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Operating System:
The Operating System is the most important program that runs on a computer.
Every general-purpose computer must have an Operating System to run other
programs. Operating Systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input
from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files
and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk
drives and printers.

Major Functions of Operating System:


Process Management.

Booting, Open, Save, Copy, Install etc.

Resource Management.

Installing device drivers, coordinating with peripherals.

File Management.

Names, Locations etc.

Communication Management.

Command interpretation, Downloading - Uploading, Communication in LAN

Security Management.

Virus Management, Alert messages, Dialogue boxes, Firewall, Passwords.

Memory Management.

RAM ROM etc.

Types of Operating System:


MAC
Mac, with a user-friendly graphical interface on top. It is very popular for personal users,
but can also be used for business purposes. It is less technical. Its backup / recovery
system is best.

LINUX

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Linux distributions are open-source Operating Systems that run on the Linux kernel,
which means that they are flexible Operating Systems and often free, which is beneficial
if you are on a budget. If you are a developer, Linux is flexible. Red
Hat Enterprise Linux is ready to run your toughest workloads immediately after
installation.

UBUNTU
Ubuntu comes with everything you need to run your organization, All the essential
applications, like an office suite, browsers, email and media apps come pre-installed. It is
best for customizations. Fastest boot time than any other Operating System

UNIX
Unix was designed to be portable, multi-tasking and multi-user in a timesharing configuration. Unix was meant to be a programmer's workbench to be used for
developing software to be run on multiple platforms, more than to be used to run
application software

RTOS (Real Time Operating System)


RTOS is best for real time application. RTOS interface stand ard used in aviation
embedded system designs. RTOS designed for embedded systems.

Brief History of Operating System:


The first computers did not have Operating Systems. However, software tools for managing the
system and simplifying the use of hardware appeared very quickly afterwards, and gradually
expanded in scope.
1956
GM-NAA I/O developed by Robert L. Patrick of general Motors for use on their IBM
704 mainframe. This primarily OS was designed to automatically switch to next job.

1960s
1961
MCP (Master Control Program) developed by Burroughs corporations for their
B5000 mainframe. The MCP was a leader in many areas, including: the first
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Operating System to manage multiple processors, the first commercial


implementation of virtual memory, and the first OS written exclusively in a high

level language.
1966
DOS/360 In its time, it was the most widely used Operating System in the world.

was the primary Operating System for smallest to midsize S/360 installations.
1969
Unix is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer Operating Systems,

developed at the Bell Labs. Unix systems are characterized by a modular design.
1973
CP/M (Control Program / Monitor) developed by Greg Kildall as aside project for his
company and popular OS in 1970s. It was ported to hardware environments.
1980s
1981
MS-DOS developed by Microsoft for the IBM PCs. It was first widely available

Operating System for home users.


1982
SunOS developed by Sun Microsystems, SunOS was based on BSD.
1984
Mac OS developed by Apple Computer for home PC. First OS with a GUI builtin.
1985
Microsoft releases Window, which popularized the Operating System even more.
1987
OS/2 developed by a joint venture of IBM and Microsoft. Though it was heavily
marketed but didnt get popularity.

1990s
1991
Linux developed by Linus Torvalds as a free Unix variant. Today it is very
largely contributed open source projects that plays a role in todays server

industry.
1992
Sun Solaris developed by Sun Microsystems, Unix variant and partially based on
SunOS.
1993
Window NT developed by Microsoft as high end server Operating System.
1995

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Window 95 developed by Microsoft it was the first Microsoft Operating System

to have GUI built into it. It was tremendously marketed and quickly swept.
1997
JavaOS developed by Microsystems, JavaOS was developed primarily using Java

Programming Language.
1998
Window98 developed by Microsoft, Window 98 was the next iteration of the

Microsoft Window 95 Operating Systems.


1999
MacOS 9 is the ninth and final major release of Apple's classic Mac OS Operating
System. It was promoted by Apple as "The Best Internet Operating System Ever".

2000s
2000
o Window 2000 is an Operating System for use on both client and
server computers.
o Window Millennium Edition, or Window ME targeted specifically at
home PC users. It included Internet Explorer 5.5, Window Media
Player 7, and the new Window Movie Maker software. Microsoft also
updated the graphical user interface

2001
o Mac OS X version 10.0, code named Cheetah, is the first major
release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apples desktop and
server Operating System.
o Window XP is a personal computer Operating System that was produced
by Microsoft as part of the Window NT family of Operating Systems. It

was intended specifically for mainstream consumer use.


2003
Window Server 2003 is a server Operating System produced by Microsoft and
was a successor of Window 2000 Server. It was first Microsoft Window version
which was thoroughly subjected to semi-automated testing for bugs.

2007
Window Vista is an Operating System by Microsoft for use on personal
computers. Vista aimed to increase the level of communication.

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2008
Microsoft introduced Window Server 2008 at Professional Developers
Conference as the server variant of Window 7.

2010 2014
Window 10 is a personal computer Operating System developed and released
by Microsoft as part of the Window NT family of Operating Systems. It was
officially unveiled in September 2014. Microsoft described Window 10 as an
"Operating System as a service" that would receive ongoing updates to its features
and functionality.

2015
Red Hat announced the general availability of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.7. The
latest version offers new features around security and additional.

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Reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/

https://redmondmag.com/articles/2011/01/25/10-great-features-in-10different-oses.aspx
http://www.thetoptens.com/best-operating-systems/

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