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1. .

,
? .

. -- ,
,
,
.

.
.
()
.
GSM
.
(),
( 1-3) .
.

()

( 360) ( 120 60).
120 .
R,
. ,
R.

.1. :
-- ; -- 120 ; --
60
,
.
:
.
R , . .1
.

(),
( ).

. (,
7 ) .
.2 3 3/9 4/12
120 .

. j- ,
i- , , i- j-
.
.
,
,
R .

2. P / E --GSM-900 , DCS(GSM-1800) GSM-R.



?
P-GSM Primary GSM; E-GSM Extended
GSM.
GSM
2.1
P-GSM- E-GSM
GSM-1800
900
900
:

890-915 880-915
1710-1785

935-960 925-960
1805-1880
,
25
35
75
,
45
45
95
,
200
200
200
-
124
174
374
,
270
270
270
/

TDMA
TDMA
TDMA

FDD
FDD
FDD

8
8
8 (16)

GMSK
GMSK
GMSK
/ (C/I),
9
9
9
(),
2
2
1
0,8
0,8
0,25

GSM.
1 :
.
.
fax/data ( 9.6 /)
.
.
(Short Message Service, SMS).
1 (ciphering)
(SIM-card).
.
2 , :
.
.
.
-
.
3


2+ -
, :
HSDCS.
GPRS.
EDGE
.
.
Centrex.
GSM1800, GSM1900 and DECT.
GSM EDGE,

GSM-R
GSM-R GSM, 2+,
. GSM-R

:
876-880
921-925 (. 1).
, , GSM-R,
4 . 19 GSM (4/200 =
20 , ).

?
1)- -
.
2)

3. (C/I)?
C/I GSM.
GSM

-

. C/I=9 .

.
:
( )
:
- ;
- / ;
-
.

4. .
GSM

27, 15.
, 3/9, 5%,
30.

A1

10

K,

Na,
.

27
15

30

P, %

---

3/9

B1

C1

A2

B2

C2

A3

B3

C3

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18
6


19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27


N TCH = k 8 2=3*8-2=22, 2-
handover.

N = / , = 17,132
N = 17,132 / 30 =571,066; N = 571
N =9* N =9*571=5139
N ,
.
K*5139=15000=>K=3

5. . .
.

MS BTS:
1)Path Loss ,
MS BTS.

, ~ 1/R2, R
MS BTS.
2) Shadowing . , , ,
..
, fading dips
.
3) Multipath fading ().
:
-Rayleigh fading ().
.
,
, ( ).
fading dips
, , /2.
- Time Dispersion -
, .. (far away).
4) Time Alignment . GSM
.


, .. .

.3.1. .

6. . GSM-900
Pt
=
20W.

dBm.

(Free Space
Propagation), Pr ( dBm),

1 .

Pt=20W
Pt
=10lg(20/1*10-3)=10lg20-10lg(103)=10lg20+30=13,01+30=43,01
Pl=32,45
+
20*lg(f)
+
20*lg(d)=32,45+20lg900+0=32,45+59,08=91,53
Pr=Pt-Pl=43,01-91,53=-48,52

7.
).

GSM

.4.1. GSM.
A\D-conversion -
.
Segmentation , ..
20.
Speech coding ,

Channel coding .
Ciphering , .. .
Interleaving ,
.
Burst formatting , ..
, , ,
.. .

, :
Adaptive Equalization ,
-
.

.
10

D\D-conversion (),
64/ GSM 13/.
(, SMS,
),
, ,
.
A/D ,
() .
fD=8
13 . ,
:
8 13 =104/
,

8 8 =64/.

.
104/ 13 /
RPE-LPC (Regular Pulse Excitation Linear Prediction Coding)
.
,
,
, ,
, .

().
5 300 (..
, ).
GSM () 20.

160 A/D. ,
50 .
, , VAD
(Voice Activity Detector) .
20 ,
, , GPRS.
, GSM,
20-
(160 13/)=2080 ,
260 !
, :
50 260=13/

11

, full rate, GSM


Enhanced full rate (EFR) 15,1/, Half rate
5,6/.

12

8. TDMA GSM.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access )
. :
) (time slot)
) TDMA 8
) TDMA (26 51 TDMA)
) TDMA (1326 TDMA, .. 51
26-
, 26 51- )
) TDMA (2048 2715648 )
.5.4.
3 28 53 760=12533,76.
.

() .
3 .

. 5.4. TDMA

13

9.
GSM.

--- Subscriber Identity Module
SIM-. :
IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity);
Ki (Individual Subscriber Authentication Key);
A3, A8: .
IMSI, Ki, A3 A8 (Triples), ..
.
:
RAND (RANDom number);
SRES (Signed RESponse): ;
Kc (Cipher Key): .
.8.1.

.8.1.
,
AC, RAND. ,
RAND
i,

SRES*. RAND
MS, SIM
SRES, MSC. MSC SRES* SRES.
, .

.
(burst) ,
,
. GSM A5.
456 20, ..
. Kc A8

14

. 4.4.

15

10. (CCH). .
(burst) .
GSM .6.1.

GSM ,

.
, , ,
.
(). BTS
,
. , ,
, ( ) ,
.

(FCCH)
(SCH),
.
,
"0". ,

. SCH
. ,
, ,
(BSIC),
.
16

().


BTS.
BTS ().
,
BTS
(RACH). RACH (
, , )
Aloha .

GSM. (AGCH)
BTS ,
SDCCH.
(DCCH). ,
,
.
BTS,

(SDCCH) (782 /).


,
, .
SDCCH

(SACCH).

, ,
. ,
,
,
(FACCH). FACCH
,
. , , , BTS

.

NB
, RACH. NB
(Steeling Flag),
,
.

NB

26 , .
:
-
.
17

-
NB

-

FB .
142 - ,
(1625/24)=67,7
.
SB
. 64
, D
.
DB .
DB NB
26 . DB
. DB ,
.

.
.
, , .
.
8 , -
(41 ),
36 .
(68,25 ,
252 ), (
)
,

18

11. GSM 1.
. A.
.7.2 GSM (1).
-( MSC , OMC TRAU,BSC,BTS),
( MSC MSC,HLR,EIR,MSC).
( ) -
.

.7.2 GSM ( 1 2)
BSS 4 :
BTS -- Base Transceiver Station .
BSC -- Base Station Controller .
TRAU -- Transcoding and Rate Adaption Unit
.
LMT -- Local Maintenance Terminal .
NSS :
MSC -- Mobile services Switching Center
.
19

GMSC -- Gateway MSC .


IWF Interworking Function .
VLR --Visitor Location Register .
HLR -- Home Location Register .
AC -- Authentication Center .
EIR -- Equipment Identity Register
.

, .7.3
.7.1.

.7.3 GSM
7.1
GSM
Um:
Air interface MS - BTS
A:
MSC - BSC
Asub:
BSC - TRAU
Abis:
BSC - BTS
T:
BSC, BTS, TRAU - LMT
O:
BSC - OMC-B
B:
MSC - VLR
C:
MSC - HLR
D:
HLR - VLR
E:
MSC - MSC
F:
MSC - EIR
G:
VLR - VLR.
20


7 X.25.

. -
(
):
1.
Um NB BTS
13 (14,4)/;
2.
BTS 16/
BSC;
3.
BSC BTS
() E1 (-30) 16/ 64/;
TRAU;
4.
TRAU ,
16/ 64/;
E1, MSC (. . 7.3);
5.

64/.

21

12. : RA, LA, SA, PLMN.


GSM ()
, .

.7.9.

.7.10.
(Location Area)

.7.11 MSC
(MSC Service Area)

22

.7.12. GSM
(Public Land Mobile Network)
GSM National GSM
Service Area. International GSM
Service Area.
GSM
. .7.13
/.

.7.13. GSM

23

13. .
GSM ,
.9.1. :

Mobile Originating Call (MOC) -- MS ;

Mobile Terminating Call (MTC) MS ;

Mobile Mobile Call (MMC) MS;

Mobile Internal Call (MIC) MMC, MS


MSC.
().

. 9.2. PSTN
GSM. (PSTN)
, GSM
GMSC (1). GMSC
MSC
MSRN (2-5). MSC VLR
(LAI) MS (6,7)
() BTS LA.
MS (9), ,
TMSI (10). MS
- (11).

.9.1. GSM

24

() (.
9.3).
(1). BSS
MSC VLR (2).

TMSI
(3,4).

(5,6). MSC - MS (7,8)


(9).
, ,
MS
BTS (
).
(RACH). ()
SDCCH.
- MMC MIC
.9.4.
.

. 9.2.
(, Mobile Terminating Call)

25

. 9.3. (, Mobile Originating Call)

Mobile Mobile Call MMC

traffic
channel

VLR
EIR

VMSC

BSC
BTS

VLR
HLR AC

VMSC

BTS

NSS Network Switching Subsystem

Mobile Internal Call MIC

EIR

BSC
RSS Radio Subsystem

traffic
channel
BSC

VLR

BTS

VMSC
HLR AC
NSS Network Switching Subsystem

BSC
BTS
RSS Radio Subsystem

. 9.4. MS
26

14. GSM.
.
-- .
,
. ,
,
.
(
40).

BTS
BTS.
,
.
, .
,
.

( MSC, BSC)
,
,
. ,
.
. 9.5 GSM.

27

Handover Types

Intra-BSS

Intra-cell
BTS

f 1, TS 1
BTS

BSC

BSC

MSC

f 2, TS 2
BTS

Handover
performed

Intra-MSC

Handover
performed

MSC

Inter-MSC

basic

BSS
MSC - A

MSC - B

MSC
BSS

subsequent

MSC - C

. 9.5. GSM
:

Intra-Cell Handover -- .
-
. BSC
;

Intra-BSS
Handover
-

BSC. .
,
BSC.
,
.

Intra-MSC Handover -- BSC

MSC.

BSC

, GSM

BSC.
MSC.

Inter-MSC Handover -- MSC. ,


,
MSC.
28

.
MSC-A MSC-B, Basic Handover.

MSC (MSC-A
MSC-B MSC-C ), Subsequent Handover
BTS
.
.
, -
.
.
,
( ).

BSC MSC .
. BTSold

BSCold. ,
, , BSCold
. MS
. MSC
, ,
BSCnew. BSC
( )
BTSnew, .

BTSnew

BSCnew,

. MSC
. MS
BTS.
(

). ,
. ,
BSCold BTSold,

.

29

15.GPRS. .
GPRS GSM
. GPRS
, GSM.

,
. GPRS
,
.
GPRS ,
GSM
, GPRS
.
. , GPRS
. ,
150 /. ,
14,4
/, (8)
115,2 /.

. , GPRS
,
.
, ,
Internet-,
.
,
( GSM
HSCSD), . ,
GPRS -
Internet.
GPRS
MS, GPRS.
: MS
GPRS GSM. MS
/
.
: MS
GPRS GSM,
/
, .
: MS
GSM GPRS.
30

.
GSM, 2+,

.
:
High Speed Circuit Switched Data, HSCSD;
General Packet Radio Service, GPRS;
Enhanced Data rates for the GSM Evolution, EDGE.
.10.3
ISDN (64/) GSM ( 14,4/).

.10.3.
HSCSD,
, TDMA,

.
.10.4
4 .
,
4 14,4/ = 57,6/.

HSCSD

. -.
GSM.
.

31

.10.4. HSCSD
HSCSD .

RLP-.

, Inernet
.
HSCSD

57,6 /

GPRS

171,2 /

EDGE

384,2 /

32

16. GSM 2+.


GPRS ,
.. , ,
HSCSD, GPRS
. GPRS
.11.1. UMTS (3G),
I (Iu, Iur ..).

.11.1. GSM GPRS.

GPRS
GPRS (GPRS Support Nodes).
GPRS Serving GSN, SGSN
Gateway GSN, GGSN.
CAMEL Service
Environment CSE.
33

,
.11.1. GGSN
(, IP -25) Gi.
, ,
, .
SGSN GPRS
( Gn), IP.

34

17. EDGE. .

,
200. EDGE -- Enhanced
Data rates for the GSM Evolution.
8-PSK (. .11.9),
.
640/, 270,833/
GSM. .11.10
EDGE HSCSD.

. 11.9. 8-PSK


. : MSC1MSC9 (.
.11.1). ,

GMSK,
8-PSK.
, EDGE ,
2+.
IMT-2000 EDGE
3G .

35

. 11.10. EDGE
HSCSD

11.1 EDGE

36

EDGE
GSM

TRX (CU) TRX EDGE (ECU).

- , .11.11.
, E-GPRS GPRS
- .

. 11.11. - EDGE

37

18. GSM.
1) /2

. 12.14. () /2

. 12.15.

38

.12.16.
2) ( , -)
1926 Shintaro Uda Hidetsugu Yagi
Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai, Japan.
- , ,
,
.
, .
.
- /2 - ( )
( >
/2),
(
< /2). ,
.
, ,
.

39

. 12.17. -
3) -
(. .12.24),
,
.

-
, ,
(. .12.19).

.
10 .

40

. 12.19.
- ,

,
:
l2/l1=l3/l2=l4/l3=...=ln/l n-1=
d2/d1=d3/d2=d4/d3=...=dn-1/d n-2=
, ,
2. 2 ,
.
.
2 (3060)0,
0,7 0,9.
,
() f0, f0, f02, f03,.., f0n
,
ln(),
.
4) (Patch Antenna)

41

42

.12.22. -
-

()
(), /2 ,
.
, ,
. -
.
.

(
)

,
. ,
.

:
, .
:

,
d , W (
), Zo --
, Rrad .
.
Zo =337 ,
Rrad =150 . :

.
900 , W = 16 .
1.6 1.2(1.6/16)
=0,12 (12%), 108 .

43

19. PIFA .
:

(AMHA Axial-Mode Helical Antenna),


.14.2();

(NMHA Normal-Mode Helical


Antenna), .14.2 ().

. 14.2. ()
()
( /4)
, Wi-Fi ..
,
, ,
. .14.3 ,

900 1800 .
15 35 , 5
.

44

. 14.3.

.14.4

,
, 1800 ,
,
900 .
1800 ,
900
.

. 14.4. .
) ;
) /4.

0,1
.
45


,
.
PIFA (Planar Inverted-F Antenna) F-
(. 14.8).

. 14.8. PIFA.
PIFA DIFA,
L-, F, .
PIFA ,
( 10% ),

.
,
PIFA.

46


, , ,
.14.9(-).
, PIFA c U- (.
.14.9)
.
.
, .14.9, L = 21 , W = 16 , L2
= 10 W2 = 6 .
Wi-Fi: 2,452,48 5,255,32 [14].

. 14.9. PIFA.
) U-; ) ; )L-.

.
GSM, DCS, PCS, UMTS.

47

20. -
GSM. ,
(),
TMA.

DiAMCO

FDUAMCO

RACK 1

CU (carrier units),
TRx (Transceiver),

( );

:
DUAMCO (Duplexer Amplifier Multi coupler)/FDUAMCO (Flexible
Duplexer Amplifier Multi coupler),
CU , ,
;
DIAMCO (Dual Integrated Amplifier Multi Coupler),
(
);
Rx Tx . 2- .
Rx . Tx .
LNA .

( Rx Tx) .
2- . Rx . Tx
.
( ) - .
TMA. .

48

49

21. (Antenna diversity).


X-Pol GSM-900 DCS.
() (Antenna Diversity)

.
. GSM
, - -
. : , ,
, . .13.1
.

. 13.1
3
.

( !)
.

50

Tx1 Tx2
.
,
.
51

22. .

2/2/0
!!! RACK 1 RACK 2.
0 1 .

DiAMCO

FDUAMCO

RACK 1

2/2/0 DIAMCO
:

CU (carrier units),
TRx (Transceiver),

( );

:
DUAMCO (Duplexer Amplifier Multi coupler)/FDUAMCO (Flexible
Duplexer Amplifier Multi coupler),
CU , ,
;
DIAMCO (Dual Integrated Amplifier Multi Coupler),
(
);
.
Rx Tx . 2- .
Rx . Tx .
LNA .

52

23. DECT: , ,
GSM.
DECT
DECT (Digital
Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
. DECT
, .
, PSTN
,
.
, GSM. DECT

.

(Portable Parts, P);

(Fixed Parts, FP);

(DECT Fixed System, DFS);

(Interworking Unit, IWU);

(Data Base,DB),
(HDB) (VDB).

53

.13.3 MC-TDMA-TDD DECT


10.
12 12

).

.
0,4167
.
. , -- ,
-- ...
6,4 / (64 10
).
.
32
/.

16-
CRC 64
25,6 /.
, .
GSM
DECT GSM.

MS,
:
DECT, -- GSM.
.13.4. FP
, GSM. DFS IWU
. -
IWU GSM.

54

55

24.
().

, .
-
()
. ,
,
(),
, (DMO) ..
.
, ,
, , , .
c () .
1) .

,
12,5 25 .
,

4,8 /.
2)
. ,
- ,
3) .

),
, (
).
4) FDMA, FDMA+TDMA.
TCC
(FDMA}. .
5)

() () .

(). ())
.
6) (). TCC
.
.
7) .

.
56

25. .
GSM
(811 ) (500700 /)
.
. 20.6.

. 20.6.
,
.

. (
). .
,
. ,
, . ,
3000 , .
,
, .
3G.

.
()
OnAir,
GSM.
-- ,
.
57


(SITA), Airbus.

.
--
American Airlines, AirCell GoGo
Wi-Fi.

MSS
.
.
Inmarsat - Aero-H / H+
( 10 /) ,
,
.
Inmarsat H+
.
Inmarsat - Aero-I

;
(CAA - Civil Avation Authority)
. Aero-I -

, ,
600 / 4,8 /,
.
Inmarsat - Aero-C
Aero-C .
,
,
Aero-C .
,
, .
Inmarsat - Aero-L
Aero-L

600 /.
Inmarsat - Aero Mini-M
, ( 9,6 /)
.

58

26. Ethernet.
Ethernet

. Ethernet
,

.

"" ,
.
Ethernet
Ethernet
. . Ethernet
,
.
- .
. Ethernet
.
. , .
( )
, . ,
.
Ethernet

,
. MAC-.
Ethernet ,
( )
(MAC-),
.
, ,
( ,
) MAC-.
IP ,
TCP/IP.
IP (RFC 791)
( )
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
()
, TCP IP
.
59

TCP/IP
, , IP-
,
. , IP- 12.34.56.78
255.255.0.0 12.34.0.0.
ARP (. Address Resolution Protocol )
, IP ( ) MAC- (
) TCP/IP. RFC 826.

.
( ),
,
,
( ).
- yp p p p
p p py p ().
pp, p p c y
.
TTL - (time to live ) IP
,
IP- .

60

27. Fast Ethernet Metro Ethernet.


fast ethernet

fast
ethernet

IEEE 802.3.
fast ethernet ethernet
, 100
( ethernet 10 /).
fast ethernet
.
-100Base-TX - 2 5

-100Base-T4 - 4
-100Base-FX - ,
= 160
fast ethernet, ethernet,
, ..
,
. ,

(100Base-TX 4B/5B | 100Base-T4
8B/6T).
fast ethernet
-

-

- (.. fast
ethernet )
- CSMA/CD
- ()
MetroEthernet
MetroEthernet Metro .
MetroEthernet
, ,

, ,
, , .
MetroEthernet
-
;
-
- .
61

MetroEthernet
.
MetroEthernet
MetroEthernet
.

1 /.

1
/. QWERTY
Gigabit
Ethernet.
Fast Ethernet 100
/.
Metro Ethernet
:
-

.
-

,
.
- .

Metro Ethernet
, , SOHO .
,
,
.

62

28. Internet.
Internet

( ,
,
).
Internet .
.
,
.

( ,
).

Internet

.
-
.
,

.

.
,
.

. -
(host - ). ,
Internet, .. Internet
, , , .

,
, , ..
Internet . .

.
,

,
.

, Internet - (Internet
Service Provider - ISP),
. ,
63

,
.
.

Internet.
,
(IP-),

,
.

() TCP/IP. TCP/IP
Ethernet, FDDI .

TCP/IP

,
IP,
.
. ,
,
TCP.
,
.
: telnet,
FTP, HTTP,
: SMTP, POP, IMAP, MIME.

64

29.
.
(. collision , )
,
.

Ethernet
,
(carrier-sense-multiply-access with
collision detection, CSMA/CD).
( ,
).
,
.
(
)
,
.
, ,

. ,
, .
,

(carrier-sense).
,
5-10 ,
, .
, .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
-.
, - ,
.
(Inter Packet Gap) 9,6 .
, ,
,
.

, .

,
.
65


,
, ,
. , (collision),

,
Ethernet,
.
Ethernet.
,

. , - ,
,
,
.
.

(CSMA/CD).
,
.
.
1) , .
2) .
3) (
)
2500 .

(CSMA/CA).

,
.
.
,
( ) ,
. .
,
,
. -
.
, , .
66

30. ().
:

.
, ,

.

, ,
.

.
( ,
,
)
.

, ,
QoS .

.
.
,
(VLAN),

TACACS+/RADIUS.

365 .
. (
1.).

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