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T s=d gross/ P r

Ts=set time ( hr )
P r=sprinkler precipitation rate(mm/hr )
T s=61. 97 /5 . 16=11 .99 hour s

Q = Nc * Ns * Qs
Q = system capacity (m3/hr)
N c = the number of laterals operating per shift
N s = the number of sprinklers per lateral
Qs = the sprinkler discharge (from the menu factories tables)
Q = 4 * 20 * 1.16 = 92.8 m3/hr.
When preparing the layout of the system one should adhere to two principles, which are
important for the uniformity of water application.
For the rectangular spacing the laterals should be placed across the prevailing wind direction.
Where possible, laterals should run perpendicular to the predominant slope in order to achieve
fairly uniform head lost.

Figure 1 Farm map

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Chirstiansens F factors for various numbers of outlets


(Source: Keller and Bliesner, 1990)

Q = the discharge or flow rate within that section of the pipe, the units depending on the chart
being used (m3/hr).
L= the length of pipe for that section (m)
D = the pipe size diameter (mm).
H L = The friction loss of the pipe (m).
Where the mainline is located at the middle of the field, the maximum length of the lateral is 150
meters.
F for m
=2

Number of
outlets

F for m
=2

Number of
outlets

F for m
=2

Number of
outlets

0.360

19

0.385

10

1.000

0.359

20

0.380

11

0.625

0.357

21

0.376

12

0.518

0.355

22

0.373

13

0.469

0.353

23

0.370

14

0.440

0.351

24

0.367

15

0.421

0.350

25

0.365

16

0.408

0.363

17

0.398

0.361

18

0.391

It will have 13 sprinklers operating at the same time, delivering 1.16 m3/hr each at 350 kPa
pressure.
The flow at the beginning of the lateral will be:
Q = 13 * 1.16 = 15.08 m3/hr
The friction loss for a discharge of 15.08 m3/hr will be:
HL = 0.013 * 150 = 1.95 m
By taking into consideration the F factor corresponding to 13 outlets (sprinklers):
HL = 0.013 * 150 *0.373 = 0.73
If instead of 76 mm, 63 mm pipe is used then:
HL = 0.033 * 150 *0.373 = 1.85m
The friction losses for the 18 m aluminum pipe (header) with flow of 15.08 m3/hr:
HL = 0.013 * 18 = 0.23 m for the 76 mm pipe.
HL = 0.033 * 18 = 0.59 m for the 63 mm pipe
The total friction losses in the 76 mm lateral, when the header is used, are 0.96 m (0.73+0.23).
The total friction losses in the 63 mm lateral, when the header is used, are 2.44 m (1.85+0.59).

Figure 5

Figure 6 Friction loss chart for uPVC pipes

Figure 7 Friction loss chart for AC pipes (class 12)

Figure 8

Asbestos-cement pipe classes and corresponding pressure rating

Test Pressure (kPa)

Working Pressure (kPa)

Class

600

300

1200

600

12

1800

900

18

2400

1200

24

3000

1500

30

4200

1800

36

4200

2100

42

uPVC pipe classes and corresponding working pressure rating


Working Pressure (kPa)

Class

400

600

1000

10

1600

16

System layout and pipe sizing based on a 12m*18 m spacing and short laterals (first attempt at
pipe sizing)

Figure 9 System layout and pipe sizing based on a 12m*18 m spacing and short
laterals (first attempt at pipe sizing)

The friction losses of positions 1 and 11 are identical, being mirror images of
each other. It suffices therefore to calculate the friction losses of positions 1
and 6
Position 1

As a guideline in selecting the class of a pipe to be used, it is suggested that the sum of the difference in
elevation, sprinkler operating pressure, allowable pressure variation and lateral friction losses is used
Difference in elevation = 3.5 meters (108-104.5)
Sprinkler operating pressure = 35 meters
20% allowable pressure variation = 0.2 *35 = 7 meters
Lateral friction losses = 0.96 meters
The total of 46.46 (3.5 +35 +7+0.96) meters, exceeds the pressure rating of class 4 uPVC pipe, which is
40 meters, obliging the use of the next class of pipe, which is class 6

Qtotal = 87 m3/hr (system capacity)


Q1(1) = 87 (13*1.6) = 71.92 m3/hr
L1(1) = 162 m (distance between hydrants 1 and 4)
D1(1) = 160 mm class 6 uPVC
HL1(1) = 0.006 * 162 = 0.97 m
Q2(1) = 71.92 (12 * 1.16) (13 * 1.16) = 42.92m3/hr
L2(1) = 216 m (distance between hydrants 4 and 8)
D2(1) = 140 mm class 6 uPVC
HL2(1) = 0.005 * 216 = 1.08 m
Q3(1) = 42.92 (13 * 1.16) (13 * 1.16) = 13.92m3/hr
L3(1) = 162 m (distance between hydrants 8 and 11)
D2(1) = 90 mm class 6 uPVC
HL2(1) = 0.006 * 162 = 0.97 m
The sprinkler operating pressure (SOP) is 35 meters. Therefore the total allowable pressure variation
should not exceed 7.0 meters. The calculated friction losses of lateral (including header), 0.96 m, and the
main, 3.02 m, plus the difference in elevation of 3.5 m add up to 7.48 m By increasing the size of the first
segment of the main to 200 mm (HL = 0.0026*162 = 0.41m) the over all head is now 6.92 m.
Position 6

Q1(6) = 87 m3/hr

L1(6) = 54 m (distance between hydrants 1 and 2)


D1( 6) = 200 mm class 6 uPVC
HL 1(6) = 0.0035 * 54 = 0.19 m
Q2(6) = 87 29 = 58 m3/hr
L2(6) = 108 m (distance between hydrants 4 and 6)
D 2(6) = 200 mm class 6 uPVC
HL 2(6) = 0.0017 * 108 = 0.18 m
Q 4 (6) = 29 m3/hr
L 4( 6) = 108 m (distance between hydrants 8 and 10)
D 4 (6) = 90 mm class 6 uPVC
HL 4 (6) = 0.023 * 108 = 2.48 m
The calculated friction losses of lateral (including header), 0.96 m, and the main, 4.11 m, plus the
difference in elevation of 2.5 m add up to 7.57 m.

Figure 10

Total head requirements


Pump suction lift.
The friction losses in the supply line
The friction losses in the main, lateral and fittings, the riser, the sprinkler operating
pressure and the difference in elevation.
The suction lift is the difference in elevation between the water level and the eye of the
pump impeller plus the head losses in the suction pipe
The head losses of the suction pipe comprise the frictional losses of the pipe, fittings and
the velocity head
2
The velocity head is equal to :V /2 g

V = water velocity (m/s)


g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)
Keller and Bliesner recommend that for centrifugal pumps the diameter of the suction pipe
should be selected such that the water velocity v < 3.3 m/s in order to ensure good pump
performance
The water level is at 99 m, the difference in elevation between the water and the eye of the
impeller (located at 100 m) is 1 m
Maximum velocity head is 0.56 m, the suction lift is 1.56 m (1 + 0.56)
The difference in elevation is the difference between the ground level of the sprinkler, located
at the highest point, and the eye of the pump impeller 108 100 = 8 m
The length of the supply line is 251 m (70 m from pumping station to field edge plus 150 m
from field edge to the middle of the field, plus 4 m for the road, plus 27 m to the first
hydrant)
Q = 87 m3/hr, L = 251 m, D = 200 m
HL = 0.0035 * 251 = 0.88 m
For friction losses in the riser we can assume about 0.25 m per m of riser and for fittings we
usually take 10% of the total head losses.
Total dynamic head requirements for a semi-portable system for an individual farm of 18 ha

Head Loss (m)

Total Dynamic Head Component

2.00

Suction lift

0.88

Supply line

2.49

Main line

0.96

Lateral

2.50

Riser

35.00

Sprinkler Operating Pressure

43.83

Subtotal

4.38

Fittings 10%

8.00

Elevation difference

56.21

Total

Power requirement in BHP = Q *TDH/273 * Ep or


Power requirement in kW = Q *TDH/360 * Ep
Kw or BHP = Energy transferred from the pump to the water
Q = Discharge (m3/hr)
TDH = Total dynamic head (m)
Ep = The pump efficiency (%) from the pump performance chart
360 and 273 = Conversion constants for metric units
Power requirement in BHP = 87 * 56.21/273 * 0.6 = 29.86
Power requirement in kW = 87 * 56.21/360 * 0.6 = 22.64
Depending on the losses in transferring the power to the pump, an allowance of 20% should
be made, thus an engine of 35.83 HP or 27.17 kW should be ordered