14 views

Uploaded by Sunil Kumar

Adding filters for harmonic reduction is a common way to
cut harmonic related losses and protect the building power
system. However, the filter type, installation location, load
and source characteristics are all critical to achieving the
desired performance. Using results from [l] and [2], this
paper evaluates different filter types applied at several
locations in a typical office building power system. The paper
compares the filter’s estimated cost and side effects with
expected savings in reduced wiring losses and lower
distortion.

- Improved_power_quality acdc converters.pdf
- PQ.pdf
- EPQ15-16.pdf
- Power Factor Correction
- Power Quality and Utility Interface Issue
- AC-DC converters.pdf
- Three Phase Four Wire Electric Systems
- 250kVA Unified Power Quality Controller
- Harmonic influence on a 3phase distribution transformer
- Transformer Inrush Conditions in Differential Protection Schemes
- ABB PQF Harmonic Filtering
- An Overview of Protection System Analysis 3
- Power Quality Enhancement by Improving Voltage Stability Using Dstatcom
- Unit5.pdf
- UPQC.pdf
- CT183 (Anglais)
- 3phase
- 0300050EN_Power+
- 20111025ecovavariablefreqdrives.pdf
- Harmonic Reduction and Unity Power Factor by Using PWM Controlling In Dc Motor Load

You are on page 1of 7

Jih-Sheng Lai

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Bldg. 9104-2, MS 8058

Oak Ridge, Tennessee 3783 1-8058

Thomas Key

Power Electronics Applications Center

10521 Research Drive, Suite 400

Knoxville, Tennessee 37932

power bills. By looking at the harmonic-related losses in a

specific electrical system-representing a commercial office

building-energy savings and harmonic reduction benefits of

different mitigation measures are quantified. Two single-phase

and three three-phase active and passive harmonic filters are

added to a typical building electrical system and evaluated by

computer simulation. Current and voltage distortions are

computed, and the estimated cost of these filters are compared to

the predicted loss savings in a power system where harmonic

currents are not compensated. Results show some harmonic

compensating filters are effective and others are not, depending

on the filter type and location in the building.

I. INTRODUCTION

Harmonic currents come from electronic equipment

employing an input rectifier supplying a dc-link storage or

ripple-smoothing capacitor. This type of equipment includes

everything from adjustable-speed motor drives and fluorescent

lighting to personal computers and home electronics.

Harmonic currents do not upset end-use equipment as much as

they load neutral conductors and transformers, and in general

result in additional heat losses and reduced power factor in the

electrical power system components that must handle these

currents.

Heating problems have occurred in commercial buildings

where there is an increased use of electronic-type equipment

and a trend to higher loading in ova per square foot. Office

buildings that were designed for a relatively light plug load in

the 1960s and 70s are often overloaded by electronic

equipment today,

There are several reasons for this trend. One is the

growing use of electronic equipment, even replacing

conventional loading such as lighting and office machines.

Another is an increased demand factor because many of these

electronic equipment are left on a high percentage of the time.

Also, when all the harmonic currents are taken into account,

these appliances can have a very low power factor. And unlike

large data processing systems, located in specially designed

and powered rooms, these electronic appliances tend to be

distributed on existing branch circuits.

0-7803-3544-9196 $5.00 0 1996 IEEE

cut harmonic related losses and protect the building power

system. However, the filter type, installation location, load

and source characteristics are all critical to achieving the

desired performance. Using results from [ l ] and [2], this

paper evaluates different filter types applied at several

locations in a typical office building power system. The paper

compares the filters estimated cost and side effects with

expected savings in reduced wiring losses and lower

distortion.

SYSTEM MODEL

Fig. 1 shows a typical commercial office building wiring

system and the voltage and current profiles under mixed linear

and nonlinear loads. Transformer loading is assumed to be

50%, and the three phases are well balanced. The major

harmonic contributor is switch-mode power supplies (SMPS)

used in personal computers. The losses in the building wiring

serving these computers, and the potential for loss reduction

from harmonic elimination at different locations in the

building, were calculated in [11.

In this model single-phase computer loads are fed by 20A branch circuits with separate neutrals, line segment #l.The

total harmonic distortion (THD) of each branch circuit current

is about 100%. After adding all the single-phase branches and

tying three neutrals together, the current THD in the phase

conductor drops a fractional percentage due to asynchronous

switching between different power supplies. The A-Y

transformer further drops the current THD to 30% at the

primary, because the triplen harmonics are canceled at this

point. Note that on line segment #2, the triplen harmonic

currents in the three phases are all added to the neutral, and

the neutral current is higher than the phase current.

Combining with other building loads, both linear and

nonlinear, reduces the current THD on the line segment at the

service entrance to approximately 16%. Other loading at the

three-phase 480-V main bus is assumed to be a 180-kW linear

load, a 55-kW three-phase nonlinear load, and a 5-kW singlephase electronics load. The total loading of the 600-kVA

service transformer is 300 kW plus the building wiring losses.

2244

Service

Entrance

I..

Sub-panels

or Load Center

..............

12A

I

I

I

I

...................,15O%THD

I

I

I

600kVA

377A

16%THD

Branch Circuit

or Cord Connection

- ...................

j 83A

............V'

...L

..?

. 55%THD

L

I

I

I

I

I

b55kW

Built into

60kW

7.8%THD

................

L_

14kVl.l

.................

478.6V71-1

477.2Vi-i

475.4vi-i

205.9vl.l

118.4Vi+,

116.5Vi.,

Fig. 1. A commercial office building wiring system voltage and current profiles under mixed lineair and nonlinear loads with each transformer 50% loaded.

segments and the nature of the load. The distorted current with

low power factor leads to relatively higher losses per watt of

connected load. Without any harmonic compensation, the

highly distorted load currents of computer workstations in Fig.

1 may lead to losses in the building wiring delivery system

that are 2.5 times higher than for an undistorted load current.

Also, the effectiveness of harmonic elimination methods will

be highly dependent on location in the building wiring

according to [I].

The distorted current on each line segment interacts with

the line inductance, causing voltage distortions. Fig. 1 shows

the waveforms, THD and associated rms values of the

voltages and currents in the system. The voltage at the input of

the single-phase SMPS load has the highest THD - 7.8%. It

also presents a flat-topping of the waveshape, which is a

reflection of the rectifier output capacitor voltage. With a

typical SMPS design of 5 % ripple in the dc-link capacitor

voltage, this flat-topping of the voltage waveshape is

commonly seen in all electronic loads.

In this model the upstream system voltages are gradually

smoothed by other types of loads, especially linear loads. At

the service entrance of the modeled system, the voltage THD

is reduced to 2.8%. Note that the source voltage is assumed

as ideal with a 6% equivalent impedance that combines the

600 kVA transformer and the upstream source impedance.

111. HARMONIC

MITIGATION

LOCATIONS

AND THEIR

EQUIPMENT

OPTIONS

electronic equipment that produce them is the most effective

approach. Laboratory work by the authors, reported in [3],

compared several options. The most cost-effective built-in

option is the electronic power factor correction circuit or

boost converteir in a SMPS. Unfortunately, incentives for the

manufacturer to do so are lacking at the present time.

Therefore harmonic filters installed in the building are the

next best option.

The locatilon of the harmonic mitigation equipment has

proven to be critical to its loss reduction. Therefore, it is

interesting to look at where the different international

standards limiting harmonics apply in the power system.

IEEE-519 [4] and IEC-1000-3-2 [ 5 ] , apply different

philosophies, vvhich effectively limit harmonics at different

locations. IEEE 5 19 limits harmonics primarily at the service

entrance while the 1000-3-2 is applied at the terminals of enduser equipment. Therefore IEC limits will tend to reduce

harmonic-related losses in building wiring while IEEE

harmonic limits are designed to prevent interactions between

neighbors and 1he power system. These differences have been

described and analyzed in [6].

2245

commercial office building power system at branch circuit or

cord connection, at sub-panels or load center, and at

service entrance, as indicated by the three dashed lines in

Fig. 1. At the service entrance there is little gain in reducing

wiring losses [l], and thus it is omitted as a harmonic

mitigation option. Mitigation options considered here are two

types of single-phase filters, located at electronic equipment

receptacles, or branch circuit and three types of three-phase

filters located at the sub-panel or load center.

A. Compensation at Branch Circuit or Cord-Connected Level

avoidance of wiring losses is good. However, another

equipment box must be placed in the office area floor space.

This is usually a specialty type equipment and the need for

separate packaging, distribution, and marketing may result in

a relatively high unit cost.

This filter is usually configured as a plug-in convenience

outlet and serves 2 to 4 electronic devices. Fig. 2 shows the

circuit diagram of a commercially available PCRF. The

resonant branch impedance approaches zero when the supply

frequency equals the tuned resonant frequency, i.e., CO=@ =

1 / a . In other words, the current at the resonant frequency

approaches infinity and cancels the designated harmonic

current when the supply frequency equals the resonant

frequency. To mitigate the third harmonic for a single-phase

rectifier-interfaced SMPS, the resonant frequency is tuned to

180 Hz. Because the resonant branch may be overloaded by

the supply-side third harmonic current, a series inductor, Lj, is

normally added to detune the PCRF on the supply-side.

SMPS

This location represents a three-phase system, and the

load size ranges from tens of kilowatts to hundreds of

kilowatts. Installation of harmonic mitigation equipment at

this location requires engineering design to specify and install.

Three types of commercially available harmonic mitigation

equipment will be described in this section.

This filter is connected in the neutral conductor between

the step-down transformer and the circuit panel or load center,

i.e., line #2 in Fig. 1. The harmonic current blocking principle

is the same as that of a single-phase SCRF. Because triplen

harmonics all flow through the neutral conductor, it is

reasonable and economical to block the triplen harmonics in

the neutral instead of individual phases. Fig. 4 shows a neutral

current blocking scheme that connects a third-harmonic tuned

NCF between neutral and ground.

PCRF

r---

V,,

- - - /

1-

00

=

Cr

:1

Lr

- SMPS

: ;

Neutral Harmonic

Blocking Filter

Unlike the PCRF that traps the third harmonic current, the

function of the SCRF is to block the third or other harmonic

currents. It is available as a plug-in filter that serves several

other electronic devices with a typical rating of 6 amps. To

block the third harmonic, the SCRF employs a single-tuned

paralleled LC circuit whose impedance approaches infinity at

the third harmonic frequency. The multi-tuned SCRF connects

several tuned filters in series to block more harmonics. Fig. 3

is a double-tuned SCRF containing a third harmonic tuned LC

circuit, Lr3and Cr3,and a high frequency tuned LC circuit, Lrh

and C,,, to eliminate high-order harmonics.

A special zigzag canceling type auto-transformer (ZZF) is

practical in canceling high 3rd harmonic currents from singlephase loads. The ZZF employs a three-phase auto-transformer

to cancel the triplen harmonic currents and reduce the

upstream neutral currents, as shown in Fig 5. Because all the

triplen harmonic currents (zero sequence currents) are added

to the neutral and flowing from load-side back to source-side

neutral, the parallel-connected auto-transformer can provide a

zero-sequence current path to trap and cancel the triplen

harmonics.

2246

complex auto-transformer can be employed to cancel several

characteristic harmonics. It uses multiple windings with phase

shifting in the primary and a zigzag winding in the secondary,

as described in [7]. In this case the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and higher

order harmonics can be canceled. This is a special application

transformer and may not be economical for the 3rd-harmonic

dominated case. It is therefore not covered in the economic

analysis in this paper.

voltage source converters.

The bask reason for such application restriction is that

the rectifier-capacitor load presents low impedance to the

system, and the shunt filter with inverter switches directly

coupling to the system will have dc link capacitor voltage

interacting with the load-side capacitor voltage, resulting

instability problem. Similarly the current source inverter

presents high impedance to the system, and the current in the

series inductor cannot be regulated instantaneously.

VALUE AND EFFECTIVENESS

---______-

IV

I

non-linear loads.

For the system shown in Fig. 1, the service line segment

fed by the 112.5-kVA transformer is studied throughout this

paper to verify the effectiveness of harmonic mitigation

equipment at two different locations: branch circuit and

load center. We assume that the line and transformer are

approximately 50 percent loaded, i.e. 500 W at each branch

circuit and 60 kW at the load center. Table I describes the

system segments and associated harmonic distortions that are

used for the wiring loss calculation.

TABLEI: SYSTEM CONDITIONS FOR WIRING LOSS CALCULATION

I

I

)

,

In a three-phase power system, the instantaneous

harmonic power can be decomposed by the Park

transformation method and real-time compensated by power

line conditioners [8], [9]. Fig. 6 shows a three-phase active

filter containing a series filter to compensate voltages and a

shunt filter to compensate currents.

I1 Segments

Cable I*:

Cable 12:

2x#12,200ft

4 x #4/0,50ft

Cable 13:

3 x #1/0, 150 ft

ordinary systlem and the system with different types of

harmonic mitigation equipment. A more detailed description

and analysis of harmonic filter models can be found in [2].

Table I1 shows the results of computer simulation and the

associated analyses. All voltage and current THDs were

analyzed over six steady-state cycles of the fundamental. The

rectifier capacitor voltage, Vdc, was calculated by averaging

the steady-state dc bus voltage. The total wiring losses include

line #I, line #.2, transformer TI and line #3, for a total loading

of 60 kW.

The dc-link voltage, vdc, is included here because it is

reduced by peak flattening characteristic of the filter and

directly results in reduction of the SMPS ride-through

capability. Both series connected filters, SCRF and NCF,

cause a significant reduction in the vdc,especially the doubletuned SCRF.

The rms current values shown in Fig. 1 are high relative

to the load rating and show a low power factor. Because the

displacement power factor in a single-phase SMPS load is

close to 1, the harmonic distortion factor becomes the

dominant cause of low power factor. The current THD at the

filter inputs in Table I1 are used as the basis for the wiring loss

calculation in [l]. Table I11 lists the energy savings and line

I

I

I

Load

II@

SeriesFilter

PWM Controlled

Shunt Filter

Ill

Fig. 6. A power line conditioner containing a senes and a shunt active filters

for harmonic voltage and current compensation.

interactions between the filter and the load must be considered

[lo]. The most commonly used APF has been the shunt

type. However, this type of filter is only effective to the

harmonic current sources such as current source converters.

On the other hand, the series type APF is only effective to

2247

analysis results.

TABLE11. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF HARMONIC

MITIGATION METHODS

triplen currents carried in the neutral almost eliminate the

ITent

cancellation In the studied

advantage Of

case, the shared-neutral current is 252 A, three times the

triplen currents of the individual phase.

The following cost-benefit analysis assumes that the cost

of energy is $.lOkWH and the SMPS loads are 240 personal

computers and other related electronic office equipment on

120 branch circuits, operating 12 hours per day, 365 days per

year. Other assumptions are:

Filter Equipment life: 12 years.

Power factor penalty at service entrance: 0%.

Maintenance and repair cost applies only at sub-panel.

Dedicated space cost does not apply to cord connected.

5 . Discount rate per year: 8%.

1.

2.

3.

4.

The single-phase SMPSs are used for the base case loading.

These high or low values are considered the filters side-effects.

The savings are based on the reduction in wiring losses as

percentages of the switch-mode power supply loading.

Without any compensation the losses for a 60-kW switchmode power supply load would be about 8150 watts or

13.6%. For comparison, powering a linear load results in

estimated losses of only 4-5% in the same building wiring

system.

TABLEDI: ENERGY

SAVINGS AND LINELOSSES BY HARMONIC

MITIGATION

METHODS

as part of the life-cycle cost. The period that these losses

occur are considered to be 12 hours per day. However, this

may not be occur for parallel-connected filters unless a control

is provided to turn them off. The need to do this will be

system dependent. In some cases it may be advantageous to

leave them on and in others to turn them off.

Table IV shows the parameters used in the analysis of

costs and energy saving of the different compensation options.

All compensating equipment are rated for a total of 60 kVA,

to match the load requirement. Different filter kVA sizes are

used, depending on the location in the building power circuits.

The per kVA purchase costs of mitigation equipment are

based on available data from practical applications. Costs for

equipment installation, maintenance, and floor space, are also

considered where applicable.

TABLE

Iv: GIVENbVFORMATION FOR HARMONIC

MITIGATION

METHODS

Location

MitigationMethod

at Branch Circuit

at Load Center

PCRF I SCRF NCF I ZZF APF

I

II

model is the step-down transformer, which contains both 12R

copper loss and Z2h2 related eddy-current losses. Here h refers

to the harmonic number. Both of these loss factors are

sensitive to the harmonic current content. The second most

lossy component is the cable segment line # I . This cable is

small, typically a #12 branch circuit, and can be relatively

long. The losses are also increased because the #12 branch

circuits use separate neutrals.

different mitigation methods. The LCC is the sum of cost for

equipment purchase, floor space, installation and the present

value of annual maintenance, repair, and energy consumption

2248

investment, the present valrue of the energy savings is

subtracted. If the life-cycle energy savings is larger than life

cycle filter cost, then the investment will have a pay-back of

less than its life of 12 years.

In the example case none of the filter options will pay

back in the 12-year life, based on energy savings alone. The

cost per day to own each of the filters, and to achieve the

energy savings and other performance advantages, are

included in the Table V. These are based on 12 hours per day

operation 365 day per year. The lowest life-cycle cost option,

the NCF at the panel, has close competition from the two

passive filters located at the branch circuit, PCRF and SCRF.

Other system requirements are likely to tip the scale one way

or the other. The APF will compensate harmonic currents

effectively, but its high cost offsets the estimated energy

savings related to its use.

As indicated in [1], there are other options of mitigating

harmonics for SMPS loads. Perhaps the best option is the

built-in boost converter method, which can reduce the THD

from 100% to 5% and building wiring losses from 13.6% to

5.6%, thus providing an energy savings of about 8%. This

option achieves a pay-back on the investment, about $6 per

125-W supply or $48 per kW ($6 per supply x 8 supplies), in

less than 4 years for the building wiring case shown in Fig 1.

TABLEV . PWSENT VALUE OF DIFFF.RENT FILIER INVESTMEW

II

Location

Mitigation

at Branch Circuit

PCRF

Method

Ib

at $. 1OkWH

OPTIONS

SClRF

at Load Center

NCF

ZZF

APF

$0

$4,038

harmonics but also increases the voltage drop and the line

losses to deliver the remaining components of the load

current.

All the external methods for mitigating harmonics at the

individual load level can be applied at the sub-panel or load

center level, providing an economy of scale. This is true for

passive components such as a tuned filter, e.g. PCRF and

SCRF discussed earlier, a standard delta-wye transformer, or a

special wound transformer. All allow for the use of larger 3phase equipment applied further up stream. This is a big

economic advantage for the equipment first cost per kVA,

however the energy savings in downstream building wiring

may be scarified.

Overall economics of both active and passive type filters

applied in the building wiring generally do not provide a cost

savings. In many cases it will likely cost less to beef up the

power system and live with the harmonics than to clean them

up. If the user intends to live with harmonics than the

increased operating costs, in the form of higher power systems

losses, and the lost circuit capacity need to be checked.

Additional branch circuits may be required to make up for the

reduced circuit capacity. Also, energy savings will be more

important as its cost of energy escalates in the future,

Only a few possible filter options have been selected to

be compared in this paper. New technologies and other

approaches available today may also be viable. Based on the

1

mechanism fior harmonic compensation, specific equipment

configurations, performance features, and pricefkVA, most of

the different harmonic mitigation approaches are covered in

Tables VI and VII. Table VI summarizes passive-type

harmonic elimination equipment options, and Table VI1

summarizes active-type harmonic elimination equipment

options.

II

$4,038

$4,038

$4,038

VI. CONCLUSIONS

$6,057

V. DISCUSSIONS

For parallel-connected filtering devices at the load center,

harmonics are allowed to travel further upstream in the power

system. This leads to higher day to day energy costs that will

accumulate due to Z2R losses in the power system conductors

carrying the oscillating harmonic currents. Conversely for

series-connecteddevices, located at the load center, such as a

series-connected choke or tuned filter, there are increased

losses in the filter itself. These losses are simply the result of

harmonics arle loading building wiring, increasing line losses

and reducing circuit capacity. All the filter options evaluated

reduced the current THD and helped protect the upstream

system voltage. Some significantly reduced the rms current in

the building >wiring,some increased it. There is a wide range

in individual filter performances. The location of installation

is critical to the filter effectiveness. Only filter options located

near the harmonic generating equipment provided a

significant relduction in line losses.

All filters may interact with the power system depending

on the building wiring impedance characteristics relative to

the filter. This interaction will cause variations in

performance, and in some cases, side-effects. As indicated in

Table 11, two major side effects have been observed when

passive filters were used.

2249

Mechanism

dilutes or absorbs

harmonics

restricts harmonics

cancels specific

harmonics

traps a specific

harmonic

traps several

harmonics

I

I

Equipment

Features

existing power system

- uses power system natural tolerance and diversity

capacity to dilute & absorb - relies on system restricting and canceling effects

series inductor at load

- simple and relatively low cost

generally low pass, 19 or 39 - reduce voltage at load

phase shifting transformer at I - three-phase,multi-bridge

load

- complex structure, bulky

series or parallel single

- compensates single harmonic

tuned filter at or near load

- possible under or over compensation, bulky

series or parallel multi-tuned - normally tuned to two adjacent odd harmonic frequencies

filter at or near load

- possible under and over compensation

PricekVA

higher watt losses

and reduced capacity

430

-$loo

19 -$200-400

39 -$30

19 -$200/frequency

39 -$30/frequency

II

Mechanism

cancels harmonic

currents

reshapes voltage

fundamental

cancels current and

voltage harmonics

Equipment

parallel filter at or near load

commonly used topology

series filter at load center

requires a current xformer

series and parallel active

converters at or near load

Features

- suitable for current source converters or current harmonic loads

- compensate harmonic currents in real time

- suitable for voltage source converters or voltage harmonic loads

- real-time compensation of voltage

- real-time compensation of both voltages and currents

- most expensive, commercial products available

input voltage is distorted, and the output dc-link

capacitor voltage is reduced. The line current may be

increased due to a significant voltage drop.

2.

PricekVA

-$500

-$750

-$ 1,000

Supply Power Factor Improvement Via Harmonic

Elimination Methods, in Con$ Rec. of Appl. Pwr

Electr. Conf., Dallas, TX, Mar. 1991, pp. 415-422.

[4] IEEE Standard 5 19, IEEE Recommended Practices

and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric

Power Systems, 1992.

51 International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC 10003-2 Standard Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions,

Mar. 1995.

61 T. S. Key and J. S. Lai, Comparison of Standards and

Power Supply Design Options for Limiting Harmonic

Distortion, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., Jul./Aug.

1993, pp. 688-695.

71 P. J. A. Ling and C. J. Eldridge, Designing Modern

Electrical Systems with Transformers that Inherently

Reduce Harmonic Distortion in a PC-Rich

Environment, Proc. Power Quality, Sep. 1994, pp.

166- 178.

81 H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, Instantaneous

Reactive Power Compensators Comprising Switching

Devices without Energy Storage Components, IEEE

Trans. on Ind. Appl., May 1984, pp. 625-63 1.

[9] F. Z. Peng and J. S. Lai, Generalized Instantaneous

Reactive Power Theory for Three-phase Power

Systems, IEEE Trans. on Instr. and Meas., Feb. 1996,

pp. 293-291.

[lo] F. Z. Peng and J. S. Lai, Application .Considerations

and Compensation Characteristics of Shunt Active and

Series Active Filters in Power Systems, to be

presented at 7th International Con. on Harmonics and

Quality Power, Las Vegas, NV, OCT 16-18, 1996.

input fundamental current is augmented, especially at

light-load conditions.

expected life span, but the NCF has the lowest cost to own.

Perhaps the best justification for a filter in a commercial

building is to avoid the cost of removing loads, up-sizing

dry transformers or adding branch circuits when harmonicrelated overloads occur. These costs are site-specific and

were not included in the analysis. Filter performance and

efficiency may be severely degraded for unbalanced or

abnormal loading conditions.

Future work should aim at filter cost-effectiveness

study at a specific site with consideration of unbalanced or

abnormal loading conditions, different combinations of

linear and nonlinear loads, and different load levels.

REFERENCES

[ l ] T. Key and J. S. Lai, Cost and Benefits of Harmonic

Current Reduction for Switch-Mode Power Supplies in

a Commercial Building, Con. Rec. of IEEE IAS

Annual. Mtg., Orlando, FL, Oct. 1995, pp. 1101-1108.

[2] T. Key and J. S. Lai, Analysis of Harmonic Mitigation

Methods for Building Wiring Systems, to be

presented at the 7th International Con. on Harmonics

and Quality Power, Las Vegas, NV, Oct 16-18, 1996.

2250

- Improved_power_quality acdc converters.pdfUploaded byKunal Arjariya
- PQ.pdfUploaded byGiri Tharan Rock
- EPQ15-16.pdfUploaded byShiv Rx
- Power Factor CorrectionUploaded bybstack10
- Power Quality and Utility Interface IssueUploaded byShandi Cah Yuhui
- AC-DC converters.pdfUploaded byrizwan
- Three Phase Four Wire Electric SystemsUploaded byjos_01
- 250kVA Unified Power Quality ControllerUploaded byDeeksndeeks Deepak
- Harmonic influence on a 3phase distribution transformerUploaded byДејан Пејовски
- Transformer Inrush Conditions in Differential Protection SchemesUploaded byengwazi
- ABB PQF Harmonic FilteringUploaded bygarys
- An Overview of Protection System Analysis 3Uploaded byChinmay Gadre
- Power Quality Enhancement by Improving Voltage Stability Using DstatcomUploaded byesatjournals
- Unit5.pdfUploaded bySanthosh Katkuri
- UPQC.pdfUploaded byCrisp
- CT183 (Anglais)Uploaded bygdgfd
- 3phaseUploaded byTaha Mohammed
- 0300050EN_Power+Uploaded byLuis Giagante
- 20111025ecovavariablefreqdrives.pdfUploaded bymayur456
- Harmonic Reduction and Unity Power Factor by Using PWM Controlling In Dc Motor LoadUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Shunt Compensator for Integration of Wind Farm to Polluted Distribution SystemUploaded byIAEME Publication
- Power Factor report_FinalUploaded byPRC77
- 3Uploaded byRam Kumar
- Aiken-Electric-Coop-Inc-Large-Power-Service---Rate-Schedule-"ISD"Uploaded byGenability
- Introduction Into Power QualityUploaded byStedroy Roache
- Tm Pk501 Scr PowerUploaded byHoang
- A New Single-Phase Soft-Switching Power1Uploaded byharsh10
- Active Harmonic Conditioners and Unity Power Factor RectifiersUploaded byAris Suryadi
- electrical engineering tutorial 3Uploaded byresearch n technology
- 0900766b8001b94cUploaded byRoger Fera

- Simulation and Experimentation of a Voltage Source Active Filter Compensating Current Harmonics and Power Factor.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Modeling and Simulation of 6-Pulse Rectifier Drives with.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- GATE EE-1991Uploaded byG Vignesh Gvs
- Flicker Analysis and Methods for Electric Arc Furnace Flicker (EAF) Mitigation (A Survey).pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- A Comparative Study of Harmonic Current Identification for Active Power FilterUploaded bySunil Kumar
- All About HarmonicsUploaded byKhushal Kharade
- Harmonic Compensation of Commercial and Industrial Power SystemsUploaded bySunil Kumar
- 1-s2.0-S2212017315002662-main.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Relieving Letter - 2.DocxUploaded bySunil Kumar
- HMT for IMprov of Power Quality of Adj DrivesUploaded bySunil Kumar
- HM of v&I Ingrid Connected MicrogridsUploaded bySunil Kumar
- 591680.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- 1-s2.0-S0142061515003622-mainUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Harmonic Distortion in Power Stations Due to FerroresonanceUploaded bySunil Kumar
- A Wavelet-Based Algorithm for Power Quality detection in Electric Arc furnace.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Protection and Relay Schemes.pptUploaded bySaeed Mahmood Gul Khan
- IEEE Power System Paper-Evaluation of Cascade-Multilevel-Converter-Based STATCOM for Arc Furnace Flicker MitigationUploaded byAnoop Mathew
- Application of a D-STATCOM to Mitigate Arc Furnaces Power Quality Problems.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- power systemUploaded byVetriselvi Muniyandi
- power_quality_booklet.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Introduction to Wavelet.pptUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Electric arc furnace-paper.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- A hybrid simulation model of AC electric arc furnace.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- A New Instantaneous Power Theory-based Three-phase Active Power FilterUploaded bySunil Kumar
- DistributedMitigation.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Harmonic Treatment in Industrial PowerUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Effect of Electrode Regulation System on Arc Parameters in Furnace operation.pdfUploaded bySunil Kumar
- Virtual Harmonic Analyser in LabVIEWUploaded byBiljana Risteska

- varianceUploaded byNaman Last To Survive
- Ziegler Transformer DiffUploaded byPandCmaster
- Electrodes_Ch 5.pptUploaded byBenazir Begam
- D.C.Machines-IntroductionUploaded byprashanth68760
- NEETS_v1_Intro_Q___AUploaded byChristopher Inoval Paril
- Orbit v27n207 RunoutUploaded bysant_
- dfgUploaded byian jhefer
- Samp PaperUploaded byRBhardwaj1010
- 17404S15 msbteUploaded byDiyaNegi
- Characteristics of Residual Stress.pptUploaded byعزت عبد المنعم
- Chapter 28 Sources of Magnetic FieldUploaded byheyyyale
- Ges Faba 100 en VahleUploaded byAnang A. Ramadhan
- Distortion and NoiseUploaded bybayman66
- AP Physics C Magetism MC ANSUploaded byShameem Akhter
- Percentage ImpedanceUploaded byAnonymous vcadX45TD7
- HIGH IMPEDENCE FAULT DETECTION IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM UNDER DISTRIBUTED GENERATIONUploaded byMahantesh Chikkadesai
- Syllabus BSCCSUploaded byImran Patil
- Theory of the Faraday and Kerr Effects in FerromagneticsUploaded byPeter Richter
- Defining Diode Data Sheet Parameters - MicrosemiUploaded by曾乙申
- Directional Over Current RelayUploaded bySingam Sridhar
- Collicollidial silverUploaded byrobinhoodlum
- 48049-182-03_sgr&mdgfUploaded byArturo Isidro Conde Pérez
- Helmholtz CalUploaded bySamir Patil
- assignment ac vs dc power pointUploaded byapi-295212665
- The essential guide to the electric universeUploaded bysilvina53
- mioUploaded byKyawt Kyawt
- 100260_v3Uploaded byBala Palani
- Walker Energy Plants and ManUploaded byCristhian
- Basics of ElectronicsUploaded bySwapnil agrawal
- Artikel Listrik MagnetUploaded byAgnes Novita