Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 77

Water Treatment for Power Plant Cooling

Towers:
A supplement to the EPRI 2012 RFI for those unfamiliar with the
power industry

This slide deck is meant to serve as a brief guide through the resources available for the EPRI 2012 Development of Innovative Water
Treatment and Cooling Technologies for Power Plant Water Consumption Reduction Request for Information (RFI)
Compiled by Vivian Li - vli@epri.com

Motivation for Advanced Water Treatment Technology

Limited Freshwater Resources


To meet current and future constraints on new plant siting and long term
operations, it is necessary to develop advanced technologies to bolster
our ability to expand the electric industrys water resources. Due to everincreasing competing demands, it is critical to prioritize our water
resources, delegating different grades of water to appropriate usages.
Current alternative sources of degraded water for use in power plant
cooling are limited and must be expanded to keep up with energy
generation needs.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Most Rewarding Areas for Energy Efficient Water Treatment Technology


Development:
Water Loss Reduction Technology and Water Resource Expansion
1) Minimize water loss and waste in power plant cooling operations
Process cooling applications:
Moisture recovery from cooling tower (more than 20%) or boiler flue gas
Post treatment of blowdown water from evaporative cooling tower
operations to enable reuse on site, preferably for cooling system make-up
water.
Pre-treatment and side stream treatment in order to increase the cycles of
concentration in the cooling system.
Technologies which leverage existing processes and infrastructure such
as waste heat.

2) Expand current sources of water used for power plant cooling


Degraded and nontraditional water sources:
Technologies which enable cost effective utilization of municipal wastewater
effluent and brackish water.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Overview
1. Overview of Power Plant Cooling Tower Operations1
2.

Water Tower Chemistry Criteria1

3. Sources of Degraded Water1


4. Source Water Evaluation: Operational Concerns and
Environmental Constituents of Interest1,2
5. Power Plant Cooling Water Treatment Technologies1,3,4

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Overview of Power Plant Cooling Tower


Operations

Diagram of an Open, Re-Circulating


Cooling Tower
(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Open Re-circulating Cooling Towers Operation

1) After accepting heat from turbine steam, the heated cooling water is showered
down the cooling tower for heat rejection.
2) Heat from the steam is rejected mainly from evaporation as air is forced past falling
droplets and films of circulating cooling water
3) Water leaves the tower through evaporation and drift (small water droplets),
increasing the concentration of minerals and contaminants in the cooling water
4) To decrease concentration, a portion of cooling water is removed as blowdown
5) Make-up water is added to the cooling stream to compensate for water lost to
blowdown, evaporation, and drift
6) Cooling is re-circulated through the condenser

SimpleWaterBalance
Make-Up = Evaporation + Blowdown + Drift

(EPRI 2003)
2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Water Treatment: General Background on Water Treatment Applications for


Cooling Effluents and Inputs
Effluent Pathways

Potential Treatment Targets

Drift

Can contain heavy metals and organic compounds,


and biological pathogens (ex. Legionella)

Evaporation

Can contain gaseous contaminates

Blowdown

Can contain heavy metals and organic compounds

Waste streams from treatment


processes associated with the
cooling circuit

Can contain heavy metals and organic compounds

Sludge generated from cooling


system maintenance

Contains inorganic, organic and biological


sediments generated by day to day operations. The
waste must be analyzed for toxicity and hazards
and disposed of appropriately.

Degraded water (potential input for cooling water): Non-potable- groundwater or surface water impacted by
naturally occurring minerals or human impacts and wastewater generated by human, industrial or agricultural
activities (EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

2. Water Tower Chemistry Criteria

Water Quality Parameters for Cooling Towers


Cooling water quality can affect
power plant performance. Therefore,
the criteria for power plants cooling
water are stricter than those for
refineries, which do not have this
concern. Water sources must be
evaluated for their chemical
constituents. Each constituent or
constituent pair should be analyzed
individually to determine the
maximum allowable concentration.

The concentration limit is typically


defined by the solubility thresholds of
one or more constituents. The first
three criteria are applicable to power
plants. EPRI developed standards
are circled.

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

10

Types of Constituents Effecting Cooling


Tower Operations

1. General mineral constituents, found in all sources of water,


which have direct effects on cooling tower operation and
performance.
2. Constituents that are regulated due to environmental concerns
and also effect cooling tower operation
3. Regulated constituents that do not impact cooling water
operation but are regulated for environmental issues
4. Biological Activity Promoters

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

11

Cycles of Concentration (N)

In order to evaluate source water feasibility and treatment strategy, each


constituent or constituent pair of concern should be analyzed.
N can:
1) Provide insight on the limiting parameters
2) Provide guidance on make-up and blowdown rates necessary to
maintain acceptable concentration levels.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

12

N: Insight on Limiting Parameters

Maximum Cycles of
Concentration (N):
The comparison of the makeup water concentration of
each constituent to the
corresponding water quality
limit will determine the limiting
parameters (lowest maximum)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

(EPRI 2003)

13

N: Guidance on Blowdown Rates and Make-Up Water Rates

Cycles of Concentration of
Each Constituent:
As a consequence of evaporative
water loss, the concentration of
constituents in the cooling water
increases after cycling through the
cooling tower. After circulation,
constituent concentration in the
cooling water becomes greater than
the concentration in the original make
up water. The cycles of concentration
(N) of each constituent can be
determined from a comparison of the
circulating water concentration to the
concentration of the makeup water. N
can subsequently be used to
determine blowdown and make-up
rates.
(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

14

Other Water Quality Criteria


Langelier Saturation (LSI): Predicts scaling and corrosion tendencies in cooling water.
It determines the pHs CaCO3 saturation pH, which is dependent on the calcium
hardness, alkalinity, temperature and TDS of the cooling water. Positive values indicate
a scaling tendency, due to CaCO3 precipitation.
Ryznar Stability (RSI): Built upon LSI calculations to offer better predictability of
scaling and corrosion. The ideal range of RSI is 6-7. Values higher than 7 indicate a
corrosion tendency and values lower than 6 indicate a scaling tendency.
Puckorius Scaling Indices (PSI): Similar to the RSI system, but calculates the system
pH instead of the actual pH. This modified system provides better predictive capabilities
of scaling and corrosion tendencies of the cooling water by reflecting actual water
alkalinity.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

15

Make-up and Blowdown vs. Cycles of Concentration (N)

Where:
BD = Blowdown rate, gpm
E = Evaporation rate , gpm
D = Drift rate, gpm
N = Cycles of Concentration

An inverse relationship exists between


N and BD values. Lower values of N
correspond with higher blowdown
values and subsequently, higher makeup values as well.
For lower values of N, small decreases
in N results in large increases in BD
rates.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

(EPRI 2003)

16

3. Sources of Degraded Water

Degraded Water Categories

(EPRI 2003)

This table contains key chemical constituents found in sources of degraded water. These are
constituents found in typical situations, though the actual constituent make up may vary for each
source of water.
2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

18

Case Studies: Screening Results of Different Source Water, not


including Regulated Constituents
Table 2-5
Source Water Screening
Produced Ag Return
Water
Water
mgn
mg/1
982

Na (by difference)
K
Ca
Mg
HC
Cl
so4
N03
TotalP04
s
Si02
B (5)
NH3
TDS
TSS
BOD
COD

mgn

Fresh
Water
mg/1

40
13
1,100
920
110
NR <el
NR
6
120
21
5
3,879
<1
30
80

2,182
6
554
270
239
1,480
4,730
48
2
NR
37
14
NR
9,723
11
3
32

76
5
76
43
396
102
68
NR
6
NR
17
3
5
869
8
8
5

41
0.72
18
0.76
92
22
31
ND
ND
ND
16
0.17
ND
297
<1
NA
NA

200
7.9

50
7.0

50
7.0

200
7.9

22

Operating Cooling Tower Assumptions.....


Cooling Tower Alkalini ty,mg/1 caC03
Calculated pH (SI

Reclaimed
Water

Screening-Level Cycles of Concentration - N- without Pre-Treatment


(Refer to Tables 2-Ja and 3b for control criteria and Table B-2 for calculation procedures)
Ca
ca x so4 (7l
Mg x Si02
Si02
Ca (in presence of PO )
TDS

9.0
3.6
3.4
1.3
NA
18

<1
<1
1.3
4.1
<1
7

4.7
4.2
5.0
8.8
1.3
80

20.0
16.4
38.7
9.4
NA
235

Notes.....
1.
Produced water from oilproduction in the Central Valley.
2.
Agriculturalreturn water from the San Luis Drain.
3.
Secondary-treated reclaimed water from the Bay Area. t-PO 4.B, NH3 and COD were estimated.
4.
West Kern water. Silica concentration was modified for this analysis.
5.
B exists as H J803 (non-dissociated boric acid) in water at this pH.
6.
NR = not reported,ND = non.<Jetectable and NA = not applicable.
7.
H2S04 used for pH controlis accounted for when calculating the impact of additionalSO
4 on CaS04 solubility.
8.
Assume pH = 7.0 when PO 4 present.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

19

(EPRI2003)

t=pf21 1 ELECTRIC
POWER
RESEARCH INSTITUTE

4. Source Water Evaluation: Operational


Concerns and Environmental Constituents of
Interest

Water Treatment Analysis and Methodology

STEPS

DESCRIPTION

Chemical analysis of constituents of concern should be conducted


to determine the feasibility of using the water source(s) for cooling
tower operations. Flow profiles are especially useful for water from
Step 1: Identify and Characterize the Source Water(s)
multiple sources, which may require further analysis and
calculations
Each constituent must be evaluated to ensure compliance to
operational quality criteria and environmental regulations. The
maximum cycles of concentration (N) should be calculated for each
Step 2: Evaluate Constituents of Concern
constituent. The limiting parameter is the one with the lowest
calculated N.
Based on the constituent make-up and evaluation of limiting
parameters, the cooling tower design and operating impacts should
Step 3: Identify Cooling Tower Design and Operating Impacts
be identified. Capital and operating costs will be affected by the
design
Treatment scenarios and alternate options will be determined
based on calculated N values of constituents, source water, limiting
Step 4: Determine the Need for Treatment
parameters of, situational limitations, and regulation limitations of
the constituents.

Step 5: Evaluate Treatment Requirements

Pre, side and post treatment plans will be developed based on


previous calculations and evaluations of constituents present in the
source water. Treatment technologies will be chosen and analyzed.

Step 6: Evaluate Disposal Issues

Cooling tower blowdown and treatment waste streams give rise to


disposal issues, which must be evaluated. Wastes must be analyzed
for toxicity and hazards and disposed of accordingly.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

21

Source Water Evaluation Methodology

Evilluilte
Col'lStifuents
o fGorncem

.._

...,. st

"--.....

Enviroomerital
Corncems

"-

2.

Evaluate
..

pos3]
Issues

Identify
DesigJl Clperatir-.g
Impacts

Step6

step3

Co.orr-.g
TCM'et"

Chemi
stry
Criteria

Source
Water
Screet1ing

step4

INoTrea1me"n"'t

.,--

Treatmen t

stepS
(EPRI2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

22

t=pf21 1 ELECTRIC
POWER
RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Water Quality for Cooling Towers: Operational Issues

AreasofWaterQuality
Concern: Operating
problems that may result
from each area of concern
are noted in
the figure.

(EPRI 2003)

Operation Objectives of Water Quality Criteria :


1.
2.
3.

Minimize mineral Scaling and Biological fouling of heat transfer surfaces


Minimize corrosion of heat transfer and structural metal
Minimize fouling loads on cooling tower fill

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

23

Operational Concern Mitigation:


Typical Treatment Requirements
Degraded Water
Source

Typical Limitations

Treatment Options

Produced Water

CaSO4, Mg/silica, silica

High silica concentrations can be reduced


with side stream lime/soda softening.
pH control: high alkalinity requires sulfuric
acid additions
Due to high ammonia levels, non copper
bearing alloys should be utilized.

Agricultural Return Water

Ca, Mg/silica, CaPO4, CaSO4,

High silica concentrations can be reduced


with side stream lime/soda softening.
pH control: high alkalinity requires sulfuric
acid additions
Ca, Mg, PO43- concentrations also can be
reduced with the above treatment

Reclaimed Water

Ca, CaSO4, CaPO4

Ca removal by make-up or side-stream


softening
Due to high ammonia levels, non copper
bearing alloys should be utilized.
To avoid formation of chloramine, bromine
should be used instead of chlorine.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

24

Environmental Issues: Constituents of Concern

Environmental constituents of concern may present environmental hazards and


are subject to state or federal regulations but have no affect on cooling tower
performance. These chemical constituents will need to be removed from
feedwater prior to use in cooling tower.
Examples of constituents of environmental concern: Volatile organic solvents,
pesticides, heavy metals

Water Policy Compliance


Regulations and guidelines on federal and state levels exist
regarding water reuse and environmental release of chemical
constituents. Many states have developed individual policies
addressing cooling system water use in power plants.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

25

Water Reuse Regulations and Guidelines by States

Please see
(NETL/DOE 2009) for
further details on state
regulations

(NETL/DOE 2009)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

26

Regulations and Guidelines of Selected States


Table 3.6.Summary of regulations and guidelines reviewedin the twelve selected states.
Water Discharge
Regulat ons

Water Reuse
Regulations
'AAC, R18-9,Article 7

AAC,R18-9 Article 9

State Water Resources


ControlBoard,Resolution
No.75-58
Warren-Alquist Act,Section
25602
Water Code, Section 462
' 22CCR60306

State Water Resources


ControlBoard,
Reso ution No.75-58

' FAC 62-610-668

FAC 62-302-520
FAC 62-660.400

Air Emission

* 22CCR60306
17CCR93103

* FAC 62-610 668


Guidelines for the
Treatment and Use of
Recycled Water,Ill, C
(Dep.of Health,2002)

Guideines for the T-reatment


and Use of Recycled Water,
Ill, C (Dep. of Healtfl, 2002)
COMAR26 08.03.06
Reclaimed Water for
BeneficialReuse (Oep. of
Env.Pro., 2005)
15A NCAC 02B.0208
15A NCAC 02B.0211
Thermal (Temperature)
Variances to North
Carolina Water Ouatity
Standards (USEPA,
2006)

' 15A NCAC 02T.0906


' 15A NCAC 02T.0910

'OAR 340-550.0012

*OAR 340-550-0012

'TAC 30-210.32
' TAC 30-210.33

..

TAC 30-307.8

* TAC 30-210.32
* TAC 30-210.33

TAC 30-113.220

Water Reuse in Utah (Division


of Water Resource,2005)
'UAC R317-3-11

* UAC R317-3-11

'RCW 90.46
Water Reclamation of Reuse
Standards (Dep.of Healtfl &
Dep. of Ecology,1997)

Water Reclamat on of
Reuse Standards
(Dep.of Health & Dep.
of Ecology, 1997)

WORS Chapter 21
WORS Chapter 2
Notation: Related to reuse of reclaimed water in power plant cooling water system.
Related to power plant cooling water system.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

27

(NETL/DOE 2009)

POWER
RESEARCH INSTITUTE
EP121 I ELECTRIC

California Regulations on Power Plant Cooling Systems


Table2 8
Power Plant Cooling SystemsRequirements for Approval

Gal&olma coae ot kegulabons, titJ.,20, blv. 2, Chap.5=2012, Aj)ji 8


Subsection
(of App. B)

Subject

Requirement
Gene;ra1 dE!'SCriplion oL..wate;r
supply,pollution control
systems..

(a)( i)(A)

EXecuove Summary

(b)(1)(C)

Project Description

(b)(1)(D)

Sii.e!Facility Selectioo

How selection made and


cons deralion given to env.
impacts. water and-

(f)(1)&(2)

All.em.atives

Discussion of otherchoices
and economo:: E!J'lVironmental
merits

(g)(4)

Design., construction.operation
of--cooling systems

Noise

(g)(6)(F)

VISual Resources

(g)(8)(A)

AIQuality

Relevant
Cod!> Regufation
NOne cti!d

None cite;d

None cite;d

Pu!JCic Resources Code.

Se;ction 25640.6{b)/Policy

75-58
None cite;d

Assessment of impact of
visibre plumes
Info necessary fOr air pollutioo
comrol dlstrict to complete
De:.enminalion of Compliance

None cite;d

None cite;d

(g)(Q)

Pubic Health

HE!altnand Sate;ty Code.


Se;ction 252G4.8

(g)(10)

Hazardous t.tatenals
Handting

Ca
l Code, de 22, 66261
20 et seq. Also,Health and
Safety Code.Section 25531.

(g)(12)

Waste Management

Ca
l Code, de 22, 66261
20 etseq.

(g)(13)

Biological Resources

Ca
l Code,lide 20, Sects.
1702 (q) and (v)

(g)(14)

Wa1er Resources

Waste Discharge
Requirements; NPDES; Policy

75-58
(g)(15)

12EI r i
--

I nd . l n c.A " rig s re

AgriCUlture and Sos

Effect of emissions on
surrounding soil-vegetation

None cite;d

ed. ------------ - 28--------------------

(EPRI2003)

ELECTRIC POWER
RESEARCH INSTITUTE

5. Power Plant Cooling Water Treatment


Technologies

Treatment Options and Objectives

Added to enhance treatment


process performance and minimize
scaling and corrosion.

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

30

Mainstream/Common Treatments and Technologies

Waste Reduction

Environmental Concerns

Post-Treatment

Pre-Treatment

Operational Concerns

Pre-Treatment and Sidestream Treatment

Common Technologies

Common Technologies

Common Technologies

Evaporative Brine
Concentrators

Air Stripping followed with vapor


phase granular activated carbon
(GAC)

Make-Up Softening

Evaporative Crystallizers

Air stripping followed with vapor


phase thermal oxidation

Reverse Osmosis

Liquid phase GAC

Evaporation Ponds

Aerobic biological treatment

Sidestream Filtration and


softening

Anaerobic biological treatment


Spray Dryers

Strong base anion ion exchange


Chelating ion exchange
Precipitation

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

31

Please see Chapter 5


of (EPRI 2003) for
process descriptions of
technologies

Cooling Tower Performance and Operation Related Treatment


Technologies
Technology

Targeted Constituents

Description of Technology

Pre-Treatment: Softening

Removes hardness: Ca2+ and Mg2+


carbonate alkalinity: CO2, HCO31+ ,
and CO3 2+
Incident removal of silica

lime or lime/soda softening is used


to treat make-up water. Ca(OH)2
and Na2CO3 are fed into the
softener which is mixed with the
make-up water. Waste sludge is
separated from treated water.

Side-Treatment: Softening and


Filtration

Removes hardness: Ca2+ and Mg2+


carbonate alkalinity: CO2, HCO31+ ,
and CO3 2+
Incident removal of silica

If make up softening does not offer


adequate treatment, side stream
treatment may be necessary.
Filtration is used to limit suspended
matter in the cooling water. Water is
directed from the return line on the
hot side of the cooling circuit, fed
through filters.
From the condenser, the hot cooling
water is fed into a reactor clarifier,
where softening by Ca(OH)2 and
Na2CO3 occurs.
Sludge is also generated as a
waste product

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

32

General Summary of Treatment of Constituents of


Operational/Performance Concern
Table 2-6
Pre-,Side-Stream Treatment for Cooling Towers

Pre-Treatment
Cooling Tower
Chemical Criteria
(Note 3)

Ca
ca x so4
Mg X Si02
M Alkalinity
so4
Si02
P04
pH
TSS

Lime or
Lime/Soda
Softening

pH
Adjustment

SideStream Treatment
Warm
Lime or
Lime/Soda
Filtration
Softening

Pri
Pri via Ca
Pri via Mg
Sec
Pri via Ca

Pri

Pri
Pri via Ca
Pri
Sec
Pri via Ca
Pri
Sec

(Note 5)

Sec
Pri
Sec

Pri

Sec

Notes.....
1.
Pri = primary means of reduction - intention of process.
2.
Sec = secondary means - incidental reduction in process.
3.
Chemical criteria found in Table 2-1.
4.
Refer to Table 2-6 for removal of contaminants from degraded water for cooling
tower make-up.
5.
There is some removal of SiO 2.

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

33

t=pf21 1 ELECTRIC
POWER
RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Waste Minimization: ZLD Systems


Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD)
ZLD systems aim for complete recovery of cooling water,
where no wastewater should leave the site and all waste
should be converted to dry form for ultimate disposal.
ZLD systems offer the potential for sustainable cooling
and a viable waste treatment option for areas where
evaporation ponds are infeasible or prohibited. Though
ZLD is ideal, not all power plants can achieve these
systems, but waste minimization technologies are
nonetheless desirable.

Typical ZLD Schemes:

These systems are currently limited by high costs, but


can be alleviated by development of higher recovery
technologies, such as advanced RO membranes.

2. Desalinization Steps: Excess water must


subsequently be recovered from water
treatment waste

Conventional ZLD systems commonly utilize evaporative


technologies, which are highly energy intensive.
Increased recovery with increased pre-treatments can
reduce water volume and thereby, lower evaporative
costs. However, higher solid waste disposal and
chemical costs will increase may offset any cost benefits
of reduced wastewater volume. With power plant water
treatment systems, recovery benefits are often difficult to
balance with costs.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

34

1. Pre-Treatment Steps: Wastewaters undergo


pre-treatment processes (i.e. ion exchange) to
concentrate constituents of concern into smaller
volumes

Please see Chapter 3 of (WaterReUse


2008) for further details on ZLD systems

Current Common Technologies Used in US Non-Municipal ZLD


Systems
Water Recovery Technology

Description

Evaporative Brine Concentrators

A energy intensive process utilized to concentrate waste


water to minimize volume. Evaporator concentrate (also
known as brine) undergoes further drying in evaporation
ponds to produce dry waste. Distillate collected from the
evaporation process can be recycled into the cooling
system.

Evaporative Crystallizers

Instead of disposal in brine ponds after evaporative


treatment, the condensate is sent through a crystallizer. The
crystallizer dries excess water to form dry salt cake. This
process is useful for situations in which evaporative ponds
are not a feasible option.

Reverse Osmosis

High Pressure pumps force water through membranes


without allowing dissolved salts through. Pre-treatment
steps are required to optimize membrane performance.
Softening steps to remove minerals (silica, calcium,
magnesium) are removed via a softening step, and filtration
steps to remove particulate matter are commonly conducted
prior to the RO filtration.

Evaporation Ponds

Wastewater in warmer climates can be sent to evaporation


ponds on-site, where the water can slowly evaporate from
the waste.

Spray Dryers

Used to treat smaller volumes of water.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

35

Environmental Constituents of Concern Related Treatment Technologies


Chemical constituents that are regulated under state and federal law should be removed prior to cooling tower
circulation

Technology

Targeted Constituents for


removal

Description of Technology

Air Stripping
followed with
vapor phase
granular
activated
carbon (GAC)

Volatile organic compounds,


THM, and some pesticides

When volatile organic concentrations are high, air stripping is more


economical than liquid phase carbon removal. Counter-flowing airstream
is flowed through droplets of water which allows for volatile compounds to
evaporate and be removed from the cooling water. The exhaust air is fed
through porous carbon media, trapping organic compounds. Spent media
must be regenerated on site with steam, or disposed of.

Air stripping
followed with
vapor phase
thermal
oxidation

Volatile organic compounds,


THS, and some pesticides

Using controlled combustion, air stripped organic compounds are


converted into combustion byproducts through thermal oxidation.
Oxidation of certain compounds may require a scrubber (ex. Chlorinated
organic compounds). Spent media must be regenerated on site with
steam, or disposed of.

Liquid phase
GAC

Volatile and non-volatile organic


compounds and pesticides,
incidental removal of some BOD
and COD

Liquid phase GAC is used to treat water with non-volatile organic


compounds or low concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Water is
directed through media intended to filter and remove particulates or
organic constituents. Spent media must be regenerated, and the waste
disposed of, or completely disposed of without regeneration

Continued

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

36

Technology

Targeted Constituents for removal

Description of Technology

Aerobic biological treatment

Organic compounds, ammonia, and


incidental removal of BOD and COD

Converts targeted constituents into


carbon dioxide and water, or ammonia
intoNO3-1. Organic constituents are
metabolized by aerobic bacteria. Waste
products in the form of sludge is
produced.

Anaerobic biological treatment

Organic compounds, ASO4-3, CrO4-2,


SeO4-2, SeO3-2, and ClO4-1, and
incidental removal of BOD, COD, and
possibly NO3-1

Anaerobic bacteria may metabolize


chemically bound oxygen from chemical
constituents. Compounds are reduced
to elemental forms and leaves as waste
sludge.

Ion Exchange

Water is passed through cation


exchange resins, which contain
functional groups targeted at certain
constituents of concern. By exchanging
hazardous ions with non-hazardous
replacements, ion exchange treatment
removes them from the cooling water.
Ion exchange media will need to be
regenerated periodically. Post treatment
of concentrated constituent fluid will be
required.

Strong base anion ion exchange

Chelating ion exchange

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

ASO4-3, CrO4-2, SeO4-2, SeO3-2, and


ClO4-1 and incidental removal of
PO4-3, NO3-1, and F-1

In ion exchange, an ionic bond is formed


between the media and the targeted
constituents.

High affinity for transition metals (Cu, Ni,


Cd, Cr+3, etc)

Chelating resin beads are used to


creates covalent bonds with divalent
ions.

37

General Summary:
Treatment Options for Constituents of Environmental Concern
lable2-7
Pre-Treat men ot: Con.taminnted Water for Cooli llllQI lower Ma,e-Up'

Liquld

Blologica1

GAC

- Stripping
Vapor-Phase
Thermal

IPbase

Treatnnent

[Kttl!:3]

0Dda1ioo

GAC

Pri - Valall]e

Pri
Pri

- Striwing
VaporJ.flhase.
Chemical Parameter
[Nil!'!! 5)

Q-ganic Corrpcunds
Pri - Vdlatile
Pesticides
Cationic Hea'w')' rY'Ie1als 41
413]
Anionic HeayY
Me'lals
ND3.
CIO "'451
f CSl
B'Xllogical

(Nzte4)

Ali
(!)

Strong
Base Chela'ling
IX
IX

P - -!NO ],ao"
See m

Ali

Co-P

Sec
Sec

Ari
Pri [

l?recipitation

Pri
Pri 41
Sec

Pri
Pri (11.

tlotE's..._.
1.

Pri = primary rrneans of reduction- int_ ion,of process

2.

Sec = secand..y means - - den'la'l redLJCfion - process


GAC is granu'lar adivated carbon.
Til.EI'e are a variety -biologjca'lproce-sses. e..g. construaled wetlallds,mc'klilg filter,ifix:ed-film aerobX::,etc.
Refer to Table 2-2 for cherrDca'l FJa"t'amet'JS a"' cantamna'led grounctlrat:er <M"ld surface water trea11Tierili.
Bidlogical waste camponel"lls indude BOD.COD, NH ].PO c. etc. T:,p"
oond in reclaimed li'later
as well as pharrnaaeutical, bio1&h.livestocl'!:ldairy and food proce-ssing waste ams.
T'ltere li'lill be some ilciden rem111al of BOD and COO.
Pes'licides ro.Ji d be detrimenta'l to biological ssesbecause "' its toxi city.
Anaerobic bidlogical tfEia1merrtisreq.ired "'a NO ].and CIO-'Anaerntreatment is
cans=red
e:q:IE!'i!'TIEfV:al for CIO t.
Oe;!Ending on rtreatment 'candifuns NO '1 removal may not be ctmp1etety achievat:lle.
Awlies to ASO -4 and SeO ]Cationic he-a
- vy met3ls - ude Cu. Nl.CQ, Q (+31, etc.
Anionic hea.yY me.'la'ls - ude AstJ ,.,CrO..., SeO -' SeQ::. etc.
Anaerobic bidlog)c: lreatrneflt is
somet'lhatt3l
aniOilic hea\1)' lil'letals.

3.

4_

5_
t6_
7.
B.
9.
10.
1t.
12.
J.
14.

(EPRI2003)
2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

38

t=pf21 1 ELECTRIC
POWER
RESEARCH INSTITUTE

References

1. Use of Degraded Water Sources as Cooling Water in Power Plants, EPRI,


Palo Alto, CA and California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA: 2003,
1005359.
2. Reuse of Treated Internal and External Wastewaters in the Cooling
Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants, DOE/NETL:
September 2009, DE-FC26-06NT42722.
3. Survey of High Recovery and Zero Liquid Discharge Technologies for
Water Utilities, WateReuse Foundation: 2008, 02-006a-01.
4. Water Use for Electric Power Generation, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA : 2008,
1014026.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

39

Motivation for Advanced Water Treatment Technology

Limited Freshwater Resources


To meet current and future constraints on new plant siting and long term
operations, it is necessary to develop advanced technologies to bolster
our ability to expand the electric industrys water resources. Due to everincreasing competing demands, it is critical to prioritize our water
resources, delegating different grades of water to appropriate usages.
Current alternative sources of degraded water for use in power plant
cooling are limited and must be expanded to keep up with energy
generation needs.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Most Rewarding Areas for Energy Efficient Water Treatment Technology


Development:
Water Loss Reduction Technology and Water Resource Expansion
1) Minimize water loss and waste in power plant cooling operations
Process cooling applications:
Moisture recovery from cooling tower (more than 20%) or boiler flue gas
Post treatment of blowdown water from evaporative cooling tower
operations to enable reuse on site, preferably for cooling system make-up
water.
Pre-treatment and side stream treatment in order to increase the cycles of
concentration in the cooling system.
Technologies which leverage existing processes and infrastructure such
as waste heat.

2) Expand current sources of water used for power plant cooling


Degraded and nontraditional water sources:
Technologies which enable cost effective utilization of municipal wastewater
effluent and brackish water.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Overview
1. Overview of Power Plant Cooling Tower Operations1
2.

Water Tower Chemistry Criteria1

3. Sources of Degraded Water1


4. Source Water Evaluation: Operational Concerns and
Environmental Constituents of Interest1,2
5. Power Plant Cooling Water Treatment Technologies1,3,4

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Overview of Power Plant Cooling Tower


Operations

Diagram of an Open, Re-Circulating


Cooling Tower
(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Open Re-circulating Cooling Towers Operation

1) After accepting heat from turbine steam, the heated cooling water is showered
down the cooling tower for heat rejection.
2) Heat from the steam is rejected mainly from evaporation as air is forced past falling
droplets and films of circulating cooling water
3) Water leaves the tower through evaporation and drift (small water droplets),
increasing the concentration of minerals and contaminants in the cooling water
4) To decrease concentration, a portion of cooling water is removed as blowdown
5) Make-up water is added to the cooling stream to compensate for water lost to
blowdown, evaporation, and drift
6) Cooling is re-circulated through the condenser

Simple Water Balance


Make-Up = Evaporation + Blowdown + Drift

(EPRI 2003)
2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Water Treatment: General Background on Water Treatment Applications for


Cooling Effluents and Inputs
Effluent Pathways

Potential Treatment Targets

Drift

Can contain heavy metals and organic compounds,


and biological pathogens (ex. Legionella)

Evaporation

Can contain gaseous contaminates

Blowdown

Can contain heavy metals and organic compounds

Waste streams from treatment


processes associated with the
cooling circuit

Can contain heavy metals and organic compounds

Sludge generated from cooling


system maintenance

Contains inorganic, organic and biological


sediments generated by day to day operations. The
waste must be analyzed for toxicity and hazards
and disposed of appropriately.

Degraded water (potential input for cooling water): Non-potable- groundwater or surface water impacted by
naturally occurring minerals or human impacts and wastewater generated by human, industrial or agricultural
activities (EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

2. Water Tower Chemistry Criteria

Water Quality Parameters for Cooling Towers


Cooling water quality can affect
power plant performance. Therefore,
the criteria for power plants cooling
water are stricter than those for
refineries, which do not have this
concern. Water sources must be
evaluated for their chemical
constituents. Each constituent or
constituent pair should be analyzed
individually to determine the
maximum allowable concentration.

The concentration limit is typically


defined by the solubility thresholds of
one or more constituents. The first
three criteria are applicable to power
plants. EPRI developed standards
are circled.

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

10

Types of Constituents Effecting Cooling


Tower Operations

1. General mineral constituents, found in all sources of water,


which have direct effects on cooling tower operation and
performance.
2. Constituents that are regulated due to environmental concerns
and also effect cooling tower operation
3. Regulated constituents that do not impact cooling water
operation but are regulated for environmental issues
4. Biological Activity Promoters

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

11

Cycles of Concentration (N)

In order to evaluate source water feasibility and treatment strategy, each


constituent or constituent pair of concern should be analyzed.
N can:
1) Provide insight on the limiting parameters
2) Provide guidance on make-up and blowdown rates necessary to
maintain acceptable concentration levels.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

12

N: Insight on Limiting Parameters

Maximum Cycles of
Concentration (N):
The comparison of the makeup water concentration of
each constituent to the
corresponding water quality
limit will determine the limiting
parameters (lowest maximum)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

(EPRI 2003)

13

N: Guidance on Blowdown Rates and Make-Up Water Rates


Cycles of Concentration of
Each Constituent:
As a consequence of evaporative
water loss, the concentration of
constituents in the cooling water
increases after cycling through the
cooling tower. After circulation,
constituent concentration in the
cooling water becomes greater than
the concentration in the original make
up water. The cycles of concentration
(N) of each constituent can be
determined from a comparison of the
circulating water concentration to the
concentration of the makeup water. N
can subsequently be used to
determine blowdown and make-up
rates.
(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

14

Other Water Quality Criteria


Langelier Saturation (LSI): Predicts scaling and corrosion tendencies in cooling water.
It determines the pHs CaCO3 saturation pH, which is dependent on the calcium
hardness, alkalinity, temperature and TDS of the cooling water. Positive values indicate
a scaling tendency, due to CaCO3 precipitation.
Ryznar Stability (RSI): Built upon LSI calculations to offer better predictability of
scaling and corrosion. The ideal range of RSI is 6-7. Values higher than 7 indicate a
corrosion tendency and values lower than 6 indicate a scaling tendency.
Puckorius Scaling Indices (PSI): Similar to the RSI system, but calculates the system
pH instead of the actual pH. This modified system provides better predictive capabilities
of scaling and corrosion tendencies of the cooling water by reflecting actual water
alkalinity.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

15

Make-up and Blowdown vs. Cycles of Concentration (N)

Where:
BD = Blowdown rate, gpm
E = Evaporation rate , gpm
D = Drift rate, gpm
N = Cycles of Concentration

An inverse relationship exists between


N and BD values. Lower values of N
correspond with higher blowdown
values and subsequently, higher makeup values as well.
For lower values of N, small decreases
in N results in large increases in BD
rates.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

(EPRI 2003)

16

3. Sources of Degraded Water

Degraded Water Categories

(EPRI 2003)

This table contains key chemical constituents found in sources of degraded water. These are
constituents found in typical situations, though the actual constituent make up may vary for each
source of water.
2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

18

Case Studies: Screening Results of Different Source Water, not


including Regulated Constituents

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

19

4. Source Water Evaluation: Operational


Concerns and Environmental Constituents of
Interest

Water Treatment Analysis and Methodology

STEPS

DESCRIPTION

Chemical analysis of constituents of concern should be conducted


to determine the feasibility of using the water source(s) for cooling
tower operations. Flow profiles are especially useful for water from
Step 1: Identify and Characterize the Source Water(s)
multiple sources, which may require further analysis and
calculations
Each constituent must be evaluated to ensure compliance to
operational quality criteria and environmental regulations. The
maximum cycles of concentration (N) should be calculated for each
Step 2: Evaluate Constituents of Concern
constituent. The limiting parameter is the one with the lowest
calculated N.
Based on the constituent make-up and evaluation of limiting
parameters, the cooling tower design and operating impacts should
Step 3: Identify Cooling Tower Design and Operating Impacts
be identified. Capital and operating costs will be affected by the
design
Treatment scenarios and alternate options will be determined
based on calculated N values of constituents, source water, limiting
Step 4: Determine the Need for Treatment
parameters of, situational limitations, and regulation limitations of
the constituents.

Step 5: Evaluate Treatment Requirements

Pre, side and post treatment plans will be developed based on


previous calculations and evaluations of constituents present in the
source water. Treatment technologies will be chosen and analyzed.

Step 6: Evaluate Disposal Issues

Cooling tower blowdown and treatment waste streams give rise to


disposal issues, which must be evaluated. Wastes must be analyzed
for toxicity and hazards and disposed of accordingly.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

21

Source Water Evaluation Methodology

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

22

Water Quality for Cooling Towers: Operational Issues

Areas of Water Quality


Concern:
Operating problems that
may result from each area
of concern are noted in
the figure.

(EPRI 2003)

Operation Objectives of Water Quality Criteria :


1.
2.
3.

Minimize mineral Scaling and Biological fouling of heat transfer surfaces


Minimize corrosion of heat transfer and structural metal
Minimize fouling loads on cooling tower fill

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

23

Operational Concern Mitigation:


Typical Treatment Requirements
Degraded Water
Source

Typical Limitations

Treatment Options

Produced Water

CaSO4, Mg/silica, silica

High silica concentrations can be reduced


with side stream lime/soda softening.
pH control: high alkalinity requires sulfuric
acid additions
Due to high ammonia levels, non copper
bearing alloys should be utilized.

Agricultural Return Water

Ca, Mg/silica, CaPO4, CaSO4,

High silica concentrations can be reduced


with side stream lime/soda softening.
pH control: high alkalinity requires sulfuric
acid additions
Ca, Mg, PO43- concentrations also can be
reduced with the above treatment

Reclaimed Water

Ca, CaSO4, CaPO4

Ca removal by make-up or side-stream


softening
Due to high ammonia levels, non copper
bearing alloys should be utilized.
To avoid formation of chloramine, bromine
should be used instead of chlorine.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

24

Environmental Issues: Constituents of Concern

Environmental constituents of concern may present environmental hazards and


are subject to state or federal regulations but have no affect on cooling tower
performance. These chemical constituents will need to be removed from
feedwater prior to use in cooling tower.
Examples of constituents of environmental concern: Volatile organic solvents,
pesticides, heavy metals

Water Policy Compliance


Regulations and guidelines on federal and state levels exist
regarding water reuse and environmental release of chemical
constituents. Many states have developed individual policies
addressing cooling system water use in power plants.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

25

Water Reuse Regulations and Guidelines by States

Please see
(NETL/DOE 2009) for
further details on state
regulations

(NETL/DOE 2009)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

26

Regulations and Guidelines of Selected States

(NETL/DOE 2009)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

27

California Regulations on Power Plant Cooling Systems

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

28

5. Power Plant Cooling Water Treatment


Technologies

Treatment Options and Objectives


Added to enhance treatment
process performance and minimize
scaling and corrosion.

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

30

Mainstream/Common Treatments and Technologies

Waste Reduction

Environmental Concerns

Operational Concerns

Post-Treatment

Pre-Treatment

Pre-Treatment and Sidestream Treatment

Common Technologies

Common Technologies

Common Technologies

Evaporative Brine
Concentrators

Air Stripping followed with vapor


phase granular activated carbon
(GAC)

Make-Up Softening

Evaporative Crystallizers

Air stripping followed with vapor


phase thermal oxidation

Reverse Osmosis

Liquid phase GAC

Evaporation Ponds

Aerobic biological treatment

Sidestream Filtration and


softening

Anaerobic biological treatment


Spray Dryers

Strong base anion ion exchange


Chelating ion exchange
Precipitation

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

31

Please see Chapter 5


of (EPRI 2003) for
process descriptions of
technologies

Cooling Tower Performance and Operation Related Treatment


Technologies
Technology

Targeted Constituents

Description of Technology

Pre-Treatment: Softening

Removes hardness: Ca2+ and Mg2+


carbonate alkalinity: CO2, HCO31+,
and CO3 2+
Incident removal of silica

lime or lime/soda softening is used


to treat make-up water. Ca(OH)2
and Na2CO3 are fed into the
softener which is mixed with the
make-up water. Waste sludge is
separated from treated water.

Side-Treatment: Softening and


Filtration

Removes hardness: Ca2+ and Mg2+


carbonate alkalinity: CO2, HCO31+,
and CO3 2+
Incident removal of silica

If make up softening does not offer


adequate treatment, side stream
treatment may be necessary.
Filtration is used to limit suspended
matter in the cooling water. Water is
directed from the return line on the
hot side of the cooling circuit, fed
through filters.
From the condenser, the hot cooling
water is fed into a reactor clarifier,
where softening by Ca(OH)2 and
Na2CO3 occurs.
Sludge is also generated as a
waste product

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

32

General Summary of Treatment of Constituents of


Operational/Performance Concern

(EPRI 2003)

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

33

Waste Minimization: ZLD Systems


Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD)
ZLD systems aim for complete recovery of cooling water,
where no wastewater should leave the site and all waste
should be converted to dry form for ultimate disposal.
ZLD systems offer the potential for sustainable cooling
and a viable waste treatment option for areas where
evaporation ponds are infeasible or prohibited. Though
ZLD is ideal, not all power plants can achieve these
systems, but waste minimization technologies are
nonetheless desirable.
These systems are currently limited by high costs, but
can be alleviated by development of higher recovery
technologies, such as advanced RO membranes.
Conventional ZLD systems commonly utilize evaporative
technologies, which are highly energy intensive.
Increased recovery with increased pre-treatments can
reduce water volume and thereby, lower evaporative
costs. However, higher solid waste disposal and
chemical costs will increase may offset any cost benefits
of reduced wastewater volume. With power plant water
treatment systems, recovery benefits are often difficult to
balance with costs.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

34

Typical ZLD Schemes:


1. Pre-Treatment Steps: Wastewaters undergo
pre-treatment processes (i.e. ion exchange) to
concentrate constituents of concern into smaller
volumes
2. Desalinization Steps: Excess water must
subsequently be recovered from water
treatment waste

Please see Chapter 3 of (WaterReUse


2008) for further details on ZLD systems

Current Common Technologies Used in US Non-Municipal ZLD


Systems
Water Recovery Technology

Description

Evaporative Brine Concentrators

A energy intensive process utilized to concentrate waste


water to minimize volume. Evaporator concentrate (also
known as brine) undergoes further drying in evaporation
ponds to produce dry waste. Distillate collected from the
evaporation process can be recycled into the cooling
system.

Evaporative Crystallizers

Instead of disposal in brine ponds after evaporative


treatment, the condensate is sent through a crystallizer. The
crystallizer dries excess water to form dry salt cake. This
process is useful for situations in which evaporative ponds
are not a feasible option.

Reverse Osmosis

High Pressure pumps force water through membranes


without allowing dissolved salts through. Pre-treatment
steps are required to optimize membrane performance.
Softening steps to remove minerals (silica, calcium,
magnesium) are removed via a softening step, and filtration
steps to remove particulate matter are commonly conducted
prior to the RO filtration.

Evaporation Ponds

Wastewater in warmer climates can be sent to evaporation


ponds on-site, where the water can slowly evaporate from
the waste.

Spray Dryers

Used to treat smaller volumes of water.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

35

Environmental Constituents of Concern Related Treatment Technologies


Chemical constituents that are regulated under state and federal law should be removed prior to cooling tower
circulation

Technology

Targeted Constituents for


removal

Description of Technology

Air Stripping
followed with
vapor phase
granular
activated
carbon (GAC)

Volatile organic compounds,


THM, and some pesticides

When volatile organic concentrations are high, air stripping is more


economical than liquid phase carbon removal. Counter-flowing airstream
is flowed through droplets of water which allows for volatile compounds to
evaporate and be removed from the cooling water. The exhaust air is fed
through porous carbon media, trapping organic compounds. Spent media
must be regenerated on site with steam, or disposed of.

Air stripping
followed with
vapor phase
thermal
oxidation

Volatile organic compounds,


THS, and some pesticides

Using controlled combustion, air stripped organic compounds are


converted into combustion byproducts through thermal oxidation.
Oxidation of certain compounds may require a scrubber (ex. Chlorinated
organic compounds). Spent media must be regenerated on site with
steam, or disposed of.

Liquid phase
GAC

Volatile and non-volatile organic


compounds and pesticides,
incidental removal of some BOD
and COD

Liquid phase GAC is used to treat water with non-volatile organic


compounds or low concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Water is
directed through media intended to filter and remove particulates or
organic constituents. Spent media must be regenerated, and the waste
disposed of, or completely disposed of without regeneration

Continued
2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

36

Technology

Targeted Constituents for removal

Description of Technology

Aerobic biological treatment

Organic compounds, ammonia, and


incidental removal of BOD and COD

Converts targeted constituents into


carbon dioxide and water, or ammonia
intoNO3-1. Organic constituents are
metabolized by aerobic bacteria. Waste
products in the form of sludge is
produced.

Anaerobic biological treatment

Organic compounds, ASO4-3, CrO4-2,


SeO4-2, SeO3-2, and ClO4-1, and
incidental removal of BOD, COD, and
possibly NO3-1

Anaerobic bacteria may metabolize


chemically bound oxygen from chemical
constituents. Compounds are reduced
to elemental forms and leaves as waste
sludge.

Ion Exchange

Water is passed through cation


exchange resins, which contain
functional groups targeted at certain
constituents of concern. By exchanging
hazardous ions with non-hazardous
replacements, ion exchange treatment
removes them from the cooling water.
Ion exchange media will need to be
regenerated periodically. Post treatment
of concentrated constituent fluid will be
required.

Strong base anion ion exchange

Chelating ion exchange

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

ASO4-3, CrO4-2, SeO4-2, SeO3-2, and


ClO4-1 and incidental removal of
PO4-3, NO3-1, and F-1

In ion exchange, an ionic bond is formed


between the media and the targeted
constituents.

High affinity for transition metals (Cu, Ni,


Cd, Cr+3, etc)

Chelating resin beads are used to


creates covalent bonds with divalent
ions.

37

General Summary:
Treatment Options for Constituents of Environmental Concern

(EPRI 2003)
2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

38

References

1. Use of Degraded Water Sources as Cooling Water in Power Plants, EPRI,


Palo Alto, CA and California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA: 2003,
1005359.
2. Reuse of Treated Internal and External Wastewaters in the Cooling
Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants, DOE/NETL:
September 2009, DE-FC26-06NT42722.
3. Survey of High Recovery and Zero Liquid Discharge Technologies for
Water Utilities, WateReuse Foundation: 2008, 02-006a-01.
4. Water Use for Electric Power Generation, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA : 2008,
1014026.

2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

39