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Problem 2.

1
Solution

Problem 2.2
Solution

Calculate the packing density of the body centered cubic, the face
centered cubic and the diamond lattice, listed in example 2.1 p 28.
The packing density is calculated as in example 2.1 p 28 and
obtained from:
4 3
r
Volume of atoms
3
=
Volume of the unit cell
a3
The correct radius and number of atoms per unit cell should be
used.
A body centered cubic lattice contains an additional atom in the
middle and therefore contains two atoms per unit cell. The atoms
touch along the body diagonal, which equals 3 a . The radius is
one quarter of the body diagonal.
A face centered cubic lattice contains six additional atoms in the
center of all six faces of the cube. Since only half of the atoms is
within the cube the total number of atoms per unit cell equals four.
The atoms touch along the diagonal of the faces of the cube, which
equals 2 a . The radius is one quarter of the diagonal.
The diamond lattice contains two face centered cubic lattice so
that the total number of atoms per unit cell equals twice that of the
face centered lattice, namely eight. The atoms touch along the
body diagonal, where two atoms are one quarter of the body
diagonal apart or 3 a / 4 . The radius equals half the distance
between the two atoms.
The radius, number of atoms per unit cell and the packing density
are summarized in the table below.
Radius
Atoms/
Packing density
unit cell
Simple cubic
1
a

= 52 %
2
6
Body centered cubic
2
3a
3
= 68 %
4
8
Face centered cubic
4
2a
2
= 74 %
4
6
Diamond
8
3a
3
= 34 %
8
16

At what temperature does the energy bandgap of silicon equal


exactly 1 eV?
The energy bandgap is obtained from:

E g (T ) = E g (0 K )

T2
T +

0.473 10 3 T 2
= 1.0 eV
T + 636
This quadratic equation can be solved yielding:
E g (0 K ) E g (T )
T=
2
E g (0 K ) E g (T ) 2 ( E g (0 K ) E g (T ))
+ (
) +
= 679 K

2
which is consistent with Figure 2.3.5
= 1.166

Problem 2.6

Solution

Calculate the effective density of states for electrons and holes in


germanium, silicon and gallium arsenide at room temperature and
at 100 C. Use the effective masses for density of states
calculations.
The effective density of states in the conduction band for
germanium equals:
2 me*kT 3 / 2
Nc = 2 (
)
h2
= 2(

2 0.55 9.11 10 31 1.38 10 23 300 3 / 2


)
(6.626 10 34 ) 2

= 1.02 10 25 m - 3 = 1.02 1019 cm - 3


where the effective mass for density of states was used (Appendix
3). Similarly one finds the effective densities for silicon and
gallium arsenide and those of the valence band, using the effective
masses listed below:
Germanium
Silicon
Gallium
Arsenide
me/m0
0.55
1.08
0.067
Nc (cm-3)
1.02 x 1019
2.81 x 1019
4.35 x 1017
me/m0
0.37
0.81
0.45
Nv (cm-3)
5.64 x 1018
1.83 x 1019
7.57 x 1018
The effective density of states at 100 C (372.15 K) are obtain
from:
T 3/ 2
N c (T ) = N c (300 K ) (
)
300
yielding:
T = 100C
Germanium
Silicon
Gallium
Arsenide
Nc (cm-3)
1.42 x 1019
3.90 x 1019
6.03 x 1017
Nv (cm-3)
7.83 x 1018
2.54 x 1019
1.05 x 1018

Problem 2.7

Solution

Calculate the intrinsic carrier density in germanium, silicon and


gallium arsenide at room temperature (300 K). Repeat at 100 C.
Assume that the energy bandgap is independent of temperature
and use the room temperature values.
The intrinsic carrier density is obtained from:
Eg
ni (T ) = N c N v exp(
)
2kT
where both effective densities of states are also temperature
dependent. Using the solution of Problem 2.6 one obtains:
T = 300 K
Germanium
Silicon
Gallium
Arsenide
ni (cm-3)
1.78 x 1013
8.81 x 109
1.97 x 106
T = 100C
Germanium
Silicon
Gallium
Arsenide
Nv (cm-3)
3.14 x 1014
8.55 x 1011
6.04 x 108