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WELCOME TO

TAIBAH UNIVERSITY
Introduction to Crystallography
and Mineral Crystal Systems

Geol 101
By
Dr. Hana Salem

Gypsum

Monoclinic
Dolomite

Crystallography

Emerald
Andalusite
Orthorhombic

Garnet

Isometric

Triclinic

Hexagonal

Definition of Crystallography

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY is the study of crystals.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY is a division of the entire study of


mineralogy.

A CRYSTAL is a regular polyhedral form, bounded by


smooth faces, which is assumed by a chemical
compound, due to the action of its interatomic forces,
when passing from the state of a liquid or gas to that of a
solid.

Polyhedral form: solid bounded by flat planes (CRYSTAL


FACES).

Crystal Morphology
Space groups for atom symmetry
Point groups for crystal face symmetry
Crystal Faces = limiting surfaces of growth

Ihe atomic arrangement of crystal forms

Simple Cubic and Related Structures

Crystal Morphology
Nicholas Steno (1669): Law of Constancy of Interfacial
Angles
Quartz

120o

120o

120o

120o

120o

120o

120o

Form = a set of symmetrically equivalent


faces
braces indicate a form {210}
pinacoid

related by a mirror
or a 2-fold axis

prism

pyramid

related by n-fold
axis or mirrors

dipryamid

Form = a set of symmetrically equivalent


faces braces indicate a form {210}
Quartz = 2 forms:
Hexagonal prism (m = 6)
Hexagonal dipyramid (m = 12)

Zone
Any group of faces || a common axis
Use of h k l as variables for a, b, c
intercepts
(h k 0) = [001]
If the MIs of 2 non-parallel faces are
added, the result = MI of a face between
them & in the same zone

ELEMENTS OF SYMMETRY

PLANES OF SYMMETRY
Any two dimensional surface that, when passed through the center of
the crystal, divides it into two symmetrical parts that are MIRROR
IMAGES is a PLANE OF SYMMETRY
A cube has 9 planes of symmetry, 3 of one set and 6 of another.
In the left figure the planes of symmetry are parallel to the faces of the cube form, in
the right figure the planes of symmetry join the opposite cube edges.

90o

When rotation repeats form every 90


degrees, then we have fourfold or
TETRAGONAL SYMMETRY.
4-fold symmetry (90o)

Symmetry

AXES OF SYMMETRY
4-fold axes (90o)

When rotation repeats form every


120 degrees, then we have threefold
or TRIGONAL SYMMETRY.

http://home.planet.nl/~bartdw/sphalerite.htm

3-fold symmetry (120o)

Symmetry
3-fold axes (120o)

AXES OF SYMMETRY
FOR EXAMPLE:

When rotation repeats form every 60 degrees,


then we have sixfold or HEXAGONAL
SYMMETRY.
When rotation repeats form every 180 degrees,
then we have twofold or BINARY SYMMETRY.

Crystal Form
There are only 7 symmetry classes; each mineral belongs to only ONE symmetry
class, and thus all crystals exhibit that symmetry only!

isometric

tetragonal

orthorhombic

hexagonal

monoclinic

triclinic

http://members.aol.com/jmichaelh/part1.html

Introduction to Mineral
Identification Basics
Welcome to the fascinating world of
Minerals. The purpose of this is to
present you with some of the basic
techniques used to identify minerals.

Mineral Identification Basics

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CRYSTALS


A CRYSTAL is the outward form of the
internal structure of the mineral.
The 7 basic crystal systems are:
ISOMETRIC

HEXAGONAL

TETRAGONAL

ORTHORHOMBIC
MONOCLINIC

Drusy Quartz on Barite

TRIGONAL
TRICLINIC

Crystal Forms
During the process of crystallization, crystals assume various
geometric shapes dependent on the ordering of their atomic
structure and the physical and chemical conditions under which
they grow. These forms may be subdivided, using geometry, into
six systems.
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC
AXES

7 large groups of crystal


systems:

(1) CUBIC
(2) TETRAGONAL
(3) ORTHORHOMBIC
(4) HEXAGONAL
(5) TRIGONAL
(6) MONOCLINIC
(7) TRICLINIC

The 7 basic crystal systems

Mineral Identification Basics

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CRYSTALS


CRYSTAL SYSTEMS are divided into 7 main groups.

The first group is the


ISOMETRIC. This literally
means equal measure and
refers to the equal size of the
crystal axes.

ISOMETRIC - Fluorite Crystals

Mineral Identification Basics

ISOMETRIC CRYSTALS

a3

ISOMETRIC or CUBIC
In this crystal system there are 3
axes. Each has the same length (as
a2 indicated by the same letter a).
They all meet at mutual 90o angles
in the center of the crystal.

a1
ISOMETRIC
Basic Cube

Crystals in this system


typically blocky or ball-like.

are

ISOMETRIC CRYSTALS

Mineral Identification Basics

ISOMETRIC CRYSTALS

a3
a3

a2

a1
a2

a1

ISOMETRIC - Basic Cube

Fluorite cube with


crystal axes.

Mineral Identification Basics

ISOMETRIC CRYSTALS

Within this ISOMETRIC


crystal model is the
OCTAHEDRAL crystal
form

ISOMETRIC Crystal Model

ISOMETRIC (CUBIC) FORMS


Form

Number of Faces

(1) Cube
6

(2) Octahedron
8

(3) Dodecahedron
12

(4) Tetrahexahedron
24
(5) Trapezohedron
24
(6) Trisoctahedron

24
(7) Hexaoctahedron

48

Cubic System

Mineral Identification Basics

ISOMETRIC BASIC CRYSTAL SHAPES

Spinel
Octahedron

Garnet
Trapezohedron

Fluorite
Cube

Garnet - Dodecahedron

Pyrite
Cube with
Pyritohedron
Striations

Mineral Identification Basics

TETRAGONAL CRYSTALS

a
1

a
2

TETRAGONAL
Crystal Axes

Three axes, all at right angles,


two of which are equal in
length (a1 and a2) and one (c)
which is different in length
(shorter or longer).
Note: If c was equal in length to a or
b, then we would be in the cubic
system!

Mineral Identification Basics

TETRAGONAL CRYSTALS

TETRAGONAL
TETRAGONAL Crystal
Model

This model shows a tetragonal


PRISM enclosing a DIPYRAMID.

TETRAGONAL CRYSTALS
Form
(1) Pinacoid

(2) Tetragonal Prism


(3) Ditetragonal Prism

Number
of Faces
2
4
8

(4) Tetragonal Dipyramid)

(5) Ditetragonal Dipyramid

16

Mineral Identification Basics

TETRAGONAL CRYSTALS

WULFENITE
Same crystal seen edge on.

Mineral Identification Basics

TETRAGONAL CRYSTALS

This is the same


Apophyllite crystal
looking down the
c axis.

APOPHYLLITE on Stilbite

The red square shows


the position of the
pinacoid
(perpendicular to the
c axis).

Mineral Identification Basics

HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS

a3
a2
a1

HEXAGONAL SYSTEM

Four axes! Three of the axes fall in the same


plane and intersect at the axial cross at 120
degrees between the positive ends.

HEXAGONAL Crystal Axes

These 3 axes, labeled a1, a2, and a3, are the same
length. The fourth axis, termed c, may be longer
or shorter than the a axes set. The c axis also
passes through the intersection of the a axes set at
right angle to the plane formed by the a set.

Mineral Identification Basics

HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS

HEXAGONAL
This model represents a hexagonal PRISM (the
outside hexagon - six sided shape). The top and
bottom faces are called PINACOIDS and are
perpendicular to the vertical c axis.
Within this model is the SCALENOHEDRAL
form. Each face is a scalenohedron. Calcite
often crystallizes with this form.

HEXAGONAL Crystal
Model

HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS
Form

(1) Pinacoid

(2) Hexagonal Prism

Number
of Faces
2

(3) Dihexagonal Prism

12

(4) Hexagonal Dipyramid


Hexagonal Prism

12
6
12

(5) Dihexagonal Dipyramid

24

Mineral Identification Basics

HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS

These hexagonal
CALCITE crystals
nicely show the six
sided prisms as well as
the basal pinacoid.

TRIGONAL CRYSTALS

Trigonal crystals have four axes, three of


which are equal in length and lie at an angle
of 120 from each other. The fourth is either
longer or shorter but must be at a right angle
to the other corners.

TRIGONAL FORMS
Form

Number
of Faces

(1Rhombohedrom
6

(2) Scalenohedron

12

Mineral Identification Basics

HEXAGONAL & TRIGONAL CRYSTALS


Pyramid
Dolomite
Faces

Prism
RHOMBOHEDRON
Faces

Pyramid
Face

Quartz

SCALENOHEDRON
Rhodochrosite

ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTALS

ORTHORHOMBIC
c

Three mutually perpendicular


axes of different lengths.
b

ORTHORHMOBIC Crystal
Axes

Note: If any axis was of equal length


to any other, then we would be in
the tetragonal system!

Mineral Identification Basics

ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTALS

ORTHORHOMBIC
This model shows the alternative axes
where the vertical c axis is not the
longest axis.

ORTHORHMOBIC
Crystal Model

The model shows the outside brick


shape of the PRISM and the inner shape is
a DIPYRAMID. The top and bottom
faces are called PINACOIDS and are
perpendicular to the c axis.

ORTHROMBIC FORMS
Form

Number
of Faces

(1) Orth.( Front + Side + Basal) Pinacoid


2
2
2

(2) Orth. (Prism + Pinacoid)


4
2

(3) Orth. Dipyramid


8

Mineral Identification Basics

ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTALS

Topaz from Topaz Mountain, Utah.

Mineral Identification Basics

ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTALS

BARITE is also orthorhombic.


The view above is looking down
the c axis of the crystal.

Mineral Identification Basics

ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTALS

Pinacoid View

Prism View
STAUROLITE

Mineral Identification Basics

ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTALS

This is a Staurolite TWIN with


garnets attached.

MONOCLINIC CRYSTALS

MONOCLINIC
In this crystal form the axes are of
unequal length.

c
b

a
MONOCLINIC Crystal
Axes

Axes a and b are perpendicular.


Axes b and c are perpendicular.

But a and c make some oblique


angle and with each other.

MONOCLINIC CRYSTALS

MONOCLINIC
In this model the outside shape is
the PRISM. It looks like a
distorted brick - flattened out of
shape.Inside is the DIPYRAMID.
MONOCLINIC Crystal
Model

MONOCLINIC FORMS
Form

Number
of Faces

Mono. (Front + Side + Basal) Pinacoid


2
2
2

Mono. (Front + Side + Basal )Pinacoid

Mono. . Dipyramid

2
2
2
8

MONOCLINIC CRYSTALS

Top View

Mica

Gypsum

Orthoclas

TRICLINIC CRYSTALS

TRICLINIC CYSTAL
a

TRICLINIC Crystal
Axes

In this system, The three axes are


all unequal in length and intersect
at three different angles (any
angle but 90 degrees).

TRICLINIC CRYSTALS

TRICLINIC
Again in this model the outside
shape is the PRISM.
Located within the prism is the
DIPYRAMID.

TRICLINIC Crystal
Model

TRICLINIC FORMS
Form

Number
of Faces

(1) Tricl. Front + Side + Basal Pinacoid


2
2
2

(2) Triclinic Dipyramid

Mineral Identification Basics

TRICLINIC CRYSTALS

Microcline, variety Amazonite

The 7 basic crystal systems

Thank You