Example
An industrial wastewater contains 10 mg/L chlorophenol, and
is going to be treated by carbon adsorption. 90% removal is
desired. The wastewater is discharged at a rate of 0.1 MGD.
Calculate the carbon requirement for
a) a single , mixed contactor (CMFR)
b) two mixed (CMFR) contactors in series
c) a column contactor.
Freundlich isoherm
0.41
q = 6.74xC
mg/g C
mg/L
a) Single CMFR
Cinf = 10 mg/L
Ceff = 1 mg/L
5
6
Organic Load = 101 mg/L x 3.78x10 L/d =3.4x10 mg / day
Carbon requirement =
gC
1 kg
3.4x10 mg/day x
x
=505 kg/day
6.74 mg 1000 g
6
5 mg/L
1 mg/L
Contactor 1
Cinf = 10 mg/L
Ceff = 5 mg/L
q = 6.74x50.41 =13.0 mg/g C
gC
1 kg
1.89x10 mg/day x
x
=145 kg / day
13.0 mg 1000 g
6
Contactor 2
Cinf = 5 mg/L
Ceff = 1 mg/L
gC
1 kg
1.51x10 mg/day x
x
= 224 kg/day
6.74 mg 1000 g
6
20
18
16
14
qe
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
10
Ce
Ce of 1 CMFR
and 2nd Contactor
Ce of 1st Contactor
Co
11
12
Co
Column Height
Flow Direction
Concentration (mg/L)
Here you start observing your breakthrough curve
when the last layer starts getting saturated.
Co
Flow Direction
Column Contactor
Cinf = 10 mg/L
Ceff = 1 mg/L
q = 6.74x100.41 =17.3 mg/g C
5
6
101
mg/L
x
3.78x10
L/d
=
3.4x10
mg/day
Organic Load =
Approach #1
Q = 50 L/hr
Column diameter = 9.5 cm
Column depth (packed bed) = 175 cm
Q
L
1
1000cm3
cm 3
= 50 x
x
= 705
FR =
2
2
A
hr
1L
hr.cm
d
2
d = 9.5 cm
The same FR applies to Packed Column.
Q
FR =
A
Q
A=
FR
4 x 8865
d=
= 106cm
=
Q
2
d
9.5
3
= A x Height = x H = 3.14 x
x175
=
12,404
cm
= 12.4 L
2
2
12.4 L
=
= 0.248 hr = 14.88 15 min
50 L/hr
Q
cm3 1 hr
x
= 15 min x 705
x
= 176 cm
2
A
hr.cm 60 min
is set by
and
2
= 1.76 m x x 1.06 = 1.553 m3
4
D = 400 kg/m3
1.553 m
3
kg
x 400 3 = 621 kg
m
f) Determination of qe
Mass of carbon in the pilot column =
xd
= 0.0124 m3 x 400
kg
= 4.96 5 kg
3
m
6
9500
L
x
200
=
1.9x10
mg
Total capacity =
mg
6
=
1.68x10
mg
8400 L x 200
1.91.68 x106
x100
Fraction of capacity left unused = f =
1.9x10
12%
6
x
150
x
=
30x10
mg/d
Organic Loading = 200
3
L
d 1m
6 mg
Carbon consumption rate = 30x10
= 78.9 kg/d
x
d 380 mg/g C
546.5 kg
7 days
Breakthrough time =
78.9 kg/d
x
= 7 days
50 L 24 hr
treated
m3
= 150
x 7 days = 1050 m3
d
Co
1
1+e
k1
q o M  Co V
Q
where
C = effluent solute concentration
1+e
kt
q o M  Co V
Q
Co
=
C
k1q o M k1CoV
Co
ln 1 =
Q
Q
C
y
mx
Example
A phenolic wastewater having a TOC of 200 mg/L is to be
treated by a fixed bed granular carbon adsorption column
for a wastewater flow of 150 m3/d, and the allowable
effluent concentration, Ca, is 10 mg/L as TOC. A
breakthrough curve has been obtained from an
experimental pilot column operated at 1.67 BV/h. Other
data concerning the pilot column are as follows:
inside diameter = 9.5 cm , length = 1.04 m,
mass of carbon = 2.98 kg , liquid flowrate = 12.39 L/h ,
unit liquid flowrate = 0.486 L/s.m2 , and
the packed carbon density = 400 kg/m3 .
The design column is to have a unit liquid flowrate of 2.04
L/s.m2 , and the allowable breakthrough volume is 1060 m3.
Scaleup approach:
The design bed volume (BV) is found as;
150 m3 / d
1.67 BV / h =
= 6.25 m3 / h
24 h / d
BV = 3.74 m3
The mass of carbon required is;
150 m3 / d
kg
1000 L
Mt =
8.954 kg/h
3
24 h
698 L
m
200
180
160
140
C, mg/L
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
500
1000
1500
2000
V, Liters
2500
3000
3500
1500 kg
T=
= 168 h = 7 d
8.954 kg / h
The breakthrough volume of the design column is;
VB = Q T = 150 m3 / d 7 d = 1050 m3
Kinetic approach:
Using the kinetic approach for design, determine :
The design reaction constant, k1 , L/skg.
The design maximum solid  phase concentration,
qo , kg/kg.
The carbon required for the design column, kg.
The diameter and height of the design column, m.
The kilograms of carbon required per cubic meter
of waste treated.
V (L)
C(mg/L)
C/Co
0,000
378,0
0,045
22,222
21,222
3,06
984,0
11
0,055
18,182
17,182
2,84
1324,0
0,040
25,000
24,000
3,18
1930,0
0,045
22,222 21,222
3,06
2272,0
30
0,150
6,667
5,667
1,73
2520,0
100
0,500
2,000
1,000
0,00
2740,0
165
0,825
1,212
0,212
1,55
2930,0
193
0,965
1,036
0,036
3,32
3126,0
200
1,000
1,000
0,000
200
180
160
C, mg/L
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
V, Liters
2500
3000
3500
16
ln(Co/C  1)
11
4
9
0
1000
2000
3000
V (L)
4000
15
y = 0,0064x + 15,787
ln(Co/C  1)
10
5
1000
2000
3000
4000
q k M
15.787= 0 1
Q
k C
1
0.0064L = 1 0
Q
(0.0064L1)(12.39 L)
h =3.96104 L
a)k =
1
mgh
200 mg
L
6mg
10
L
1h
3.9610
=0.11 L
mgh 3600s 1kg
kgs
4
q 0.11 L 2.98kg
kgs
b)15.787= 0
12.39 L 1h
h 3600s
15.78712.39 L 1h
h 3600s
q =
0
0.11 L 2.98kg
kgs
q =0.166 kg
0
kg
k =3.96104 L
1
mgh
q =0.166 kg
0
kg
Q = 6250 L / h
V = 1050000 L
C0 = 200 mg / L
Using
k1q o M k1CoV
Co
ln 1 =
Q
Q
C
200
ln
1 =
10
3.96 104
L
kg
0.166
mg h
kg
L
6250
h
3.96 104

M=1545009487 mg =1545 kg
L
mg
200
1050000 L
mg h
L
L
6250
h
M =1545 kg
Packet carbon density = 400 kg / m3
(given)
1545 kg
V
3.86 m3
kg
400 3
m
Q = 6250 L / h = 1.736 L / s
Unit liquid flowrate = 2.04 L / s m2 (given)
1.736 L / s
2
Cross section area =
0.85m
2.04 L / s m2
3.86 m3
Column height =
4.54 m
d = 1.04 m
2
0.85 m
1050 m3
7d
Breakthrough time is; TB =
3
150 m / d
Scaleup approach
M=1545 kg
M = 1500 kg
VB = 1050 m3
VB = 1050 m3
TB = 7 d
VDesign = 3.86 m3
TB = 7 d
VDesign = 3.74 m3
Example
A phenolic wastewater that has phenol concentration of 400
mg/L as TOC is to be treated by a fixedbed granular
carbon adsorption column for a wastewater flow of 227100
L/d, and the allowable effluent concentration, Ca, is 35 mg/L
as TOC. A breakthrough curve has been obtained from an
experimental pilot column operated at 1.67 BV/h. Other
data concerning the pilot column are as follows:
inside diameter = 9.5 cm , length = 1.04 m,
mass of carbon = 2.98 kg , liquid flowrate = 17.42 L/h ,
unit liquid flowrate = 0.679 L/s.m2 , and
the packed carbon density = 401 kg/m3 .
The design column is to have a unit liquid flowrate of 2.38
L/s.m2 , and the allowable breakthrough volume is 850 m3.
V
C
(L) (mg/L) C/Co Co/C
Co/C  1
15
12 0.030 33.333
32.333
69
16 0.040 25.000
24.000
159
24 0.060 16.667
15.667
273
16 0.040 25.000
24.000
379
16 0.040 25.000
24.000
681
20 0.050 20.000
19.000
965
28 0.070 14.286
13.286
1105
32 0.080 12.500
11.500
1215
103 0.258
3.883
2.883
1287
211 0.528
1.896
0.896
1408
350 0.875
1.143
0.143
1548
400 1.000
1.000
0.000
ln(Co/C  1)
3.476
3.178
2.752
3.178
3.178
2.944
2.587
2.442
1.059
0.110
1.946
400
350
300
C, mg/L
250
200
150
100
50
0
200
400
600
800
V, Liters
1000
1200
1400
Scaleup approach:
The design bed volume (BV) is found as;
227100 L / d
1.67 BV / h =
= 9462.5 L / h
24 h / d
BV = 5666.17 L = 5.67 m3
The mass of carbon required is;
227100 L / d
kg
Mt =
25.4 kg/h
24 h /d
372.5 L
105
C, mg/L
70
35
111
222
333
444
555 666
V, Liters
777
888
999
1110
1221
2272 kg
T=
= 89.5 h = 3.73 d
25.4 kg / h
The breakthrough volume of the design column is;
ln(Co/C  1)
1
2
3
0
200
400
600
800
V (L)
1000
1200
1400
1600
ln(Co/C  1)
y = 0,0146x + 18,657
R = 0,9972
1
2
3
1050
1150
1250
V (L)
1350
1450
q k M
18.657= 0 1
Q
k C
0.0146 L1 = 1 0
Q
(0.0146 L1)(17.42 L)
h =6.36104 L 0.177 L
k =
1
mgh
kgs
400 mg
L
18.65717.42 L 1h
h 3600s
q =
0
0.177 L 2.98kg
kgs
q =0.171 kg
0
kg
k =6.36104 L
1
mgh
q =0.171 kg
0
kg
Q = 9462.5 L / h
V = 850000 L
C0 = 400 mg / L
Using
k1q o M k1CoV
Co
ln 1 =
Q
Q
C
400
ln
1 =
35
6.36 104
M = 2190 kg
L
kg
0.171
mg h
kg
L
9462.5
h
6.36 104

L
mg
400
850000 L
mg h
L
L
9462.5
h
M = 2190 kg
Packet carbon density = 401 kg / m3
(given)
2190 kg
V
5.46 m3
kg
401 3
m
Q = 9462.5 L / h = 2.63 L / s
Unit liquid flowrate = 2.38 L / s m2 (given)
5.46 L / s
2
Cross section area =
2.29m
2.38 L / s m2
5.46 m3
Column height =
2.38 m
d = 1.71 m
2
2.29 m
850 m3
3.74 d
Breakthrough time is; TB =
3
227.1 m / d
Scaleup approach
M=2190 kg
M = 2272 kg
VB = 850 m3
VB = 846.5 m3
TB = 3.74 d
TB = 3.73 d
VDesign = 5.46 m3
VDesign = 5.67 m3