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# PHYSICS 143B SECTION NOTES

QUANTUM MECHANICS II
PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

C ONTENTS
1. 09/06/16
1.1. Warm Up
1.2. Brief Review of Lagrangian Mechanics
1.3. Classical Action
1.4. Brief Review of Canonical QM
1.5. Time Evolution
1.6. The Schrodinger and Heisenberg Pictures
1.7. Lagrangian / Path Integral Formulation of QM
2. 09/12/16
2.1. Warm Up
2.2. QM in 3D
2.3. Representations of SO (3)
2.5. Identical Particles
2.6. Perturbation Theory

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## PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

1. 09/06/16
1.1. Warm Up. We have a free particle of mass m on a line.
What is the Hamiltonian? What are the Hamiltons equations?
The Hamiltonian is:
p2
H=
2m
and the Hamiltons equations are:

p
x = H
p = m
p = H
x = 0
So the equation of motion is x = 0.
What is the Lagrangian? What is the Euler-Lagrange equation?
The Lagrangian is:
1
L = mx 2
2
and the Euler-Lagrange equation is:
d L
L
=
x
dt x
0 = mx
1.2. Brief Review of Lagrangian Mechanics. The Lagrangian generally looks like:
1
L(q, q)
= mq 2 V(q)
2
The action is:

Z
S[q] = L(q, q)dt

## and the Euler-Lagrange equations are:

S
|q = 0
q 0
which, if we expand the algebra:
d L
L

|q = 0
q dt q 0
Example 1.1. L = 21 mq 2 21 m2 q2 Then, the Euler-Lagrange equations are:
L
L
= m2 q = mq =
q
q

## PHYSICS 143B SECTION NOTES

QUANTUM MECHANICS II

## To get this result from the action, we see that as q q + q, we have:

L = q(mq)
m2 qq = 0
and therefore, mq = m2 q.
1.3. Classical Action. If we Taylor expand out the classical action, we have:
S[q] = S[q0 ] +

S
1 2 S
|q0 (q q0 ) +
|q (q q0 )2 + . . .
q
2 q2 0

Since by Hamiltons principle, the classical particle follows the path such that
S
q |q0 = 0, the linear term drops out and a classcial action is quadratic in the generalized coordinates.
1.4. Brief Review of Canonical QM. A QM system is defined by a Hilbert space,
H = L2 (Rd ) and a Hamiltonian, H.
State: |i H
Observables: Hermitian operator Q = Q
We have the position and momentum operators, x
^ and p
^ . They satisfy the commutation relation:
[^
x, p
^ ] = ih
(1) In the position space (x-basis), we have x
^ |xi = x |xi.
Z
dx |xi hx| = 1 (completeness)

0
x x = (x x 0 ) (orthonormality)
d
p
^ |xi = ih
|xi
dx
(2) In the momentum space (p-basis), we have p
^ |pi = p |pi.
Z
dp |pi hp| = 1 (completeness)

0
p p = (p p 0 ) (orthonormal)
d
x
^ |pi = ih
|pi
dp
Combining the two, we have the relation:
1
hx|pi = eipx
2

## 1.5. Time Evolution. Schrodingers Equation tells us:

^ |(t)i
ih |(t)i = H
t
p2
^
where H(x)
= 2m
+ V(x).
The solution is:

|(t)i = e

iHt
h

|(0)i

and we define the propagator, U(t) as U(t) = eiHt/h . More generally, we define
the propagator as:

U(x, t; x 0 , t 0 ) = x, t x 0 , t 0
The motivation for the propagator comes from:
Z

hx|(t)i = (x, t) = hx| U(t) |(0)i = dx 0 hx| U(t) x 0 x 0 (0)
and therefore:

Z
(x, t) = dx 0 U(x, t; x 0 )(x 0 , 0)

and thus, if we know the propagator, U(x, t; x 0 , t 0 ) for a system and the initial wavefunction at time t = 0, we can calculate the wavefunction at all points in later times
by using the propagator.
We can similarly define the propagator in momentum space:

U(p,
t; p 0 ) = hp| U(t) p 0
and thus, similarly:

0 , 0)
(p,
t) = dp 0 U(p,
t; p 0 )(p

## The physical intuition for the following quantity:

hx| eiHt/h x 0
is the amplitude for a particle at x 0 at time t = 0 to be found at x at time t. This is
equivalent to the wavefunction at time t of a particle that was at x 0 at time 0.
For example, for a free particle, we have: H = p2 /2m and thus, we can calculate
the propagators:
r
m im (xx 0 )2
0
U(x, t; x ) =
e 2h t
2iht
i
2

U(p,
t; p 0 ) = (p p 0 )e 2mh p t
Note that they are Fourier transforms of each other.

## PHYSICS 143B SECTION NOTES

QUANTUM MECHANICS II

Question 1.2. A free particle is found at the origin at time t = 0. What is the
wavefunction at time t?
This is answered by the following calculation:
Z
(x, t) = U(x, t; x 0 )(x 0 , 0)dx 0
= U(x, t; 0)
r
m im x2
=
e 2h t
2iht
1.6. The Schrodinger and Heisenberg Pictures.
Schrodinger Picture: states evolve in time while operators are fixed.
^
Q(t)
=h
Q(0)

## |(t)i = eiHt/h |(0)i

Heisenberg Picture: states are fixed while operators evolve in time.
^
Q(t)
= eiHt/h Q(0)eiHt/h
|(t)i = |(0)i
1.7. Lagrangian / Path Integral Formulation of QM. Using the path integral formulation, we can calculate the propagator as:
Z
0 0
U(x , t ; x, t) =
DqeiS[q]/h
q(t)=x;q(t 0 )=x 0

where Dq is some measure. So we just add (integrate) the exponential terms along
all possible paths q using Dq as the measure.
Remember that classically, the action has no linear-term dependence:
1 2 S
|q0 (q)2 + . . .
2
2 q
Thus for a path q = q0 + q. near the classical path q0 , when we add up the terms:
S[q] = S[q0 ] +

## eiS[q0 ]/h + eiS[q0 +q]/h

due to the quadratic dependence, the two Ss are similar, and we would get a constructive interference.
For a non-classical, arbitrary path, the linear term does not cancel out, and thus,
all the paths around Ra non-classical path contribute to a destructive interference.
In conclusion, U = DqeiS[q]/h is dominated by paths q(t) in a small neighborhood of the classical path q0 , where the meaning of small neighborhood depends
on the size of the object.

## PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

2. 09/12/16
2.1. Warm Up. A particle in a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator is in the state

|i = A (3 |0i + 4 |1i)
If you measure the energy, what values could you get and with what probabilities?
We would get E0 = h
/2 with probability p0 = 9/25 and energy E1 = 3h/2
with probability p1 = 16/25.
2.2. QM in 3D. All the usual results generalize:
[xi , pj ] = ihij

|~xi
xi
~
~p = ih

pi |~xi = ih

~p2
h
2 2
+ V(~x) x
+ V(~x)
2m
2m
For a spherical symmetry: V(~x) = V(r), angular momentum is conserved:
H=

~L = ~x ~p
Li = ik xj pk
In QM, symmetry means that H (the Hilbert space) is a representation of SO (3)
where SO(3) is the group and SO (3) is the Lie algebra.
2.3. Representations of SO (3). For the set of angular momenta, {Lx , Ly , Lz } we can
instead use the set of momenta, {Lz , L }, where
L = Lx iLy
The commutation relation is that [Lz , L = L . E.g.
Lz |mi = mh |mi
Lz L+ |mi = (m + 1)hL+ |mi
We can use the squared sum of the momenta: L2 = L2x + L2y + L2z , since this is
simultaneously diagonalizable with any of the momentum components:
[L2 , Li ] = 0
Then, the simultaneous eigenstates satisfy:
L2 |l, mi = h
2 l(l + 1) |l, mi
Lz |l, mi = h
m |l, mi

## PHYSICS 143B SECTION NOTES

QUANTUM MECHANICS II

## where m = l, l 1, . . . , l + 1, l. For orbital angular momentum, we have integer

quantum numbers: l = 0, 1, 2, . . . , whereas for spin angular momentum, we can
also have half-integer quantum numbers: l = 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, . . . .
For example, for spin 0, we just have one state:

|0, 0i
and for spin 1/2, we have two states:

1 1
,
2 2 : Spin Up

1 1
,
2 2 : Spin Down
and for spin 1, we have three states:

|1, 1i
|1, 0i
|1, 1i
and so on.
Question 2.1. How does spin or angular momenta add?
j j 0 = (j + j 0 ) (j + j 1) |j j 0 |
The following are some examples:
1 1
= 10
2 2
3
7 5 3 1
2 =
2
2 2 2 2
To actually compute the states, we need to use the CG-coefficients:

1

, m1 1 , m2 = a |1, m1 + m2 i + b |0, m1 + m2 i
2
2
where a and b are the CG-coefficients, or the projections onto the new basis.

## PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

2.5. Identical Particles. For two distinguishable particles in states (x1 ) and (x2 ),
their two-particle wavefunction is simply:
(x1 , x2 ) = (x1 )(x2 )
For identical particles, the wavefunction must either be symmetric or antisymmetric under exchange:
+ (x1 , x2 ) = + (x2 , x1 ) : Bosons
(x1 , x2 ) = (x2 , x1 ) : Fermions
The Spin-Statistics Theorem states that the half-integer spin particles are fermions
and the integer spin particles are bosons.
Thus, for bosons and for fermions we have:
B (x1 , x2 ) (x1 )(x2 ) + (x2 )(x1 )
F (x1 , x2 ) (x1 )(x2 ) (x2 )(x1 )
respectively.
For example, (Griffiths 5.1) we have two particles in a box, where each 1-particle
wavefunction satisfies:
r
 n 
2
sin
x
n (x) =
a
a
En = E1 n2

## If they are distinguishable, then their first two-particle wavefunction (n, m) =

(1, 1) becomes:
 
 
2
1,1 (x1 , x2 ) = sin
x1 sin
x2
a
a
a
E1,1 = 2E1
and the first excited wavefucntion, (1, 2) or (2, 1), is the degenerate:


 
2
2
2,1 (x1 , x2 ) = sin
x1 sin
x2
a
a
a
E2,1 = 5E1

## For identical bosons, since we need the wavefunctions to be symmetric,

the ground state is unchanged. The first excited state, (E = 5E1 ), when
symmetrized becomes:
 




 
2
x1 
2
2x1
(x1 , x2 ) =
sin
sin
x2 + sin
sin
x2
a
a
a
a
a

## PHYSICS 143B SECTION NOTES

QUANTUM MECHANICS II

## For identical fermions, the ground state, (E = 5E1 ), needs to be antisymmetrized:

 




 
2
x1 
2
2x1
(x1 , x2 ) =
x2 sin
x2
sin
sin
sin
a
a
a
a
a
The part that was glossed over is that we also have the spin wavefunction, and the
total wavefunction is the product:
total = spatial spin
and the whole wavefunction needs to be either symmetric or antisymmetric.
2.6. Perturbation Theory. We start with some system we know how to solve:
H0 0n = E0n 0n
Then, we can use the solution to solve the perturbed system:
H = H0 + H1
such that we have the eigenstates:
Hn = En n
Where we can expand:
En = E0n + E1n + 2 E2n + . . .
n = 0n + 1n + 2 2n . . .
and the important result is that:
E
D

E1n = 0n H1 0n