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Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Gases


(Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)
Published by:

One UN Disaster Risk Management Joint Programme,


UNDP / NDMA, Islamabad

Author / Compilation
1.

Mr. Shuja Uddin Siddiqui DRR Consultant (Industries)

Editing
1.
2.

Mr. Shuja Uddin Siddiqui DRR Consultant (Industries)


Mr. Mubushar Hussain DRR Mainstreaming Expert

Printed By:

Instant Print System (Pvt) Ltd. Islamabad.

Front Photo

Fire Fighters decontaminate their colleagues after they removed the faulty chlorine cylinders at Oregon National
Primate Research Centre, in Hillsboro USA.
Employees were using chlorine gas to clean a room used to study infectious diseases, when they noticed that
the chlorine tank was leaking around the nozzle.


Courtesy: www.oregonlive.com

Acknowledgements

The One UN DRM Joint Programme acknowledges the support and cooperation received from Mr. Muhammad
Javaid Iqbal Awan, Additional Secretary / Chairman Ministerial Working Group on DRR Mainstreaming, Khawaja
Muhammad Yousuf, Chief Executive Officer, National Productivity Organization, Mr. Muhammad Shahid, Deputy
Secretary (CS) MOIP and Mr. Haroon Rehman, Chief Inspector of Explosives, Department of Explosives-MOIP.

Disclaimer

The views expressed in this publication are those of author and do not necessarily represent those of UNDP

Copyright

Copright (C) 2011 United Nations Development Programme Pakistan.


Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested.
Printed by: One UN DRM Joint Programme
This Publication is available from:
One UN DRM Joint Programme
National Disaster Management Authority
House No. 124, St. 11, Sector E-7, Islamabad.
Prime Ministers Secretariat Islamabad.
Tel: +92-512652840, Fax: +92-51-2652536
Tel: +92-51-9206544, Fax: +92-51-9213082
URL: www.undp.org.pk
URL: www.ndma.gov.pk

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

FOREWORD

Chemicals are found everywhere. They purify drinking water, increase crop production and
facilitate production of fabrics, steel, papers, plastic, food products and several other items of every
day consumption. However chemicals can be hazardous to human or the environment, if used or
released improperly. Hazards can occur during production, storage, transportation, use or disposal of
chemicals.

The human life and property is at risk if a chemical is used unsafely or released in harmful
amount into the environment where we live, work or play. Hazardous materials in various forms can
cause death, serious injury, long lasting health effects and damage to buildings, homes and industry.
Hazardous materials come in the form of explosives, flammable and combustible substances,
hazardous compressed gases, poisonous and radioactive materials.

Compressed gases can often be more dangerous than chemicals in liquid or gaseous form
because of the potential source of high energy. Unless cylinders are secured they may topple over,
cause injury to operators, become damaged themselves and may cause contents to leak.

If the regulator shears off, the cylinder may rock like a projectile or torpedo dangerously around
the workplace. Cylinders may fail if over-pressurized or weakened by the application of heat.
Precautions also have to be instituted to protect against the inherent properties of the cylinder contents
e.g. toxic, corrosive, and flammable.

There have been several incidents of explosions during handling and transportation of
compressed gases in the country. As such the Ministerial Working Group of Ministry of Industries and
Production decided to develop Guidelines for the storage, handling and transportation of the most
hazardous and widely used compressed gases like Chlorine and Ammonia.

Accordingly the Guidelines/SOPs on the storage, handling and transportation of chlorine and
ammonia have been developed. It is hoped that the initiative would facilitate the industrial workers,
operators, planners, academic, general public etc etc in overcoming the hazards associated with
chlorine and ammonia.

Simultaneously the Ministry of Industries and Production has notified Mineral and Industrial
Gas Safety Rules-2010 under which 3rd Party Periodic Testing Stations, for the Periodic Testing of
compressed gas cylinders/vessels and industrial installations; are being designated. These would be
facilitated through Department of Explosives and would further streamline disaster resilient sustainable
industrial and economic development in the country. The role of National Disaster Management Authority
(NDMA) in connection with capacity building, improvement in regulatory framework and facilitation in
development of Guidelines/SOPs in respect of hazardous substances (Compressed gases), would be
instrumental in reducing Disaster Risks and is note worthy.

Shuja Uddin Siddiqui

Disaster Risk Reduction Consultant (Industries)

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIRMAN


National Disaster Management Authority

It gives me great pleasure to know that under


Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
initiative, the Ministry of Industries and Production
(MOIP) has focused on a very important issue of
handling, storage and transportation of hazardous
gases like Chlorine and Ammonia. The development
of Guidelines / SOPs on these two hazardous
gases and its wider dissemination is expected to
bring a change in the attitude and behavior of the
stakeholders, especially the industrial workers and
would facilitate in overcoming industrial hazards
and associated disasters.
This remarkable achievement would not have
materialized without the active support and
guidance of Mr. Muhammad Javaid Iqbal Awan,
Additional Secretary / Chairman MWG, MOIP.
The National Disaster Management Authority
is committed to support sustainable industrial
development through Mainstreaming DRR by
assisting in capacity building and improvement
in regulatory frameworks. The training of various
segments of the society coupled with development
of brochures, pamphlets and awareness material
would further ensure the implementation of
Guidelines and adoption of SOPs for which the
efforts being undertaken under One UN Disaster
Risk Management Joint Programme of NDMA are
appreciable.

Lt Gen (R) Nadeem Ahmad

iii

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

MESSAGE FROM THE ADDITIONAL


SECRETARY
Ministry of Industries and Production

The Ministerial Working Group constituted in MOIP


is functioning effectively to mainstream Disaster
Risk Reduction into development processes and
normal functioning of the Ministry.
Besides insertion of DRR elements into PC-I for
development projects, this Ministerial Working
Group has identified 5 priority areas for work
on pilot basis. unregulated and unsafe use of
chemical gases like Ammonia and Chlorine has
grave implications for the life of common man. The
Ministry is alive to its responsibility in this context
and has recently notified Mineral and Industrial Gas
Safety Rules 2010.
I am immensely pleased to note that to promote the
regime of safe chemical management a booklet is
brought out for all concerned. The guidelines for
handling, storage and transportation of hazardous
substances

(Chlorine

and

Ammonia

Gases)

developed by DRR Consultant and endorsed by


main stake holders and academia will go a long
way in creating the desired awareness amongst a
cross section of people and in devising an effective
mechanism for safe administration of these
hazardous substances by the main players.
The present booklet is but a 1st step in the direction
of public welfare and common good and the range
of activities and publication will soon enhance as
carefully planned.
Muhammad Javaid Iqbal Awan

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Table of Contents

PART - I
GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION OF CHLORINE

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

7.


8.

Introduction
Production Process of Chlorine
Characteristic for Chlorine
3.1.
Chemical and Physical Properties
3.2.
Uses
3.3.
Utilization of Chlorine
3.4.
General Product Information
Guidelines for Handling, Use and storage of Chlorine Cylinders
4.1
Storage of Chlorine Cylinders
4.2
Safety and Emergency Information System for Chlorine
Equipment and Emergency Procedures
5.1
Ventilation
5.2
Eye Wash Fountains
5.3
Emergency Respiratory Protection
5.4
First Aid
5.5
Chlorine Handling and Storage
Spills and Leaks of Chlorine
6.1
Conditions for Respirator Use
6.2
Exposure Limits for Chlorine
6.3
Workplace Monitoring and Measurement
6.4
Respiratory Protection Program
Chlorine Leak Detector

7.1
Leaks in Transit
7.2
Containers Leaks
Employee Training for Safe Operation

02
02
02
02
03
03
04
04
04
05
05
05
06
06
06
06
08
08
08
09
09
09
09
10
10

PART - II
GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION OF AMMONIA

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Introduction
Production Process of Ammonia
Chemical and Physical Properties of Ammonia
Use of Ammonia
Guidelines for Handling of Ammonia
5.1
Human Exposure
5.2
Eyes
5.3
Skin
5.4
First Aid
5.5
Inhalation
5.6
Eye Contact
5.7
Skin Contact
5.8
Swallowing
5.9
Exposure Limit for Ammonia
Personal Safety Equipment
Guidelines for Handling and Storage of Ammonia
Transportation Safety Practices
Leak Detection of Ammonia and Precautionary Measures
9.1
Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Ammonia Sensors
9.2
Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Mass Balance System
9.3
Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Level Indication System
9.4
Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Pressure Drop System
9.5
Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Acoustic System
9.6
Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Seismic System
9.7
Pressure testing of cylinders and bulk containers

13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
16
16
16
17
18
18
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20

vii

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Annexure
Comments Received from Federal Organizations Provincial Governments
Academia and Private Sector Organizations

1.

Message / Comments from Chief Executive Officer, National Productivity



Organization, Islamabad
2. Comments from Directorate of Industries, Government of Punjab
3. Comments from Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad
4. Comments from Directorate of Industries, Government of Balochistan
5. Comments from Institute of Chemical Science, University of Peshawar
6. Comments from Ministry of Environment, Islamabad
7. Comments from M/s Ittehad Chemicals Ltd. Lahore
8. Comments from M/s Dawood Hercules Chemicals Ltd. Lahore
9. Comments from M/s Cleaner Production Centre, Sialkot
10. Comments from Department of Explosives, MOIP Rawalpindi
11. Comments from Deputy Secretary (CS), Ministry of Industries and Production,

viii

Islamabad

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Acronyms
CBDRM
CNG
CIE
DC
DRM
DDMA
DPO
DG
DCO
DMA
DOE
DRR
EDO
EWS
FEMA
IUCN
KPK
LPG
MIC
MOIP
MWG
MFGB
NGO
NDMA
NPO
NIOSH
NWG
OSHA
PDMA
PEL
PPM
REL
SCBA
SMV
SOP
STEL
TWA
USAID
UN
UNDP
USA

Community Based Disaster Risk Management


Compressed Natural Gas
Chief Inspector of Explosives
Deputy Commissioner
Disaster Risk Management
District Disaster Management Authority
District Police Officer
Director General
District Coordination Officer
Disaster Management Authority
Department of Explosives
Disaster Risk Reduction
Executive District Officer
Early Warning System
Federal Emergency Management Agency
International Union for Conservation of Nature
Khyber PakhtunKhwa
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Methyl Isocyanate
Ministry of Industries and Production
Ministerial Working Group on DRR Mainstreaming
Midget Fritted Glass Bubbler
Non Governmental Organization
National Disaster Management Authority
National Productivity Organization
National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health
National Working Group
Occupational Safety & Health Administration
Provincial Disaster Management Authority
Permissible Exposure Limit
Parts Per Million
Recommended Exposure Limit
Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
Slow Moving Vehicle
Standard Operating Procedure
Short-TermExposure Limit
Total Weighted Average
United States Agency for International Development
United Nation
United Nations Development Programme
United States of America

ix

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

PART - I

GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING, STORAGE


AND
TRANSPORTATION OF CHLORINE

Vacancy!
Immediate
Occupancy
needed!

17
Protons

As the illustration of the chlorine atom above demonstrates, the orbit closest to the chlorine
nucleus holds no more than two electrons, and the next two orbits can hold a total of eight
electrons each. Importantly, the most stable electron arrangement of any orbit is a full
orbit. With seven electrons in its outer orbit, chlorine can be thought of as desperately
seeking one more electron to achieve stability. As the drawing shows, the eighth space is
vacant and available for immediate occupancy. Because it is so anxious to pull another
electron into its orbit, chlorine is an extremely reactive element.

Source: AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, 2011

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING, STORAGE AND


TRANSPORTATION OF CHLORINE
1. Introduction
Chlorine is a green-yellow poisonous gas, which has a suffocating odor. At -33 degrees Celsius, it
condenses to an amber liquid. Chlorine is transported as liquefied gas under its own vapor pressure.
Chlorine gas (Cl2) is widely used and transported via rail and trucks. Major producers of Chlorine are
M/s Ittehad Chemical Kala Shah Kaku and M/s Sitara Chemicals Limited Faisalabad.
It is a very unique chemical, as it is used in a wide range of applications from rocket fuels to food
products. Since 1950, the largest use for Chlorine was the manufacture of ethylene oxide and glycol
(antifreeze fluids).

2. Production Process of Chlorine


The basic raw material for the process, salt, comes from salt mines. Mined salt is dissolved into water
to form raw brine.
Raw brine contains impurities that interfere
with chlorine-caustic production. They are
removed by chemical treatment, settling,
and filtration. The purified brine is pumped
to the cell room. The cell room contains
one of three types of electrolytic cells for
decomposing brine into chlorine, caustic
soda, and hydrogen. These three cell types
are diaphragm, membrane, or mercury cells.
2 NaCl + 2 H2O Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH
The chlorine that leaves the cell is hot and
wet, and therefore very corrosive. It must be
cooled and dried before it can be processed
in ordinary steel equipment. In addition, the
chlorine stream is contaminated with air,
hydrogen, and some carbon dioxide (due to
small amounts of carbon bearing chemicals in the brine).

Fig: 1 A view of Salt Mining

Once the chlorine stream is cooled and dried, compressors and refrigeration machines are used to
liquefy the gas. Chlorine is most easily handled as a liquid in specially designed
pressure containers.

3. Characteristic for Chlorine


3.1

Chemical and Physical Properties

Chlorine, at ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure, is a


greenish-yellow gas with a pungent and irritating odor. Since chlorine
is very active chemically, it is found in nature only in combination
with other elements. Sodium chloride, for example, is widely and

Fig. 2. Chlorine-Green
Yellowish Gas

Part - I

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

abundantly distributed in nature and constitutes the chief source


of chlorine. Because gaseous chlorine is approximately two-andone-half times as heavy as air, it is slow to diffuse into the air. It
tends to accumulate in low places.
Gaseous chlorine can be liquefied by the application of pressure
at reduced temperatures to form a clear, amber-colored liquid.
Liquid chlorine is approximately one-and one- half times as heavy
as water.

Fig: 3. Pictoral
Representation

In the presence of moisture, both gaseous and liquid chlorine are extremely corrosive
to common metals of construction. At low pressures, wet chlorine can be handled in
equipment made of glass, chemical stoneware, titanium, and certain plastics.
Dry chlorine has an extremely high affinity for moisture. Regardless of the environmental
conditions of temperature and humidity, all open ends of chlorine pipelines should be
sealed with rubber stoppers or some type of moisture-tight closure when not in use.

3.2 Uses
Bleaching textiles with chlorine is one of its major uses. Its
disinfecting properties remain vital to public health as chlorine
is used extensively in water purification systems.
Today, much of the chlorine is used as a raw material in the
production of polyvinyl chloride, a plastic used in fabricating
flooring, pipe, wallpaper, clothing, furniture, and a wide
range of household products. Various complex drugs and
spray crops with insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides
contain chlorine as part of their basic structure. Chlorinated
chemicals are used to refrigerate and freeze food, cool
homes, offices and cars, and even insulate buildings from
the heat and cold.

3.3 Utilization of Chlorine

Fig: 4. Production of Chlorine Bleach from


Caustic Soda

Manufacturing of various organic & inorganic


compounds.

Water purification.

In shrink proofing wool.

In flame retardant compounds.

Special lithium & zinc batteries.

Processing of meat, fish, vegetables and fruit.

In textile, paper & pulp.

As an intermediate in the production of various products (vitamins, medicines,


refrigerants, solvents, synthetic rubber, insecticides and herbicides).

Part - I

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

3.4 General Product Information


Chlorine is very toxic & corrosive in nature. It is primarily a


respiratory irritant and affects the mucous membrane of the body.

One percent by volume in air is fatal for exposure of 30 minutes or


less. Serious illness is caused by breathing for 30 60 minutes
in air containing 40 60 PPM chlorine. Long exposure to low
concentration might result in paleness, tooth decay, bronchial
irritation & asthma. gastric disturbance, irritation of skin and
headache.

Fig. 5. Chlorine leak


detection with alarm

Exposure to high concentration results in vomiting which may follow difficulty in breathing.

Because of its pungent smell chlorine in air can readily be detected even in traces. (3-5
PPM)

Chlorine leakage can be located by bringing soaked cloth / cotton rags in ammonia solution
near the suspected point, dense white fumes indicate the point of leakage.

Chlorine is 2.5 times heavier than air, therefore it is settled on ground level quickly and can
gather in cavities and low spots.

4.

Guidelines for Handling, Use and Storage of Chlorine Cylinders

4.1

Storage of Chlorine Cylinders


1. Store cylinders of liquid chlorine in a cool place away from steam pipes or other
sources of heat.
2. Store cylinders, full or empty, with their valve outlet caps and valve protective caps
in place.
3. Store all cylinders of liquid chlorine in a location which is protected from direct
sunlight and from dampness.
4. Do not store cylinders where it is possible for leaking vapors to enter a ventilating
system.

Fig: 6. Improper way of


securing cylinders

Fig: 7. Correct way of


securing cylinders

Part - I

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

5. Store all cylinders in a vertical position.


6. Store cylinders so that the oldest shipments of cylinders are used first. Valve packing
may harden with prolonged storage, causing leaks when the cylinders are used.
7. Storage areas should be kept clean so that accumulated trash does not present a
fire hazard.
8. If a chlorine cylinder or its valve is found out of order, notify the distributor, from
whom the chlorine was purchased, giving the cylinder number and the nature of the
damage.
9. Handle all chlorine cylinders with extreme care. Do not drop cylinders or allow them
to strike any object with force.
10. Use valves, gauges, regulators, and fittings which have been approved for chlorine
service. Ordinary devices are not suitable.
11. The cylinder must be in an upright position to remove chlorine as a gas. If liquid chlo
rine is to be withdrawn from a cylinder, the cylinder must be inverted and clamped
se curely on a rack set at an angle of about 60 to the horizontal.
12. It is dangerous to allow any chlorine cylinder, which has emptied its contents into wa
ter or another liquid, to remain connected with the process line. In such cases liquid
could be sucked back into the cylinder causing danger to the operator and damage
to the cylinder.
13. Replace outlet cap and valve protective cap as soon as the cylinder is disconnected.
14. Do not alter or repair chlorine cylinders or their valves.
15. Provide suitable hand trucks for moving cylinders. These should be properly
balanced and have a clamp support at least two-thirds of the way up the cylinder.
16. To monitor the consumption of chlorine at any given time, place the cylinder on a
scale. The difference in weight between measurements will equal the quantity con
sumed.
17. In general, pipelines for handling chlorine should be fabricated from extra-heavy,
black iron pipe. Joints must be welded or flanged. Fittings must be eliminated
wherever possible.

4.2

Safety and Emergency Information System for Chlorine


Safety Hazards


Chlorine is very toxic & corrosive.


It is skin irritant


It is extremely irritating & damaging to the respiratory system.


Chlorine causes suffocation.


Heavy inhalation could lead to death.


Chlorine in eyes causes severe damage and sometime loss of

sight.

5.

EQUIPMENT & EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

5.1
Ventilation
Provide adequate ventilation to reduce the accumulation of liquid or gaseous
chlorine in low areas. In some cases, natural ventilation may be adequate; in

Part - I

Fig 7. Chlorine
Testing Equipment

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

others, artificial ventilation, such as forced air through a system of ducts, must be provided.

5.2

Readily accessible eye wash fountains and showers must be provided


in strategic locations wherever chlorine is used. Personnel should test
equipment each day before beginning work to ensure adequate water
flow.

5.3

Eye Wash Fountains

Emergency Respiratory Protection

Severe exposure to chlorine may occur wherever chlorine is handled


or used. Therefore, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA),
approved for emergency chlorine use, should be located strategically
outside chlorine work areas near entrances and away from
contamination.

Such equipment shall have a rating of at least 30 minutes use, and

be equipped with a low pressure warning bell. Any person entering a

chlorine emergency area must be protected by this respiratory protective

equipment.

5.4

5.5

First Aid
In case if Chlorine comes in contact with eyes then affected eye
must be given thorough washing with plenty of clean running
water at least for 15 20 minutes keeping the eyelids open
during the eye washing.

Fig 8. Self-Contained
Breathing Apparatus

Fig 9. Drench
Shower

After washing the affected eye, the patient should be


immediately sent for medical treatment.

If the person has inhaled chlorine, remove the person to uncontaminated area.

Immediately remove all the clothing which has become


contaminated with chlorine.

Keep the patient at rest. An occasional change of position


may be beneficial.

Encourage the patient to suppress the desire to cough.

If the patient has difficulty in breathing then oxygen must be administered through
face mask.

Keep the patient comfortable and give him of hot sweetened tea or cof fee.

Relief will be obtained by inhalation of a steamy atmosphere from a bottle or vessel


containing hot water.

In case of contact with liquid chlorine or chlorinated water, use safety shower or
flush the affected area with plenty of water.

Fig 10. Face Mask


for Chlorine

Chlorine Handling & Storage


Liquid chlorine is supplied in 65 Kg and 900 Kg cylinders.

Make sure that the wall caps and doma caps are properly placed on both the valves.
Small chlorine container (65 kg) must be loaded in the upright position and 900
kg must be loaded in the roll in position on flat bed carrier. Suit able restraints are
necessary to prevent cylinders from dropping and banging with each other.

Part - I

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Part - I

The cylinders must be lifted by hoist equipped with specially


designed cradle or Carrier. Cranes or fork lifter can also be
used for cylinder handling.

Lifting of cylinders must not be done with ropes, sling wires,


chain & magnetic devices.

Chlorine cylinders must not be used as rollers to move other


objects.

Do not roll chlorine cylinders without valve protection caps.

To withdraw liquid chlorine or chlorine gas the cylinder should


be positioned in a way that the two valves must lie in a vertical
plane.

For gas withdrawal use upper valve to the cylinder. If liquid


chlorine is required then use lower valve.

Do not expose the cylinders to heat from any source.

Never force the connections that do not fit. Do not use hammer for this purpose.

Always close the cylinder valve when it is empty to prevent liquid from being sucked
back into the cylinder. Always leave a small quantity (20 50 kg) of liquid chlorine
in the cylinder.

In case of a cylinder leakage try to turn it in a position so that gas instead of liquid
escapes. The quantity of chlorine that escapes from a gas leak is about 1/15 the
amount escapes from a liquid leak through the same size of leakage point.

Never spray water or any other liquid during the chlorine leak as it will enhance the
leakage.

Water may be used to cool non leaking cylinders in a fire area if the cylinders
cannot be moved to some other place.

Never immerse leaking chlorine cylinders in alkali, water or other liquids, Dump it in
hydrated lime.

Every vehicle driver must be aware of safety precautions and must be equipped
with gas mask and other safety equipment.

If chlorine leakage develops in transit, in the populated area, keep the vehicle
moving until an open area is reached in order to disperse the gas and to minimize
the hazard of chlorine es cape or transport to supplier destination (which ever is
closer). Warn the people of the danger.

Gauge should be installed at each cylinder in service to show the status of cylinder
i.e. empty, half or full.

Presence of SCBA (Self contained breathing apparatus) should be made mandatory


in area where Chlorine cylinders are being used. SCBA usage training should be
imparted to the operators through internal or external faculty.

1st Aider training should be imparted to a team for handling initial emergency
situations at plants so that affected person is safely shifted to hospital, if required.

Instruction in local language should be displayed near Chlorine handling area.

Chlorine handling procedures should be made available to the operating staff in


local language.

Availability of MSDS of Chlorine should be mandatory at Chlorine manufacturing

Fig 11. Typical


Chlorine Cylinder

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

site and at customers end. MSDS of Chlorine is readily available and could be free
downloaded through internet.

6.

Chlorine handling personals should be equipped with necessary safety equipment.

Always approach to meet the emergency from wind ward side.

Filled and empty chlorine cylinders must be stored separately.

Cylinders must not be exposed to direct radiation from any source of heat, sun,
steam or electric radiation.

Storage location for chlorine cylinder and tanks must be sheltered, dry, well ventilated
and away from heat.

Chlorine cylinders must never be stored with explosives or flammable material.

Small cylinders must be placed in up-right position and 900 kg cylinders must be
stored in roll-in position in straight rows and there must be at least 4 ft. distance
between two rows.

SPILLS AND LEAKS OF CHLORINE

The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak:


1.
Notify safety personnel.
2.
Remove all sources of heat and ignition.
3.
Keep all combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from the
leak.
4.
Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres.
5.
Evacuate the spill area for at least 50 feet in all directions.
6.
Find and stop the leak if this can be done without risk; if
container to an isolated area until gas has dispersed. The
cylinder may be allowed to empty through a reducing agent
such as sodium bisulfide and so

diumbicarbonat
7.
Use water spray to reduce vapors; do not put water directly
on the leak or spill area.


6.1

Fig 12. Typical Chlorine


Conditions for respirator use
Respirator
Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of

chlorine exceeds prescribed exposure limits.
Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed, (2)
during work oper ations such as maintenance or repair activities that in volve unknown
exposures, (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and (4)
during emergencies. Workers should only use approved respirators.


6.2



Exposure Limits For Chlorine


OSHA-PEL
The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible
exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg / m 3)
as a ceiling limit. A workers exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level.

NIOSH-REL
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a
recommended exposure limit (REL) for chlorine of 0.5 ppm 1.5 mg / m3) as a TWA for up
to a 10-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL)
[Source OSH Guidelines US Department of Labor].
of 1 ppm (3 mg / m3)

Part - I

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

6.3

Workplace Monitoring And Measurement


Determination of a workers exposure to airborne chlorine is made using a midget fritted
glass bubbler (MFGB) containing a 0.1 percent solutions of Sulphuric Acid. Samples
are collected at a maximum flow rate of 1.0 litre / minute.
If chlorine contacts the skin, workers should flush the affected areas immediately with
plenty of water, followed by washing with soap and water. Clothing contaminated with
chlorine should be removed immediately, and provisions should be made for the safe
removal of the chemical from the clothing. Persons laundering the clothes should be
informed of the hazardous properties of chlorine,particularly its potential for causing
severe irritation to the eyes, skin, and mucous-membranes.
A worker who handles chlorine should thoroughly wash hands, forearms, and face with
soap and water before eating, using tobacco products, using toilet facilities, applying
cosmetics, or taking medication.
Workers should not eat, drink, use tobacco products, apply cosmetics, or take medication
in areas where chlorine or a solution containing chlorine is handled, processed, or
stored.

6.4

Respiratory protection programme


Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection programme. Such a program
must include respirator selection, an evaluation of the workers ability to perform the
work while wearing a respirator, the regular training of personnel; respirator fit testing,
periodic workplace monitoring, and regular respirator maintenance, inspection, and
cleaning.

7.

Chlorine Leak Detector

The Chlorine gas detection system consists of a control unit and a sensor. The Sensor
mounted remotely senses the gas present in the room, which is indicated on the panel.
Apart from the audio visual alarm present in the panel, there is a potential free contact
which can be used to trigger a remote alarm or actuate the exhaust fan.

Fig 13. Single and Double Sensor Leak Detector

7.1


Part - I

Leaks In Transit

If a Cl2 / Chemical leak develops in transit in a populated area, keep the vehicle moving until
open country is reached in order to disperse the gas to minimize the hazards of Cl2 /
Chemical escape. Alternatively transport to supplier / destination (which ever is closer).

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Notify the local emergency authorities, warn people of the dangers, and evacuate if
necessary. Take other appropriate measures as quickly as possible.

If a vehicle transporting Cl2 containers / Chemical is wrecked and there is any possibility of
fire the containers should be removed from the vehicle.

If any container is leaking, appropriate measures should be taken to stop or minimize the leak.

If the area is congested move the container to an area of reduced hazard.


7.2

Containers Leaks

Following steps to be taken to contain and control the leaks.

8.

If a Cl2 container is leaking roll it till the leak is upper most so that gas instead of liquid
escapes. The quantity of Cl2 that escapes from a gas leak is about one fifteenth the amount
that escapes from a liquid leak through the same size hole.

Try to move the container to an isolated spot where it will do the least harm.

If practical reduce pressure in the container by removing the Cl2 gas (Not as liquid Cl2) to
process or a disposal system.

Dump the container in lime.


EMPLOYEE TRAINING FOR SAFE OPERATIONS



a)



b)


c)

As a minimum, employee training should include the following:


Instruction with periodic drills regarding the locations, purpose, limitations, and use of
chlorine emergency kits, firefighting equipment, fire alarms, and shutdown equipment
such as valves and switches.
Instructions with periodic drills regarding the locations, purpose, limitations, and use of
personal protective equipment, both normal and emergency.
Instructions with periodic drills regarding the locations, purpose, and use of safety
showers, eye baths, or the closest source of water for use in emergencies.

d)

Instructions with periodic drills for specified employees on each work shift/period re
garding the locations, purpose, and use of emergency respiratory protection and first
aid equipment.

e)

Instructions on avoiding inhalation of chlorine gas and contact with the liquid.
Emphasis should be placed on chlorines effect on the human body at different
exposure levels.

f)

Instructions on procedures for reporting all equip ment failures to the proper authority.

g)

Instructions on the proper actions to take when leaks occur and on procedures for
evacuating affected areas.

Fig 14. Training Concept / How


to use Fire Extinguish

10

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

PART - II

Structure of Ammonia, NH3

Nitrogen atom has 5 valence electrons

Hydrogen atom has 1 valence electron

Each of the 3 hydrogen atoms will share its electron with nitrogen to form a
bonding pair of electrons (covalent bond) so that each hydrogen atom has a
share in 2 valence electrons (electronic configuration of helium) and the nitrogen
has a share in 8 valence electrons (electron configuration of neon)

Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) for ammonia

H
OR

N
H

Valence Structure for ammonia

N
H

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Part - II

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING, STORAGE AND


TRANSPORTATION OF AMMONIA
1.

Introduction
Anhydrous ammonia has the potential to be one of the most dangerous chemicals usedin the
industry now a day. Its formula is NH3, which means that it consists of one atom of nitrogen and
three atoms of hydrogen per molecule. Because the atomic weights of nitrogen and hydrogen
are not the same, the weight ratio is 82.5 percent nitrogen and 17.5 percent hydrogen.
Anhydrous means the ammonia is without water. The major producers of Ammonia are fertilizer
manufacturing factories in the country.

2.

Production Process of Ammonia

Ammonia production facilities provide the base anhydrous liquid ammonia usedpredominantly
in fertilizers supplying usable nitrogen for agricultural productivity. Ammonia is one of the most
abundantly-produced inorganic chemicals in the country.
A typical modern ammonia-producing plant first converts natural gas (i.e., methane) into
gaseous Hydrogen. The method for producing hydrogen from hydrocarbon is referred to steam
reforming. The hydrogen is then combined with nitrogen to produce ammonia. Catalytic steam
reforming of the sulfur-free methane (CH4) feedstock is used to form carbon monoxide (CO)
plus hydrogen (H2)::

CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2

The next step then uses catalytic shift conversion to convert the carbon monoxide to carbon
dioxide (CO2) and more hydrogen:

CO + H2O CO2 + H2

The carbon dioxide is then removed either by absorption in aqueous ethanolamine solutions or
by adsorption in pressure swing absorbers (PSA) using proprietary solid adsorption media. To
produce ammonia, the hydrogen is then catalytically reacted with nitrogen (N2) derived from
process air to form anhydrous liquid ammonia (NH3).

3H2 + N2 2NH3

3.

Chemical and Physical Properties of Ammonia


Anhydrous ammonia is a colorless non-flammable liquefied gas. Its vapor is lighter than air and
has the same pungent odor as household ammonia. Although ammonia vapor is lighter than
air, the vapors from a leak may hug the ground appearing as a white cloud.
The definition of anhydrous is without water. Whereas household ammonia is 95% water,
anhydrous ammonia has no water. Ammonia is so hygroscopic (water loving) that one cubic
foot of water will dissolve 1300 cubic feet of ammonia vapor making water the primary weapon
for first responders. When ammonia reacts with water the base ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)
will form.
Ammonia weights 5.15 pounds per gallon in contrast to water which weighs 8.33 pounds per
gallon. Since ammonia is very soluble in water there will be no layering effect when liquid
ammonia is spilled into a surface water body
Ammonia is a nonflammable gas and will corrode galvanized metals, cast iron, copper, brass or
copper alloys. All ammonia piping, valves, tanks and fittings are constructed of steel.

Part - II

13

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Liquid ammonia boils at any temperature greater than -28F and will expand to 850 times its
liquid volume. One gallon of liquid will expand to 850 gallons or 113 cubic feet of gas.

4.

Anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas at standard temperature and pressure conditions
and has a very strong odor, which is a leading safety feature of the product where personnel can
detect NH3 long before it becomes a health hazard. The odor threshold (lowest level detected
by smell) is approximately 7 parts per million (PPM). [Source: Primeland Cooperatives] OSHA
has determined that a concentration of more than 5000 parts per million will disable a person
so that escape is impossible and suffocation results.

Uses of Ammonia

The largest use of ammonia is in fertilizers, which are applied to the soil and help provide
increased yields of crops such as corn, wheat, and soybeans.
Liquid ammonia, ammonia/water solutions, and chemicals made from ammonia, such as
ammonium salts and urea, are all used as sources of soluble nitrogen.
Two types of polymers needed for artificial fibers require the use of ammonia, polyamides
(nylon) and acrylics (orlon). The original polyamide named nylon, brought out by DuPont
Chemical Co., was made from two components, adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine. The
nitrogen in the second named component is derived from ammonia.
Acrylics are made from a three-carbon nitrogen compound, acrylonitrile. Acrylonitrile comes
from the reaction of propene, ammonia, and oxygen in the presence of a catalyst.
Because of its basic properties, ammonia is able to react with acidic gases such as nitrogen
oxides and sulfur oxides to form ammonium salts. Thus ammonia is useful in scrubbers that
remove acidic gases before they can be released into the environment.

5.

Guidelines for handling of Ammonia

5.1

Human Exposure
Anhydrous ammonia is a strong alkali that can cause severe burns, and its gas can
cause severe irritation of the outer tissues of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Because
of its low boiling point, anhydrous ammonia can cause severe burns by freezing action
as well as by caustic action.
Ammonia is detectible by the nose at low concentrations. At large concentrations,
ammonia vapor can produce convulsions, coughing, and difficult and painful breathing.
Injury is almost certain if concentrations reach 2,000 to 3,000 ppm. Prolonged inhalation
of anhydrous ammonia can cause death by suffocation. For example, a single inhalation
may be fatal if it clamps down the vocal cords (a reflex action which sometimes occurs
as a result of breathing a violent irritant).

5.2

Eyes
Anhydrous ammonia reacts most actively with moist, exposed areas of the human body.
Injury to the eyes is the most serious hazard of ammonia. If washed immediately with
water, the damage may only be temporary or none at all. Those victims unable to wash
their eyes may suffer permanent injury and blindness.
Never wear contact lenses if the possibility of exposure exists. Anhydrous ammonia
may get behind the contact lens and cause permanent damage to the eyes before the
contact lens are removed and eyes washed out.

14

5.3

Skin
Ammonia is caustic to the skin. Skin burns and blisters may develop from exposure to a
2 percent ammonia solution for 15 minutes or longer. Liquid anhydrous ammonia auses

Part - II

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

not only chemical burns but, because of the low temperature, causes the water in the
skin to freeze and rupture the cells as it expands. These wounds can be deep and slow
healing.

5.4

First Aid
First aid for exposure to anhydrous ammonia consists of immediate flushing with large
quantities of water followed by flushing with more water. At least 20 litre of clean water
should be stored in the vicinity of anhydrous ammonia containers.
In cases of severe exposure, follow with first aid treatment, and call a doctor immediately.
Give the doctor as much information as possible about the extent of exposure.

Fig: 15. Artifical Respiration

Part - II

5.5

5.6

Inhalation

The victim should immediately get to or be assisted to an uncontaminated area.

Get medical assistance if the worker has chest or breathing passage pains, or
a persisting cough.

If the exposure is severe, a physician should be called immediately and informed as


completely as possible about the overexposure to ammonia.

If available, oxygen can be administered by a trained individual to relieve pain and


symptoms.

If the victim is not breathing, artificial respiration should start immediately. Keep the
victim warm and at rest.

Eye Contact

Flush eyes with water for at least 15 minutes. Even a small amount of ammonia in
the eyes can cause damage.

Flush the entire eye surface and inner lining of the eyelids thoroughly. Because the
eyelids close voluntarily, hold the eyelids open while flushing.

If available, use a squeeze-type water bottle that will squirt water into the eyes.

If medical help is not available after 15 minutes, continue flushing until you get
medical attention.

Another emergency eye flushing method is to duck your head in a bucket of clean
water, and blink and move eyes around.

15

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

5.7

5.8

5.9

Skin Contact

Any portion of your body which is splashed with or exposed to anhydrous ammonia
should be flushed thoroughly with water.

If your clothes become saturated by liquid ammonia, they will probably freeze to your
skin. Get under a deluge shower or other source of water immediately. Remove the
clothes only after they have thawed and can be pulled freely from your skin.

Do not apply salves or ointments to ammonia burns. Get medical attention as soon
as possible.

Swallowing

Though it is rare that anyone swallows anhydrous ammonia, the first aid treatment
involves water.

Call a doctor immediately.

If the victim is conscious, he or she should swallow large amounts of water.

If vomiting begins, place the victim face down with the head lower than the hips to
prevent it from entering the lungs.

If the victim is in shock or extreme pain, or is unconscious, do not try to give him or
her water or induce vomiting.

Exposure Limits for Ammonia

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for General Industry: -- 50 ppm, 35 mg/m3
TWA
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended

Exposure Limit (REL): 25 ppm, 18 mg/m3 TWA; 35 ppm, 27 mg/m3 STEL

Exposure Levels and The Human Body.

Exposure (ppm)
50 ppm

Effect on the Body


Detectable by most
people

134 ppm

Irritation of nose and


throat
Coughing, severe eye
irritation, may lead to
loss of sight
Serious lung damage,
death unless treated
Skin blisters and burns
within seconds
Suffocation within minutes

700 ppm
1,700 ppm
2,000 ppm
5,000 ppm

Permissible Exposure
No injury from prolonged, or repeated
exposure
Eight hours maximum
exposure
One hour maximum
exposure
No exposure permissible
No exposure permissible
No exposure permissible
Source NDSU

16

Part - II

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

6.

Personal Safety Equipment


Most anhydrous ammonia exposure accidents are completely
preventable if personal protection equipment is used.
Due to the seriousness of exposure to anhydrous ammonia,
personal protective equipment must be well maintained -including
non-vented goggles, rubber gloves, heavy-duty long-sleeved
shirt, and long pants. Respirators equipped with anhydrous
ammonia cartridges approved by the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is designed only for
low level exposures not to exceed more than 300 parts per
million.
All PPE must be stored in a safety equipment container mounted
on each applicator tank, accessible from the ground. Suitable
gloves are made of rubber or butyl rubber and are impervious
to ammonia.
Gloves should have long cuffs which should be turned back
to prevent drips from running down the arm when hands are
elevated. The fit should be loose enough for easy removal but
snug enough to allow appropriate skin protection.
Clothing should be heavy duty and of a tightly woven fabric.
Lightweight, thin fabrics will not slow down or prevent anhydrous
ammonia from passing through. The clothing should be tightly
closed at the cuffs and collar to restrict the entry of anhydrous
ammonia.

Fig: 16. Rolled Cuff Butyl Glove With


Smooth Grip

Goggles Gas-proof goggles provide the greatest level of


protection, because ammonia gas can dissolve in the tears
and penetrate to the eye surface. In addition, when there is a
risk of splashing, a full-face shield should be worn to prevent
direct splashing of the face.
Gloves Wear rubber or polyethylene gloves that are resistant
to ammonia. Decontaminate gloves with water before they are
removed.

Fig: 17. Gas Proof


Goggles

Boots and Slicker If it is necessary to clean up a spill or when


there is a likelihood of contacting anhydrous ammonia, wear
rubber boots and a slicker which covers your body.
Decontaminate with water before removing garments.
Respirator When exposed to anhydrous ammonia leaks, or spills
releases, always wear respiratory protection, gas masks, or selfcontained breathing apparatus rated to protect against ammonia
exposure.
Make sure face pieces fit tightly. Check respirator for leaks around
Self Contained Breathing
the edges. If you smell ammonia or your eyes, nose, or throat Fig: 18.Apparatus
(SCBA)
become irritated; if it becomes difficult to breath; if the
air you are breathing becomes unusually warm; or if you feel dizzyor nauseous, leave the
contaminated area immediately and remove the respirator.

Part - II

17

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

7.

18

Guidelines For Handling And Storage Of Ammonia


While working with anhydrous ammonia in containers, use the following guidelines:

Containers should never be subject to rough handling or to mechanical shock such


as dropping or bumping.

Use proper handling equipment suitable for platforms, boats, or cradles for unloading
by cranes.

Avoid dragging, sliding, or rolling them on the bottom edges as much as possible.

Rack, block, or otherwise secure containers so that they are stored and used in a
stable manner.

Do not store containers near a source or potential source of heat, such as flammable
substances in direct sunlight.

Containers should never reach a temperature above 125 degrees Fahrenheit.

Do not remove valve protection until you are ready to withdraw ammonia from the
container.

For empty containers, securely cap the opening, and mark or fasten an EMPTY tag
on it. Store empty containers away from full containers.

Always keep at least 20 litter of clean water near anhydrous storage and handling
facilities in case of emergency.

8.

Transportation Safety Practices

The operator of a vehicle towing anhydrous ammonia tank on


any public road should be fully responsible for its safe transport
and should have emergency handling procedure with him in
local language.

Other requirements include:


The speed limit may not exceed 25 miles per hour,


empty or full.

The overall length of the entire transporting unit may


not exceed 75 feet.

The transportation on public roads should be


between sunrise and sunset only.

A slow moving vehicle (SMV) emblem must be displayed on the rear. A lighted rotating
or flashing amber light may be displayed in lieu of the SMV emblem.

Safety chains must be used on all applicator tanks towed on public roads.

Tanks must be identified front and rear and both sides with the words ANHYDROUS
AMMONIA in letters not less than 2 inches high.

It may be ensured that ammonia vehicle driver should have required PPEs with him.

Should a mishap occur while transporting anhydrous ammonia, the spill or leak
should be approached from up wind, whenever possible. To minimize the gas cloud,
water should be sprayed on the point of discharge not just on the tank. If emergency
help is needed, call local office of the Department of Explosives or local Rescue
Centre on Phone No. 1122 for emergency assistance.

Fig: 19. Slow Moving Vehicle


(SMV) Emblem

Part - II

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

9.

Leak Detection Of Ammonia And Precautionary Measures

Ammonia is an irritating and caustic substance. One can recognize its leakage for its typical
acrid odour. It irritates eyes, mucosa, air ways, lungs and skin very strong. Its high concentration
may cause swelling of lungs and asphyxia.
A leak in a liquid ammonia pipeline can have considerable impact on humans, animals and
nature in general. Leak detection can be based on sensors, mass balance, level indication,
pressure drop, acoustic signals, seismic signals and soil temperature measurement. An
overview is given below.
9.1
Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Ammonia Sensors
Escaping ammonia can be detected by ammonia sensors. Ammonia sensors are used
in various locations in ammonia plants (e.g. on the compressor platform,in the synthesis
area and in the refrigeration section). However, they can also be placed in loading and
tank areas, and around an ammonia pipeline where they can prove a useful tool for the
detection of a leak from a pipeline. There are basically three commonly used types of
ammonia sensors.

i.

Electrochemical type

ii.

Solid state type

iii.

Infrared type

Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Mass Balance System

9.2

This system detects spontaneous changes in the mass balance of the liquid ammonia
pipeline system. Upon a leak, the mass balance system usually first gives an alarm.
Specific instructions are provided for response to the alarm. When no operator action
follows in a pre-determined period (e.g. 10 minutes), some systems automatically close
the isolation valves in the affected part of the pipeline system or in the entire pipeline
system.

9.3

Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Level Indication System


This system is suitable where a small capacity (typically 100 m3) ammonia buffer vessel
is present between the producing and consuming plants. Upon a leak from a connected
pipeline, this system identifies a fast level drop in the liquid ammonia buffer vessel(s).

9.4

Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Pressure Drop System


This system reacts to deviations from normally experienced pressure drops in the liquid
ammonia pipeline. It is often based on a series of pressure drop measurements. When a
deviation from the predetermined setting is detected from the relevant pipeline location,
the corresponding isolation valves may be automatically closed.

9.5

Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Acoustic System


This system is based on monitoring the acoustic signals that travel through the pipeline
when there is a leak. These signals propagate in the fluid with the speed of sound.
Leaks, as small as 0.4 kg/s, can be detected. Leak detection takes place within 10
seconds, and the system calculates the location of the leak within 20 meters. This
system is a relatively new development.

Part - II

19

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

9.6

Leak Detection of Ammonia based on Seismic System


Another technology that is able to detect leaks in pipeline systems is based on a
seismic principle. The system consists of seismic sensors, which are deployed along
the pipeline and in its vicinity. These wireless sensors pick up any activity which creates
a seismic signal in the ground. Subsequently, the sensor or sensors relay the picked
up signal to a processing unit, which analyses the data to determine the nature of the
event that generated that seismic signal. The system can distinguish between different
events such as a person walking, vehicle driving, heavy machinery activity (such as
excavations), digging, hitting, drilling into the pipeline, leaks etc.
Dispersions Models for Ammonia should be developed or used to assess the severity
of leakage / spillage from containers during transportation and storage, specially, where
large quantities of Ammonia is stored e.g. Fertilizers Industries. Based on the Dispersion
Models the industries which store large quantities of Ammonia should mark high,
medium and low risk areas and should develop Disaster Risk Management System at
their site to cope up such situation and should inform the local district administration.

9.7

Pressure testing of cylinders and bulk containers


Under Mineral and Industrial Gases Safety Rules-2010, periodic testing of compressed
gas cylinders/bulk containers has been ensured through appointment of 3rd party
periodic testers / inspectors. The details on periodic testing of compressed gas cylinders
/ bulk containers may be obtained from Department of Explosives under Ministry of
Industries and Production.

Fig: 20. Safety Facilities Available At Ammonia Gas


Production Plant

20

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

ANNEXURE

Comments Received from Federal


Organizations, Provincial Governments,
Academia and Private Sector
Organizations

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

22

Message / Comments from Chief Executive Officer


National Productivity Organization, Islamabad

Annexure

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Annexure

Comments from Directorate of Industries


Government of Punjab

23

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

24

Comments from Department of Chemistry


Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad

Annexure

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Annexure

Comments from Directorate of Industries


Government of Balochistan

25

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

26

Comments from Institute of Chemical Science


University of Peshawar

Annexure

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Annexure

Comments from Ministry of Environment, Islamabad

27

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

28

Comments from M/s Ittehad Chemicals Ltd. Lahore

Annexure

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Annexure

Comments from M/s Dawood Hercules


Chemicals Ltd. Lahore

29

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

30

Comments from M/s Cleaner Production Centre,


Sialkot

Annexure

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

10

Annexure

Comments from Department of Explosives


Rawalpindi

31

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Comments FROM DEPUTY


SECRETARY
Ministry of Industries and Production

I feel immense pleasure to state that the Guidelines / SOPs


for Storage, Handling and Transportation of Hazardous
Gases (Chlorine and Ammonia) developed under the DRR
Cell of Ministry of Industries and Production, are quite
technically sound and exhaustive as well informative, as
is apparent from the comments / views received from the
various technical and professional organizations as well
as academia and government departments.

It is hoped that the dissemination of Guidelines / SOPs


would facilitate in overcoming hazards in various industrial
sectors as well as commercial activities.

Being the incharge of DRR Cell of MOIP, I would like to


extend my gratitude to the DRR Consultant Industries
and Mainstreaming Expert One UN Joint Programme. I
would also like to thank NDMA for providing continued
support.



Muhammad Shahid

32

Annexure

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Shuja Uddin Siddiqui


DRR Mainstreaming Consultant (Industries)
Mr. Shuja Uddin Siddiqui: Currently working as Disaster Risk Reduction
Mainstreaming Consultant of Ministry of Industries and Production under One
UN Disaster Risk Management Joint Programme of UNDP-Pakistan.
Mr. Siddiqui did his Masters in Organic Chemistry in 1971 and Leather Technology
from Nene University Northampton England. He started his professional career
from Directorate of Industries, Commerce and Mineral Development and later
on worked as Director General Leather Industry Development Organization in
Ministry of Industries and Production. He joined Trade Development Authority
of Pakistan under the Ministry of Commerce as Director General, in 1997 and
worked till 2007 on various important assignments.
He posses diversified experience in introduction of Cleaner Production Techniques, waste minimization
techniques and handling of matters pertaining to hazardous substances and Disaster Risk Management
.He has planned and established Cleaner Production Centre at Sialkot annexed with accredited
quality control laboratory. He has planned, organized and conducted training courses for public sector
organizations and private corporate sector as well as SMEs, on Mainstreaming DRR,. Developed
Model Demo Projects involving DRR initiatives. Mr. Siddiqui is the author of Guidelines / SOPs for
Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Compressed Gases (Chlorine and Ammonia).
He has developed an Action Plan for designating of 3rd Party Periodic Testers of Compressed Gas
Cylinders coupled with Awareness Programme and backed with Mineral and Industrial Gas Safety
Rules-2010 which is a notable intervention of Mr. Siddiqui, appreciated and recognized by NDMA /
MOIP.

Mubushar Hussain
Mainstreaming Expert One UN Joint Programme
Mr. Mubushar Hussain: Currently working as Disaster Risk Reduction
Mainstreaming Expert in One UN Disaster Risk Management Joint Programme
of UNDP - Pakistan, Mr. Mubushar graduated in City and Regional Planning
in 1992 (Pakistan). He started his professional career at PEPAC Limited
-Pakistan through a World Banks Master Planning of 10 Cities assignment.
He joined Local Government and Rural Development (LG&RD) Department,
Government of the Punjab as Town Planner Officer in 1994. He earned his M.Sc.
in Environmental Remote Sensing and Geo-information for Development in
1995 from AIT, Bangkok. He acquired his second Master Degree in Urban
Planning and Land Administration in 2001 from ITC-The Netherlands.
After serving eight years in LG&RD Department in different cities, he started his career as academician
in 2002 in University of the Punjab as Assistant Professor and played main role in establishment of GIS
Centre there. In 2004, he joined National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) - Islamabad
again as pioneer faculty member (Assistant Professor) in the Institute of GIS. Finally he started his
current assignment on Disaster Risk Management in UNDP in 2008. During his 17 years career, he
acquired substantial diversified experience in urban planning, GIS / remote sensing and disaster risk
management.

Annexure

33

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

Important Contact Numbers


1.

National Disaster Management Authority

Prime Ministers Secretariat, Islamabad


Phone (Off). 0092-051-9214295, Fax No. 0092-051-9213082
E-mail: mops@ndma.gov.pk
URL: www.ndma.gov.pk

Address: Food Grain Silos, Airport Road, Quetta


Fax: 081-9201720, 2880189

Address: No.C-52, Block II, KDA Scheme No.5, Clifton, Karachi, 75600
Phone (Off): 0092-21-99251458-9, 35830193-4.
Fax: 0092-21-35830087
E-mail: sindhpdma@gmail.com & mshayyanshah@hotmail.com
URL: http://www.pdma.gos.pk/pdma/

Address: 48/8, Lawrence Road, Lahore


Phone (Off): 0092-042-99204403 and 042- 99204409
State Disaster Management Authority-AJK
Address: Next to Secretary Education Office, New Secretariat, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir
Phone (Off): 0092-05822-921536,
Fax: 0092-05822-921537
Email: info.sdma@gmail.com
URL: www.sdma.gok.pk

Civil Secretariat, Near Governer House


Phone (Off): 0092-091-9213867, 9211854,
Fax: (091) 9214025
URL: http://www.pdma.gov.pk/index.php

DG NDMA Northern Areas


Address: Northern Areas Secretariat, Gilgit
Phone (Off): 0092-05811-50208
Fax: 0092-05811-50422

Address: FATA Disaster Management Authority


Civil Secretariat FATA
Warsak Road, Peshawar
Phone (Off): 0092-091-9214012, 9212143, 92112158
Fax: 0092-091-9212137, 9210578, 9213867, 9212154,

Address: House No 124, Street 11, E-& Islamabad


Phone (Off): 0092-051-2652840-44 (Ext. 223)
Fax: 0092-051-2652536

9
(i)

Ministry of Industries and Production


Mr. Muhammad Javaid Iqbal Awan

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

34

Provincial Disaster Management Authority-Balochistan


Provincial Disaster Management Authority-Sindh

Provincial Disaster Management Authority-Punjab

Provincial Disaster Management Authority-Khyber Pukhtunkhwa

Provincial Disaster Management Authority-Gilgit-Baltistan

FATA Disaster Management Authority

National Institute for Disaster Management

Chairman Ministerial Working Group / Additional Secretary


Ministry of Industries and Production
Block-A Pak Secretariat Islamabad

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

(ii)

Mr. Muhammad Shahid

Deputy Secretary (CS) / Incharge DRR Cell


Room # 1 Block-D Pak Secretariat, Islamabad

Chief Executive Officer / Chairman Technical Committee on Mainstreaming DRR


National Productivity Organization
Software Technology Park, 2nd Floor Sector F-5-2
Near NADRA Office Islamabad

(i)

Mr. Haroon Rehman


Chief Inspector of Explosives
Department of Explosives, New Kattarian, Rawalpindi Phone No. 051-9290631, Fax No. 051-9290641

Inspector of Explosives
Department of Explosives, New Kattarian, Rawalpindi Phone No. 051-9290614, Mob No. 0345-5897092

Assistance Inspector of Explosives


Department of Explosives, New Kattarian, Rawalpindi Phone No. 051-9290614, Mob No. 0300-3770485

Assistant Inspector of Explosives


Department of Explosives, New Kattarian, Rawalpindi Phone No. 051-9290614, Mob No. 0321-3755024

Deputy Chief Inspector of Explosive


Phone No. 021-34982101; Mob No. 0306-2728248, 0312-2728248 Fax No. 021-34982101

Inspector of Explosives
Phone No. 021-34982101; Mob No. 0345-4067957, Fax No. 021-34982101

(i)

Mr. Abdul Ali Khan


Inspector of Explosives
Phone No. 042-99262183, Mob No. 0300-8430238, Fax No. 042-99262183

Assistance Inspector of Explosives


Phone No. 042-99262183, Mob No. 0334-6204166, Fax No. 042-99262183
Department of Explosives (Circle Office Multan)

Inspector of Explosives
Phone No. 061-9210423; Mob No. 0300-4168724,
Fax No. 061-9210423

Inspector of Explosives
Phone No. 091-9212492, Mob No. 0300-9002898
Fax No. 091-9212492

Assistant Inspector of Explosives


Phone No. 081-2832810, Mob No, 0300-3845216
Fax No. 081-2832810.

10
(i)

11

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
12
(i)
(ii)
13

(ii)

(14)
(i)

15
(i)

16
(i)

National Productivity Organization


Khawaja Muhammad Yousuf

Department of Explosives (Head Office Islamabad)

Mr. Muhammad Ishfaq

Mr. Muhammad Aftab Qazi

Mr. Muhammad Mubeen Ahmed

Department of Explosives(Circle Office Karachi)


Mr. Muhammad Hussain Channa
Mr. Syed Mazhar Hussain

Department of Explosives (Circle Office Lahore)

Mr. Mirza Naveed Ahmed

Department of Explosives(Circle Office Multan)


Rana Shahid Mahmood

Department of Explosives(Circle Office Peshawar)


Mr. Gul Yar Khan

Department of Explosives (Circle Office Quetta)


Mr. Sarmad Khan Kakar

35

Guidelines for Handling, Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Substances (Chlorine and Ammonia Gases)

National Disaster Management Authority

United Nations Development Programme


One UN DRM Joint Programme

Prime Ministers Secretariat


Islamabad, Pakistan

House No.124, Street No. 11, Sector E-7


Islamabad, Pakistan

Ph:
Fax:
URL:

Ph:
Fax:
URL:

+92-51-9206544
+92-51-9213082
www.ndma.gov.pk

+92-51-2652840
+92-51-2652536
www.undp.org.pk