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Unit of work for Kindergarten: Time

Unit Focus
This unit of work revolves around the mathematical concepts of time measurement. It is students
first formal introduction to time at foundation level (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and
Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2016b). The learning experiences focus on comparing and ordering
duration of events (ACARA, 2016a; ACARA, 2016, ACMMG007), connection of days of the week
to familiar events and actions, (ACARA, 2016a; ACARA, 2016, ACMMG008), sequence of events
and reading and recording time to the hour with importance placed on using the every day
language of time throughout (Board of Studies Teaching and Educational Standards NSW
[BOSTES], 2016, MAe-13MG).

Backward Design
A constructively aligned, outcomes-based approach was used to inform the instructional design of
the mathematical unit on measurement of time. Learning outcomes were identified using the
Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2016b) and the New South Wales Mathematics Syllabus
(BOSTES, 2016, MAe-3MG). Following this, diagnostic, formative and summative assessments
were identifed before finally creating learning experiences to support students in achieving the
learning outcomes. This method is supportive of varied and continous assessment and produces
clear learning goals that are easily understood by all stakeholders (Readman & Allen, 2013).
The assessments that surround this unit of work consider the principles of assessment. Teaching
and learning (Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, 2008)
has been directly linked to outcomes that are aligned with current state and national curriculum
for kindergarten students (ACARA, 2016; BOSTES, 2016). They are actively engaged in diverse
learning experiences that provide equal opportunities for the success of all students (NSW
Government Education, 2012). Assessment has been integrated rather than added on and this
allows for a wide range of evidence of learning to be collected.

Assessment types and recording formats

Throughout the learning experiences formative assessment is used to drive learning and meet
learning outcomes. For example, each learning experience begins with (Shepard, 2005) informal
and unobtrusive (Marsh, 2014) diagnostic assessment for learning. Lesson two of week one
reveals prior knowledge, gaps in learning or misconceptions about time duration. The simple yet
open ended questioning provides this confirmation and also allows the teacher to listen for time
specific language use, one of the learning outcomes of the unit. Checklists are ideal for recording
this information as they are quick, simple to use and do not interrupt the flow of the lesson.
Recording a session like this is also useful as it allows the teacher to revisit the events that
occurred, report to parents and carers, and strengthen student reflection (McMillan, 2011;
Readman & Allen, 2013).
A task such as lesson one of week two, which promotes students to test hypotheses, provides a
rich environment to conduct assessment for and of learning. Methods of diagnostic, formative,
and self assessment take place across this experience. Students make and record predictions
prior to a hands on learning experience followed by recording the actual events once the learning
has taken place. This allows students to demonstrate how they are actively working towards
meeting the outcomes of comparing and recording duration of events. The worksheet acts as an
avenue through which students assess their learning and this record becomes evidence of
learning. Furthermore, this method allows students to reflect on their prior knowledge and blend it
with or create new knowledge which can in turn be used in new contexts (McDevitt, Ormrod,
Cupit, Chandler & Aloa, 2013).
The metacognitive assessment as learning, post learning experience, allows students to reflect
on their learning. It encourages students to think and verbalise their learning with the teacher and
their peers (McMillan, 2011; Readman & Allen, 2013). With a hands on learning experience such
as this experiment students are able to focus on time duration as it unfolds before their eyes.
However as they are in kindergarten and most likely unable to write a written recount
(Department of Education Western Australia, 2013). of the event to display metacognitive
learning, the recording format in this instance is best done verbally. This method also provides
the teacher with an insight into whether the learning outcomes have been met after experiencing,
comparing and recording long and short time duration.
In this unit summative assessment has been used post learning experience to confirm if learning
outcomes have been achieved and to report to parents and carers. The experiences provide the

students with the opportunity to display their knowledge and skills in ways that suit their preferred
learning styles, such as graphically, verbally or via information and communication technology
[ICT]. Two of the three summative assessments require students to produce artefacts to be
marked against a rubric at a later date and the other is a pair exercise that must be monitored
and marked against a rubric at the time.

Authentic Assessment
Where possible, assessment should be authentic and link to the real world. In this unit of work the
learning links to the real world in meaningful and relevant ways by using everyday experiences
and resources to engage students (Readman & Allen, 2013). For example, the summative
assessment telling time to the hour immerses students in the use of digital and analog clocks, a
life skill and a common resource encountered by people in a wide range of settings each day.
Daily activities are often governed by the time and in this assessment students have the
opportunity to read and record the times that they complete personal activities each day. By
meeting the outcome of reading and recording time, students will be able to apply this knowledge
in authentic settings in their life at and outside school.

Feedback, and feed forward plays an integral part of assessment (AITSL, 2014, 5.2; Readman &
Allen, 2013). With young students in particular, verbal feedback is key as they may be unable to
read written comments. Feed forward is a feature at the start of each learning experience as part
of making the learning intentions and success criteria clear (AITSL, 2014, 5.1) to drive learning.
Kindergarten students respond best to constructive verbal communication as well as graphic
feedback, such as stickers, stamps and progress charts that are supported with verbal feedback.
To be enhance further learning, feedback must be deeper than a simple good work or this
needs improvement. Two way discussion should ensue about what makes the sample a good
piece of work or how to improve (Shepard, 2005). Responding positively shows respect for
ethical considerations such as emotional impact as well as providing motivation to engage further
and work towards learning goals (Readman & Allen, 2013). In addition, and under certain
circumstances, for example when the teacher is speaking with one student and sees another
student working well, non verbal communication, such as a thumbs up is a simple and effective

technique that shows students they are on the right track and motivates them to keep going. For
developmental reasons written feedback is kept to a minimum unless the teacher and student are
together and the teacher can read the written comment to the student.

Students in kindergarten have mastered the achievement standards related to measurement of
time if they can use time specific language, know the days of the week, compare the duration of
time, sequence events and read time to the hour (ACARA, 2016, ACMMG007; ACARA, 2016
ACMMG008). The learning experiences in the unit are aligned with these standards and are split
into three sub categories; duration, sequencing events and telling time to the hour. Each learning
experience begins with the learning intentions, followed by a diagnostic assessment that
ascertains student knowledge (Shepard, 2005). From here Blooms taxonomy is employed to
move students through a series of tasks to achieve the learning goals and deepen understanding
(Readman & Allen, 2013). The learning experiences are challenging, engaging and enjoyable
(Kivunja, 2015).
For example,
Week One sets the scene for time by discussing time specific language, reading a time duration
related story, making predictions and testing hypotheses. Week Two, Sequencing Events begins
by learning, remembering and reciting the days of the week. With this knowledge they move to a
story that sequences the days of the week before applying language and sequence knowledge in
another context, this time using beginning, middle and end. Learning experiences progress and
connections are made to students lives as they brainstorm activities that they take part in in their
world in and out of school. They select pictures from magazines to create a poster detailing their
understanding of the concepts of sequencing events over the period of one day, that is morning,
midday and afternoon. The end of this week sets students up for the following week where they
learn that the days are broken into hours and begin to learn to tell time to the hour, once again
moving through activities that cater to a variety of learning styles and addressing Blooms
taxonomy (McMillan, 2011; Readman & Allen, 2013) to develop deep understanding.

Reporting to parents is an important component of the assessment process and like all
components of assessment, it is necessary for assessment records to be organised and well
maintained (AITSL, 2014, 5.5). Reporting to parents can be done in numerous ways such as via
traditional reports and meetings, online or by phone (AITSL, 2014, 5.5). To do this effectively
teachers should compile formative as well as summative evidence to give an overall picture of
student achievement rather than use results of one end of unit summative task. They should
ensure that the report is well written and personalised (Readman & Allen, 2013; Cruz & Petersen,
2002). Criteria for effective reporting to parents includes reporting in a manner that is fair, timely,
clear, confidential, considers ethical standards and is supported by data (Cruz & Petersen, 2002;
Marsh, 2014). These elements have the potential to strengthen the support parents provide (Cruz
& Petersen, 2002).
One traditional form of reporting is via student report cards at the end of each school semester.
Across Australia the A to E grade system has been implemented, however on its own does not
provide a clear indication of student achievement to parents and therefore should be supported
by detailed evidence and personalised comments (Brady & Kennedy, 2012; Marsh, 2014). With
this method of reporting, parents are usually invited to attend a parent teacher meeting. Recent
research suggest meetings are most beneficial when the student attends also as it encourages
open communication and a shared responsibility for learning (Brady & Kennedy, 2012).
A second and more contemporary method of reporting to parents includes communicating
student achievement using student portfolios. As assessment is an ongoing process (Readman &
Allen, 2013), portfolios can be cumulative. They can be provided as a hard copy or via online
methods such as blogs or email. The benefit of online communication allows teachers to easily
share a variety of artefacts such as oral, photographic and video evidence of learning. This
provides a more comprehensive view than traditional written methods (Marsh, 2014). Assessment
evidence collected in the unit on time provides ongoing and diverse artefacts to satisfy parental
reporting. An informal and personalised approach can also be used to report to parents such as
by making phone calls or during greetings before and after school.


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