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1. The thickness calculated shall be corrected for 12.

5% negative


2. Thickness of a permanent blank for the pipe is given by:

t m dg

16 SE

Where, dg = gasket inside diameter

3. Materials can be used up to given minimum temperature in table A1
(stress table) without impact testing.
4. For lower temperatures, go to Fig. 323.2.2. If temperature & thickness
combination point falls on or above the material curve (Fig. 323.22),
impact testing is NOT required. (If below the curve impact testing is
5. To know which material is represented by which curve (Fig. 323.2.2,
curves A, B, C, D), go to table A-1 (stress table).
6. Typically, Curve A materials are Most Brittle.
7. For impact testing, 3 specimens are required. If the average of 3
specimens > = Required Average and value of only one specimen is
less than average but more than minimum for one specimen Accept.
8. If two specimens are below required average, or one specimen is less
than average but also less than minimum for one specimen Retest.
9. After retest all three must equal or exceed the average.

10. For joining unequal schedule pipe, tapering or step-slot shall be made inside
thicker pipe for weld fit-up.
11. For fillet weld, the throat of fillet weld is calculated as throat = 0.707 size of
12. All welding shall be done by qualifying procedures and welders according to
13. Table 330.1.1 gives required and recommended pre-heat temperature.
Recommendation becomes requirement if ambient temp is <0C.
14. In dissimilar pipe joints higher temperature of the two is to be used for preheating. The pre-heat zone shall extend at least one inch beyond the edge
of the weld.
15. Pre-heating, whenever specified ie applied to Strength welds, tack welds
and seal welds.
16. PWHT Table (331.1.1) gives temperature range, minimum holding time and
maximum hardness values.
17. PWHT conducted properly should reduce the hardness in weld and HAZ.
Code gives the maximum Brinell Hardness Values after PWHT
18. Where a hardness limit is specified in Table 331.1.1, at least 10 % of welds,
hot bends, and hot formed components in each furnace heat treated batch and
100% of those locally heat treated shall be tested for hardness.
19. All NDT (PT, RT, MT, VT, UT) shall be carried out according to ASME Sec.

20. Acceptance criteria shall be as per Table 341.3.2.

21. If two values are separated by and lower value becomes the acceptance limit.
If two values are separated by or then higher value becomes the acceptance
22. According to ASME B 31.3, Owners inspector should have 10 years minimum
experience in the design, fabrication, or inspection of industrial pressure
23. After fabrication and inspection of piping, but before first operation, hydrostatic
pressure test shall be carried out on completed piping.
24. Only if hydrostatic test is not practicable, pneumatic test may be conducted.
25. Test pressure in both cases shall be held for minimum 10 minutes.
26. Hydrostatic Pressure = 1.5 x Design Pressure x Stress Ratio
Stress at test temperature ( Ambient )
Stress at design temperature

27. Stress Ratio =

28. Pneumatic Test Pressure = 1.1 x Design Pressure
29. Pneumatic Pressure should be initially raised up to 50% of

test pressure

or 25 psi (whichever is less) and a preliminary check shall be made. After

preliminary check pressure can be increased slowly to reach up to test

30. In pneumatic leak test, final inspection pressure for leak check is


Pressure of the Piping System.

31. For category D fluids the leak testing at operating pressure can be performed
with the product itself directly.
32. For pressure testing of piping systems, pneumatic test should be done
using air but other non toxic gases may be used.
33. For hydro testing water should be used but other non toxic liquid may be
34. The inspection procedure records shall be retained for at least 5 years.
35. Thermal expansion and contraction for different temperatures is given in Table
C-1. This information is used to decide expansion and contraction margins
required for pipe supports and other purposes.

(DAY 1)
1. B 16.5 Covers Flanges and flanged fittings with rating class designation 150. 300,
400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24
2. ASME B 16.5 permits Blind flanges made from plates .
3. The System Hydrostatic Test pressure for flanges and flanged fittings is 1.5 times the
pressure rating at 100 deg. F rounded to higher 25 psi.
4. For finding out the required flange class as per B16.5, first find out which table
(Pressure Temperature rating table) to refer for that material. Flange rating then can
be read out from that table for given condition of design pressure and design
5. Flanges are not required to be pressure tested. Each flanged fitting shall be given a
shell pressure test
6. The shell pressure test for flanged fittings shall be at a pressure no less than 1.5 times
the 38C (100F) pressure rating rounded off to the next higher 1 bar (25 psi)
7. Flanged fittings shall be pressure tested for leak tightness using water. Other test
fluids may also be used if required. The test duration shall be:

Duration, sec

< NPS 2


NPS 21/2 to NPS 8


> NPS 10