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The statue of Sesostris III in prayer attitude

It is made out of granite quarried from Aswan. It was found in Thebes, it .dates back to the middle kingdom, the 12th dynasty
Here the king is represented in the prayer attitude with hands stretched over .the legs
He wears pleated Nemes headdress leaving the ears exposed. With the cobra
on the forehead for protection. This statue is mixing between realism and
.idealism in art
The face looks advanced in age and full of realism, body is full of idealism,
big ears, the eye brows are not in relief, eyes with tired eyelids, wrinkles
around the eyes, broken nose, upturned lower lip and protruding chin. His
body is full of idealism and he looks in athletic building and youthful. he
wears an amulet with the heart sign of protection. His arms are broken while
his hands rest over the kilt which is pleated and tied with a central tab and a
knob. In the middle of the belt is his name inscribed in the cartouche and
protected by two cobras sign of protection. His kilt is decorated with rays or
The Burial Chamber of Dshri
(MK)- It is made out of limestone (inr-hd) it was discovered in Saqqara
It dates back to the 6th dynasty.

Development of burial chambers and offerings

- Burial chambers played on important role in ancient Egypt.
1to protect the Sarcaphagus of the deceased and so that the mummy itself
2- to transfer the painted offerings into real ones
- Ancient Egyptians started to put offerings to their deceased 3times every
day, but it was very tiring and expensive for them, and they were not sure if
the deceased will receive these offerings or not. Thats why they started
painting these offerings on the walls of the tombs accompanied by magical
spells and formulas known as htp di nsw formula which can turn these
painted offerings into real ones.
(VI)- The walls of the burial chamber were decorated with some offerings,
which have religious significance such as.
1The onion has a strong smell, when the deceased smells it air would
enter through his nose to his lungs which is the symbol of resurrection
2The head of the cow is called hnty, which refers to God hnty-imnty
who was worshiped at Abydos which means that the deceased will be with
god hnty-imnty.

(N.B)- God hnty-imnty was then replaced by god Osiris.

3- The Geese, the phonetic of the geese is Snd which is the some of fear (S n
d), meaning that when the deceased eats the geese he will be fearless in the
4- The leg of an oxen it is known as mshty and it is considered to be the sign
of god Seth, when the deceased and the evil Spirits.
- We have to the left side of the chamber representations of 7 jars for 7 sacred
oils used in purification, 2 bags of linen for containing malakite for cosmetic
and protection. At the back of the chamber is representation of the false door,
which is the connection between the deceased and the outer World-Also
through which the b3 can go in and out of the burial chamber.
(NB)- The liquid offering are on the left side The solid offering are on the
right side.

The collection of Htp.Hrs

1- The Sedan Chair of Htp.Hrs
(MK) It is made. Out of wood, ebony (Modern) and gold. It was discovered
by Harvard and Boston expedition in 1925 at Giza. It dates back to the 4th
dynasty, reign of Cheops. Htp.hrs was the mother of king Cheops of the 4th

Mwt nswt-bity xt @r xrp sSmt nht Ddt xt nb(t) irt n.s sAt-nTr n Xt.f HtpHr.s
la mre du roi de Haute et Basse gypte, la compagne dHorus,
directrice des bouchers de la maison du sycomore, ( ses) paroles, toute
chose est faite pour elle, la fille du dieu de son propre corps,
Htephrs .
She had a tomb at Dahshur but for an unknown reason it was transferred to
the east of the great pyramid at Giza. When the tomb was discovered it was
intact and every thing was sealed but we didnt discovered the Mummy of
Htp.Hrs. this chair was the preferred mode of transport. Unfortunately, the
wood of this chair didnt survive and had to be replaced with new wood. The

poles take the shape of golden palm form capitals. Strips of gold cover the
chairs edges and boarders. Horizontal ebony panel at the front of the
backrest and 3 more vertical ones at the back are decorated with golden
hieroglyphic inscription. These inscriptions are identical bearing the name
and the archaic tittles of Htp.hrs
The Vessels of Htp.hrs

They are made out of gold. They were discovered at Giza in 1925 by Harvard
and Boston expedition. They date back to the Old kingdom, 4th dynasty.
These two vessels a were found inside the tomb of Htp.hrs. There original
number was 3. one is a cup with a long spout and the other is a small flat.
Bottomed dish we are not sure about their function. The name of Senefru was
found upon a large portable canopy of gilded wood as well as the box that a
companied it.

The False door of Ika

(MK)- It is made out of Acacia wood and it was discovered at Saqqara by the
Egyptian antiquities service in 1939 under the cause way of Unass pyramid .
it dates back to the Old Kingdom, 5th dynasty before the time of the king
This kind of wood Acacia wood was brought from
H3t.Nub near Al-Menya.
(VI)- The false doors are considered to be one of the kinds of stelae which
1- Royal stela
belongs to the king
2- Donation or dedication stela
3- Funerary stela .
4- Votive stela

5- Boundary stela like these of Akhnaton to be placed on the borders of his

city at Al-Amarna
6- Victory stela or commemorative stela.
All false doors are considered to be funeral stela but not all funeral stelae are
false doors. Funerary stela played an important role as the connection
between the deceased and the outer world and to receive the offerings needed
for the deceased. These stelae were accompanied by the htp-di-nsw formula.
The false doors were made out of granite, Limestone and some times wood.
Development of false doors.
They started as simple niches in the Old Kingdom. Then they developed to
take the Shape of false doors. In the middle kingdom when Osiris was
responsible for the deceased in the after world, have few examples of false
doors during the middle kingdom. Then they completely disappeared in the
new kingdom and re-appeared once more in the 26th dynasty in the late period
The elements of false doors
1- Upper Lintel
2- Lower lintel
3- Panel between the two lintels
4- Exterior and interior jambs
5- A drum for putting a curtain to close and open the false door with it
The b3 will come and reads the Htp.di.nsw formula which allows the opening
of the false door and changes the offering into real ones. This false door of
Ik3 is the only wooden false door in the Egyptian museum.

Le linteau suprieur

Htp di nswt, Htp di Inpw, xnty sH-nTr, qrst.f m Xrt-nTr, rx nswt, IikA
des offrandes donnes par le roi, des offrandes donnes par Anubis, celui
qui prside au pavillon divin, quil soit ensevelit (le dfunt) dans la
ncropole, le connu du roi, Ika (le double vient)
Le linteau infrieur
Htp di nswt, ir.n.f dbHt Htpt t Hnqt Abdw kAw, rx nswt, HqA Ht-aAt, IikA
des offrandes donnes par le roi, il a fait une liste doffrandes (contenant du
pain, de la bire, des volatiles et de la viande de taureau), le connu du roi, le
gouverneur du Grand Palais, Ika.
Le montant extrieur droit

Htp di Nswt prt-xrw n.f t Hnqt Abdw m Wpt Rnpt, Dhwty, Tpy Rnpt, WAg
Hb, Skr Hb, nb ra nb, rx nswt, HqA Ht-aAt, IikA
Des offrandes donnes par le roi, des offrandes pour lui (consistant en) du
pain, de la bire, des volatiles, dans la fte de louverture de lanne (la
nouvelle anne), La fte de Thot, la fte du dbut de lanne, la fte Wag1, la
fte se Sokar, chaque jour, le connu du roi, le directeur du Grand Palais,
Le montant extrieur gauche:

Htp di Inpw xpi.f Hr wAt nfrt xpi imAxw Hr sxr nTr-aA, rx nswt, HqA HtaAt, wab nswt, IikA.
Des offrandes donnes par Anubis, quil (le dfunt) passent sur le bon
chemin, (sur lequel) passent les bienheureux grce au conseil du grand dieu,
le connu du roi, le directeur du Grand Palais, le prtre purificateur du roi,
le montant intrieur droit:

Hmt.f, mrit.f, Hm(t)-nTr @t-Hr, rxt nswt, imAxyt, Iimrt

Sa femme, sa bien aime, la prtresse dHathor, celle qui est connue par le
roi, lhonore, Iimeret (la belle vient).
au-dessus de la fille:
rxt nswt Tntt
la connue du roi, Tchentet

le montant intrieur gauche :

rx nswt, HqA Ht-aAt, wab nswt, imAxw n nb.f, IikA

Clbre le 18e jour du premier mois.

Le connu du roi, le directeur du Grand Palais, le prtre purificateur du roi,

lhonor avec son matre, Iika.
au-dessus du fils:
sA.f imy-r Hm-kA, Abdw
Son fils, le directeur des prtres de ka, Abdou
Le rouleau:
rx nswt, HqA Ht-aAt, IikA
Le connu du roi, le directeur du Grand Palais, Iika
Ik3 was wcb priest and the chief of the great house and his wife Iy-meret was
a priestess of Hathor. This false door has all the elements of the false doors.
The two lintels are inscribed with the htp.di.nsw formula. Between these
panels IK3 is seated to the left while wife to the right in front of an offering
table topped with loaves of bread . Under the table are some hieroglyphic
signs to say the number of needed offerings . The h3= 1000 [ 1000 bread ,
beer , cattle , ] .There hands are stretched towards the table . On the left
jamb Ik3 is shown with all signs of nobility , a collar upon his chest , short
wig , long staff and the hrp scepter sign of power and nobility .
His left leg stepping forward and wearing pleated kilt . in front of him his
son (dw cnh) holding the same staff as he is sharing the nobility with his
father . On the right jamb his wife Iy- Meret wearing along hair wig , a collar
and a long tight dress with tow straps .
She is sniffing the lotus flower sign of resurrection and life. In front of here is
her daughter tntt. All the figures are represented in profile. The drum
between the two jambs has some hieroglyphic inscriptions. Inside the nice
Ik3 holds a staff in one hand and another sign in his right hand signs of
nobility. He is wearing a short wig and he is a accompanied by his son. In
front of all false doors there must have been offering table or libation table.