered a most important step in Activated
sludge process and the priority was intended to increase the dissolved oxygen level
of sewage so that the efficient aerobic digestion facilitates decomposition of organic
matter. This has to be ensured because of low DO content in the influent. In
Mylasandra STP, the DO in aeration tank ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 mg/L, indicating
satisfactory working of the unit.

Page 47

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


Efficiency of the aeration tank was calculated by considering percentage reduction of
BOD. The average effluent value of BOD in aeration tank was 80.66 mg/L during
analysis. The percentage removal of BOD after the aeration tank was 74.25%.
At the secondary clarifier of Mylasandra Treatment Plant, the concentration of
Total suspended solids, COD, chlorides and BOD 5 were between 6-11mg/L, 27- 59.4
mg/L, 128.50- 155.50mg/L, 7.4- 10.25 mg/L respectively. pH varied from 7.23 to
7.28. The efficiency of BOD removal in secondary clarifier is 89.33% confirming the
efficiency of the secondary clarifier and its suitability to be discharged. The higher
DO values confirmed the above observation.

Table no. 5.2.1: Efficiency of units


Parameters
TSS

Aeration tank
_

Secondary clarifier
99.7%

BOD5

74.25%

89.33%

COD

76.77%

73.33%

DO

Increase in DO Increase
to 1.9

in

DO

content to 4.2

5.3 Overall Efficiency of STP:


The removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, and Total Suspended Solids were
determined to be 97.32%, 91.23%, 96.22%, respectively. The overall efficiency is in
the order, COD < TSS < BOD in Mylasandra STP.
The Performance of ASP (aeration tank and secondary clarifier) was nearly upto
the mark. The BOD Removal Efficiency along the treatment units were analyzed and
following results were obtained.
Figure 5.1.3 shows average BOD concentrations at various levels of treatment.
Sample A represents influent sewage, collected from the inlet chamber. Sample B is
the sewage leaving the aeration tank. Sample C was collected from the secondary
clarifiers. Sample B and C were composite samples from two aeration tanks and 4
secondary clarifiers respectively. The effluent from the treatment plant has a BOD
Page 48

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


concentration well below the standards prescribed by BARC and KSPCB.
The Chlorination Units in the Sewage Treatment Plant are not operated, since
there are no end users for consumptive purposes and the treated sewage is again
disposed to V-Valley. The Chlorination will be essential to be employed to disinfect
the treated sewage before supplying to the end user for consumption purposes. The
chlorinated treated sewage on disposal into the Valley does not serve the purpose of
Disinfection and also turns uneconomical and might also poses threat to aquatic life
in the Vrishavhavathi Valley.
The treated wastewater can be safely discharged into streams, rivers, or wetland
or it can be reused for non-consumptive domestic purposes like gardening and
flushing purposes. Currently, developers from Global Village and few industries are
utilizing the treated wastewater from the STP on a regular basis. The quantity of
sludge generated in the sludge drying beds, which is very rich in nutrients can be
used as an excellent replacement for chemical fertilizers.
Table no. 5.3.1: Overall removal efficiency of STP
Parameters

Overall Removal Efficiency

BOD5

97.32%

COD

91.23%

TSS

96.22%

Efficiency of Units
120
100
80
Efficiency in %

60
40
20
0

TSS

BOD

Page 49

COD

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


Figure 5.1.5: The Performance of Sewage treatment plant units with
Respect to various parameters.

Overall Removal Efficiency


100
90
80
70
60
Efficiency of STP (%)

50
40
30
20
10
0

BOD

COD

TSS

Figure 5.1.6: The Overall Performance of Sewage treatment plant with


Respect to various parameters.

CONCLUSIONS:

The Outlet wastewater quality is satisfying the disposal limits prescribed by


KSPCB for Treated Sewage effluent.

The STP is running at an overall BOD efficiency of 97.32%. The Overall


efficiency of STP is in the order of COD < TSS < BOD.

The STP is currently operating at an average flow of 71MLD, but the plant has
the capability to treat 75MLD of wastewater, with the same performance.
Page 50

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

The quantity of sludge generated is composted and used in agricultural


practices as manure, which can be a better replacement for chemical
fertilizers.

REFERENCES Alter this page


1. V. C. Kumar, Executive Engineer, BWSSB; Presentation on Status of Water
and Sanitation in Bangalore

where

2. Assessment of the Efficiency of Sewage Treatment Plants: A Comparative


Study between Nagasandra and Mailasandra Sewage Treatment Plants.
Ravi Kumar, P., Liza Britta Pinto, Somashekar, R.K. Department of Environmental

Science, Bangalore University, Bangalore

Page 51

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


3. Santosh Kumar Garg (2012), Environmental engg. Vol. II,

4. Sewage Disposal and Air pollution Engineering, Khanna publishers, New


Delhi

5. Colmenarejo, M. F., Rubio, A., Sanchez, E., Vicente, J., Gracia, M. G. and
Bojra, R. 2006. Evaluation of municipal wastewater treatment plants with
different technologies at Las-Rozas, Madrid (Spain). J. Environmental
Management, 81 (4), 339404.

6. CPHEEO,

Central

Public

Health

and

Environmental

Engineering

Organization.1993. Manual on sewerage and sewage treatment (2nd ed.).


New Delhi: Ministry of Urban Development.

7. Metcalf and Eddy Inc., (1991), Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal


and Reuse, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi .
8. Addressing water stress through wastewater reuse: Complexities and
challenges in Bangalore, India, PriyankaJamwal, Bejoy K. Thomas,
SharachchandraLele, VeenaSrinivasan
ANNEXURE
1. DETERMINATION OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD5)
Aim: To determine the Biochemical oxygen demand of the given sample(s).
Apparatus: 300ml BOD bottles, BOD incubator.
Reagents:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Phosphate buffer solution


Magnesium sulphate solution
Calcium chloride solution
Ferric chloride solution
Sodium sulphite solution
Alkali iodide azide reagent
Manganous sulphate solution
Page 52

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


8 Concentrated sulphuric acid (36 N)
9 Starch indicator
10 Standard sodium thiosulphate solution (0.025N)

Procedure:
Preparation of dilution water
a. The sources of dilution water may be distilled water or tap water free of
biodegradable organics and bio-inhibitory organics such as chlorine or heavy
metals.
b. Aerate the required volume of dilution water in a suitable bottle by bubbling
clean filter compressed air for sufficient time to attain DO saturation at room
temperature at 20C / 27C. Before use stabilize the water at 20C / 27C.
c. Add 1mL each of phosphate buffer, magnesium sulphate, calcium chloride
and ferric chloride solutions for every liter of dilution water and mix well.
Quality of dilution water may be checked by incubating a BOD bottle full of
dilution water for 5 days at 20C or 3 days at 27C. DO uptake of dilution
water should not be more than 0.2 mg/L and preferably not more than 0.1
mg/L.
d. For wastes which are not expected to have sufficient microbial population,
seed is essential. Preferred seed is effluent from a biological treatment
system. Where this is not available, supernatant from domestic wastewater
(domestic sewage) settled at room temperature for at least 1 h but not longer
than 36 hours is considered sufficient in the proportion 1-2mL/L of dilution
water. Adopted microbial population can be obtained from the receiving water
body preferably 3-8 km below the point of discharge. In the absence of such
situation, develop an adapted seed in the laboratory.
e. Determine BOD of the seeding material. This is seed control. From the value
of seed control determine seed DO uptake. The DO uptake of seeded dilution
water should be between 0.6 mg/L and 1 mg/L.
Sample preparation
a. Neutralize the sample to pH 7, if it is highly acidic or alkaline.
b. The sample should be free from residual chlorine. If it contains residual
chlorine remove it by using Na2S2O3 solution as described below.

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


c. Take 50mL of the sample and acidify with addition of 10mL 1 + 1 acetic acid.
Add about 1 g KI. Titrate with 0.025N Na 2S2O3, using starch indicator.
Calculate the volume of Na 2S2O3 required per Litre of the sample and
accordingly add to the sample to be tested for BOD.
d. Certain industrial wastes contain toxic metals, e.g. plating wastes. Such
samples often require special study and treatment.
e. Bring samples to 20+1C before making dilutions.
f. If nitrification inhibition is desired, add 3mg 2-chloro-6- (trichloro methyl)
pyridine (TCMP) to each 300mL bottle before capping or add sufficient
amounts to the dilution water to make a final concentration of 30mg/L. Note
the use of nitrogen inhibition in reporting results.
g. Samples having high DO content, DO > 9 mg/L should be treated to reduce
the DO content to saturation at 20C. Agitate or aerate with clean, filtered
compressed air.

Dilution of sample
Dilutions that result in a residual DO of at least 1 mg/ L and DO uptake of at
least 2 mg/L produce reliable results. Make several dilutions of the pre-treated
sample so as to obtain about 50% depletion of DO or DO uptake of 2 mg/L. Prepare
dilutions as follows: Siphon out half the required volume of seeded dilution water in a
graduated cylinder or volumetric flask without entraining air. Add the desired quantity
of mixed sample and dilute to the appropriate volume by siphoning dilution water.
Mix well with plunger type mixing rod to avoid entraining air. General guidelines for
dilution range are as follows:
0.1% to 1%: Strong trade waste
1% to 5%: Raw or settled sewage
5% to 25%: Treated effluent
25% to 100%: River Water.

Sample processing

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


a. Siphon the diluted or undiluted sample in three labeled bottles and stopper
immediately.
b. Keep 1 bottle for determination of the initial DO and incubate 2 bottles at 20C
for 5 days/27C for 3 days. See that the bottles have a water seal.
c. Prepare a blank in triplicate by siphoning plain dilution water (without seed) to
measure the O2 consumption in dilution water.
d. Also prepare a seed blank in triplicate to measure BOD of seed for correction
of actual BOD.
e. Determine DO in the sample and in the blank on initial day and end of
incubation period by Winkler method as described for DO measurement.
Calculation:
Calculate BOD of the sample as follows:
a. When dilution water is not seeded
BOD as O2, mg/L = (D1 D2) * 100/ % Dilution.
b. When dilution water is seeded
BOD as O2, mg/L = (D1 D2) (B1 B2) * 100/ % Dilution.
c. When seed material is added to sample or to seed control
BOD as O2, mg/L = (D1 D2) (B1 B2) * 100/ % Dilution.
Where,
D1 = DO of sample immediately after preparation, mg/L
D2 = DO of sample after incubation period, mg/L
B1 = DO of blank (seeded dilution water) before incubation, mg/L
B2 = DO of blank (seeded dilution water) after incubation, mg/L
F = Ratio of seed in diluted sample to seed in seed control (Vol. of seed in
diluted sample / vol. of seed in seed control)
B1 = DO of seed control before incubation, mg/L
B2 = DO of seed control after incubation, mg/L

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


2. DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) BY CLOSED
REFLUX METHOD
Aim: To determine the COD of given sample using COD digester.
Apparatus:
a. Digestion vessels with premixed reagents and other accessories commercially
b.

available.
Borosilicate culture tubes 16 x 100 mm, 20 x 150 mm or 25 x 150 mm with

TF and lined screw caps.


c. Borosilicate ampule 10mL cap - 19 to 20 mm diameter.
d. Block heater to operate at 150 + 2C with holes to accommodate digestion
vessels. Care for culture tube caps required.
e. Micro-burette
f. Ampule sealer
Reagents:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Standard potassium dichromate digestion solution 0.01667M.


Sulphuric acid reagent.
Ferroin indicator solution.
Standard ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) titrant, approximately 0.1M.

Procedure:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Treatment of sample with COD of >50 mg/L.


Blend sample if suspended matter is present.
Wash culture tubes and caps with 20% H2SO4 before first use.
Refer the following to select analytical parameters for proper sample and

e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.

reagent volume.
Place sample in culture tube or ampule.
Add digestion mixture.
Carefully run sulphuric acid reagent down inside of vessel.
Tightly cap the tubes or seal ampules. Invert several times for proper mixing.
Place tubes or ampules in preheated reaction block digester.
Reflux for 2 h at 150C behind a protective shield.
Cool to room temperature.
Remove caps and put TFE covered magnetic stirrer.
Titrate while stirring with FAS using 1 or 2 drops of ferrous indicator.
The end point is from blue-green to reddish brown.
Reflux and titrate blank in similar way with distilled water.

Digestion
Vessel

Sample
mL

Digestion
Solution mL

Sulphuric Acid
Reagent mL

Culture Tubes:
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Total Final
Volume mL

Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


16 x 100 mm

2.50

1.50

3.5

7.5

20 x 150 mm

5.00

3.00

7.0

15.0

25 x 150 mm

10.00

6.00

14.0

30.0

3.5

7.5

Standard 10-mL
Ampules

2.50

1.50

Calculation:
COD as mg O /L = (A-B) * M *8000 / ml of sample.
Where,
A = mL FAS used for blank
B = mL FAS used for sample
M = Molarity of FAS,
8000 = Milli equivalent weight of oxygen x 1000mL/L

3. DETRERMINATION OF CHLORIDES (MOHRS METHOD)


Aim: Determination of chlorides in the given sample.
Apparatus: Conical flasks, Burette, Pipette, Beakers.
Reagents: Standard silver nitrate solution of 0.0141M, Potassium chromate solution.
Procedure:
1. Dilute the given water sample with distilled water into 100ml volumetric flask
up to the mark.
2. Pipette out 25ml of diluted sample into 250ml conical flask.
3. Add 1ml of chromate solution.

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


4. Titrate the sample against 0.0141M silver chloride solution. Although the silver
chloride that forms a white precipitate, the chromate solution initially gives the
cloudy solution of faint lemon-yellow colour.
5. The end point of the titration is identified as the first appearance of reddish
brown colour of silver chromate.
6. Note down the burette reading (A).
7. Repeat the sample procedure for blank and note down the volume of silver
nitrate run down (B).
Calculations:
Chlorides in mg/L = (A B) * 35.45 * 0.0141 * 1000/ ml of sample taken.
Where,
A = Volume of silver nitrate run down for sample, mL.
B = Volume of silver nitrate run down for blank, mL.

4. DETERMINATION OF pH BY WATER ANALYZER KIT.


Aim: To determine the pH of the given samples using water analyzer kit.
Apparatus: pH meter with electrodes.
Reagents: Buffer solutions.
Procedure:
1. Follow the manufacturers operating instructions.
2. Switch on the power supply and calibrate the instrument.
3. After cleaning, dip the electrodes in the buffer solution of pH 4 and pH 9. The
instrument is calibrated.
4. A solution whose pH is to be found out is taken in a beaker and the electrode
is dipped in the solution.
5. The reading on the dial indicates the pH of the solution.
6. Repeat the same for other solutions.

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

5. DETERMINATION OF SOLIDS (GRAVIMETERIC METHOD)


Aim: To determine the following types of solids in the given sample(s).
i.
ii.
iii.

Total solids
Total dissolved solids
Total suspended solids

Apparatus:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Porcelain evaporating dishes of 150-200mL capacity.


Hot air oven.
Desiccators.
Analytical balance.
Steam bath.
Gooch crucible.
Muffle furnace.
Suction apparatus.

Procedure:
Total solids
1. A clean porcelain dish is ignited in a muffle furnace and after partial
cooling in the air; it is cooled in a desiccators and weighed.
2. A 100mL of well mixed sample is placed in the dish and evaporated at
100C on steam bath, followed by drying in oven at 103C for 1 hour.
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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


3. Dry to a constant weight at 103C, cool in a desiccators and weigh.
Total dissolved solids
1. A clean porcelain dish is ignited in a muffle furnace and after partial
cooling in the air; it is cooled in a desiccator and weighed.
2. A 100mL of filtered sample is placed in the dish and evaporated at
100C on steam bath, followed by drying in oven at 103C for 1 hour.
3. Dry to a constant weight at 103C, cool in a desiccators and weigh.
Total suspended solids
1. A clean gooch crucible is ignited in a muffle furnace and after partial
cooling in the air; it is cooled in a desiccators and weighed. (W1)
2. Pour 100mL of well mixed sample on gooch crucible which is kept on
filter flask and apply suction.
3. Wash the gooch crucible with 100mL of distilled water to remove all
soluble salts.
4. Carefully remove the gooch crucible and dry in an oven at 105C for
one hour.
5. Cool in a desiccators and weigh (W2).
Calculations:
i.

Total solids (mg/l) = (A-B)*1000/V


Where,
A = Final weight of the dish in mg.
B = Initial weight of the dish in mg.
V = Volume of sample taken in ml.

ii.

Total dissolved solids (mg/l) = (A-B)*1000/V


Where,
A = Final weight of the dish in mg.
B = Initial weight of the dish in mg.
V = Volume of sample taken in ml.

iii.

Total suspended solids (mg/l) = (W2-W1)*1000/ml of sample taken.


Where,
W1 = Initial weight of the gooch crucible in mg.
W2 = Final weight of the gooch crucible in mg.

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

6. DETERMINATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN


AIM
To determine the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) of the given sample.
APPARATUS
1. 300 mL capacity bottles with
stoppers.
3. Pipettes

2. Burette
4. Beaker

REAGENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Manganoussulphate solution (MnSO 4.4H2O)


Alkali iodide azide reagent
Concentrated sulphuric acid
Starch soluble
Standard sodium thiosulphate solution

PROCEDURE
1. Take 300 mL sample in the bottle.
2. Add 2 mL of manganoussulphate solution and 2 mL of alkali iodide azide
reagent to the bottle containing sample, immersing the pipette well below the
surface of the liquid.
3. Stopper with care to exclude air bubbles and mix by inverting the bottle at
least 15 times.
4. Allow the manganese hydroxide floc to settle down and shale again.
5. After 2 minutes of settling, carefully remove the stopper and immediately add
3 mL concentrated sulphuric acid by allowing the acid to run down the neck of
the bottle.
6. Restopper and mix by gentle inversion until dissolution is complete.
7. Measure 203 mL of the solution from the bottle to an Erlenmeyer flask. As 2
mL each of manganese sulphate and azide reagent have been added, the

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant


proportionate quantity of yellow solution corresponds to 200 mL of sample is

200 300
=203 mL .
3004

8. Titrate this sample with 0.025 N sodium thiosulphatesolution to a pale straw


colour.
9. Add 1 2 mL starch solution and continue the titration until the blue colour
disappears.
10. Note down the volume of sodium thiosulphate consumed which directly gives
the Dissolved Oxygen (D.O) in mg/L

RESULTS
Observations:

Sample

Tria
l

Details

No.

Volume

Burette

Volume of

Dissolved

of the

Reading (mL)

Sodium

Oxygen

Sample
= V mL

Initial

Final

Thiosulphate
rundown (mL)

in mg/L

Calculations:
1mL of 0.025N Sodium Thiosulphate (Na2 S2 O3) is equivalent to 0.2mg of O2
since the volume of the sample is 200mL.
1mL of Sodium Thiosulphate is equivalent to (0.21000/200) mg/L = 1 mg/L

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Performance Analysis of Mylasandra Treatment Plant

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