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Philosophy of Education

Requires intellectual maturity

Teaching is a perrenial profession (it never ends)
Teacher good < effective < best < scholar
a) proffesional
b) content knowledge
Philosophical foundation
Legal foundation
Ethical foundation
Pedagogy teaching children to adolescent
Andragogy teaching adult

Teaching vs Parenting
1) Approach sytematic
in terms of technique: begins the lessons w/strategy to start the teaching
method of teaching is procedural
2) Academic Preparation
systematic technique
academic preparation
3) Reflected on & planned what & how to teach
defective teaching no reflection was done after
teaching should be observed: How was the teaching session?
4) Assesses the extent to w/c their students have learned
celebrate the culture of success
> positive approach
> progress acknowledgment
5) Teaching is a universal activity
teaching is phenomenal (extraordinary)
6) Found in all societies and during all historical periods
history refines & defines the kind of teaching (pattern) we have right now
7) Without teaching, intentional transfer of knowledge (civilization) would cease
teaching culture cease
through teaching we become civilized
8) Teaching requires considerable knowledge, skills, attitude & commitment
knowledge, skills, attitude
contaminating (especially attitude)
> attitude towards teaching contaminates/affects other teachers
High Abstraction; Low Commitment
Low Abstraction; High Commitment

High Abstraction; Low Commitment

Low Abstraction; Low Commitment

History of Education (Brief)

1) Hispanic 7 years basic education plus 4 years
2) American
3) Quezon Philippinization of education
4) Marcos tuition fee increase
5) Cory Aquino Values education & High School is part of the national budget
6) Chinese Education use of flash cards; oriental education; civil service exam
7) Athenian
8) Spartan
9) Monastic
10) Chivalric
Elements of Good Teaching
a) Subject knowledge (content)
b) Professional knowledge (pedagogy)
c) Professional judgment (professionalism)
Pedagogy the art & science of teaching
Refers to the teaching of children & adolescent
Art based on science
Art of Teaching is considered as ones philosophy or style & attitude toward providing
education experiences for children.
Science of Teaching involves understanding the psychology behind the task of
appropriate education.
4 Pedagogical Competencies
1) Purpose
2) Content
3) Communication skills
5 Knowledge Domains and What They Mean for The Teachers
1) Personal Knowledge autobiography & philosophy teaching
2) Contextual Knowledge understanding & knowing learners & schools
3) Pedagogical Knowledge content, theories, methods of teaching, curriculum
4) Sociological Knowledge diversity, cultural relevance
5) Social Knowledge cooperative, democratic group processes and conflict resolutions
Common Understanding teaching automatically the subject you are aware or familiar
is very dangerous.

Motives for Teaching

Opportunity for self-growth
Job security
Value of education to society
Long summer vacation
Desire to work with young children
Interest in the subject matter or field
Influence of the family
Influence of teachers
Salary benefits
Stepping stone for another job
Recognition (respect)
Passion to make a positive difference

Why Do People Leave Teaching

Lack of admin support
Lack of parental & community support
Work load
Low student motivation
Why Do They Teach
Love for work

Extrinsic reason for teaching

Work schedule
Job security
Salary increase

Branches of Philosophy
1) Logic critical thinking
2) Axiology
a) Ethics behavior
b) Aesthetic beautiful / ugly
3) Metaphysics
essential lasting values
What is worth to know?
4) Epistemology
how one knows

Intrinsic reason for teaching

Joy seeing student learn
Love for work
Sense of respect
Time spent with family
Potential to affect the lives of other
Life-long learning opportunities

Sources of Knowledge
a) Authoritative Knowledge
The one who speakes knowledge with authority are considered with authority
b) Empirical Knowledge
Based on experience; use of senses
c) Rational Knowledge
The use of reason
Prior knowledge
We learn because of our own reasoning
d) Intuitive Knowledge
Sudden knowledge; based on kutob
e) Revealed Knowledge
Bible concept (e.g., God spoke to Moses)
From Latin word educere
to draw from
to bring from
Bringing students from a certain condition to a better one; from non-reader students to
better reader students
according to Cannagham:
preserve & transmit tradition/culture {enrich/modify}
according to St. Aquinas:
Education is life in itself experience
Education is also a preparation to life.
Imitation of life
Education conscious credits
Learning conscious skills

Philosophy of Education
Philosophical reflection on the nature, aim, objective, content, and pedagogy of
Requires mental struggle / malalim na pag-iisip
e.g., principles, beliefs, aspirations, passion in education that is worth dying for
Traditional/Classical Philosophies
1) Idealism idea (think); latent
To believe is to see.
2) Realism object
Tabula rasa
To see is to believe.
3) Naturalism nature
True & permanent
Should not be in a hurry; evolutionary

4) Pragmatism constant change

Relevant experience

IDEALISM (character, what we are; competence, what we build)

Aim of Education
Exist as an institution of human society concerned in ones spirituality and not because
of natural necessity.
Education is to discover each individuals ability & full moral excellence in order to
better serve the society.
Develop the individual spiritually, mentally & morally.
Education do only stress development of the mind but also encourage to focus on all
things of lasting value.
Education should direct man toward the search for true ideas.
Character development because the search for the truth demands personal discipline
and steadfast character.
Education requires latent ideas to consciousness.
Subject offered essential for mental & spiritual development such as philosophy,
theology, history, arts, mathematics, literature, values education, GMRC, and Christian
Subject must be something that is cognitive and those that develop the intellect of the
Idealists do not favor specialized learning as much as learning that is holistic.
The holistic approach leads us to a more liberal attitude toward learning.
Focus: math, philosophy, religion, science.
Methods of Teaching
Informal dialectic, questions & discussion, lecture, project method, meditation, and
Critical method of thinking
Ideas are placed in the arena of battles
Teaching method: handles ideas through lectures, discussions & socratic dialogue
Introspection, intuition, etc.
Educative Process
1) Imitation
a) Conscious
b) Unconscious
2) Interest total attraction of a student to a learning task (person, object, quality)
3) Effort develops interest
4) Discipline someone who comes in for you to perform or complete a task

Characteristics of an Ideal Teacher

1) Encourage
2) Passion
3) Mastery of subject matter
4) Non-intimidating/ friendly atmosphere/ friend of students
5) Respect
Capable of intellectual discussion
Absorbs overwhelming informaton, facts & knowledge
Morally upright
Either good or bad environment influences them to be good or bad
Creates the educational environment
Chief source of inspiration, knowledge, and information
Personal friend of students
Look at students beyond the perceptible
A thinking institution
Promotes high cognitive level of education

REALISM (Perception + Knowing + Thinking = Learning)

Believe that world as it is

Reality is what we observe
Reality exists independent of the human mind
Truth is what we sense & observe and that goodness is found in the order of the Law of
As a result, school exists to reveal the order of the world & universe.
Mind is like a mirror receiving images from the physical world.
The mind of a child at birth is similar to a blank sheet of paper upon w/c the world
proceeds to write its impression.
Preparing the child so that he is able to solve the problems of life successfully.

(Thinking + Problem = Learning)

Aims of Education
Education must give direction and form basic potentials of students.
Education in a formation and school is a true forgoing place.
Education must give direction to the individuals basic potentialities and talents.
Education determines the direction of ones inherited tendencies.

Education provides an education that could produce individuals who can meet their
principal needs.
Education teaches the students to survive in their natural world.
Problem-centered and traditional subject matter
Problem-centered requires applicability and needs urgency and should be real for
students involved and must require thought.
The study should be practical and useful.
The need for basic factual date (3Rs) for survival.
Combination of subject and problem-centered concepts towards acquisition of desirable
habits, study habits, research skills, library skills, evaluation, observation,
experimentation, analytical skills, critical thinking, application of principles, effective
use of words and habits of enjoyment.
Methods of Teaching
Scientific methods, problem solving with applicability, and urgency of needs.
Defining problems, observing factors related to problems, testing hypothesis, and
A person who possess a body of tested knowledge
Helps students realize irresistible necessity of Earths physical forces
Develops initiative and ability to control their experiences
Helps realize that they can enter into meaning of their experiences
Students (mind + determination = success)
Doctrine of the mind
Doctrine of determinism (a theory or doctrine that acts of the will, occurrences in nature,
or social or psychological phenomena are causally determined by preceding events or
natural laws)
Free and capable of developing a control over their environment
Tabula rasa
The unique role of education is the degree of autonomy
It has a prerogative to speak with the authority concerning its own affairs and should
not seek guidance from the government or from other institutions in these matters.
Schools are of guide, not of the guided.
Further develops discipline.
Utilizes pupils activity through instruction and regards the pupils as more superior
than any other objects.
Scientifically develops concepts and principles.

Aim of Education
The preservation of natural goodness and the virtue of the individuals and the
formation of a society is based upon the recognition of the natural individual rights.
Corruption and external influence
Consisted of activities and interests manifested by the child in the process of growing
Informal exercises of the senses, the muscles, and the tongue instead of the traditional
3Rs and books.
The child in nature should determine the processess and techniques of teaching.
(Naturalism energy, evolutionary, slow)
Methods of Teaching
The child is the center of the educative process.
The child in nature should determine the process and techniques of teaching.
Methods of teaching should not hamper nor restrain the childs natural capacities and
Principle of Teaching: principle of growth of pupil activity and of individualizations.
Respects the natural process of growth and development of children.
The center of the educative process and learn by their self-spontaneous activities.
Application of the natural laws to educational process.
To be educated according to nature could mean education in accordance with human
1. Childhood is intrinsically valuable period of growth and development, and children are
not little adults.
2. Children learn best in permissive atmosphere where they can make their own choices
and learn from the consequences of their actions.
3. Children should be educated far away from society because we are born innocent and
are corrupted by the society.
4. All knowledge reaches the mind through senses.
5. Education should involve development of capacities rather than imposition of ideas.
6. Nature processes are slow and evolutionary, so education should be unhurried. (delay)
Punishment of Naturalism in school
It should constitute the consequences.

Complete Living
1) Preservation of life
2) Secure necessities in life
3) Raising children
4) Maintaining good human relationship
5) Enjoyment of leisure


It believes that only those that are experienced or observed are real.
It focuses on the reality of experience.
Unlike idealism and realism, it believes that reality is consistently changing and that we
learn best through applying our experiences and thoughts to problems, as they arise.
Truth is that works.
Thoughts must produce action, rather than linger in the mind and lead to
Charles Peirce: The greatest mistakes of the past centuries has been to treat children as
if they lived before, teaching them in the same subject.
Aims of Education
It is a means by which society renews itself.
For social renewal and efficiency
Trains students to continuously and actively quest for information and production of
new ideas needed to adjust to an ever-changing society
Provides learners volume of learning each generation needs.
The specific objective: give the learners experience in effective experiencing.
Integrated and based on the problems of the society, social duties and responsibilities;
subjects are interdisciplinary; combined academic and vocational disciplines.
Methods of Teaching
Learning, like thinking, never begins from a static lag line.
It always begins in the midst of movement and activity.
Teaching must begin from the experiences that are going on.
Interest must be used to get the attention of students.
Learning begins in experience.
Experimental and scientific methods; creative and constructive projects; motivation;
laboratory works; self-activity experience; field trips; library works and learning by
Among all the professons, teaching requires long look ahead.

Keeps order in the class; facilities group works; encourages, offers suggestions and helps
in planning; plans curriculum and motivates learning; surrogate mother/father of the
children in the classroom, losses external boss when with the students.
A teacher is a parent away from home.
He keeps order in class and plans for learning activities.
He is a member of the learning group and loses his external boss or dictators but takes
on that of leader of group activities.
Distinct and concrete center of experience.
Not passive receivers of impression but active doers of learning; active biological
School must informal
The singular reason of schools existence is to carry learning activities forward
A miniature society; gives children balance and genuine experience in preparation for
democratic living; a place where ideas are agency of transmitting heritage; a specialized
environmentalist established to enculturate the young people.

Millennials: generation Y, chief friendship officer, echo boomers

Digital media, typicall grew up more sheltered lousy kids
Values: achievement, avid costumer confidence, diversity, more fun, highly tolerant, like
personal attention, sociability, techno savvy, most educated, street smarts
Eager to spend money
Fiercely independent
Focus on change using teen
Friendly schedule
Global way of thinking
Cannot live w/o computers or internet
Think out of the box
Individualistic yet group oriented
Loyal to peers
me first
Whats next?
Learning to do; doing to form; farming to live; living to serve.