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UNIVERSITYOFTHECORDILLERAS

COLLEGEOFLAW
BaguioCity
POINTERSFORCRIMINALLAW2:FINALEXAMINATION
CONTRIBUTORS:
GeraldineGumagay
MerlieLandocan
ArlanDavis
ChristianneJoyceMends
LeslieRaguindin
JacquelineBilog
KrislynMario
AnnaDeLeon
MaryRoseMilo
PART1(MCQ)
Distinctionsbetweenprescriptionofcrimesandprescriptionofpenalty.
Prescriptionofcrime

Prescriptionofpenalty

Art.90lossorforfeitureoftherightoftheState Art93lossorforfeitureoftherightoftheState
toprosecutetheoffenderafterthelapseofa
toexecutethefinalsentenceorpenaltyafterthe
certaintimefixedbylaw
lapseofacertaintimefixedbylaw.
Periodofprescriptionofcrimes:
1.Death,reclusionperpetuaandreclusion
temporal20years
2.Otherafflictivepenalties15years
3.Correctionalpenalties10yearsexceptarresto
mayorwhichprescribesin5years
4.Libelorsimilaroffense1year
5.Graveoraldefamationandslanderbydeed6
months;and
6.Lightoffenses2months

Periodofprescriptionofpenalties
1.Deathandreclusionperpetua20years
2.otherafflictivepenalties15years
3.Correctionalpenalties10yearsexceptarresto
mayorwhichprescribesin5years
4.Lightpenalties1year

1.Prescriptioncommencestorunfromtheday
followingthecommissionoftheoffenseor
discoveryofthecrimebytheoffendedparty,
authoritiesortheiragents,henceinterruptedby
thefilingofthecomplaintorinformationand
beginstorunagainwhensuchproceedings
terminate:
a.withouttheaccusedbeingconvictedor
acquitted;
b.unjustifiablystoppedforanyreasonnot
imputabletotheoffender.

1.Prescriptionbeginstorunfromthedatethe
culpritevadestheserviceofsentence,hence
interrupted:
a.iftheaccusedsurrenders
b.ifheiscaptured
c.ifheshouldgotoaforeigncountrywith
whichthePhilshasnoextraditiontreaty
d.ifheshouldcommitanothercrimebeforethe
expirationoftheprescriptiveperiod.
e.acceptanceofaconditionalpardon

2.Prescriptionshallnotrunwhentheoffenderis
outsidethePhils,exceptwhenthereisan
extraditiontreaty.

Therulesinparoleandprobation
PAROLE Consists in the suspension of sentence of a convict after serving the
minimumsentenceimposedwithoutgrantingpardonprescribingthetermsuponwhich
thesentencewillbesuspended
ParoleappliestoviolationsoftheRPCandspeciallaws.
Q:Whenisaprisonerqualifiedforreleaseonparole?
A:Wheneveranyprisonershall:
- Haveservedtheminimumpenaltyimposeduponhim
- Appeartotheboardofindeterminatesentence,fromthereportsofthepriso

nersworkandconduct,andfromthestudyandinvestigationmadebythe
boarditselfthat:

a.

Fittedbyhistrainingforrelease;

b.

Reasonableprobabilitythatsuchprisonerwillliveandremainatliberty
withoutviolatingthelaw;

c.

Releasewillnotbeincompatiblewiththewelfareofsociety.

Q:Whenisaprisoneronparoleentitledtofinalreleaseanddischarge?
A:Ifduringtheperiodofsurveillancesuchparoledprisonershall:
i. Showhimselftobealawabidingcitizenand;
ii. Notviolateanylaw,TheBoardmayissueafinalcertificationinhisfavor,for
hisfinalreleaseanddischarge.
Q:Whatarethesanctionsfortheviolationoftheconditionsofparole?
A:Whentheparoledprisonershallviolateanyoftheconditionsofhisparole,hemaye:
1. Rearrested;and
2. Thereafter,heshallservetheremainingunexpiredportionofthemaximumsentencef
orwhichhewasoriginallycommittedtoprison.

DisqualifiedOffenders:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.

Thoseconvictedofanoffensepunishedwithdeath,reclusionperpetuaor
lifeimprisonment
Thoseconvictedoftreason,conspiracyorproposaltocommittreasonor
espionage
Those convicted of misprision of treason, rebellion, sedition or coup
detat
ThoseconvictedofpiracyormutinyonthehighseasorPhilippinewaters
Thosewhoarehabitualdelinquents
Thosewhoescapedfromconfinementorevadedsentence
Thosewhoweregrantedconditionalpardonandviolatedtheterms
Thosewhosemaximumimprisonmentdoesnotexceedoneyearorthose
withdefinitesentence
Those suffering from any mental disorder as certified bya government
psychiatrist/psychologist
Thosewhoseconvictionisonappeal
Thosewhohavependingcriminalcases

Effect of Certificate of Final Release and Discharge: Parolee/pardonee shall be


finallyreleasedanddischargedfromtheconditionsappearinginhisreleasedocument
Accessorypenaltiesofthelawwhichhavenotbeenexpresslyremittedthereinshall
subsist
PROBATIONadispositionunderwhichadefendant,afterconvictionandsentence,is
releasedsubjecttoconditionsimposedbythecourtandtothesupervisionofaprobation
officer
Q:Whataretherulesonthegrantofprobation?Afterhavingconvictedandsentenceda
defendant,thetrialcourtmaysuspendtheexecutionofthesentence,andplace the
defendantonprobation,uponapplicationbythedefendantwithintheperiodforperfecti
nganappeal.
Q:
Mayarecidivistbegiventhebenefitofprobation?Answer:No.

Q:Effectofprobationonthecivilliabilityoftheoffender?Theprobationlawprovideso
nlyforthesuspensionofthesentenceimposedontheaccusedbyvirtueofhisapplicatio
n.Ithasabsolutelynobearingoncivilliability.Althoughtheexecutionofsentenceissu
spendedbythegrantofsuspension,itdoesnotfollowthatthecivilliabilityoftheoffen
der,ifany,isextinguished.
- Thefilingofapplicationforprobationoperatesasawaiveroftherighttoappe

al.
- Probationmaybegrantedwhetherthesentenceimposedatermofimprisonme

ntorfineonly
- Theapplicationshallbefiledwiththetrialcourt,andtheordergrantingorden

yingprobationshallnotbeappealable.
- Accessorypenaltiesaredeemedsuspendedonceprobationisgranted.

Whenmayprobationbeavailedof?Probationmaybeavailedofbeforetheconvictbegi
nsservingsentencebyfinaljudgmentprovidedthathe/shedidnotappealhis/herconvic
tionanymore.
Whocanapplyforprobation?Onlythosewhosepenaltydoesnotexceedsixyearsofim
prisonmentarequalifiedforprobation,withoutregardtothenatureofthecrime.
Exception:
1.FirsttimeminoroffendersunderRa9165
2.Violationoftheomnibuselectioncode
OffenderswhoarenotentitledtoProbation:
Thosesentencedtoserveimprisonmentformorethan6years;
Thoseconvictedofsubversionoranycrimeagainstthenationalsecurityorpublic
order;
3) Those previously convicted by final judgment of an offense punished by
imprisonmentofnotlessthanonemonthandonedayand/orafineofnotmore
than200pesos;
4) Thosewhohavebeenonceonprobation;and
5) ThosealreadyservingsentenceatthetimeofapprovalofPD968.
1)
2)

Note:Indeterminingwhetheraconvictisentitledtoprobation,considernotonlytheproba
tionablecrime,butalsotheprobationablepenalty.Ifitwereanonprobationablecrime,the
nregardlessofthepenalty,theconvictcannotavailofprobation.
RequisitesbeforeanoffendercanbeplacedonProbation:
1.

Apostsentenceinvestigationreportbytheprobationofficer.

2.

Adeterminationbythecourtthatthebestinterestofthepublicandtheoffender
andtheendsofjusticewillbeserved.

PeriodofProbation:
1.

Iftheoffenderissentencedtoatermofimprisonmentofnotmorethan1year
periodshallnotexceed2years

2.

Inallothercasesifsentenceismorethan1yeartheprobationshallnotexceed6
years

3.

Ifsentenceisfineonlywithsubsidiaryimprisonmentincaseofinsolvency,the
probationperiodshallbetwicethetotalnumberofdaysofsubsidiary

NOTE:Theprobationisnotcoterminouswithitsperiod.Theremustbeanorderissuedby
thecourtdischargingtheprobationer.
Probationisamereprivilegenotaright.
Probationisamereprivilegeanditsgrantrestssolelyuponthediscretionofthecourtand
istobeexercisedprimarilyforthebenefitoftheaccused.

Ruleincaseofsubsidiaryimprisonment.
Rules:Article39,RPC

PENALTY IMPOSED

LENGTH OF SUBSIDIARY
PENALTY

Prision correccional or
arresto and fine

1. Not exceed 1/3 of term of


sentence,
2. In no case more than 1 year
3. Fraction or part of a day not
counted.

Fine only

1.Grave or less grave felony- Not


to exceed 6 months if prosecuted
2. Light felony- not to exceed 15
days

Higher than prision


correccional

No subsidiary imprisonment

Not to be executed by
confinement but of fixed
duration

Same deprivations as those of the


principal penalty under rules 1, 2
and 3 above

Iffinancialcircumstancesimprove,convictstilltopaythefineevenifhehassuffered
subsidiarypersonalliability.
Thereisnosubsidiarypenaltyfornonpaymentofreparation,indemnificationandcostsin
par1,2and4ofArt38.Itisonlyforfines.
Asubsidiarypenaltyisnotanaccessorypenalty.Sinceitisnotanaccessorypenalty,it
mustbeexpresslystatedinthesentence,butthesentencedoesnotspecifytheperiodof
subsidiarypenaltybecauseitwillonlybeknowniftheconvictcannotpaythefine.
Subsidiaryimprisonmentcanbeappliedtothefineimposedforviolationofspecialpenal
laws.ThisisauthorizedbyArt.1732andbyArt.10whichmakestheRevisedPenalCode
applicabletospeciallaws.

TheJuvenileJusticeandWelfareActof2006particularlyontheprogramthatthe
childinconflictwiththelawisrequiredtoundergoafterhe/sheisfoundresponsibleforan
offense.
DiversionProgramschildreninconflictwiththelawundergo,withoutundergoingcourt
proceedings(Section23ofAct):
(a) Penaltyforthecrimecommittedisnotmorethan6yearsofimprisonmentlaw
enforcement officer [with the assistance of local social welfare and
development officer] shall conduct mediation, family conferencing and
conciliation and, where appropriate, adopt indigenous modes of conflict
resolutioninaccordancewiththebestinterestofthechildGoal:accomplish
objectivesofrestorativejusticeandformulationofadiversionprograms
(b)

Victimlesscrimes:penaltyimposableisnotmorethan6yearsimprisonment
localsocialwelfareanddevelopmentofficershallmeetthechildandhis/her
parents or guardian for the development of the appropriate diversion and
rehabilitationprogram,incoordinationwiththeBCPC

(c)

Penalty exceeds 6 years imprisonment diversion measures may only be


resortedtobythecourt

StudythespecificfeaturesofArt.62,69,79oftheRPC
Theinstanceswhenminorsaredisqualifiedfromavailingthebenefitsofasuspended
sentencewhentheyareconvictedofanoffense.
AUTOMATICSUSPENSIONOFSENTENCEofaGuiltyMinorDelinquent,Section
38,RA9344of2006
Thecourtshalldetermineandascertainanycivilliabilitywhichmayhaveresulted
fromtheoffensecommitted.Insteadofpronouncingthejudgmentofconviction,the
courtshallplacethechildinconflictwiththelawundersuspendedsentence,without
needofapplication.Provided,however,Thatsuspensionofsentenceshallbeapplied
evenifthejuvenileisalready18yearsorageormoreatthetimeofthepronouncement
ofhis/herguilt.
Section48,A.M.No.020118SC,November24,2009
Suspensionofsentencecanbeavailedofevenifthechildisalready18yearsofageor
morebutnotabove21years,atthetimeofthe pronouncement ofguilt,without
prejudicetothechildsavailingofotherbenefitssuchasprobation,ifqualified,or
adjustmentofpenalty,ininterestofjustice.
Whenbenefitsofsuspendedsentenceshallnotapply?
Article192,PD603,1974;Benefitsshallnotapplytoayouthfuloffender:
a. Whoonceenjoyedsuspensionofsentenceunderitsprovision
b. Whoisconvictedfroanoffensepunishablebydeathorlifeimprisonment
c. WhoisconvictedforanoffensebytheMilitaryTribunals.
Section48,A.M.No.020118SC2009
Thebenefitsofsuspendedsentenceshallnotapplytoachildinconflictwiththelaw
whohasonceenjoyedsuspensionofsentence,butshallnonethelessapplytoonewho
is convicted of an offense punishable by reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment
pursuanttotheprovisionsofRA9346prohibitingtheimpositionofdeathpenaltyand
inlieuthereof,reclusionperpetua,andafterapplicationoftheprivilegedmitigating
circumstanceofminority.
Ruleontheinterruptionoftheprescriptionofoffenses.
Periodofprescriptionofcrimes:
1. Death,reclusionperpetuaandreclusiontemporal20years
2.

Otherafflictivepenalties15years

3.

Correctionalpenalties10yearsexceptarrestomayorwhichprescribesin5years

4.

Libelorsimilaroffense1year

5.

Graveoraldefamationandslanderbydeed6months

6.

Lightoffenses2months

Periodofprescriptionofafelonywhenitbeginstorunandwhenitissuspended:
1. Prescriptionbeginstorunfromthedayfollowingthecommissionoftheoffenseor
discoveryofthecrimebytheoffendedparty,theauthoritiesortheiragents.
2. Theperiodisinterruptedbythefilingofthecomplaintorinformation.
Ifaninformationisfiledwithintheprescriptiveperiodanditisamendedby
including a new and different act and not mere correction, the date of the
amendmentistobeconsidered;otherwise,thedateoftheoriginalinformation.

3. Theperiodcommencestorunagainwhensuchproceedingsterminate:(a)without
theaccusedbeingacquittedorconvicted;or(b)areunjustifiablystoppedforany
reasonnotimputabletotheoffender.
Continuingcrime periodofprescriptionisequivalenttothespacecreated
betweenthedateofcommissionandconsummationandthedateofprosecution
(Archesv.Bellosillo,81Phil.190).Theprescriptioncommencestorunafter
terminationofthecontinuityoftheoffense.
4. PrescriptionshallnotrunwhentheoffenderisoutsideofthePhilippines,EXCEPT
whenthereisanextraditiontreaty.
Whenthelastdayoftheprescriptiveperiodforfilingoftheinformationfallsona
Sundayoralegalholiday,theinformationcannolongerbefiledonthenextdayas
thecrimehasalreadyprescribed.(Peoplev.Buencamino,122SCRA713)

Theperiodofbondtokeepthepeace.
Art.35.Effectsofbondtokeepthepeace.Itshallbethedutyofanypersonsentenced
togivebondtokeepthepeace,topresenttwosufficientsuretieswhoshallundertakethat
suchpersonwillnotcommittheoffensesoughttobeprevented,andthatincasesuch
offensebecommittedtheywillpaytheamountdeterminedbythecourtinthejudgment,or
otherwisetodepositsuchamountintheofficeoftheclerkofthecourttoguaranteesaid
undertaking.
Thecourtshalldetermine,accordingtoitsdiscretion,theperiodofdurationofthebond.
Shouldthepersonsentencedfailtogivethebondasrequiredheshallbedetainedfora
periodwhichshallinnocaseexceedsixmonths,isheshallhavebeenprosecutedfora
graveorlessgravefelony,andshallnotexceedthirtydays,ifforalightfelony.
Art.284.Bondforgoodbehavior.Inallcasesfallingwithinthetwonextpreceding
articles,thepersonmakingthethreatsmayalsoberequiredtogivebailnottomolestthe
personthreatened,orifheshallfailtogivesuchbail,heshallbesentencedtodestierro.

DisqualificationsofRecidivistandHabitualDelinquents.
In preventive imprisonment, recidivists and habitual delinquents are not entitled to be
creditedwithfulltimeorfourfifthsdeductionofpenaltyofthetimeduringwhichthey
haveundergonepreventiveimprisonment.
InISL,ahabitualdelinquentisnotentitledtoanindeterminatesentence,whilearecidivist
maybegiventhebenefitsofthelaw.
Inprobation,recidivistsandhabitualdelinquentsaredisqualifiedfromapplyingprobation.

Theruleandpenaltyforimpossiblecrimes.
Criminalliabilityshallbeincurredbyanypersonperforminganactwhichwouldbean
offense against persons or property, were it not for the inherent impossibility of its
accomplishmentoranaccountoftheemploymentofinadequateorineffectualmeans.Act
performeddoesnotviolateanotherprovisionoftheRPC.
Thepenaltyforimpossiblecrimeisarrestomayororafinerangingfrom200to500pesos.
(Article59,RPC)
Art.59islimitedtothosecaseswheretheactperformedwouldbegravefeloniesorless
gravefelonies.

Theexceptiontotherulethatacquittalfromacriminalcaseextinguishescivilliability.
Exceptionstotherulethatacquittalfromacriminalcaseextinguishescivilliabilityare:

1) Whenthecivilactionisbasedonobligationsnotarisingfromtheactcomplained
ofasafelony
2) Whenacquittalisbasedonreasonabledoubtoracquittalisonthegroundthat
guilthasnotbeenprovenbeyondreasonabledoubt(Art.29,NewCivilCode);
3) Acquittalduetoanexemptingcircumstance,likeInsanity;
4) Where the court states in its Judgment that the case merely involves a civil
obligation;
5) Wheretherewasaproperreservationforthefilingofaseparatecivilaction;
6) IncasesofindependentcivilactionsprovidedforinArts.31,32,33and34ofthe
NewCivilCode;
7) Whenthejudgmentofacquittalincludesadeclarationthatthefactfromwhichthe
civilliabilitymightarisedidnotexist(Sapieravs.CA,314SCRA370);
8) Wherethecivilliabilityisnotderivedorbasedonthecriminalactofwhichthe
accusedisacquitted(Sapieravs.CA.314SCRA370).

ApplicationofActualDamages,MoralDamages,ExemplaryDamagesandTemperate
Damages
Arts.2202,22042206,2230ofNCC
Art.2202.Incrimesandquasidelicts,thedefendantshallbeliableforalldamages
whicharethenaturalandprobableconsequencesoftheactoromissioncomplainedof.
Itisnotnecessarythatsuchdamageshavebeenforeseenorcouldhavereasonablybeen
foreseenbythedefendant.
Art.2204.Incrimes,thedamagestobeadjudicatedmayberespectivelyincreasedor
lessenedaccordingtotheaggravatingormitigatingcircumstances.
Art.2205.Damagesmayberecovered:
(1)Forlossorimpairmentofearningcapacityincases oftemporaryorpermanent
personalinjury;
(2)Forinjurytotheplaintiff'sbusinessstandingorcommercialcredit.
Art.2206.Theamountofdamagesfordeathcausedbyacrimeorquasidelictshallbe
at least three thousand pesos, even though there may have been mitigating
circumstances.Inaddition:
(1)Thedefendantshallbeliableforthelossoftheearningcapacityofthedeceased,and
theindemnityshallbepaidtotheheirsofthelatter;suchindemnityshallineverycase
beassessedandawardedbythecourt,unlessthedeceasedonaccountofpermanent
physicaldisabilitynotcausedbythedefendant,hadnoearningcapacityatthetimeof
hisdeath;
(2)IfthedeceasedwasobligedtogivesupportaccordingtotheprovisionsofArticle
291,therecipientwhoisnotanheircalledtothedecedent'sinheritancebythelawof
testateorintestatesuccession,maydemandsupportfromthepersoncausingthedeath,
foraperiodnotexceedingfiveyears,theexactdurationtobefixedbythecourt;
(3)Thespouse,legitimateandillegitimatedescendantsandascendantsofthedeceased
maydemandmoraldamagesformentalanguishbyreasonofthedeathofthedeceased.
Art.2230.Incriminaloffenses,exemplarydamagesasapartofthecivilliabilitymay
beimposedwhenthecrimewascommittedwithoneormoreaggravating
circumstances.Suchdamagesareseparateanddistinctfromfinesandshallbepaidto
theoffendedparty.

Awardabledamagesincaseofdeath
- ThedeathindemnitybyjudicialfiatispresentlyPhp50,000.00
- LossofearningcapacityArt.2205.Damagesmayberecovered:Forlossor
impairmentofearningcapacityincasesoftemporaryorpermanentpersonalinjury
(NCC)
- MoralDamagesinfavorofthespouse,descendentsandascendantsofthedeceased.
- ExemplaryDamagesArt.2230.Incriminaloffenses,exemplarydamagesasapart
ofthecivilliabilitymaybeimposedwhenthecrimewascommittedwithoneormore
aggravatingcircumstances.Suchdamagesareseparateanddistinctfromfinesandshall
bepaidtotheoffendedparty.(NCC)

Theperiodofbondtokeepthepeace.
Art.35.Effectsofbondtokeepthepeace.Itshallbethedutyofanypersonsentenced
togivebondtokeepthepeace,topresenttwosufficientsuretieswhoshallundertakethat
suchpersonwillnotcommittheoffensesoughttobeprevented,andthatincasesuch
offensebecommittedtheywillpaytheamountdeterminedbythecourtinthejudgment,or
otherwisetodepositsuchamountintheofficeoftheclerkofthecourttoguaranteesaid
undertaking.
Thecourtshalldetermine,accordingtoitsdiscretion,theperiodofdurationofthebond.
Shouldthepersonsentencedfailtogivethebondasrequiredheshallbedetainedfora
periodwhichshallinnocaseexceedsixmonths,isheshallhavebeenprosecutedfora
graveorlessgravefelony,andshallnotexceedthirtydays,ifforalightfelony.
Art.284.Bondforgoodbehavior.Inallcasesfallingwithinthetwonextpreceding
articles,thepersonmakingthethreatsmayalsoberequiredtogivebailnottomolestthe
personthreatened,orifheshallfailtogivesuchbail,heshallbesentencedtodestierro.

Prescriptionofthecorrectionalpenaltyofarrestomayor.
Art25Arestomayorisacorrectionalpenalty,henceArt90,92and93provides xxx
Correctionalpenaltiesprescribesin10yearsexceptarrestomayorwhichprescribesin5
yearsxxx

ApplicationanddisqualificationsoftheISL.
Impositionofanindeterminatesentenceincriminaloffensesappliestoviolations
oftheRevisedPenalCodeandspeciallaws.

UnderIftheoffenseis punishedbyaspeciallaw,thecourtshallsentencethe
accusedtoanindeterminatepenalty,themaximumtermofwhichshallnotexceed
themaximumfixedbysaidlawandtheminimumtermshallnotbelessthanthe
minimumprescribedbythesame.IftheoffenseispunishedbytheRPC,thecourt
shallsentencetheaccusedtoanindeterminatepenalty,themaximumtermofwhich
shallbethepenaltyimposableunderthesameCodeafterconsideringtheattending
mitigatingand/oraggravatingcircumstancesaccordingtoArticle64ofthesaid
code.Theminimumtermofthesamesentenceshallbewithintherangeofthe
penaltynextlowertothatprescribedbytheCodefortheoffense.

The sentence is considered indeterminate because it cannot be determined just


exactlyhowlongtheconvictwillservethesentencebecausehemaybereleasedon
paroleafterservingtheminimumpenalty.

Cases in which the Indeterminate Sentence Law is not applicable:

a)

Offensespunishedbydeathorlifeimprisonment.

b)

Thoseconvictedoftreason(Art.114),conspiracyorproposaltocommittreason
(Art.115).

c)

Thoseconvictedofmisprisionoftreason(Art.116),rebellion(Art.134)sedition,
(Art.139),orespionage(Art.117).

d)

Thoseconvictedofpiracy(Art.122).

e)

Habitualdelinquents(Art.62,par.5).

f)

Thosewhoescapedfromconfinementorthosewhoevadedsentence(Art.157).

g)

Thosewhoviolatedthetermsoftheconditionalpardon(Art.159).

h)

Thosewhosemaximumperiodofimprisonmentdoesnotexceedoneyear.

i)

Those who are already serving final judgment upon the approval of the
IndeterminateSentenceLaw.

Note:Thereisnoindeterminatesentenceifthepenaltydoesnotinvolveimprisonment.
Althoughthepenaltyprescribedforthefelonycommittedisdeathorreclusionperpetua,if
afterconsideringtheattendantcircumstances,theimposablepenaltyisreclusiontemporal
orless,theIndeterminateSentenceLawapplies.
Anoffenderisnotdisqualifiedtoavailofthebenefitsoftheindeterminatesentencelawev
enifthecrimeiscommittedwhileheisonparole.

Rule in the other of payment of pecuniary liabilities, where the property of the
offenderisnotsufficientforthepaymentofallhisliabilities.
Incasethepropertyoftheoffendershouldnotbesufficientforthepaymentofallhis
pecuniaryliabilities,thesameshallbemetinthefollowingorder:
Reparationofthedamagecaused
Indemnification
Fine
Costsoftheproceedings

Wheretheoffendermayservethepenaltyofarrestomenor.
Inthemunicipaljail
In the house of the offender, but under the surveillance of an officer of the law
wheneverthecourtsoprovidesinthedecisionduetothehealthoftheoffender.Butthe
reasonis notsatisfactoryjustbecausetheoffenderisarespectablememberofthe
communityArticle88,RPC

Studyperiodofdetentiontobeundergonebyanaccusedwhentheoffensewithwhich
heischargedisnonbailableorevenifbailable,hecannotpostabondforhisprovisional
liberty.
PreventiveImprisonmentAperiodofdetentiontobeundergonebyanaccusedwhenthe
offensewithwhichheischargedisnonbailableorevenifbailable,hecannotpostabond
forhisprovisionalliberty.
thefulltimeor4/5ofthetimeduringwhichtheoffendershaveundergonepreventive
suspensionshallbedeductedfromthepenaltyimposed
durationofRPistobecomputedat30years,thus,eveniftheaccusedissentencedtolife
imprisonment,heisentitledtothefulltimeor4/5ofthetimeofpreventivesuspension

Ifthepenaltyimposedisarrestomenortodestierro,theaccusedwhohasbeeninprisonfor
30days(arrestomenorto30days)shouldbereleasedbecausealthoughthemaximum
penaltyisdestierro(6mos1dayto6yrs),theaccusedsentencedtosuchpenaltydoesnot
serveitinprison.
HabitualDelinquentsnotentitledtothefulltimeor4/5creditoftimeunderpreventive
imprisonmentsinceheisnecessarilyarecidivistorhasbeenconvictedpreviouslytwiceor
moretimesofanycrime.

Thetermofdurationofthetemporarypenaltieswhentheoffenderisinprison.
Art.28Computation ofPenalties Ifthe offendershall beinprison,the term ofthe
duration of the temporary penalties shall be computed from the day on which the
judgementofconvictionshallhavebecomefinal.
REASON: The duration of temporary penalties (Temporary absolute disqualification,
Temporaryspecialdisqualification,Suspension)shallbecomputedonlyfromthedayof
hisdetention,becauseunderArt.24thearrestandtemporarydetentionoftheaccusedis
notconsideredapenalty.

Studytherulewhereunlawfulaggressionandanyofthetworemainingelementsare
present.
Article69:Incompleteselfdefense:ifonlyunlawfulaggressionispresent,theaccusedis
entitledtoapenaltyonedegreelower;ifunlawfulaggressionandanyofthetwoother
remainingelementsarepresent,heisentitledtoapenaltytwodegreeslower.

StudytherulewhenaminorwhosesentenceissuspendedbecauseofRA9344andis
referredtoaninterventionprogram,butduringtheprocesshebecomesincorrigibleinthe
reformatoryinstitution.
IftheFamilyCourt,however,findsthatthejuvenilehasnotbehavedproperly,hasbeen
incorrigible,hasnotshownthecapabilityofbecomingausefulmemberofsociety,has
willfullyfailedtocomplywiththeconditionsofhisdispositionorrehabilitationprogram,
orshouldhiscontinuedstayinthetraininginstitutionwherehehasbeenassignedbenotin
hisbestinterests,heshallbebroughtbeforethecourtforexecutionofhisjudgment.

Ruleintheinterruptionoftheprescriptionofoffenses.
Prescription begins to run from the day following the commission of the offense or
discovery of the crime by the offended party, the authorities, or their agents. It is
interruptedbythefilingofthecomplaintorinformation.Theperiodcommencestorun
againwhensuchproceedingsaredismissedforreasonsnotconstitutingdoublejeopardy.
PrescriptionshallnotrunwhentheoffenderisoutsidethePhils.,EXCEPTwhenthereis
extraditiontreaty.

PARTII(ESSAY)
Memorize the range of penalties under the Revised Penal code from Reclusion

Perpetua,ReclusionTemporaltoArrestoMenor,indicatingtheirminimum,mediemand
maximumperiods.

PENALTIES

TIME
INCLUDED IN
THE PENALTY
IN ITS
ENTIRETY

MINIMUM
PERIOD

MEDIUM
PERIOD

MAXIMUM
PERIOD

Reclusion
Perpetua

20 years & 1 day


to 40 years

Reclusion
Temporal

12 years & 1 day


to 20 years

Prision Mayor

6 years & 1 day to


12 years
6 years & 1 day to 8 years & 1 day to 10 years & 1 day
*Temporary DQ:if
8 years
10 years
to 12 years

Absolute DQ
Temporary DQ
Prision
Correccional
Suspension
Destierro

Not Applicable
12 years & 1 day
to 14 years & 8
months

14 years, 4 months 17 years & 4


& 1 day to 17
months & 1 day to
years & 4 months 20 years

accessory, equal to the


principal penalty

6 months & 1 day 6 months & 1 day 2 years, 4 months 4 years, 2 months
to 6 years
to 2 years & 4
& 1 day to 4 years & 1 day to 6 years
months
& 2 months

Arresto Mayor

1 month & 1 day


to 6 months

1 month to 2
months

2 months & 1 day 4 months & 1 day


to 4 months
to 6 months

Arresto Menor

1 to 30 days

1 to 10 days

11 days to 20 days 21 days to 30 days

ThepenaltyofDestierroandtheinstanceswherethepenaltyofDestierroisimposed?
Any person sentence to destierro shall not be permitted to enter the place or places
designatedinthesentence,norwithintheradiusthereinspecified,whichshallnotbemore
than250andnotlessthan25kilometersfromtheplacedesignated.(art.87RPC)
Destierroisconsideredadeprivationofliberty
Ifthepenaltyimposedisarrestomenortodestierro,theaccusedwhohasbeeninprisonfor
30days(arrestomenorto30days)shouldbereleasedbecausealthoughthemaximum
penaltyisdestierro(6mos1dayto6yrs),theaccusedsentencedtosuchpenaltydoesnot
serveitinprison.
Instanceswheredestierroisimposed;
Seriousphysicalinjuriesordeathunderexceptionalcircumstances(Art.247RPC)
Anylegallymarriedpersonwhocaughthis spousehavingsexualintercoursewith
another
Parentswhocatchtheirdaughterswhoareunder18yrsofageandtheirseducerswhile
thedaughtersarelivingwiththeparents
Note:anypersonwhoshallpromoteorfacilitatetheprostitutionofhiswifeor
daughterorshallotherwisehaveconsentedtotheinfidelityoftheotherspouseshall
notbeentitledtothebenefitsoftheprovision
Incaseoffailuretogivebondforgoodbehavior(Art284RPC)
Asapenaltyfortheconcubineinconcubinage(Art334RPC)
Incaseswhereafterreducingthepenaltybyoneormoredegrees,destierroisthe
properpenalty
Iftheconvictenterstheprohibitedarea,hecommitsevasionofserviceofsentence.

Readallcasesonprobation.
Theruleandexceptionsforthecivilliabilityoftheaccusedincaseofacquittalofthe
accusedinacriminalcase
EffectofAcquittaloftheaccused:

Acquittaloftheaccuseddoesnotmeanextinctionofhiscivilliabilityunlessthereisa
declarationinthedecisionthatthefactfromwhichthecivilliabilitymightarisedidnot
exist.(Sec.1,Rule111,2000RulesonCriminalProcedure)**Asarule,iftheoffenderin
acriminalcaseisacquitted,hiscivilliabilityisalsoextinguished.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. Civilactionisbasedonobligationsnotarisingfromactcomplainedofasfelony.
2. Acquittalisbasedonreasonabledoubtoracquittalisonthegroundthattheguilthas
notbeenprovenbeyondreasonabledoubt.
3. Acquittalduetoanexemptingcircumstances,likeinsanity.
4. Courtstatesinitsjudgmentthatthecasemerelyinvolvesacivilobligation.
5. Properreservationforthefilingofaseparatecivilaction.
6. IncasesofindependentcivilactionsprovidedforinArts.31,32,22,and34ofthe
NewCivilCode.
7. Civilliabilityisnotderivedorbasedonthecriminalactwhichtheaccusedis
acquitted.

Theruleonawardofdamages.Rememberthecasewheretheaccusedwasfoundguilty
of 10 counts of rape for having carnal knowledge with the same woman? Learn the
applicationoftherulesonindemnity.
Moraldamagesareautomaticallygrantedinarapecasewithoutneedoffurtherproof.
(Peoplevs.Manalo,396SCRA573).
Php50,000.00hasbeenfixedasthecivilindemnityforrape(Peoplevs.Ravelo,202
SCRA665;Peoplevs.Montemayor,396SCRA159)andPhp100,000.00incaseof
rapewithhomicide.(peoplevs.BantilanG.R.No.129286,Sept.14,1999).
Peoplevs,Montemayor,396SCRA159,January28,2003
FACTS: Siverio Montemaor was convicted of 5 counts of rape committed against
AileenAlba(12yearsofage),allinthebrgy.Hall.Hewassentencedtoreclusion
perpertua,topaythecostsoftheproceedingsandtoindemnifytheoffendedpartythe
sumofP50,000.00ineachcaseoratotalsumP250,000asmoraldamageswithout
subsidiaryimprisonmentincaseofinsolvency.
ISSUE:Whetherornotthecivilliabilityimposedisproper.
RULING:ThecivilliabilityofP50,000.00incaseasindemnityisproper.

Requisitesandtherulesincaseofsubsidiaryliabilityofemployers.
Thestatutorybasisforanemployer'ssubsidiaryliabilityisfoundinArticle103ofthe
RevisedPenalCode.Thefollowingrequisitesmustbepresent:theconvictedemployeeis
intruthintheemployoftheemployer;thatthelatterisengagedinanindustryofsome
kind;thattheemployeehascommittedthecrimetowhichcivilliabilityattacheswhilein
the performance of his duties as such; and that execution against the employee is
unsuccessfulbyreasonofinsolvency.Thesubsidiaryliabilityoftheemployerarisesonly
aftertheconvictionoftheemployeeinthecriminalaction.Ahospitalisnotengagedin

industryasameansoflivelihoodorforprofit,hencenotsubisdiarilyliablefortheacts
of nurses. (Clemente v Foreign Mission Sisters). Private individuals not engaged in
businessorindustryarenotsubsidiarilyliable(SteinmetzvValdez).

ApplicationoftheISL(youwillbeaskedtoshowhowyouarrivedatthepenalty.
Justfollowthefourstepprocedure:
1. Determinecrimecommittedandthepenaltyimposable.
2. FixtheproperdegreebydeterminingoftheprovisionsofArt.64par.5
(2+MC,noAC),Art.68(Minority)&69(Inc.selfdefense)are
applicablethenLOWERthepenaltybydegree/s
3. FixtheMINIMUMpenaltybyloweringthepenaltybyONEDEGREE
fromthepenaltyimposabletotheoffensecommittedorfromtheproper
degreeifArt.64(5),Art68&69isapplicablewithoutanyreferenceto
anyperiod.Thejudgehasthediscretiontofixtheminimuminanyperiod
oftheMINIMUMpenalty.
4. FixtheMAXIMUMpenaltybygoingtothepenaltyimposableorproper
degreewhereyouimmediatelycamefromandlookforremainingMCor
ACifany,andapplythem.
FixtheproperperiodbyapplyingArt.64.ThisistheMAXIMUMoftheindeterminate
sentence
or
STEPS

Crimeandpenalty

Lowerpenaltyby:
1deg:2+MC,noAC
1deg:>15<18withdiscernment
1deg:unlawfulaggressiononly
2degs:unlawfulaggression+anyother2remainingelements

MINIMUM=onedegreelowerfromimposedpenalty

MAXIMUM=imposablepenalty,applyremainingACorMC

Theinstancesorsituationsincriminalcaseswhereintheaccused,eitherasanadultor
asminor,canapplyforand/orbegrantedasuspendedsentence.(Arlan)

ADULT:
IFTHEOFFENDERISINSANEORAN
IMBECILE:

EFFECTSINRELATIONTOCRIMINAL
LIABILITY

Duringthecommissionoftheoffense

Exemptfromcriminalliability

Duringthetrial

Suspensionoftheproceedings

Afterfinalsentence

Executionofsentenceshallbesuspendedwith
regardtohispersonalliability(imprisonment)
Pecuniaryliabilitiesshallnotbesuspended

MINOR:

AGEatthetimeofthe
EffectsinrelationtoCriminal GovernmentProgram
COMMISSIONoftheoffense Liability
Imposed
Exemptformcriminalliability

InterventionProgram

Above15yrsbutbelow18yrs Exemptfromcriminalliability
ofagewhodidnotactwith
discernment

Interventionprogram

15yrsofageorunder

Above15yrsbutbelow18yrs
ofageActedwith
discernment

Subjecttoappropriate
proceedings

Diversionprogram(e.i.
counselingetc)

Theruleincaseofviolationofconditionalpardon,paroleorprobation.Howmuchof
theremainingpenaltywouldbeserved?
PARDON:Forviolationoftheconditionalpardon,theconvictisrearrestedtoservethe
remittedpenaltyorprosecutedunderArticle159
Article159provides:Othercasesofevasionofserviceofsentence.Thepenaltyof
prisioncorreccionalinitsminimumperiodshallbeimposedupontheconvictwho,
havingbeengrantedconditionalpardonbytheChiefExecutive,shallviolateanyofthe
conditionsofsuchpardon.However,ifthepenaltyremittedbythegrantingofsuch
pardonbehigherthansixyears,theconvictshallthensuffertheunexpiredportionof
hisoriginalsentence.
PAROLE:Inviolationofparole,theconvictisrearrestedtoservetheunexpiredportionof
thepenalty
PROBATION: If the violation is established, the court may: revoke his probation, or
continuehisprobationandmodifytheconditionsthereof.Thisorderisnotappealable.
Ifrevoked,theprobationershallservethesentenceoriginallyimposed.

Ruleonprescriptionofcrimes(Parricide)
Thecrimeofparricideispunishablebyreclusionperpetuatodeathwhichshallprescribein
20 years computed from the day the crime is discovered by the offended party, the
authoritiesortheiragents.
Penalty or Felony

Time after which Crime will Prescribe

Death, reclusion perpetua or reclusion temporal

20 years

Other afflictive penalties

15 years

Correctional penalty, except arresto mayor

10 years

Arresto mayor

5 years

Libel or other similar offenses

1 year

Oral defamation and slander by deed

6 months

Light offenses
PrescriptionofCrimes(Art.90)
Article246,RPC.Parricide

2 months

Any person who shall kill his father, mother, or child, whether legitimate or
illegitimate,oranyofhisascendants,ordescendants,orhisspouse,shallbeguilty
ofparricideandshallbepunishedbythepenaltyofreclusionperpetuatodeath.

Preparethebestjokeyoucangive.
Reminders:

MCQquestionswillbeansweredinthequestionnaireprovided.

Essayquestionswillbeansweredinyournotebook.

Pleaseindicatecontactnumberbelowyourname.

SubmissionofcasedigestswillbeonOctober25,2012,at3:00PM

Donotforgettosmile
Ithasbeenapleasuretobewithyouforasemesterfriends.Alwaysrememberthatin
yourchallengetobecomelawyers,sometimes:theheartoftheproblemisjustthe
problemwithyourheart.Godblessyouinyourexams.