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ADDITIONAL

MATHEMATICS
PROJECT WORK
TASK 2 / 2016
NAME: JISSHNU A/L SUBRAMANIAM
CLASS: 5M
IC. NUMBER: 9908-24-6447
TEACHER: HAZALENA

CONTENTS

N
O
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

TOPICS
Title of projects
Introduction
Acknowledgement
History
Objective
Section A
Section B
Conclusion
Reflection
Rubrics

PAGE

INTRODUCTIO
N

TITLE
APPLICATION OF
MATHEMATICS IN POPCORN
PACKAGING

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my additional
mathematics teacher, Pn. Hazalena who gave me the opportunity to do this project and help me
a lot throughout finishing this project. Without her guide, I may not finish my project and do it
properly.
Secondly, I would like to thanks my parents and my family for providing everything,
such as money to buy anything that are related to this project and their advises, which is the
most needed to do this project. I am grateful for their constant support and help.Not forgotten to
my friends who have contributed lots of idea in finding the topic that would be interesting to do
and gave their comments on my research. I really appreciate their kindness and help.
Beside that, I want to thanks to the respondents for helping and spending their time to
answer my questions for this project. Without respondents, I might not be able to complete this
project because their co-operation in answering the questions, I have the conclusion for this
project.
Last but not least, I would like to express my thankfulness to those who are involved
either directly or indirectly in completing this project. Thank you for all the co-operation given.

HISTORY OF POPCORN
Popcorn was first discovered thousands of years ago by Native Americans. It is one of the
oldest forms of corn: evidence of popcorn from 3600 B.C. was found in New Mexico and even
earlier evidence dating to perhaps as early as 4700 BC was found in Peru. Some Popcorn has
been found in early 1900s to be a purple color.
The English who came to America in the 16th and 17th centuries learned about popcorn
from the Native Americans.
During the Great Depression, popcorn was comparatively cheap at 510 cents a bag and
became popular. Thus, while other businesses failed, the popcorn business thrived and became a
source of income for many struggling farmers. During World War II, sugar rations
diminished candy production, causing Americans to eat three times as much popcorn than they
had before.
At least six localities (all in the Midwestern United States) claim to be the "Popcorn
Capital of the World": Ridgway, Illinois; Valparaiso, Indiana; Van Buren, Indiana; Schaller,
Iowa; Marion, Ohio; and North Loup, Nebraska. According to the USDA, most of the corn used
for popcorn production is specifically planted for this purpose; most is grown
inNebraska and Indiana, with increasing area in Texas.
As the result of an elementary school project, popcorn became the official state snack
food of Illinois, U.S.A.

OBJECTIVES
Apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies ti solve routine and non-routine
problems.
Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing, and to use the
language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely.
Increase interest and confidence as well as enhance acquisition of mathematical
knowledge and skills that are useful for career and future undertakings.
Realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems
and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics.
Train students not only to be independent learners but also collaborate, to cooperate, and
to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment.
Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively.
Train students to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more
creative and innovative.
Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics.

SECTION A

QUESTION 1
For this activity, you will be comparing the volume of 2 cylinders created using the same sheet
of paper. You will be determining which dimension can hold more popcorn. To do this, you will
have to find a pattern for the dimensions for the containers.
Materials :

8.5 x 11 in. white paper, 8.5 x 11 in. colored paper, tape, popcorn plate, cup, ruler
1.

Take the white paper and roll it up along the longest side to form a baseless cylinder that
Is tall and narrow. Do not overlap the sides. Tape along the edges. Measure the
dimensions with a ruler and record your data below and on the cylinder. Label it
Cylinder A.

2.

Take the colored paper and roll it up along the shorter side to form a baseless cylinder
that is short and stout. Do not overlap the sides. Tape along the edge. Measure the height
and diameter with a ruler and record you data below and on the cylinder. Label it
Cylinder B.

ANSWER 1
DIMENSION
HEIGHT
DIAMETER
RADIUS

CYLINDER A
11.0
2.6
1.3

QUESTION 2
Do you think the two cylinders will hold the same amount?
Do you think one will hold more than the other? Which one? Why?

CYLINDER B
8.5
3.4
1.7

ANSWER 2
The two cylinders will hold the different amount. Cylinder B will hold more than Cylinder A.
This is because the radius of Cylinder B is longer and this make the volume is bigger than
Cylinder A. Although the height of Cylinder B is shorter than Cylinder A, but this does not
affect much compare the affect of different in radius.

QUESTION 3
Place Cylinder B on the paper plate with Cylinder A inside it. Use your cup to pour popcorn
into Cylinder A until is full. Carefully, lift Cylinder A so that the popcorn falls into Cylinder B.
Describe what happened. Is Cylinder B full, not full or over flowing?

ANSWER 3
Cylinder B is not full. There is still space in the cylinder for more popcorn.

QUESTION 4
a) Was your prediction correct? How do you know?
b) If your prediction is incorrect, describe what actually happened?

ANSWER 4
a) Yes, the prediction is correct. It is based on the formula, volume of cylinder equals to
2

r h . According to the formula, radius,r has more effect than height,h since radius,r is

squared. Thus, the Cylinder B with greater radius,r have the greater volume,V than
Cylinder A.
b) Cylinder B has a greater volume than Cylinder A.

QUESTION 5
a) State the formula for finding the volume of a cylinder
b) Calculate the volume of Cylinder A.

c) Calculate the volume of Cylinder B.

d) Explain why the cylinders do or do not hold the same amount. Use the formula for the
formula for the volume of a cylinder to guide your explanation.

ANSWER 5
2
a) V = r h
2

b) V = r h
= x 1.3 x 11
=58.4 inch
2
c) V = r h
= x 1.7 x 8.5
= 77.2 inch
d) The cylinders have different radius and heights, so the volumes are different.

Data and Observations:


The cylinder with have the greater radius and diameter will have the greater volume
The radius of Cylinder B is greater than Cylinder A.
The volume of Cylinder B is greater than Cylinder A.
So, Cylinder B holds more popcorn than Cylinder B.

DIMENSION
HEIGHT, inch
DIAMETER, inch
RADIUS, inch
VOLUME, inch

CYLINDER A
11.0
2.6
1.3
58.4

CYLINDER B
8.5
3.4
1.7
77.2

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Height,h

Diameter,d

Radius,r

Volume,V

QUESTION 6
Which measurement impacts the volume more : the radius or the height? Work through the
example below to help you answer the question.

Assume that you have a cylinder with a radius of 3 inches and a height of 10 inches. Increase
the radius by 1 inch and determine the new volume. Then using the original radius, increase the
height by 1 inch and determine the new volume.

CYLINDER
ORIGINAL
INCREASED
RADIUS
INCREASED
HEIGHT

RADIUS
3

HEIGHT
10

VOLUME

Which increased the dimension had a larger impact on the volume of the cylinder? Why do you
think this is true?

ANSWER 6
CYLINDER
ORIGINAL
INCREASED
RADIUS
INCREASED
HEIGHT

RADIUS
3
4

HEIGHT
10
10

VOLUME
282.7
502.7

11

311

Increasing the radius increased the volume more than increasing the height. This is because the
radius is squared to find the volume, which increases its impact on the volume.

SECTION B

QUESTION
If you were buying popcorn at the movie theater and wanted the most popcorn, what type of
container would you look for?

Clue : You need more than one type of containers.

You are given 300 cm of thin sheet material. Explain the details.

ANSWER
1. Cylinder Container opened top

2
Surface Area = 2 r h + r = 300

h=

300 r 2
2 r

2
Volume = r h

r2

300 r 2
2 r

dV

Maximum Volume = dr

)
=0

Volume = 563.62

2. Cube Container opened top

Surface Area = l + 4l = 300cm


5 l = 300
l = 60
l = 7.75cm
Volume = l
= (7.75)
= 465.48 cm

3. Cuboid Container opened top


Assume that length is twice its width or others

Surface Area = 2l +4hl = 300cm


h=

3002 l
4l

Volume = 2l h
= 2l

l
( 3002
)
4l
dV

Maximum Volume, dr = 0

2l

3002 l
4l

600l 4 l
4l

600l 4 l 4 1
l
4l

= 150l - l
dV
dr = 150 3l = 0
3002(7.07)
4(7.07)

150 = 3l

h=

l = 50

h = 7.07cm

l = 7.07cm
Volume = 2lh
= 2(7.07)(7.07)
= 706.79cm

4. Cuboid Container opened top

Assume that length is equal to its width

Surface Area = l + 4hl = 300


h=

300l
4l

Volume = l h
= l

( 300l
4l )

dV

Maximum Volume, dr = 0
dV
dr = 75

3l
4 =0

75 =

3l
4

l = 10
h=5
Volume = 500

5. Hexagon Container opened top

Assume that the length of the side = x

Area of the base = 6

= 6 2 x . x . sin

1
ab sin
2

3 3
x
2

( 3 23 x )

Surface Area = 6hx +

( 3 2 3 x )

300

h=

6x

Volume = base area height


3 3
x
2

= 3 3 x
2

( 3 23 x )

300

6x

dV
dr = 0

Maximum Volume,
dV
dl =
300 3
4

300 3
4

27 x
4

27 x 2
4

x = 4.39
h = 9.49

= 300

Volume = 475.17

6. Cone Container opened top


From the diagram, x = r + h

Surface Area = r x = 300cm


r x = 300
r ( r + h) = 90000
2 4

90000 r
2 r

h =
1

Volume = 3 r h
1
9

Volume =

1
9

r4 h

r4

Maximum Volume,

90000 2 r 4
2r

dV
dr = 0

dV
2 r4
dl = 10000 3 = 0
300 3
4

2 4

r
3

r = 7.42
h = 10.51
1

Volume = 3

(7.42) (10.51)

= 605.95cm

CONCLUSION
Container
Cylinder
Cube
Cuboid 1
Cuboid 2
Hexagon
Cone

height
5.64
7.75
7.07
5.00
9.49
10.51

radius
5.64
7.42

length
7.75
7.07
10.00
4.39(side)
-

width
7.75
14.14
10.00
-

volume
563.69
465.48
706.79
500.00
475.17
605.95

Shape of containers that give the most popcorn reflect the maximum volume. From the
activity earlier, I found that increasing the radius increased the volume more than increasing the
height. This is because the radius is squared to find the volume, which increases its impact on
the volume. From the calculations, it has been found that cuboid1 can be filled in with the most
amount popcorn. It followed by cone, cuboid2, and hexagon. These means that cube is the
container that can be filled with the least amount of popcorn. Randomly, surveying at the movie
theater, no cube or cuboid shapes can be found. Therefore, in this case, the cuboid1 was the
most preferable container that can have the most popcorns.

i.

You are the popcorn seller, what type of container would you look for?
If I was the popcorn seller, I will look for cube shape container. It is because the least
popcorns will be in. So, I will get the most profit for my sale. Furthermore, it is cute
and simple shape.

ii.

You are the producer of the containers, what type of container would you choose to
have the most profit?
If I was the producer of the popcorns containers, I will look for cylinder shape
container. It is because this shape is the easiest production and it takes less effort and
also no time consuming to produce.

Volume of container,V (cm)


Volume of container

605.95
Cone

475.17
Hexagon

500
Cuboid2

706.79
Cuboid1

465.48
Cube

563.69
Cylinder

REFLECTION
In the making of this project, I have spent countless hours doing this project. I realized that this
subject is a compulsory to me. Without it, I cant fulfill my big dreams and wishes.

Ever since I was in Form 4


I used to really hate Additional Mathematics
It always make me wonder why this subject is so difficult
It was always hell for me
Throughout the days and nights
I sacrificed my precious time in Life to have fun
From
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday
And even the weekend that I always looking forward to doing something else
From now on, I will do my best on every second that I will learn Additional Mathematics full of
effort!