Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4


- The father of logic
- First devised systematic criteria for analyzing and evaluating arguments
Syllogistic logic in which the fundamentals elements are terms; and
arguments are evaluated as good or bad depending on how the terms are
1. Categorical moods, figures, valid/invalid
2. Hypothetical
3. Disjunction
4. Conditional
- One of the founder of the stoic school
- Developed a logic in which the fundamental elements were propositions or
statements (can either be true or false)
- He was a physician
- Developed the theory of the compound categorical syllogism
Peter Abelard
- Developed a theory of universals or the so-called conceptualism.
- Conceptualism universal essences do not exist but similarities among
categories of experiences do.
o Thing = purpose
o Person = human soul (intellect & will)
CONCEPTS OF LOGIC (brain is not intellect)
goal acquire knowledge
tool reason
- Study of reason as an instrument for acquiring knowledge
- Method and techniques (ruiles)
- Spontaneous Logic
o any activity guided by reason follows a certain order
o Common to all men: Man is a rational being. (reasoning)
- Logic as an art
o to serve as a tool and as a norm for correct thinking
o practical end (outcome) what
- Logic as a science


to describe and analyze the reasoning process itself

also known as speculative end studies ideas, judgments and reasoning
processes how

Why is logic not referred as a science course:

- theres a tendency nowadays to restrict the word science to the so-called
empirical sciences such as physics.
- it make no direct contribution to the content of our though
- logic is not absolutely necessary to scientific work, but it is a useful and
advantageous tool for its perfection
o logic is not about analization
o you dont need to study logic in order to take scientific work)
- logic is not the foundation of scientific knowledge but only its tool
- logic gives us norms for recognizing good or bad thinking, and develops in us
a habit of analyzing our thoughts
- the study of logic will enable us to pinpoint the defects of faculty arguments
- dont argue with spiriutual arguments
- see your common grounds (moral grounds)
2 KINDS OF LAW (Good for moral issues)
1) Natural Laws God given laws (basis for constitutional)
2) Constitutional Laws manmade laws (shouldnt go against the natural laws)
An argument is an example of reasoning in which one or more propositions
(or statements) are offered as support, justification, grounds, reasons or evidence
for another proposition (could be either a premise/conclusion).
- At least one premise, one conclusion
o Premise proposition which provide support, justification, or ground for
accepting the truth of other proposition
Major Premise universal
Minor Premise
o Conclusion proposition that is supported by premises
Example] All film stars are celebrities. Chris Tiu is a film star. Therefore, Chris Tiu is a

Premise Indicator since, because, for, in that, as given that, for the reason that,
in as much, owing to
Conclusion Indicator therefore, wherefore, thus, consequently, for this reason,
so, as , as a result, hence
Beginning if theres no conclusion indicator
End if theres a conclusion indicator
Statements could either be true / false (truth values truth and falsity)

Sentences cannot be identified as true / false

Questions, proposals, suggestions, commands, and exclamations usually
cannot and so are not usually classified as statements
Exclude is declarative
NON-ARGUMENTS lacks support!
1. Warning
- An expression that is extended to put someone on guard against a dangerous
- Ex. No Smoking!
2. Piece of Advice
- An expression that makes a recommendation about some future decision
- Ex. Study hard to pass the subject.
3. Statements of belief or opinion
- An expression about what someone happens to believe or think about
- Ex. I think he likes you.
The difference between piece of advice and the statements of belief or opinion is
the word I
4. Report
- Consists of a group of statements that convey information about some topic
or event
- Give information to general public but not proven something.
5. Expository Passage
- A kind of discourse that beings with a topic sentence (should be acclaimed
fact) followed by one or more sentences.
- Ex. Man is composed of body and soul. The body is the material substance
and the soul is the immaterial substance
- Ex. The Philippines is a democratic country. It allows the people to vote their
- topic sentence distinguishes the topic sentence
6. Illustration
- An expression involving one or more examples that is intended to show what
something means or how it is done.
- topic sentence giving examples
7. Explanation
- Explanandum
o describes the events (accepted fact)
o explain why is something like that
- Explanants
o the statements or group of statements that purports (to make sense
of) to do at the explaining (non-argument)

Ex. The Philippines is a democratic country because it allows its citizens to

vote for their preferred candidate. (Explanandum underlined)
The difference between Explanans and Premise is that the explanans explain
why is something like that while the premise is to prove that the proven is

8. Conditional
- If/else statement