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Tutorial 8 CHEN2000 PROCESS PRINCIPLES

Section A: Mandatory questions


Question A1: Problem 21.1 Chapter 21 (7th edition)
Convert 45.0 Btu/lbm to the following:
(a) cal/kg
(b) J/kg
(c) kWh/kg
(d) (ft)(lbf)/lbm

Question A2: Problem 22.6 Chapter 22 (7th edition)

By use of the steam tables, compute the numerical values for Q, W, H, and U for the
complete process in which one pound of liquid water is initially confined in a capsule at
327.8oF and 100 psia within an evacuated vessel of 4.435 ft3 capacity; the capsule is then
broken within the vessel allowing the water to escape into the evacuated vessel; and finally the
water is brought to the initial temperature (327.8oF).

Question A3
An 800 MW power plant burns coal to boil water generating saturated steam (100% quality) at
70 bar. This steam is expanded in a turbine to a steam at 100 oC and 1 bar. The steam enters the
turbine at 10 m/s and exits 5 m below entrance point level at 100 m/s. The turbine is connected
to an electrical generator by a shaft. The efficiency of the turbine is 60%.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Draw and label the flow diagram of the process!


What is the shaft work done by the turbine (MW)?
How much heat is lost to the surroundings from the turbine (MW)?
What is the mass flow rate of steam to the turbine (kg/h)?

Section B: Highly recommended questions


(please attempt these problems by yourself and discuss with the teaching staff or tutor
should you face any difficulty)
Question B1: Problem 21.7 - Chapter 21 (7th edition)
Solar energy has been suggested as a source of renewable energy. If in the desert the direct
radiation from the sun (say for 320 days) is 975 W/m2 between 10 AM and 2PM, and the
conversion efficiency to electricity is 21.0%, how many square meters are needed to collect an
amount of energy equivalent to the annual U.S. energy consumption of 3 1020 J? Is the
construction of such an area feasible?

How many tons of coal (of heating value of 10,000 Btu/lb) would be
needed to provide
20
the 3 10 J if the efficiency of conversion to electricity was 70%? What fraction of the
total U.S. resources of coal (estimated at 1.7

10

12

tons) is the calculated quantity?

Question B2: Problem 21.14 - Chapter 21 (7th edition)


Answer the following question true or false:
(a) A simple test to determine if a property is an extensive property is to split the system in
half, and if the value of the sum of the properties in each half is twice the value of the
property in one half, then the property is an extensive variable.
(b) The value of a state variable (point function) depends only on its state and not how the
state was reached.
(c) An intensive variable is a variable whose value depends on the amount of mass present.
(d) Temperature, volume and concentration are intensive variables.
(e) Any variable that is expressed as a specific, i.e., per unit mass, quantity is deemed to be
an intensive variable.

Question B3: Problem 21.16 - Chapter 21 (7th edition)


Are the following variables intensive or extensive?
(a) Partial pressure
(b) Volume
(c) Specific gravity
(d) Potential energy
(e) Relative saturation
(f) Specific volume
(g) Surface tension
(h) Refractive index

Question B4: Problem 21.35 - Chapter 21 (7th edition)


What is the potential energy in joules of a 12 kg mass 25 m above a datum plane?

Question B5: Problem 21.42 - Chapter 21 (7th edition)


One pound of liquid water is at its boiling point of 575oF. It is then heated at constant pressure
to 650oF, and then compressed at constant temperature to one-half of its volume (at 650oF), and
finally returns to its original state of the boiling point at 575oF. Calculate
the overall process.

H and U for

Question B6: Problem 21.43 - Chapter 21 (7th edition)


A gas is heated at 200 kPa from 300 K to 400 K, and then cooled to 350 K. In a different
process the gas is directly heated from 300 K to 350 K at 200 kPa. What difference is there in
internal energy and enthalpy changes for the two processes?

Question B7: Problem 22.10 - Chapter 22 (7th edition)


A vertical cylinder capped by a piston weighing 990 g contains 100 g of air at 1 atmosphere
and 25oC. Calculate the maximum possible final elevation of the piston if 100 J of work is used
to raise the cylinder and its contents vertically. Assume that all of the work goes into raising
the piston.

Question B8: Problem 22.13 - Chapter 22 (7th edition)


A quantity of an ideal gas goes through the ideal cycle shown in Figure P22.13.

Calculate:
(a) Pound moles of gas being processed.
(b) VD, ft3
(c) WAB, Btu
(d) WBC, Btu
(e) WCD, Btu
(f) WDA, Btu
(g) W for the cycle, Btu
(h) H for the cycle, Btu
(i) Q for the cycle, Btu
Data:
TA = 170oF
TD = 823oF
TB = 70oF
BC = isothermal process
DA = adiabatic process
Assume CV = 5/2 R

Question B9: Problem 22.24 - Chapter 22 (7th edition)


Start with the general energy balance, and simplify it for each of the processes listed below to
obtain an energy balance that represents the process. Label each term in the general energy
balance by number, and list by their numbers the terms retained or deleted followed by your
explanation. (You do not have to calculate any quantities in this problem.)

(a) One hundred kilograms per second of water is cooled from 100oC to 50oC in a heat
exchanger. The heat is used to heat up 250 kg/s of benzene entering at 20oC. Calculate the
exit temperature of benzene.
Question B10: Problem 22.25 - Chapter 22 (7th edition)
It is necessary to evaluate the performance of an evaporator that will be used to concentrate a
5% organic solution. Assume there will be no boiling point rise. The following information has
already been obtained:
U = 300Btu/(hr)(ft2)(oF);

V
.

5 % organic
95% water

xP
.

Steam S

S c Condensate

Figure P22.25
A = 2,000 ft3; heating steam S is available at 4.5 psia; feed enters at 140oF. Must any further
.

measurements be made? The rate of heat transfer from the steam coils to the liquid is
UA (TS TV).

Question B11: Problem 22.27a - Chapter 22 (7th edition)


Write the simplified energy balance for the following processes:
(a) A fluid flows steadily through a poorly designed coil in which it is heated from 170 o to
250oF. The pressure at the coil inlet is 120 psia, and at the coil outlet is 70 psia. The coil is of
uniform cross section, and the fluid enters with a velocity of 2 ft/sec.
Question B12: Problem 22.29 - Chapter 22 (7th edition)
Your company produces small power plants that generate electricity by expanding waste
process steam in a turbine. You are asked to study the turbine to determine if it is operating as
efficiently as possible. One way to ensure good efficiency is to have the turbine operate
adiabatically.
Measurements show that for steam at 500oF and 250 psia.
(a) The work output of the turbine is 86.5 hp.
(b) The rate of steam usage is 1000 lb/hr.
(c) The steam leaves the turbine at 14.7 psia and consists of 15 percent moisture (i.e., liquid
H2O). Is the turbine operating adiabatically? Support your answer with calculations.