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FLUID
CHMICAL
WhatIMaTranfer?(/mulphic/whatimatranfer)
WhatIConvecon?(/mulphic/whaticonvecon)
WhatIDiuion?(/mulphic/whatidiuion)
ConveconDiuionquaon(/mulphic/convecondiuionequaon)
DiuionCoecient(/mulphic/diuioncoecient)
Diuionquaon(/mulphic/diuionequaon)
TranportPhenomena(/mulphic/tranportphenomena)

Convecon

ConveconDiuionquaon
(/mulphic)ChemicalWhatIDiuion?(/mulphic/whatidiuion)
ConveconDiuionquaon

CominingConveconandDiuionect
Wheneverweconidermatranportofadiolvedpecie(olutepecie)
oracomponentinagamixture,concentrationgradientwillcauediffuion
(/multiphic/what-i-diffuion).Ifthereiulkfluidmotion,convection

(//www.comol.com/multiphic/what-i-convection)willalocontriuteto
thefluxofchemicalpecie.Therefore,weareofteninteretedinolvingfor
thecominedeffectofothconvectionanddiffuion.Foradilutepecie:

(1)

xample:ConveconandDiuioninaMicrochannel

(2)

Foralaminarfluidflowatteadtate,treamlinethatfollowthevelocit
fielddonotcroeachother.Thecaeinotoimpleforaturulentflow,
whichidicuedindetailelow.Forthelaminarcae,inceconvection
tranportmaonltangenttothevelocitthati,alongtreamlineit
cannotleadtomatranfer(//www.comol.com/multiphic/what-i-matranfer)etweenadjacentlaeroffluid.Foralaminarflowatteadtate,
onldiffuioncanallowmatranfernormaltothefluidflow.
Theditinctionetweenconvectiontangenttoaflowanddiffuionnormalto
aflowcaneeeninaimplemodelofdiffuivemixinginamicrochannel.
Inthiexample,waterflowfromtwoinletatthetopleftandtheottomleft
totwooutletatthetoprightandtheottomright.ecauethedeviceiof
micrometercale,theRenoldnumerimallandtheflowiinthetoke
flowregime.Therefore,theflowprofileimmetricaouttheverticala
wellathehorizontalaxi.
uppoeweinletaconcentrationof1mM(1mmol/L)ofadiolvedchemical
pecieintotheottom-leftinletonl;thetop-leftinletcarriepurewater.
Whenthetwofluidflowmeetatthecenterlineofthechannel,therewille
aconcentrationgradientinthevertical()direction,anddiffuionwillcarr
theolutefromtheottomhalfofthechanneltothetophalf.Theoperation
ofthemixeriummarizedinthechematicelow:

(hp://cdn.comol.com/cclopedia/convecondiuionequaon/microchannelmixer.png)

Operaonofamicrochannelmixerwithdiuionnormaltotheow.

TheflowmagnitudecomputedolvingtheNavier-tokeequation
(//www.comol.com/multiphic/navier-toke-equation)iillutratedinthe
nextfigure.Notethatthetreamlinedonotcro:

(hp://cdn.comol.com/cclopedia/convecondiuion
equaon/microchannel_velocit_2.png)

Velocitmagnitude(colorplot)andtreamlinealongthevelociteld(whiteline)inamicrochannel.Theow
direconifromletoright.

ecaueofthediffuivemixing,theconcentrationatthetop-rightoutleti
greaterthanzero.Theconcentrationattheottom-rightoutletilethan1
mM.Theplotelowcontratthemagnitudeanddirectionoftheconvective
flux(can)anddiffuiveflux(red)atdifferentpointalongthechannel,
togetherwiththeconcentrationprofile:

(hp://cdn.comol.com/cclopedia/convecondiuion
equaon/microchannel_concentraon_2.png)

Concentraonprole(gracale),convecveux(canarrow),anddiuiveux(redarrow).Convecveand
diuiveuxmagnitudeareindicatedarrowlength,ondierentcale.

ThePcletNumer
Itieatoeeintheaoveexamplethatthedegreeofmixingcane
increaedinanumerofwa:
Anarrowerchannel,othattheconcentrationgradient,hencealothe
diffuiveflux,arelargerintheverticaldirection
Ahigherdiffuioncoefficient,othatthediffuivefluxilarger
Alongerchannelorlowerflow,othatthefluidtakelongertopa
throughthechannelandthereimoretimefordiffuion

Wecanworktowardquantifingtheeeffectmeanofadimenionle
numercalledthePcletnumer(Pe),whichitheratioofthecontriution
tomatranportconvectiontothoediffuion:

whereLiacharacteriticlengthcale,Uithevelocitmagnitude,andDi (3)
acharacteriticdiffuioncoefficient.
ThePcletnumerformatranporticomparaletotheRenoldnumer
formomentumtranport.
WhenthePcletnumerigreaterthanone,theeffectofconvectionexceed
thoeofdiffuionindeterminingtheoverallmaflux.Thiinormallthe
caefortemlargerthanthemicrometercale.However,ecauethe
Pcletnumeriproportionaltotemize,wefindthatatmallcale,
diffuioncontriutemuchmoreeffectiveltomatranfer,omixingcan
eachievedwithouttirring.Motformofmixing(tirring,agitation,tatic
mixer,turulentflow)acttoreducethelengthcaleoverwhichdiffuion
mutact,henceincreaingthelocalmagnitudeofmatranferdiffuion.
Formallpeaking,thePcletnumerfortranportnormaltothefluidflowi
alwazero.Thiiequivalenttotheaovetatementthatdiffuionithe
onlcontriutiontomatranportetweentangentfluidlaer.incethe
timecaleforaflowtotravereapipeoflengthLiL/U,thediffuionlength,
Ldiff,normaltotheflowafteromeditanceofflowalongthepipecane
foundfromthediffuiontheor.

Conideringthattherewilleahighdegreeofmixingwhenthediffuion

(4)

lengthcaleexceedthechannelwidth,h,wecantatethatmixingieffective
where:

Thati,alargevalueofthefollowingdimenionlenumer:

(5)

Thepredictedcontriutionofthevarialeinalaminarconvection-

(6)

diffuiontemagreecompletelwiththeimpleandintuitiveprediction
madeaoveforthemicrochannel.
Wecaneetheeametrendinarealitic3Dmodelofalaminartatic
mixer,wherefixedotructionareuedtoifurcatetheflowandhenceplit
theconcentrationgradientduetothenonuniformconcentrationatentr.Thi
leadtoeffectivemixingthehalf-wapointalongthechannel,a
illutratedtheconcentrationprofile.

(hp://cdn.comol.com/cclopedia/convecondiuion
equaon/laminar_tac_lice_concentraon.png)

Concentraonproleinlicenormaltotheowdireconofalaminartacmixer,illutrangthemixing
proce.

Aplotofconcentrationgradientinalicealongtheflowdirection(hown
elow)illutratehowtheafflearepoitionedtodivideandrecominethe
flowandtheremaximizethevolumeinwhichtheconcentrationgradienti
large.

(hp://cdn.comol.com/cclopedia/convecondiuionequaon/laminar_tac_lice.png)

Concentraongradientinalicealongtheowdireconofalaminartacmixer,normaltoatepped
concentraonproleattheinlet.

Clearl,theneededdiffuiontimeformixingetweenfluidlaerileened
athediffuionlengthihorter.Thiiwhthetaticmixer,liketheone
aove,areeffectiveatmixing.Theincreaetheurfaceareaofcontact
etweenfluidlaerwithdifferentconcentrationoftheoluteanddecreae
thelengthcaleofeparationetweentheelaer.Althoughconvectionma
allowthediffuivetimecaletoeignificantlhortened,ititilldiffuion
thatcauethemixingtotakeplace.

ConveconDiuioninaTurulentFlow
Inaturulentflow,teadtatedonotoccur.Thu,theimplificationaove
donotappl.Theconvectivefluxactinthedirectionofthereal,
intantaneouvelocitofafluidparticleandnotthe"Renold-averaged"
velocit,whichioftencomputedforturulentflow.Therefore,convection
tendtocontriutemoretrongltomixinginturulentflow.
Itinotpracticaltouenumericalmodelingtopredictthechaoticand
contantlvaringintantaneouvelocit.Thu,itinormaltoexprea
"convectiveflux"proportionaltotheRenold-averagedvelocitandaccount
fortheadditionalturulentmixinguinganaddedcomponentofdiffuion
thatiequaltotheratiooftheturulentvicoit,T,totheturulentchmidt
numer,cT:

Here,thechmidtnumeritheratioofoervedmomentumdiffuivit
(vicoit)tomadiffuivit.Thimathematicalapproachianalogouto
Ka-Crawfordtheorforheattranfer.

(7)

Hence,inaturulentflow,convectivematranportiverimportantfor
mixingetweennon-croing,time-averagedteadflowtreamline.Again,
theconequenceoftheturulenceicauingtheintantaneoutreamlineto
frequentlchangepoitionoverhortlengthcale,thuincreaingthearea
ofcontactetweendifferentregionofthefluidandallowingdiffuionto
exchangemaetweentheeregionmoreefficientl.

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