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Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual

PREFACE
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
February, 1993
The purpose of the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual (CSM)
is to prevent injury, loss of life, and damage to assets. This is the
fourth revision of the CSM.
Since its 1974 introduction, the
Construction Safety Manual has provided safety criteria for all
construction work performed by Saudi Aramco and its contractors.
Many of the requirements in this manual detail the need for Saudi
Aramco services or equipment. Where references indicate that
certain equipment (fall protection, safety shoes, etc.) should be
provided or services rendered (bio-monitoring, etc.), the intent is that
contractors must provide equivalent equipment or services (as
approved by Saudi Aramco) from their own resources.
The construction industry functions in a dynamically changing work
environment in which updating of equipment and standards is a
continuous process resulting from changes in operating variables,
regulatory requirements, and safety practices. Although this manual
has been updated to reflect the latest Saudi Aramco and construction
industry practices, as time goes on there may be a need to consider
new procedures, standards, or operating conditions.
Such new
developments, including potential conflicts with existing provisions,
should be referred to the Loss Prevention Department for resolution.
The Loss Prevention Department will issue interim revisions or
updates where appropriate.
Good loss prevention is an integral part of good project management.
For our projects and maintenance programs to proceed safely, all
Saudi Aramco and contractor personnel involved in construction
activities, whether management or line employees, need to
understand and follow the provisions in this Manual. Only with the
active commitment of everyone can we ensure that Saudi Aramco
maintains the safest possible work environment.

A. G. AL-GHANIM,
Senior Vice President,
Engineering
and
Management

Project

____________________________________

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I. Administration....................................................1
1.0SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION POLICY AND PROGRAM........2
1.1
Loss Prevention Policy Implementation......................2
1.1.1 Compliance With Construction Requirements..............2
1.1.2 Operating Standards and Instructions.........................2
1.1.3 Personal Protection......................................................2
1.1.4 Inspection.................................................................... 2
1.1.5 Education and Training................................................3
1.1.6 Motivation and Recognition.........................................3
1.1.7 Job Placement..............................................................3
1.1.8 Response to Accidental Occurrences...........................3
1.1.9 Contractor Safety........................................................3
1.1.10 Off-The-Job Safety........................................................3
1.1.11 Traffic Safety................................................................3
1.1.12 Accountability..............................................................4
1.1.13 Compliance Reviews....................................................4
1.2
Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Requirements For Contractors
4
1.2.1 Non-Compliance..........................................................4
1.2.2 Assistance...................................................................4
1.2.3 Standards and Instructions..........................................5
1.3
Contractor's Loss Prevention Program.......................5
1.3.1 Written Program..........................................................5
1.3.2 Hazard Identification Plan............................................6
1.3.3 Safety Supervisor........................................................6
1.3.4 Safety Discussion........................................................6
2.0SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION DEPARTMENT SERVICES.......7
2.1
Loss Prevention Program...........................................7
2.2
Program Management Services..................................8
2.3
Program Maintenance Services..................................9
3.0ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND REPORTING..............10
3.1
Reports Required by Saudi Aramco............................10
3.2
Accident Investigation...............................................11
3.2.1 Responsibilities for Investigation.................................11
3.2.1.1 Supervisor/Safety Representative....................11
3.2.1.2 Project Manager...............................................11
3.3
Cases to be Investigated...........................................12
3.4
Accident Investigation Guidelines..............................12
3.5
Accident Analysis.......................................................12
3.5.1 Classification...............................................................12
4.0RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SAFETY................................................16
4.1
Contractor Senior Management.................................16
4.2
Design Engineer........................................................16
4.3
Contractor's Safety Officer.........................................16
4.4
Construction Manager/Superintendent.......................17
4.5
Site Safety Supervisor...............................................18
4.6
Equipment Manager/Supervisor.................................18
4.7
Engineer/Supervisor..................................................18
4.8
Foreman...................................................................18
4.9
Worker.....................................................................19
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5.0EMERGENCY PROCEDURES.......................................................20
5.1
Action to be Taken.....................................................20
5.2
Contact After Office Hours.........................................20
5.3
Help in an Emergency................................................20
6.0SAFETY TRAINING....................................................................22
6.1
Safety Training for Supervisors..................................22
6.2
Safety Training for Workmen.....................................22
6.2.1 Integrated Practices....................................................22
6.2.2 Specialized Training.....................................................22
6.2.3 Use of Persuasion........................................................23
6.2.4 Course Requirements..................................................23
6.3
Scope of Training......................................................24
6.3.1 Safety Training Topics For Supervisors.........................25
6.3.2 Induction Safety Topics For Workmen..........................27
7.0SITE PLANNING AND HOUSEKEEPING........................................28
7.1
Initial Planning..........................................................28
7.1.1 Hazard Identification Plan............................................28
7.1.2 Loss Prevention Program.............................................29
7.1.3 Protection of Employees and Equipment.....................29
7.1.4 Transportation.............................................................29
7.1.5 Lifting Equipment........................................................29
7.1.6 Demolition...................................................................29
7.1.7 Excavations.................................................................29
7.1.8 Scaffolding...................................................................29
7.2
Site Layout...............................................................30
7.2.1 Site Accommodation....................................................30
7.2.2 Adequate Access Roads...............................................30
7.2.3 Project Sign.................................................................30
7.2.4 Safe Means of Access and Egress................................31
7.2.5 Parking Facilities..........................................................31
7.2.6 Drainage......................................................................31
7.2.7 Vehicle / Heavy Equipment Paths On Site Vs Pedestrian Paths
....................................................................................31
7.2.8 Sand............................................................................31
7.2.9 Fire Prevention.............................................................31
7.2.10 Site Illumination..........................................................31
7.3
Storage Areas...........................................................31
7.4
Welfare Facilities......................................................32
7.5
Good Housekeeping..................................................33
7.6
Construction Sites and Materials Storage Yards..........33
8.0FIRST AID................................................................................36
8.1
Provision of First Aid Facilities...................................36
8.2
First Aid Attendants..................................................37
8.3
First Aid Facilities At Work Site..................................38
8.4
Labor And Workmen Law...........................................40
9.0PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.........................................42
9.1
Head Protection........................................................43
9.2
Eye and Face Protection............................................43
9.2.1 Eye Protection from Impact.........................................44
9.2.2 Eye Protection from Radiant Energies..........................44
9.2.3 Face Protection............................................................44
9.3
Hand Protection........................................................44
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9.4
9.5
9.6

Foot Protection.........................................................44
Hearing Protection....................................................45
9.5.1 Ear Plugs.....................................................................45
9.5.2 Ear Muffs.....................................................................45
Fall Restraining/Arresting Devices.............................45

10.0 BREATHING APPARATUS.........................................................52


10.1 Selection of Equipment.............................................52
10.1.1 Requirements For Use.................................................53
10.1.2 Misuse.........................................................................53
10.1.3 Hazardous Substances................................................54
10.1.4 Contaminants..............................................................54
10.2 Respiratory Protective Devices..................................54
10.2.1 Air Purifying Respirators..............................................54
10.2.1.1 Gas Masks..................................................54
10.2.1.2 Chemical Cartridge Respirators..................55
10.2.1.3 Particulate Filter Respirators (Dust Respirators)
55
10.2.2 Supplied Air Respirators..............................................55
10.2.2.1 Air Line Respirators.....................................55
10.2.2.2 Abrasive Blasting Respirators.....................56
10.2.2.3 Air Supplied Suits.......................................56
10.2.3 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)................56
10.3 Training....................................................................57
10.4 Safety Precautions....................................................57
10.4.1 Air Compressors..........................................................57
11.0 FIRE PREVENTION.................................................................60
11.1 Before the Job Starts.................................................60
11.2 Layout......................................................................61
11.3 Equipment Protection................................................61
11.4 Control of Ignition Sources........................................62
11.5 Flammable Liquids....................................................62
11.5.1 Storage........................................................................62
11.5.2 Handling of Flammable Liquids....................................63
11.5.3 Ventilation...................................................................63
11.6 Combustible Materials...............................................63
11.7 Housekeeping...........................................................63
11.8 Emergency Equipment...............................................63
11.8.1 Water-Type Fire Extinguisher........................................64
11.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Type Extinguisher...............................64
11.8.3 Dry Chemical Type Extinguisher..................................64
11.8.4 Pressurized Water........................................................64
11.9 Reporting a Fire........................................................65
11.10 End-of-Shift Checks...................................................65
12.0 RADIO COMMUNICATIONS......................................................67
12.1 Equipment................................................................68
12.1.1 Remote Control Unit....................................................68
12.2 Safe Operation..........................................................68
12.3 Radio Phrases...........................................................68
12.4 Phonetic Alphabet.....................................................69
12.5 International Communications Union Agreement........70
12.5.1 Monitoring of Circuits..................................................71
12.5.2 Secrecy Act..................................................................71
12.5.3 Penalties......................................................................71
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12.6
12.7

Message Priorities for Company Operations...............71


Distress Messages....................................................73
12.7.1 MAYDAY.......................................................................73
12.7.2 Urgency Signal............................................................74
12.7.3 Priority Traffic..............................................................75

13.0 TRANSPORTATION................................................................76
13.1 Driver Requirements.................................................76
13.2 Driver's Responsibilities............................................76
13.3 Motor Vehicle Regulations: Saudi Arab Government and Saudi
Aramco.....................................................................78
13.4 Vehicle Condition......................................................78
13.5 Driver Training..........................................................80
13.6 Enforcement of Safe Driving Practices.......................80
13.7 Action Taken After a Saudi Aramco Motor Vehicle Accident
81
13.7.1 Emergencies................................................................81
13.7.2 Remain at Scene.........................................................81
13.8 Passenger Seating and Seat Belts..............................82
13.9 Desert Driving..........................................................82
13.9.1 Stay With Vehicle.........................................................82
13.9.2 Sand Tires....................................................................82
13.10 Vehicle Admittance to Restricted Areas......................83
13.11 Operation of Motor Vehicles Within Saudi Aramco
Communities.............................................................83
13.11.1...................................................................................Seat
Belts............................................................................83
13.11.2
Traffic Regulations.........................................83
14.0 AIRCRAFT OPERATION..........................................................84
14.1 General Operating Responsibilities............................84
14.1.1 Captain/Pilot................................................................84
14.1.2 Camp Supervisors.......................................................84
14.2 Passenger Briefing/Instructions, General (All Aircraft Types)
85
14.3 Transportation of Dangerous Goods...........................86
14.4 Hours of Operation for Single-Engine Helicopters.......86
14.5 General Precautions for Helicopters...........................86
14.5.1 Life Vests.....................................................................86

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II. General And Civil...............................................87


1.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM..........................................................88
1.1
Definitions................................................................88
1.1.1 Restricted Areas..........................................................88
1.1.2 Issuer (Operation Supervisors)....................................89
1.1.3 Receiver (Authorized Craftsmen).................................89
1.1.4 Work Permit.................................................................89
1.2
Issuance and Approval..............................................89
1.2.1 Power Distribution Department Clearances.................90
1.3
Precautions..............................................................90
1.3.1 Checklist......................................................................90
1.3.2 Clear Area....................................................................90
1.3.3 Work Stoppage............................................................90
1.4
Handling of Issued Work Permit.................................90
1.5
Closing Out and Filing the Permit...............................91
1.6
Certification..............................................................91
1.7
12 Rules on Work Permit Procedure...........................91
1.8
Hold Tags and Multiple Lockouts................................91
2.0 EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING AND SHORING...............................96
2.1
Before Work Starts....................................................99
2.2
Work Permit..............................................................99
2.2.1 Excavation near Saudi Telephone Cables.....................99
2.3
Underground Obstructions........................................100
2.4
General Precautions..................................................100
2.4.1 Shoring Protective Systems.........................................100
2.4.2 Personnel Protection....................................................100
2.4.3 Inspection....................................................................101
2.4.4 Clearance....................................................................101
2.4.5 Mechanical Excavator..................................................101
2.4.6 Walkways....................................................................101
2.5
Access and Egress.....................................................101
2.6
Hazardous Atmospheres and Materials.......................101
2.6.1 Ventilation...................................................................101
2.6.1.1 Hazardous Atmospheres...................................102
2.6.1.2 Emergency Rescue Equipment.........................102
2.6.2 Exhaust Gases.............................................................103
2.6.3 Organic Lead...............................................................103
2.7
Edge Protection, Markers and Fixed Lighting..............103
2.8
Roads, Streets, and Sidewalks...................................103
2.9
Backfilling.................................................................103
2.10 Borrow Pits...............................................................103
3.0 DEMOLITION..........................................................................124
3.1
Before Work Starts....................................................125
3.1.1 Responsible Supervisor...............................................125
3.1.2 Original Drawings........................................................125
3.1.3 Disconnections............................................................125
3.1.4 Adjacent Structures and Public Areas..........................125
3.1.5 Barricades/Signs..........................................................125
3.2
Method of Demolition................................................125
3.2.1 Demolition of Equipment Containing PCB: Polychlorinated
Biphenyl (ASKAREL).....................................................126
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3.2.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

3.7
3.8

Demolition Of Buildings With Asbestos / Insulation Materials


....................................................................................126
Stability During Demolition........................................126
Working Place Clearance...........................................126
3.4.1 Access.........................................................................126
3.4.2 Glass Removal.............................................................126
Structural Steel Removal...........................................127
Tanks, Vessels and Pipe Work (Explosion Prevention). 127
3.6.1 Welding and Hot Cutting..............................................127
3.6.2 Cold Cutting................................................................127
3.6.3 Steaming and Ventilation............................................127
3.6.4 Residue Cleaning.........................................................127
Protective Clothing and Equipment............................127
Mechanical Equipment Guards...................................128

4.0 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBERS...............................................129


4.1
Types of Asbestos.....................................................129
4.2
Health Risks..............................................................129
4.3
Before Work Starts....................................................130
4.3.1 Air Sampling................................................................130
4.3.2 Job Details...................................................................130
4.3.3 Chest X-rays................................................................130
4.4
Storage and Transportation.......................................130
4.5
Work Area.................................................................131
4.6
Handling and Use......................................................131
4.6.1 Wetting/Ventilation......................................................131
4.6.2 Cutting........................................................................131
4.6.3 Protective Equipment..................................................131
4.7
Protective Clothing...................................................132
4.7.1 Types...........................................................................132
4.7.2 Contamination.............................................................132
4.7.3 Review.........................................................................132
4.8
Respiratory Equipment..............................................132
4.8.1 Type.............................................................................132
4.8.2 Use..............................................................................132
4.8.3 Care.............................................................................133
4.9
Washing and Changing Facilities................................133
4.10 Disposal of Waste Asbestos Materials/Clothing...........133
4.11 Cleanliness of Work Areas and Equipment..................133
5.0 WELDING, CUTTING, AND BRAZING.........................................134
5.1
Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Equipment and Use.......134
5.1.1 Gases..........................................................................134
5.1.2 Color Coding of Cylinders............................................135
5.1.3 Storage Of Cylinders...................................................135
5.1.4 Handling of Cylinders..................................................136
5.1.5 Inspecting Equipment..................................................137
5.1.6 Faults...........................................................................139
5.1.7 Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds...................................140
5.2
Electric Arc Welding..................................................140
5.2.1 Voltage........................................................................140
5.2.2 Welding Connections...................................................141
5.3
Protective Measures..................................................142
5.4
Welding and Cutting: Tanks, Vessels and Drums........144
5.5
Confined Spaces........................................................144
5.6
Personnel Protection.................................................145
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5.7

Health Hazards.........................................................145
5.7.1 Radiant Energy............................................................145
5.7.2 Respiratory Effects......................................................146

6.0 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS...........................................................148


7.0 PILING OPERATIONS...............................................................149
7.1
Before Work Starts....................................................149
7.1.1 Cranes.........................................................................150
7.1.2 Pile Gates....................................................................150
7.1.3 Inspection....................................................................150
7.1.4 Wedges........................................................................150
7.1.5 Timber Block................................................................150
7.1.6 Ground Support...........................................................151
7.2
Driving Piles.............................................................151
7.2.1 Pitching.......................................................................151
7.2.2 Driving.........................................................................151
7.3
Pile Extraction..........................................................151
7.4
General Precautions..................................................152
8.0 ROADWORKS.........................................................................153
8.1
General....................................................................153
8.2
Street and Road Construction, Excavations, and Maintenance
Traffic Controls..........................................................154
9.0 WORKING PLACES, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDING....................155
9.1
Working Places, General............................................156
9.1.1 Falls.............................................................................156
9.1.2 Access and Egress.......................................................156
9.1.3 Lighting.......................................................................156
9.1.4 Prevention of Falls.......................................................156
9.1.5 Ramps.........................................................................156
9.1.6 Falling Material............................................................157
9.1.7 Hot Surfaces................................................................157
9.1.8 Slipping and Tripping...................................................157
9.1.9 Roof Work....................................................................157
9.1.10 Insecure Structures.....................................................157
9.1.11 Work Over Water.........................................................158
9.2
Ladders and Stepladders...........................................158
9.2.1 Selection.....................................................................158
9.2.2 Condition.....................................................................159
9.2.3 Position........................................................................159
9.2.4 Use..............................................................................160
9.2.5 Stepladders.................................................................162
9.2.6 General........................................................................162
9.3
Scaffolding Components............................................163
9.4
Requirements Common to All Scaffolding...................168
9.4.1 Foundations.................................................................168
9.4.2 Posts............................................................................168
9.4.3 Runners.......................................................................169
9.4.4 Bearers........................................................................169
9.4.5 Board Bearers..............................................................169
9.4.6 Bracing........................................................................170
9.4.7 Ties..............................................................................170
9.4.8 Platform Units..............................................................171
9.4.9 Guardrail Systems and Toeboards...............................172
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9.5
9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9
9.10
9.11

9.4.10 Access.........................................................................172
9.4.11 Scaffold Ladders..........................................................172
9.4.11.1 Portable Straight and Extension Ladders....173
9.4.11.2 Vertical Ladder...........................................173
9.4.12 Workmanship...............................................................174
9.4.13 Inspections..................................................................174
Fabricated Tubular Frame and System Scaffolding......174
Tube and Coupler Scaffolds........................................176
9.6.1 Independent Tied Scaffold...........................................176
9.6.2 Light Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds........................176
9.6.2.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions.....................176
9.6.2.2 Platform...........................................................177
9.6.2.3 Limitations.......................................................177
9.6.3. Medium Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffold.....................177
9.6.3.1 Design, Loading, and Dimensions....................177
9.6.3.2 Platform...........................................................177
9.6.3.3 Limitations.......................................................178
9.6.3.4 Bearers.............................................................178
9.6.4 Heavy Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds......................178
9.6.4.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions.....................178
9.6.4.2 Platform...........................................................178
9.6.4.3 Limitations.......................................................178
9.6.4.4 Bearers.............................................................179
Free-Standing Tower Scaffolds...................................179
9.7.1 General Requirements.................................................179
9.7.2 Design, Loading and Dimensions.................................179
9.7.3 Runners and Bearers...................................................179
9.7.4 Bracing........................................................................179
9.7.5 Ties..............................................................................179
9.7.6 Platform.......................................................................180
9.7.7 Access.........................................................................180
9.7.8 Limitations...................................................................180
Mobile Tower Scaffolds..............................................180
9.8.1 Foundations.................................................................180
9.8.2 Operation....................................................................181
9.8.3 Limitations...................................................................181
Scaffolds for Tanks and Vessels..................................181
9.9.1 Bracket Scaffolds.........................................................181
Special Scaffolds.......................................................182
Scaffold Terminology.................................................182

10.0 HAND TOOLS AND POWER TOOLS.........................................193


10.1 Hand Tools, General..................................................194
10.1.1 Quality.........................................................................194
10.1.2 Cleanliness..................................................................194
10.1.3 Repair and Storage......................................................194
10.1.4 Selection.....................................................................194
10.1.5 Electrical Risks............................................................194
10.2 Individual Hand Tools, Precautions.............................194
10.2.1 Screwdrivers................................................................194
10.2.2 Hammer......................................................................195
10.2.3 Chisels.........................................................................195
10.2.4 Picks and Shovels........................................................195
10.2.5 Spanners and Wrenches..............................................195
10.2.6 Pipe Wrenches.............................................................195
10.2.7 Pliers...........................................................................196
10.2.8 Jacks............................................................................196
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10.3
10.4

10.5

10.6

10.2.9 Hacksaws....................................................................196
10.2.10...................................................................................Hand
saws............................................................................196
Power Tools, General.................................................196
10.3.1 Quality.........................................................................196
10.3.2 Repair and Storage......................................................197
Pneumatic Tools........................................................197
10.4.1 General........................................................................197
10.4.2 Individual Tools, Precautions........................................198
10.4.2.1 Jack Hammer and Concrete Breakers.........198
10.4.2.2 Rock Drill....................................................198
10.4.2.3 Grinding Machine........................................198
Cartridge Operated Tools...........................................203
10.5.1 General........................................................................203
10.5.2 Storage........................................................................203
10.5.3 Selection and Training of Personnel.............................203
10.5.4 Personal Protective Equipment....................................204
10.5.5 Issue and Returns........................................................204
10.5.6 Work Permits...............................................................204
10.5.7 Use..............................................................................204
10.5.8 Maintenance and Repair..............................................206
Electrically Operated Tools........................................207
10.6.1 General........................................................................207
10.6.2 Maintenance and Storage............................................208
10.6.3 Personal Protective Equipment....................................208
10.6.4 Individual Tools, Precautions........................................209
10.6.4.1 Grinders......................................................209
10.6.4.2 Drills...........................................................209
10.6.4.3 Saws...........................................................209
10.6.4.4 Radial Saws................................................210

11.0 PAINTS AND COATINGS.........................................................220


11.1 Flammability Hazards of Coating Materials.................220
11.1.1 Flammable Materials...................................................220
11.1.2 Flash Point (Definition)................................................220
11.1.3 Flammable (Explosive) Limits (Definition)...................220
11.1.4 Fire Precautions...........................................................221
11.2 Health Hazards Associated With Paints......................221
11.2.1 Toxic Materials.............................................................221
11.2.2 Dermatitic Materials....................................................222
11.2.3 Prevention of Health Hazards......................................222
11.3 Ventilation in Confined Spaces...................................222
11.4 Surface Preparation..................................................223
11.4.1 Abrasive Blast Cleaning...............................................224
11.4.2 Hydroblast and Steam Cleaning..................................224
11.4.3 Hand and Power Tool Cleaning.....................................224
11.4.4 Chemical Cleaning.......................................................225
11.4.5 General Safety in Surface Preparation.........................225
11.5 Personal Protective Equipment..................................226
11.6 Paint Application.......................................................228
11.6.1 Paint Materials.............................................................228
11.6.2 General Safety In Paint Application..............................228
11.7 Scaffolding and Ladders............................................229
11.8 Tarring Operations....................................................229
11.9 General Safety for Paints and Coatings......................229

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12.0 CONCRETE, CONCRETE FORMS, AND SHORING.......................232


12.1 General....................................................................232
12.2 Reinforcing Steel......................................................232
12.3 Bulk Concrete Handling.............................................232
12.4 Concrete Placement..................................................232
12.4.1 Concrete Mixers...........................................................232
12.4.2 Guardrails....................................................................232
12.4.3 Bull Floats....................................................................232
12.4.4 Powered Concrete Trowels...........................................233
12.4.5 Concrete Buggies........................................................233
12.4.6 Pumpcrete Systems.....................................................233
12.4.7 Concrete Buckets........................................................233
12.4.8 Discharging on Slope...................................................233
12.4.9 Back-Up Man, Truck Spotter.........................................233
12.4.10
Pneumatic Hose.............................................233
12.5 Vertical Shoring........................................................233
12.5.1 General Requirements.................................................233
12.5.2 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring....................................234
12.6 Forms and Shoring....................................................234
12.6.1 General Provisions.......................................................234
12.6.2 Vertical Slip Forms.......................................................235
12.6.3 Tube and Coupler Shoring............................................235
12.6.4 Single Post Shores.......................................................236

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III. Mechanical Equipment And Materials.................237


1.0 CRANES AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT..........................................238
1.1
Competent Person.....................................................239
1.2
Saudi Aramco Crane Operations (General Requirements)239
1.3
Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Qualifications..............240
1.4
Special Crane Operating Procedures..........................240
1.5
Effect of Wind Speeds on Crane Operations................240
1.6
Overhead Power Lines...............................................240
2.0 SLINGS AND LIFTING GEAR (RIGGING).....................................245
2.1. Safe Working Load (SWL)..........................................245
2.2. Chain Slings..............................................................246
2.2.1 Grades.........................................................................246
2.2.2 Repairs........................................................................246
2.3
Wire Rope Slings.......................................................246
2.4
Synthetic Webbing Slings..........................................247
2.4.1 Removal from Service..................................................247
2.4.2 Repaired Slings............................................................247
2.5
Synthetic and Natural Fiber Rope Slings.....................248
2.6
Care of Slings...........................................................249
2.7
Hooks.......................................................................249
2.8
Spreader Bars...........................................................250
2.9
Eyebolts And Safety Hoist Rings................................250
2.10 Shackles...................................................................251
2.11 Rigger......................................................................251
3.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT.......................................................257
3.1
Operators.................................................................258
3.1.1 Qualifications...............................................................258
3.1.2 Licensing Requirements..............................................258
3.2
Machinery Guards.....................................................259
3.2.1 Multi-Piece Tire Rims and Locking Rings......................259
3.3
General Requirements...............................................259
3.4
Compressors.............................................................260
3.5
Concrete Mixers and Batching Plants.........................261
3.6
Dumpers and Dump Trucks........................................262
3.7
Excavators................................................................263
3.8
Fork Lift Trucks.........................................................264
3.9
Generators...............................................................265
3.10 Graders, Dozers, Scrapers, Loaders And Miniloaders...266
3.11 Woodworking Machinery...........................................266
4.0 MATERIALS HANDLING...........................................................268
4.1
Planning...................................................................268
4.2
Machine Transport....................................................269
4.2.1 Dumpers......................................................................269
4.2.2 Tractors and Trailers....................................................270
4.2.3 Conveyor Belts and Monorails.....................................270
4.2.4 Concrete Pumps..........................................................270
4.3
Site Stores................................................................270
4.4
Manual Handling.......................................................271

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IV. Electrical And Radiation....................................275


1.0 ELECTRICITY..........................................................................276
1.1
Voltage.....................................................................277
1.2
Temporary Installations.............................................277
1.3
Hand Tools and Lighting............................................278
1.4
Work on Live Equipment............................................279
1.5
Overhead and Underground Cables............................280
1.6
Overhead Power Transmission and Distribution..........281
1.6.1 Initial Inspections, Tests, or Determinations................281
1.6.2 De-energizing Lines and Equipment............................282
1.6.3 Emergency Procedures and First Aid............................282
1.6.4 Night Work...................................................................282
1.6.5 Work Near/Over Water.................................................282
1.6.6 Hydraulic Fluids...........................................................283
1.6.7 Live-Line Tools (Hot Sticks)..........................................283
1.6.8 Material Handling........................................................283
1.6.8.1 Unloading.........................................................283
1.6.8.2 Pole Hauling.....................................................283
1.6.8.3 Storage............................................................283
1.6.8.4 Framing............................................................283
1.6.8.5 Attaching the Load...........................................284
1.6.9 Grounding for Protection of Workers............................284
1.6.9.1 Isolation and Voltage Testing............................284
1.6.9.2 Applying and Removing Grounds.....................284
1.6.9.3 Grounding Distance..........................................284
1.6.9.4 Removal of Grounds for Testing Purposes.........284
1.6.9.5 Grounding Electrode.........................................284
1.6.9.6 Grounding Cables And Clamps.........................285
1.6.10 Overhead Lines...........................................................285
1.6.10.1 Metal Tower Construction...........................285
1.6.10.2 Stringing/Removing De-energized Conductors287
1.6.10.3 Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines........288
1.6.11 Underground Lines......................................................289
1.6.11.1 Work in Manholes.......................................290
1.6.11.2 Trenching and Excavating...........................290
1.6.12 Construction in Energized Substations........................291
1.6.12.1 Barricades and Barriers..............................291
1.6.12.2 Control Panels.............................................291
1.6.12.3 Mechanized Equipment..............................291
1.6.12.4 Substation Fences.......................................291
1.7
Electric Shock...........................................................292
2.0 IONIZING RADIATION..............................................................295
2.1
Methods of Protection Against Radiation....................295
2.1.1 Distance......................................................................295
2.1.2 Time............................................................................295
2.1.3 Shielding.....................................................................296
2.2
Classification of Personnel and Exposure Limits..........296
2.2.1 Radiation Workers.......................................................296
2.2.2 Non-Radiation Workers................................................296
2.2.3 Exposure Limits...........................................................296
2.3
Responsibilities for Safe Handling..............................297
2.3.1 Contractor...................................................................297
2.3.2 Competent Person.......................................................297
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2.4
2.5

2.3.3. Radiographer...............................................................297
Shipping and Transportation......................................298
Storage Areas...........................................................298

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V. Chemicals And Operations..................................300


1.0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES...............................................301
1.1
General....................................................................301
1.2
Storage....................................................................302
1.3
Handling of Cylinders................................................302
1.4
Leakage....................................................................303
1.5
Transportation..........................................................304
1.6
Operation.................................................................304
1.7
Action in Case of Fire................................................305
1.8
Bulk Installations......................................................306
1.9
First Aid...................................................................306
2.0 PLANT OPERATIONS...............................................................307
2.1
Additional Information On Saudi Aramco Instructions and
Standards.................................................................307
2.1.1 General Instruction Manual..........................................308
2.1.2 Producing Instruction Manual......................................308
2.1.3 Refinery Instruction Manual.........................................308
2.1.4 Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards..........................308
2.2
Work Permit System..................................................308
2.3
Operation of Plant Equipment....................................308
2.4
Shutdown and Maintenance in Plant Operations.........309
2.5
Commissioning..........................................................309
2.6
Emergency Procedures: Saudi Aramco Disaster Plan. .309
2.6.1 Gas Release Emergency Procedures............................310
3.0 PRESSURE TESTING................................................................311
3.1
Preparation..............................................................312
3.1.1 SAES-A-004 (Pressure Testing).....................................312
3.1.2 Supports......................................................................312
3.1.3 Vents and Drains.........................................................313
3.1.4 Valves..........................................................................313
3.1.5 Pipings And Joints........................................................313
3.1.6 Vacuums......................................................................313
3.2
General Requirements...............................................313
3.3
Test Liquid................................................................314
4.0 CHEMICALS...........................................................................316
4.1
Hazard Identification System.....................................317
4.2
Health Hazards.........................................................318
4.2.1 Inhalation Pathway Hazard..........................................318
4.2.2 Skin Hazards................................................................319
4.2.3 Hazards of Swallowing Chemicals................................319
4.3
Emergency Treatment...............................................319
4.3.1 Artificial Respiration....................................................319
4.3.2 First Aid.......................................................................319
4.3.3 Showers and Eyewash Fountains.................................319
4.4
Fire Hazards.............................................................321
4.5
Reactivity Hazards....................................................321
4.6
Transportation, Storage and Disposal.........................321
4.6.1 Transportation.............................................................321
4.6.2 Storage........................................................................322
4.6.3 Containers...................................................................322
4.6.4 Disposal.......................................................................322
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4.7

Work on Equipment Which Has Contained Tetraethyl Lead


(Organic Lead Compounds)........................................324
4.7.1 Introduction.................................................................324
4.7.2 Precautions..................................................................325

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VI. Marine.............................................................329
1.0 COFFERDAMS........................................................................330
1.1
Design......................................................................330
1.2
Before Work Starts....................................................330
1.3
Construction.............................................................330
1.4
Potential Hazards......................................................331
1.4.1 Structural Collapse......................................................331
1.4.2 Overhead Loads...........................................................331
1.4.3 Dislodgment of Struts and Wales.................................331
1.5
Inspection.................................................................331
1.6
Leaks.......................................................................332
2.0 MARINE
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
3.0

OPERATIONS.............................................................333
Other Publications....................................................333
General....................................................................334
Behavior on Floating Craft.........................................334
Preparation for Transportation by Sea........................334
Tide and Sea Effects..................................................335
Care of Tools and Equipment......................................335
Housekeeping...........................................................335

DIVING OPERATIONS.............................................................337
3.1
Employment of Qualified Divers.................................337
3.2
Diving Equipment......................................................338
3.2.1 Compressors................................................................338
3.2.2 Reserve Air Supply......................................................339
3.2.3 Bail-Out Equipment.....................................................339
3.2.4 Maintenance................................................................339
3.3
Safeguards...............................................................340
3.4
Physical Fitness........................................................344
3.5
Medical Diving Emergencies: Procedures and Responsibilities
345
3.5.1 Sports Divers...............................................................345
3.5.2 Commercial Divers......................................................345
3.5.3 Coordinator, Diving Emergencies................................345
3.5.4 Diving Medical Team....................................................345
3.5.5 Marine Department.....................................................346
3.6
Personnel Transfer at Sea..........................................346

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Appendix A.............................................................349
INDEX TO APPENDIX A..................................................................350
A.1.............................................................................................. PROJECT
MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY COMPETITION SITE
REGISTRATION FORM....................................................................351
A.2
CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION, RULES OF COMPETITION...352
A.3.............................................................................................. Saudi
Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements...............357
1.
Compliance With Safety Rules - Schedule 'D'.............357
2.
Deviations From Safety Rules....................................357
3.
Failure To Comply......................................................357
4.
Saudi Aramco Assistance...........................................357
5.
Loss Prevention Program...........................................358
6.
Work Permits............................................................358
7.
Welding And Cutting Equipment................................358
8.
Personal Protective Equipment..................................358
9.
Tools And Portable Power Tools..................................358
10.
Cartridge Operated Tools...........................................359
11.
Ladders....................................................................359
12.
Scaffolding...............................................................359
13.
Electrical Installations And Equipment.......................359
14.
Cranes And Rigging Equipment..................................359
15.
Mechanical Equipment..............................................359
16.
Saudi Aramco Plant Operations..................................360
17.
Transportation..........................................................360
18.
Injury And Damage Reporting....................................360
19.
Excavations..............................................................361
20.
Work Over Or Adjacent To Water................................361
21.
Fire Prevention.........................................................361
22.
Formwork.................................................................361
23.
Ionizing Radiation.....................................................361
24.
First-Aid Facilities.....................................................361
25.
Handling, Transportation And Disposal Of Hazardous Materials
And Waste................................................................362
26.
Explosives................................................................363
27.
Sandblasting.............................................................363
A.4.............................................................................................. HAZARD
IDENTIFICATION PLAN (HIP)..........................................................364
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN:...........................................365
I.
Conduct Hazards Identification Review........................365
II.
List Potential Hazards..................................................365
III.
Hazard Classification...................................................365
IV.
Corrective Action.........................................................366

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Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response


..............................................................................368
B.1.............................................................................................. SEARCH
AND RESCUE PROCEDURES...........................................................369
B.2
EMERGENCY/DISASTER PLANNING AND RESPONSE....................370
B.2.1 General Provisions....................................................371
B.2.2 Definitions................................................................371
B.2.3 Plan Development Action Items.................................377

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Appendix C: Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating


Construction Materials Store Yard...........................397
C.1.............................................................................................. Fire
Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard. 398

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Appendix D: Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook. 402


D.1..............................................................................................Crane
Safety Handbook..........................................................................403

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Appendix E: Suggestion Form.................................404

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Appendix F: Distribution Form................................406

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Appendix G: Sanitary Code.....................................408


Implementing The Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code - GI 151.006..........409

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Appendix H: General Instructions Master Index.......410


General Instructions (GI) Master Index..........................................411

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Appendix I: List Of Figures.....................................415


List Of Figures.............................................................................416

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Appendix J: List Of Tables.......................................419


List Of Tables...............................................................................420

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Appendix K: Forms.................................................421
Preliminary Accident Report.........................................................423
Contractor Monthly Safety Report.................................................424
Injury Summary...........................................................................425
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
(Page ___of___).........................................................................425
Lift Plan For Cranes......................................................................426
Wire Rope Sling Inspection Log.....................................................427
Cartridge/Tool Issuance Control....................................................428
Emergency Reporting Instructions................................................429
Project Management And Contractor's Safety Competition Site Registration
Form...........................................................................................430

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