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QUANTUM MECHANICS II

PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

C ONTENTS

1. 09/06/16

1.1. Warm Up

1.2. Brief Review of Lagrangian Mechanics

1.3. Classical Action

1.4. Brief Review of Canonical QM

1.5. Time Evolution

1.6. The Schrodinger and Heisenberg Pictures

1.7. Lagrangian / Path Integral Formulation of QM

2. 09/12/16

2.1. Warm Up

2.2. QM in 3D

2.3. Representations of SO (3)

2.4. Addition of Angular Momenta

2.5. Identical Particles

2.6. Perturbation Theory

2

2

2

3

3

4

5

5

6

6

6

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7

8

9

1. 09/06/16

1.1. Warm Up. We have a free particle of mass m on a line.

What is the Hamiltonian? What are the Hamiltons equations?

The Hamiltonian is:

p2

H=

2m

and the Hamiltons equations are:

p

x = H

p = m

p = H

x = 0

So the equation of motion is x = 0.

What is the Lagrangian? What is the Euler-Lagrange equation?

The Lagrangian is:

1

L = mx 2

2

and the Euler-Lagrange equation is:

d L

L

=

x

dt x

0 = mx

1.2. Brief Review of Lagrangian Mechanics. The Lagrangian generally looks like:

1

L(q, q)

= mq 2 V(q)

2

The action is:

Z

S[q] = L(q, q)dt

S

|q = 0

q 0

which, if we expand the algebra:

d L

L

|q = 0

q dt q 0

Example 1.1. L = 21 mq 2 21 m2 q2 Then, the Euler-Lagrange equations are:

L

L

= m2 q = mq =

q

q

QUANTUM MECHANICS II

L = q(mq)

m2 qq = 0

and therefore, mq = m2 q.

1.3. Classical Action. If we Taylor expand out the classical action, we have:

S[q] = S[q0 ] +

S

1 2 S

|q0 (q q0 ) +

|q (q q0 )2 + . . .

q

2 q2 0

Since by Hamiltons principle, the classical particle follows the path such that

S

q |q0 = 0, the linear term drops out and a classcial action is quadratic in the generalized coordinates.

1.4. Brief Review of Canonical QM. A QM system is defined by a Hilbert space,

H = L2 (Rd ) and a Hamiltonian, H.

State: |i H

Observables: Hermitian operator Q = Q

We have the position and momentum operators, x

^ and p

^ . They satisfy the commutation relation:

[^

x, p

^ ] = ih

(1) In the position space (x-basis), we have x

^ |xi = x |xi.

Z

dx |xi hx| = 1 (completeness)

0

xx = (x x 0 ) (orthonormality)

d

p

^ |xi = ih

|xi

dx

(2) In the momentum space (p-basis), we have p

^ |pi = p |pi.

Z

dp |pi hp| = 1 (completeness)

0

pp = (p p 0 ) (orthonormal)

d

x

^ |pi = ih

|pi

dp

Combining the two, we have the relation:

1

hx|pi = eipx

2

^ |(t)i

ih |(t)i = H

t

p2

^

where H(x)

= 2m

+ V(x).

The solution is:

|(t)i = e

iHt

h

|(0)i

and we define the propagator, U(t) as U(t) = eiHt/h . More generally, we define

the propagator as:

U(x, t; x 0 , t 0 ) = x, tx 0 , t 0

The motivation for the propagator comes from:

Z

hx|(t)i = (x, t) = hx| U(t) |(0)i = dx 0 hx| U(t) x 0 x 0 (0)

and therefore:

Z

(x, t) = dx 0 U(x, t; x 0 )(x 0 , 0)

and thus, if we know the propagator, U(x, t; x 0 , t 0 ) for a system and the initial wavefunction at time t = 0, we can calculate the wavefunction at all points in later times

by using the propagator.

We can similarly define the propagator in momentum space:

U(p,

t; p 0 ) = hp| U(t) p 0

and thus, similarly:

0 , 0)

(p,

t) = dp 0 U(p,

t; p 0 )(p

hx| eiHt/h x 0

is the amplitude for a particle at x 0 at time t = 0 to be found at x at time t. This is

equivalent to the wavefunction at time t of a particle that was at x 0 at time 0.

For example, for a free particle, we have: H = p2 /2m and thus, we can calculate

the propagators:

r

m im (xx 0 )2

0

U(x, t; x ) =

e 2h t

2iht

i

2

U(p,

t; p 0 ) = (p p 0 )e 2mh p t

Note that they are Fourier transforms of each other.

QUANTUM MECHANICS II

Question 1.2. A free particle is found at the origin at time t = 0. What is the

wavefunction at time t?

This is answered by the following calculation:

Z

(x, t) = U(x, t; x 0 )(x 0 , 0)dx 0

= U(x, t; 0)

r

m im x2

=

e 2h t

2iht

1.6. The Schrodinger and Heisenberg Pictures.

Schrodinger Picture: states evolve in time while operators are fixed.

^

Q(t)

=h

Q(0)

Heisenberg Picture: states are fixed while operators evolve in time.

^

Q(t)

= eiHt/h Q(0)eiHt/h

|(t)i = |(0)i

1.7. Lagrangian / Path Integral Formulation of QM. Using the path integral formulation, we can calculate the propagator as:

Z

0 0

U(x , t ; x, t) =

DqeiS[q]/h

q(t)=x;q(t 0 )=x 0

where Dq is some measure. So we just add (integrate) the exponential terms along

all possible paths q using Dq as the measure.

Remember that classically, the action has no linear-term dependence:

1 2 S

|q0 (q)2 + . . .

2

2 q

Thus for a path q = q0 + q. near the classical path q0 , when we add up the terms:

S[q] = S[q0 ] +

due to the quadratic dependence, the two Ss are similar, and we would get a constructive interference.

For a non-classical, arbitrary path, the linear term does not cancel out, and thus,

all the paths around Ra non-classical path contribute to a destructive interference.

In conclusion, U = DqeiS[q]/h is dominated by paths q(t) in a small neighborhood of the classical path q0 , where the meaning of small neighborhood depends

on the size of the object.

2. 09/12/16

2.1. Warm Up. A particle in a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator is in the state

|i = A (3 |0i + 4 |1i)

If you measure the energy, what values could you get and with what probabilities?

We would get E0 = h

/2 with probability p0 = 9/25 and energy E1 = 3h/2

with probability p1 = 16/25.

2.2. QM in 3D. All the usual results generalize:

[xi , pj ] = ihij

|~xi

xi

~

~p = ih

pi |~xi = ih

~p2

h

2 2

+ V(~x) x

+ V(~x)

2m

2m

For a spherical symmetry: V(~x) = V(r), angular momentum is conserved:

H=

~L = ~x ~p

Li = ik xj pk

In QM, symmetry means that H (the Hilbert space) is a representation of SO (3)

where SO(3) is the group and SO (3) is the Lie algebra.

2.3. Representations of SO (3). For the set of angular momenta, {Lx , Ly , Lz } we can

instead use the set of momenta, {Lz , L }, where

L = Lx iLy

The commutation relation is that [Lz , L = L . E.g.

Lz |mi = mh |mi

Lz L+ |mi = (m + 1)hL+ |mi

We can use the squared sum of the momenta: L2 = L2x + L2y + L2z , since this is

simultaneously diagonalizable with any of the momentum components:

[L2 , Li ] = 0

Then, the simultaneous eigenstates satisfy:

L2 |l, mi = h

2 l(l + 1) |l, mi

Lz |l, mi = h

m |l, mi

QUANTUM MECHANICS II

quantum numbers: l = 0, 1, 2, . . . , whereas for spin angular momentum, we can

also have half-integer quantum numbers: l = 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, . . . .

For example, for spin 0, we just have one state:

|0, 0i

and for spin 1/2, we have two states:

1 1

,

2 2 : Spin Up

1 1

,

2 2 : Spin Down

and for spin 1, we have three states:

|1, 1i

|1, 0i

|1, 1i

and so on.

2.4. Addition of Angular Momenta.

Question 2.1. How does spin or angular momenta add?

j j 0 = (j + j 0 ) (j + j 1) |j j 0 |

The following are some examples:

1 1

= 10

2 2

3

7 5 3 1

2 =

2

2 2 2 2

To actually compute the states, we need to use the CG-coefficients:

1

, m1 1 , m2 = a |1, m1 + m2 i + b |0, m1 + m2 i

2

2

where a and b are the CG-coefficients, or the projections onto the new basis.

2.5. Identical Particles. For two distinguishable particles in states (x1 ) and (x2 ),

their two-particle wavefunction is simply:

(x1 , x2 ) = (x1 )(x2 )

For identical particles, the wavefunction must either be symmetric or antisymmetric under exchange:

+ (x1 , x2 ) = + (x2 , x1 ) : Bosons

(x1 , x2 ) = (x2 , x1 ) : Fermions

The Spin-Statistics Theorem states that the half-integer spin particles are fermions

and the integer spin particles are bosons.

Thus, for bosons and for fermions we have:

B (x1 , x2 ) (x1 )(x2 ) + (x2 )(x1 )

F (x1 , x2 ) (x1 )(x2 ) (x2 )(x1 )

respectively.

For example, (Griffiths 5.1) we have two particles in a box, where each 1-particle

wavefunction satisfies:

r

n

2

sin

x

n (x) =

a

a

En = E1 n2

(1, 1) becomes:

2

1,1 (x1 , x2 ) = sin

x1 sin

x2

a

a

a

E1,1 = 2E1

and the first excited wavefucntion, (1, 2) or (2, 1), is the degenerate:

2

2

2,1 (x1 , x2 ) = sin

x1 sin

x2

a

a

a

E2,1 = 5E1

the ground state is unchanged. The first excited state, (E = 5E1 ), when

symmetrized becomes:

2

x1

2

2x1

(x1 , x2 ) =

sin

sin

x2 + sin

sin

x2

a

a

a

a

a

QUANTUM MECHANICS II

2

x1

2

2x1

(x1 , x2 ) =

x2 sin

x2

sin

sin

sin

a

a

a

a

a

The part that was glossed over is that we also have the spin wavefunction, and the

total wavefunction is the product:

total = spatial spin

and the whole wavefunction needs to be either symmetric or antisymmetric.

2.6. Perturbation Theory. We start with some system we know how to solve:

H0 0n = E0n 0n

Then, we can use the solution to solve the perturbed system:

H = H0 + H1

such that we have the eigenstates:

Hn = En n

Where we can expand:

En = E0n + E1n + 2 E2n + . . .

n = 0n + 1n + 2 2n . . .

and the important result is that:

E

D

E1n = 0n H1 0n

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