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l Types of Nutrition

In plants and some animals (Euglena, volvox) nutrition is autotrophic or holophytic.

Chemo autotrophs are those which use energy from oxidation of substances already present on
earth to fix carbon to organic compound (sulphur bacteria).

Photoautotrophs use the energy of light to fix carbon to organic compound (green plants)

Heterotrophic nutrition is the characteristics of animals and some nongreen plants.

Heterotrophs may be holophytic (feed exclusively on solid material through mouth) saprophytic
(dissolved organic material is taken often all over the body) and parasitic (which feed in or on
another organism (host)


It is a mechanochemical process which converts the macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins,

fats, nucleic acids) into micromolecules (glucose, amino acid, fatty acid, nucleotides).

Two types : Intracellular (digestion occur inside the cell) as in lower animals (protozoan, poriferan

Extracellular (digestion occur in the lumen of alimentary canal as in majority of invertebrates and

In coelenterates (Hydra) digestion is both extracellular and intracellular.

Functional regions of the alimentary Canal


The region of reception : includes mouth and its associated appendages and cavity meant for food
selection and mechanical break down of food.
The region of conduction and storage : Oesophagus and crop (in birds).
The region of internal trituration and digestion : Gizzard (cockroach, birds), Stomach.
The region of final digestion and absorption : Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum).
The region of faeces formation : Large intestine (colon, rectum, anus)

Mammalian alimentary canal (Important Points)


In general, alimentary canal of herbivorous animal is longer than carnivorous animal.

The embryonic digestive tract is endodermal in origin and termed as archenteron or primitive

Ruminants have four chambered stomachRumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum.

Digestion of cellulose in these organism is brought about by symbiotic microorganisms
(anerobic bacteria Rumenococcus and ciliates Entodinium) present in the rumen. Abomasum
contain gastric glands which secretes digestive juice.

Brunner's gland is found only in submucosa duodenum, peyer's patches (lymphoid tissue)
ileum, villi are more numerous in jejunum.

Caecum is prominent in herbivorous animals (contains bacteria for cellulose digestion).

In humans, it is small and bears a blind tube, having lymphoid tissue called vermiform
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appendix. Its Swelling due to infection is called appendicitis.


Colon is the largest part of large intestine. Rectum is wider than colon and bears longifudinal
folds. Enlargement of rectal veins causes piles (haemorrhoids)

Wall of alimentary canal is made of 4 concentric layers outermost serosa, muscle layer
(both longitudinal and circular), Sub mucosa and innermost mucosa.

Plexus of Auerbach (nerve network) found in the muscular layer Plexus of Meissner (nerve
network) found in the submucosa.

The taste buds present on the tip of tongue respond best to sweet substance, taste buds next to
tip are sensitive to salts on the sides, taste buds are sensitive to acids and on the back to bitter

The superior surface of tongue has four types of papillae (a) vallate, largest arranged towards
the base, (b) Fungiform, numerous, situated mainly at the tip and margins.(c) Filliform, smallest
and most numerous, found in the centre and upper surface (d) Foliate, found at the sides of
the base of the tongue.

Peristalsis, is the movement in the wall of the gut by which food proceed forward towards
posterior part of gut Antiperistalsis is the reverse of peristalsis.

l Salivary Glands :

In most vertebrates 4 pairs. In human 3 pairs

(a) Parotid : Largest, lying below ears. Its duct (stenson's duct) opens opposite the site of second upper
molar. Mumps is the viral infection of parotid glands.
(b) Sub maxillary : or Submandibular : Found within angles of lower law. Its duct is known as wharton's
duct which opens near frenulum linguae.
(c) Sublingual : Found below Tongue. Its duct (Rivinus duct) opens under the tongue.
(d) Infra orbital : Absent in man, found below orbits of other vertebrates.

About 1 to 1.5 litres of saliva is produced daily. It contains 99% water, enzymes amylase, lysozyme,
(antibacterial substance), mucin (lubricate the food particle), pH of saliva6.7

Salivary amylase converts starch into maltose, isomaltose and limit "dextrins".

Salivary amylase is absent in many herbivorous mammals (cow, buffalows) and predatory carnivorous
mammals (lion, tiger etc.).

l Gastric Glands
(a) Cardiac glands : Secrete mucus
(b) Pyloric glands : Secrete mucus and hormone gastrin which stimulates the secretion of gastric
(c) Fundic glands : Consists of several types of cells.

Oxyntic Cells : Secrete HCl, which kills the bacteria and provide acid medium for pepsin.

(ii) Peptic cells (or chief cells) : Secrete two inactive enzymes prorennine and Propepsin which
is converted into active form (rennin and pepsin) by HCL. It also produces gastric lipase (weak fat
spitting enzymes).
(iii)Argentaffin cells : Produce Somatostatins, histamine.

About 20003000ml of gastric juice (pH : 23.7) is secreted per day.

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Pepsin converts the proteins into peptones.

Rennin is a milk curdling enzymes (absent in old people)

Castles intrinsic factor (secreted by oxyntic cells) essential for the proper formation of R.B.C. and
necessary for absorption of vit B12 (Cyanocobalamine) from small intestine.

l Liver

Largest gland of the body, lies on right side below diaphragm.

Liver Secrete bile, stored in a gall bladder (absent in horse and rat)

Ducts of liver lobes are known as hepatic duct, duct of gall bladder is known as cystic duct. Cystic
duct and hepatic duct joins to form bile duct which inturn joins pancreatic duct to form hepato
pancreatic ampulla (ampulla of vater). Sphincter of oddi surrounds the opening of hepato pancreatic
ampulla into duodenum.

"Sphincter of Boyden' surrounds the opening of bile duct before it is joined with the pancreatic

Enzymes are not present in the bile (pH7.6). It contains Water, Organic Salts (Sodium glycocholate
and Sodium taurocholate) which brings about fat emulsification, Inorganic salts (Bicarbonates,
Carbonates and Chlorides of Sodium, Potassium and Calcium) which provides alkaline medium
bile pigments (Bilirubinyellow, Biliverdingreen).

Bile also helps in the absorption of iron, calcium, fatty acids, and fat solublevitamins.

Kupffer cells found in liver are phagocytic.

l Pancreas :

Second largest gland, exocrine as well as endocrine.

Its exocrine part (pancreatic acini) secretes alkaline (pH 7.58.5) juice which contains following


Pancreatic amylase : hydrolyses Starch, glycogen and dextrins.

(ii) Pancreatic lipase : Converts fats into fatty acid

(iii) Trypsinogen (inactive) : Converted into active form (trypsin) by enterokinase of intestinal juice.
(iv) Chymotrypsinogen and procarboxy eptidase (inactive) converted into active form by trypsin
Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Carboxypeptidase are the active protein digesting enzymes.

(v) DNAase and RNAase : hydrolyses nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) into nucleotides.

l Intestinal Glands

Brunner glands : secrete mucus and little enzymes.

Crypts of Liberkuhn : secretes intestinal juice (succus entericus, pH7.6) which contain several



converts the inactive trypsinogen into trypsin (present in

the pancreatic juice).



breaks large peptidase into smaller peptides



dipeptides into aninoacids



nucleotides into nitrogenous base, sugar and phosphate


Intestinal lipase

fat into fatty acid and glycerol



maltose to glucose

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(vii) Lactase

(viii) Sucrase (Invertase):

sucrose to glucose and fructose.

lactose (milk sugar) to glucose and galactose.

Paneth Cells are present in the bottom of crypts of lieberkuhn. Perhaps these secrete, Lysozyme
(antibacterial Substance).

About 20003000ml of intestinal juice secreted per day.

l Hormonal control of digestive secretion


Secreted by


1. Gastrin

Pyloric epithelium
by acidic food

Stimulates the release of gastric juice

2. Enterogastrone

Duodenal epithelium on
entry of acid Chyme

Stop Secretion of gastric juice

3. Cholecystokinin

Duodenal epithelium on

Causes release of bile from gall bladder,also

entry of acid Chyme

brings about the release of enzymes in the

pancreatic juice.

4. Secretin

Duodenal epithelium on
entry of acid Chyme

Causes release of Sodium bicarbonates

in the pancreatic juice, also stimulates
production of bile by liver.


Duodenal epithelium on
entry of acid Chyme

Causes release of mucus from Brunners

gland into intestinal juice.


Duodenal epithelium on
entry of acid Chyme

It brings about re le ase of e nzyme s from

the crypts of Liberkuhn into intestial

l Absorption

No appreciable absorption of food substance occur in mouth and oesophagus.

In stomach little absoption of water, alcohol, simple salts, aspirin occurs in the gastric/mucosa.

In the colon and rectum absorption is confined to water, water soluble materials of low molecular
weight such as glucose and inorganic salts.

Most of the digested food materials are absorbed in the small intestine. For this purpose, the intestinal
surface area of the small intestine is greatly enlarged by its enormous length (about 7 m) and
outgrowth (folds, villi and microvilli).

Each villus contains abundant blood capillaries and a lymph vessel (lacteal). Fats are absrobed in
the lacteals movement of Villi are accelerated by a hormone villikinin (secreted by duodenal mucosa).

Water is absorbed by "Osmosis" till solute concentration in blood is higher than intestinal contents.

Small nutrient molecules dissolved in water diffuses into blood across mucous memb, till their
concentration is higher in intestinal contents than in the blood (Simple diffusion).

Fructose is absorbed by fascilitated diffusion.

Glucose, Galactose, amino acids are absorbed by active transport.

Absorption of fat is also a active process. The end products of digestion is absorbed by the lacteal of
the intestinal villi. From lacteal they pass into lymph vessels and finally reach into blood stream via
thoracic duct.

l Assimilation
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The end products of Carbohydrate digestion (glucose) reach the liver by hepatic portal vein. In the
liver excess of glucose is converted into glycogen (glycogenesis) and stored for the time of need and
rest is released to the body cells (where used as fuel).


Amino acids also reach the liver via hepatic portal vein where surplus aminoacids get deaminated.
The separated amino group combines with CO2 to form urea which is excreted in the form of urine.
The rest of the aminoacids are converted either into sugar or fat. Some amino acids are released by
liver to the cells where they are transformed into characteristic proteins of the body.
Some fats are stored in the liver, bones muscles, mesenteries and adipose tissue where as some
enter composition of cell organdles. Fats are also used as fuel.

l Egestion
In the colon water is absorbed into blood, thus concentrating chyle into faeces.
The urge to passout faeces is produced by widening of rectum on entry of faeces.
The faeces consists of 3/4th of water and 1/4th solid matter (3% bacteria 30% undigested roughage,
20% fat, 15% in organic matter, 3% protein).
The colour of faeces is due to brown pigments formed by modification of bile pigments by colon


l Nutritional Disorders

Marasmus :
Caused by protein energy malnutrition (PEM), occurs in infants (12 yrs.) symptom includes,
frequent diarrhoea, dry skin, protruding ribs, poor mental faculties etc.
2. Kwashiorkar :
Occurs in children of 14 yrs. due to constant reduced protein availability. Symptom includes,
protruded belly, match stick legs, oedema, blotchy skin.
3. Pellagra :
Caused by deficiency of Vit niacin, characterized by skin inflammation, diarrhoea and nervous
4. Cheilosis :
Caused by deficiency of Vit B2 (Riboflavin), Characterized by inflammation and cracking of mouth
5. Scurvy (Sailors disease) :
Due to deficiency of Vit C (ascorbic acid). Symptoms bleeding gums, falling teeth, fragile bones,
slow healing of injuries.
6. BeriBeri :
Due to deficiency of Vit B1 (thiamine) or Vit G (excessive intake of polished rice)
Symptomsloss of appetite (anorexia), weaking of muscles, fatigue, body rigidity and neuritis.
7. Anaemia : three types
(a) Microcystic (most common) : Due to iron deficiency leading to fewer and smaller erythrocytes
with reduced haemoglobin.
(b) Megaloblastic : Due to fewer abnormal red blood cells caused by deficiency of folic acid (Vit B10 ).
(c) Pernicious : Due to production of haemoglobin free immature RBCs caused by deficiency of vit B12
as a result of deficient intrinsic factor.

l Energy requirements : expressed in terms of calories.

(a) Basal metabolic rate (BMR) : Minimum energy requirement for maintenance of body as during
sleep or rest. For a normal human adult it is 1600 K Cal/day. For other animals BMR decreases
with increase in size and vice versa.
(b) Routine metabolic rate (RMR) : It is the energy requirement of a for adult moderately active
person. It is 2800K Cal day for adult males and 2200K cal day for adult females.
(c) Active metabolic rate (AMR) : Energy requirement of a person doing heavy physical work. It is
40006000K Cal depending upon duration of the work.
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l Respiratory organs

Skin : Annelids, Amphibians (b) Trachea : Insects, Centipedes, Millipedes.


Book Lungs : Scorpian and Spiders (d) Books Gills : Limulus (King Crab)


Pulmonary Sac : Molluscs (Pila) (f) Gills : Prawn, Tadpole, Pisces, Molluscs (Pila, Unio)

(g) Lungs : Amphibians and Amniotes (Reptiles, Birds and Mammals)


In protozoan, poriferan, and coelenterates exchange of gases occurs through general body surface.

In Parasitic worms respiration is usually anaerobic.

In frog, cutaneous respiration goes on all time, buccopharyngeal and pulmonary respirationon
land. A hibernating frog respire through skin only.

l Some Facts to Ponder


Animals having larger surface area than internal volume have no specialised structure for breathing
e.g. Protozoa.

Animals in which air reaches the extracelluar space directly, there is no external respiration e.g.,
tracheal respiration in arthropods.

The site for external respiration in fishes is a pharyngeal gill, in amphibians external gills in tadpole,
and only lungs in reptiles, birds & mammals.

l Respiratory Pigments
Respiratory Pigments





Iron (Fe+t )

Annelids (dissolved in Plasma)
Vertebrates (in R.B.C.).

(ii) Haemocyanin


Copper (Cu++)

Molluscs, Arthropods (except insects).

(iii) Chlorocrunin



Some annelids (Sabella).

(iv) Haemoerythrin



Some annelids.




Some molluscs.



Coelomic fluid of echinoderms.


(vi) Echinochrome

l Mammalian (Human) Respiratory System (Important Points)


The nasal cavity is divided into two nasal chambers by nasal septum. Each nasal septum is
differentiated into lower vestibular, middle, respiratory and upper, olfactory regions.

Larynx (Voice box) is prominant in adult male (also known as Adam's apple). It is made up of
several cartilage (a) thyroid, Cshaped, most prominant (b) cricoid Signet ring shaped
(c) arytenoid pyramid shaped (d) epiglottis leaf shaped, covers the glottis during ingestion.
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Vocal Cords, found in the larynx are two pairs outer pair, false and inner pair, true.

Trachea (wind pipe) is a cartilaginous and membranous tube about 10 or 11cm long. It is kept
patent by incomplete Cshaped rings of cartilage on its anterolateral wall, which keeps air tubes

Lungs, lie in thoracic cavity on either side of the heart. It is enclosed in a double walled sac
pleural cavity (outer parietal, inner visceral). The left lung has two lobes (superior, inferior) and
right lung has three lobes (superior, middle and inferior lobe).

'Alveoli' are the functional unit of lung, where exchange of gases takes place.
Palv alveolar pressure
Pip Intra pulmonary pressure

















Quiet, normal breathing is often referred to as "abdominal breathing" as the diaphragm exerts pressure
upon abdominal contents.

During deep inspiration contraction of diaphragm is 45 times more than the normal so that chest
volume increases 15% to 20% and movement of chest becomes apparent. That's why deep breathing
is often referred to as "thoracic breathing".

During deep expiration, the internal intercostal and certain abdominal muscles pull the rib cage
compressing the lungs.

Rate of breathing varies in diff. animal species as well as diff. individuals of the same species (human
infants 44 time per minute, human adult 1215 times/minutes).

l Regulation of Breathing
(a) Dorsal respiratory group (on ventrolateral part of medulla) issues signal for inspiration.
(b) Ventral respiratory group (on ventrolateral part of medulla) inspiratory as well expiratory.
(c) Pneumotaxic centre (on dorsal part of pons) Inspiratory.

Voluntary breathing is controlled by cerebral cortex.

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Stretch Receptor : Occur in the wall of bronchi and bronchioles which becomes stimulated when
lungs are inflated in inspiration and transmit signals through vagus nerve to the dorsal group of
respiratory centre to switch off inspiratory signals. (HeringBreuer reflex) An example of feed back


"Chemoreceptors" (in the wall & aortic arch and carotid arteries) stimulated when Po2 decreases or
increases in arterial blood and send impulses to respiratory centre to respectively increase or
decrease the rate and intensity of inspiratory signals.

Chemoreceptors area (located close to respiratory centre in medulla) is highly sensitive to changes
in PCO2 and pH in blood. This excites the respiratory centre to increase the rate as well as intensity
of inspiratory signals when PCO2 rise or pH falls, and decrease the rate and intensity of respiratory
signals when PCO2 falls or pH increases.

Mountain sickness develops when a person living in the plain goes to a mountain about 800 ft. from
sea level. This sickness is due to decrease in oxygenation of blood. Symptoms are breathlessness,
headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, bluish tinge of skins, lips etc.

Decompression Sickness occurs if divers go in depth at sea and are lifted rapidly to sea surface.
Due to rapid fall of pressure, nitrogen is evolved in the form of bubbles which can travel through
blood to different vital organs causing dizziness, paralysis, localised pain and even mental disorder.

l Pulmonary Volumes : measured with an instrument "Spirometer"

(a) Tidal Volume (TV):Volume of air breathed in and out during quiet respiration (500 ml).
(b) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) : Volume of air that can be breathed in by maximum inspiratory
effort (2 to 3.3 liters).
(c) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) : Volume of air that can be breathed out by maximum expiratory
effort after an ordinary expiration (about 1 litre).
(d) Residual Volume (RV) : Volume of air which remains in the lungs after maximum expiration (average
1.2 litres).

l Lung Capacities : It is combination of two or more pulmonary volumes.

(a) Inspiratory Capacity (IC) : TV + IRV (about 3.5 litres).
It is maximum amount of air that can be inspired from the end expiratory position.
(b) Functional Residual Capacity : RV + ERV (about 2.2 litres). Volume of air remaining in the lungs
after a quiet expiration.
(c) Total Lung Capacity : IC + FRC (about 5.7 litres). Volume of air that the lung can hold after a
maximum possible inspiration.
(d) Vital capacity : IC + ERV (about 4.5 litres). Volume of air that can be breathed out by maximum
expiratory efforts after a maximum inspiration.

Vital capacity depends on age, sex, race and size of the individuals. It is also lesser when we are
resting on bed.

Dead Space : The air which remains confined in the upper respiratory tract with each inspiration
and is not available for gaseous interchange is known as Dead Space (150ml).

l Exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) in the lungs and tissues


PO2 in alveolar air is 100 mm Hg and that of dissolved O2 in the mixed venous blood is only 40 mm
Hg. Due to tension gradient O2 diffuses rapidly from alveolar air to the mixed venous blood.
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PO2 in the tissue fluid is low (40 mm Hg). The arterial blood enters the tissue capillaries with PO2
100 mm Hg, so O2 diffuses from plasma to the tissue fluid due to tension gradient between two


PCO2 in alveolar air and mixed venous blood is 40 mm Hg and 45 56 mm Hg respectively. Due to
difference of partial pressure of CO2 in pulmonary blood and alveolar air (5 to 6 mm Hg), CO2 diffuses
rapidly through respiratory membrane

l Oxygen Transport :
Water has poor solubility for O2, So blood plasma is a
poor carrier of this gas. O2 is mainly (97% ) carried by
Hb of RBCs.

1 gm of Hb when fully saturated will combine with

1.34ml of O2. Since the blood contains approx. 15
grams of Hb per 100ml gm blood, the oxygen content
of the blood when fully saturated will be about
15x1.34=20ml. This is called O2 carrying capacity of
blood. Naturally the O2 capacity depends upon amount
of Hb in blood.
The dissociation curve (sigmoid) for O2 is obtained by
plotting the percentage saturation of Hb against PO2.
The curve shows that


% saturation of Hb

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

PO2 (mmHg)

Percentage saturation of Hb is diff. at diff. PO2

A steep rise in % saturation of Hb between 0 40mm Hg O2 tension
No significant increase in % saturation of Hb occurs between PO2 60mm Hg 100mm Hg.
The first part of the curve is nearly vertical (between PO2 zero and 40mm Hg) and last part of the
curve is almost horizontal (from PO2 60 mm Hg to 100 mm Hg) and the overall curve is sigmoid
in shape.

Factors influencing the shape of the curve


Bohr effect : In the presence of high PCO2. The curve is deviated to the right which means CO2
favour dissociation of oxyhaemoglobin and release of O2.
Increased pH (acidity) in the blood shifts the dissociation curve to the right.
Increased temperature and DPG (2, 3 diphosphoglycerate) also shifts the curve to the right.
Fall in the body temperature, DPG, PCO2 or rise in blood pH increase O2 affinity of haemoglobin
and shifts the dissociation curve to the left.

l CO2 Transport :

Co2 is 20 times more soluble in water of plasma than that of Oxygen, so it is carried by both plasma
and R.B.Cs.
Blood can carry about 4ml of Co2 in each 100ml of blood from tissues to lungs. Blood transports Co2
in three ways
About 0.3ml of CO 2 is transported by each 100ml of blood in dissolve d state in plasma
(about 7%).

(ii) About 2.5ml CO2/100ml of blood (about 70%) in the form of carbonate (Na+ K+ bicarbonates).
(iii) About 1ml CO2/100ml of blood (23% ) in the form of carbamino compound (CO2H Hb).

Carbonic anhyrase (ca) found in R.B.Cs acceleates the rate of formation of carbonic acid about 5000

Inside the R.B.Cs carbonic acid dissociates into H++HC03. HC03 diffuses from R.B.Cs into plasma.
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To maintain electrostatic neutrality of plasm many chloride ions, in turn diffuse from plasma into
R.B.Cs. This is termed 'Chloride Shift' or Hamburger Shift'.


Haldane effect : Promotes CO2 transport. The Haldane effect results from the fact that oxyhaemoglobin
behaves as a strong acid. This displaces, CO2 from blood in two ways.

Due to its increased acidity, haemoglobin loses its capacity to combine with CO2, hence all carbamino
haemoglobin dissociates to release its CO2.

(ii) Highly acidic Oxyhaemoglobin release an excess of H+ which bindwith bicarbonate ion forming
carbonic acid. The latter soon dissociates into H2O and CO2.

l Respiratory disorders

Anoxia (hypoxia) : Inadequate or decreased supply of Oxygen to the lungs because of extrinsic



: Difficulty in breathing, associated with the sense of distress.



: Improper aeration of blood, if continued for some time in an intact animal

may lead to death.



: Any rise in the quantity of air breathed per minute.



: It is a clinical condition in which the skin and mucous membrane assumea

bluish colour.





: Characterized by destruction of the alveolar walls and conseq uently a marked

enlargement of the alveolar air spaces and loss of Pulmonary capillaries.
Cigarette smoking is the main cause.
: Inflammation of the pleura may be fibrinous (dry), be associated with
effusion(wet) or be complicated by emyema.

l Respiratory Quotient (RQ)


VolumeofCO 2 evolved
VolumeofO 2 absorbed

* Value of RQ varies with the respiratory substrate.

For carbohydrate unity (1),
For fat and proteinless than 1
For organic acid more than 1,
In anaerobes Infinite,
In succulents Zero.

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Willam Harvey Father of circulation (1628) Discovered Heart & Circulation

A system of circulation of the fluid inside the body with an aim to maintain the hydro
communication among the different parts of the body. The fluids are blood and lymph.

CS consists of a central pumping strucutre i.e. heart and the vessels with an aim to maintain
continuous transport of the substances required by the cells e.g. O2, CO2, Food, Hormone, Excretory
substances etc. and body temperature maintenance.

CS can be of two typesopen & close types.

In the close type the fluid circulates inside the closed vesels (arteries & veins) and maintains the
exchange in the eapillaries e.g. arthrpods, protochordates.

In the open type the fluids circulate in an open space and do not need arteries or veins and the
exhange occurs in the lacunar or open spaces, arthropods, protochordates.

l Circulatory media



Haemolymph :





Watery fluid without respiratory pigment, found in nematodes,

rotifers etc.
Less watery with respiratory pigment found in arthropods and
Similar to blood plasma in composition, transport materials to and
fro in the tissue, found in almost all animals including inverteb
rates and vertebrates.
Chief circulatory medium of animals including invertebrates and
vertebrates (except amphioxus and Leptocephalus).

l Difference between Artery and Vein




Blood flow

Away from heart

Towards heart

State of blood

Oxygenated Except
Pulmonary artery

Deoxygenated Except
Pulmonary vein




Pressure speed

High & Fast

Low & slow




Position flow



Blood flow

With jerk

Without jerk









Dark red

l Types of Heart

Pulsating hearts : In some animals (annelids, amphioxus) many blood vessels are contractile and
show rhythmic peristaltic waves. Such vessels are referred to as pulsating hearts.


Tubular hearts : These are in the form of contractile muscular tubes, found in arthropods.
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Ampullar or booster hearts : These are in the form of dilated portions of the blood vessels, found in
some crustaceans, insects and cephalopods.


Chambered Hearts : These hearts are made up of either two chambers (as in fishes) or three chambers
(as in amphibians) or four chambers (as in birds and mammals.

Piscian heart is two chambered (one auricle and one ventricle), two accessory chambers are
sinusvenosus and conus (truncus) arteriosus. Heart of pisces handles only deoxygenated blood.
From heart, blood is pumped to the gills for Oxygenation, such a heart is called "Venous heart" (or
branchial heart).

Correlated with shift from aquatic (gill) to terrestrial respiration (lungs), heart of lung fishes (dipnoans)
and most urodele amphibian develops a new short pulmonary circulation parallel with systemic
circulation. Atrium is divided by inter auricular septum (perforated by foramen ovale) into right
and left. A partial partition also divides the ventricle.

In amphibians (anurans) inter auricle septum is complete (without foramen ovale) Ventricle is
undivided (3 chambers heart). Sinus venosus opens into Right auricle. Conus arteriosus prominent
in anurans and replaced by bulbus arteriosus in urodeles.

In most reptiles, there are two auricles and partly divided ventricle but in crocodiles interventricular
septum is complete thus making an effective 4 chambered heart. But complete separation of
Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is not achieved due to foramen of Panizae (an opening
connecting right and left systemic aortae) Sinus venous persists, conus splits to form 3 aortae
pulmonary & right and left systemic.

In Birds and mammals heart is completely four chambered (2 auricles + 2 ventricles). Sinus venosus
is absent (incorporated into right auricle) Conus arteriosus is completely replaced by pulmonary
aorta, leaving right ventricle for lungs and single systemic aorta (right systemic in birds, left
systemic in mammals) leaving left ventricle for body.

l Emryological Origin of Heart


The heart orginates as simple tube like structure with four divisions from posterior to anterior
sinus, auricle, vertricle and the truncus that supplies the vertral blood vessel. Then after due to
twisting of the heat the ventricle shifts ventral and the auricle dorsal e.g. fishes. Then auricle is
brought anterior to the ventricle eg. amphibians onward.

l Neurogenic & Myogenic Heart

Neurogenic hearts (e.g. invertebrates) are less muscular and controlled by the nerve cells directly
whereas in the Myogenic hearts the wave of contraction starts in the muscle fibers.

l Mammalian heart (Imp. points)


Mammalian heart enclosed in a tough pericardium consists of outer fibrous and inner serous
pericardium. The latter is composed of outer parietal layer and a inner visceral layer having a very
narrow space, filled with pericardial fluid, which keeps the heart moist.
Right auricle receives two large veins superior and inferior vena cavae which brings deoxygenated
blood from upper and lower regions of the body and a small coronary sinus which returns
deoxygenated blood from heart wall.
Left auricle receives four pulmonary veins which brings deoxygenated blood from lungs.

l Valves
Valve of thebesius : near opening of coronary sinus into right auricle.
Tricuspid Valve : near right auriclo ventricular aperture.
Bicuspid Valve (Mitral Valve) : near left auriclo ventricular aperture.
Semilunar Valve : at the base of pulmonary and systemic arch.
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Inter atrial septum has an oval thin area called fossa ovalis which marks the position of an opening,
the foramen ovalis, between the two auricles in the foetus.


A ligament, called ligamentum arteriosum, connects pulmonary aorta with the systemic aorta. It
is the remnant of an embryonic channel Ductus botalii between the two aortae.

l Nodal tissues

SA node (Sinuauricular node) : located in the wall of right auricle slightly below the opening of
superior vena cava. It initiates a wave of contraction (pacemaker).

AV node (Auriculo ventricular bundle) : lies at the base of right auricle near inter auricular septum.
Stimulated by auricular contraction, generates fresh waves of contraction.

Bundle of His : Originates from AV node, divides into right and left bundle, one going into the wall
of each ventricle.

Purkinje fibres : In the wall of ventricles two branches of bundle of His break up into large no of
purkinje fibres that are distributed to the entire musculature of the ventricles. It conducts impulses
six times faster than other parts of the heart.

l Cardiac Cycle

Changes that occur in the heart during one beat, are repeated in the same order in the next beat.
This cyclic repetition of the various changes in heart from beat to beat is called cardiac cycle.

Cardiac Cycle time : With the normal heart rate of 75 per minute, this time will be 60/75 = 0.8 Sec.
Cardiac cycle time is inversely proportional to the heart rate.

The events of cardiac cycle can be briefly summarised into three phases.

Phase I : Simultaneous contraction of both auricle (Auricular Systole) with the blood passing from
the auricles into the ventricles which are relaxing (Diastole), duration 0.1 Sec.

Phase II : Simultaneous contraction of ventricles (ventricular contraction). The blood is forced

into aorta and pulmonary trunk, while the auricles are relaxing, duration 0.3 Sec.

Phase III : The ventricles relax and auricles are also relaxing (Joint diastole). During this phase
blood enters the auricles from the venous vessels, duration 0.4 sec.

l Some Fact and Figures


A 100 gms forgs heart beats 58/mt. Blood takes 0.94 secs to pass from sinus to conus. The ECG of
frogs heart confirms that it corresponds to PQRST complex of the ECG.PB in sinus is 0.30 mm of
Hg, right auricle1.75, left auricle0.8

In human atrial systole takes 0.1 sec. and diastole takes 0.7 sec, ventricular systole takes 0.3 sec
and diastole 0.5 sec. hence the cardiac cycle takes 0.78 secs.

In frog carotid labyrinth secrets ANF (Antrial natruretic Factor) to control the BP of heat.

The blood presure is measured by SPHYGMOMANOMETER in man it is 120/80 i.e. systolic/diastolic.

l Heart Sounds

First Sound (LUBB) : Occurs at the onset of ventricular systole, caused by sudden closure of A.V.
valve (bicuspid and tricuspid valve)

Second Sound (DUP) : Occurs at the onset of diastole and is caused by sudden closure of Semilunar
valves in the pulmonary artery and aorta.

Third Sound : Occurs just after second sound, caused by sudden rush of atrial blood into the
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ventricles when A.V. valves open. It indicates the beginning of ventricular filling.

Fourth Sound : Also called atrial sound, caused by the contraction of atria and consequent rush
of blood into the ventricles. It occurs just before 1st sound and indicates the end of ventricular

l Electro Cardiogram (ECG)


The electrical events occuring during cardiac cycle

made on a gra ph pa per in a wave form ca lle d
electrocardiogram. The instrument used for this purpose
is known as electrocardiograph.


A typical human ECG shows five waves P,Q, R,S, and

T. PRT are above the base line and are called positive
waves. Q and S waves are below base line and are called
negative waves. The part of the base line between any
two deflection is called interval.




P is the depolarization wave of atria and take place when

the impulse spreads over the atria and therefore caused
by passage of action current over the atria.

Q is caused by contraction of septum when the impulse

arrives there.

R is first positive de fle ction during ve ntricula r

depolarization (having least amplitude).

S is the down ward deflection during ventricular depolarization.

T is caused by the action current due to contraction of basal part of the ventricles.

PQ interval represents contraction of the auricle.

QRS interval measures total ventricular depolarisation.

QT interval measures ventricular total systolic time.

TP interval measures the diastolic period of the heart.

l Cardiac Output (C.O.)


It is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute.

Heart beat is 72 times per minute and pumps out about 70ml of blood during each beat,
thus the cardiac out put = 70x72=5040ml (roughly 5 litres.).

Distribution of Cardiac Output :

(a) Kidneys :1,300ml/minute,
(b) Brain : 700800ml/minute,
(c) Coronary : 200ml/minute
(d) Muscle : 600900ml/minute,
(e) Liver1500ml/minute,
(f) Remaining amount (about 500ml) to skin, bones and gastrointestinal tract.

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Heavy exercise increases the cardiac output 610 times the normal mintue volume.

Fever, hyperthyroidism, excitement increases cardiac output.

Hypothyroidism, haemorrhage, shock, heart failure reduce cardiac output.


l Heart Rate

Normal Value : 7080/minute (in adult male), slightly higher in adult female.

In healthy human adult heart beats 72mnt. to pump 70m. blood/systole i.e. 5lts blood/mnt (during
exerciese 20 lts/mnt. and app. 1,00,000 times a day.

Heart rate is inversely proportional to age, and directly proportional to metabolic rate.

Maximum rate of heart beat is found in Rat (400600/minute).


Minimum rate of heart beat is found in elephant (28/minute).

In rabbit heart beats 200 times/mt. in pigeons 190 times.

l Heart Beat

Spontaneous and rhythmic contraction and relaxation of heart to pump out and receive blood to
and from the body is called heart beat.

The heart beat is of two types : Neurogenic and Myogenic.

The hearts in which the wave of contraction starts in the muscle fibres of the heart (nodal tissue)
are said to be myogenic (molluscs and vertebrates).

The heart in which contraction wave takes its origin from the nerve cells or groups of such cells are
said to be neurogenic heart (most arthropods and some annelids).

l Regulation of Heart Beat


Includes hormonal and nervous control.

During hormonal control, adrenalin and noradrenalin maintain normal heart beat rate.

During nervous control sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system works.

Sympathetic System secrete sympathin which increases rate of heart beat whenever required.

Parasympathetic System secrete acetylcholine which decreases rate of heart beat whenever

l Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force with which blood pushes against the walls of the blood vessels. It is
measured by sphygmomanometer in terms of how high it can push a column of mercury.

When the ventricle contract, the pressure of the blood inside the blood vessel is highest and this
pressure is termed as systolic pressure (In man it is 120mm Hg).

When the ventricles relax, no blood is ejected in the arteries and it will tend to come to zero, but it
is prevented to fall to such a low level due to elastic recoll of vessels. The pressure of blood when
the ventricles are relaxing is termed as diastolic pressure and it is about 80mm Hg in a young

Persistent rise in BP is called hight blood pressure (or hypertension). It can cause rupturing of the
capillaries. Intake of excessive saturated fats, smoking and adulterated food cause hypertension.

Fall in the arterial blood pressure is called low blood pressure (or hypertension). It may result from
chronic expansion of arterioles, loss of blood in haemorrhage or failure of the pumping action of
the heart.
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l Cardio vascular disorders


Arteriosclerosis : Hardening of arteries and arteroiles due to thickening of fibrous tissue and the
consequent loss of elasticity. It causes hypertension.


Atherosclerosis : Narrowing of arteries due to deposition of fats, leads to high B.P.


Angina pectoris : Due to arteriosclerosis of coronary artery. Symptoms Pain in the chest.


Heart attack : Due to narrowing of coronary artery due to clot formation (thrombus) stops blood
supply to the part of the heart muscle beyond the clot. The muscle cell of this part die due to lack of
Oxygen and glucose. Symptomssevere pain in the cest, breathlessness, nausea and vomiting.


Rheumatic Heart Disease :

Results from repeated attack of rheumatic fever in childhood (Caused by Streptococcus bacteria)

Bacterial toxins affect the auriculoventricular valves (tricuspid and bicuspid).

Damage to the heart valves detectable by modified heart called "murmur" such a heart is said to be


Cardiac arrest : Complete cessation of the heart activity.


Bradycardia and Tachycardia : Heart beat slower than normal is called Bradycardia and faster
than normal is called tachycardia.

l Types of Circulation

Intracellular : Cyclosis (Streaming movement of cytoplasm) helps in distribution of materials e.g.,

in all living cells and unicellular organisms (protozoan).


Extracellular : In multicellular organism. It is of many types.


Water Circulation : Water brings food and oxygen to the internal cells and carries waste materials
and Co2 from them e.g., sponges, coelenterates.


Parenchymal : Digested food diffuses into parenchymal fluid, which is distributed to different
body parts by contraction of the body. e.g., flat worm (Liver flukes).


Body cavity circulation : In Round worms (Ascaris).


Blood vascular System : Found in higher invertebrates (Annelida onwards) and all chordates. It is
of two types open and closed.
Open Types Circulatory System

Close Type Circulatory System

1. Blood flows in tissue space (sinus).

1. Blood flows in closed tubes (blood vessels).

2. Blood is in direct contact with the cells.

2. Blood is not in contact with the cells.

3. Blood has very low pressure.

3. Blood has very high pressure.

4. Occurs in arthropods & most molluscs.

4. Occurs in annelids and vertebrates.

l Portal Circulation :

When venous blood from some part of the body is redistributed by capillaries in some other organ
instead of being returned directly to the heart, the venous circulation involved is called portal
system. vertebrates have 2 or 3 portal circulation.


Hepatic Portal System : It brings the digestion products (glucose, aminoacid) to the liver. It is
present in all vertebrates.


Renal Portal System : It supplies the blood from posterior region of the body to the kidneys to
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remove waste products from the blood before sending it to heart. It is present in fishes and
amphibians, reduced in reptites and birds and absent in mammals.


Hypophysial Portal System : It enables the hormones from hypothalamus to reach the anterior
pituitory lobe.

Blood Circulation
Can be pulmonary, systemic, portal or coronary. In portal the blood instead of coming from any
organ directly to heart comes through second organ. Depending upon the second organ it can be
hepatic portal system or renal protal system hypothalamushypophysis portal system. In the coronary
circulation blood from heart through coronary vein opening directly into RA.
In Frog
The blood coming from the body and skin (hence mixed) enters right auricle and O2 blood from
lungs enters left auricle. Blood of both auricles enter ventricle simultaneously and through conus
first to pulmocutaneous and then to carotid & systemic.
In Mammals
There are two conditions

Among adults the CO2 blood of the body enters right auricle then to the ventricle to enter lungs
and get aerated. This O2 blood enters left auricle then left ventricle to get circulated to all parts of
the body i.e. body i.e. body blood passes twice through the lungs before entering general circulation


During embryonic condition as the lungs are nonfunctional, the blood does not enter lungs, instead
follows tow styles.

if foramen ovalis exists in the interauricular septum that later on closes and called fossae
ovalis. CO2 blood ____RNA_____FO__ LA____LV____CSA.


if ducts botalii exists between PA and CSA that later on closes and known as ligamentum
arteriosum CO2blood____RA____RV____PA____CSA.

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l Excretory System

A system to expel nitrogenous wastes (byproducts of DNA and protein metabolism),

along with CO2 and H2O and an essential fact for all the animals but never plants.
Why need of Excretion : Protein is the body builder substance but unfortunately the
intake is neither in proportion to utilization nor there is any possibility of storage of the
surperfluous protein. Hence the excess amount of amino acid is broken down, amino
group is cleaved and ammonia is produced that help in the production of excretory
substances like urea. uric acid.
l Principal Excretory Products

Site of

Solubility in



1. Ammonia

In the live r
by Oxidative
deamination of
amino acids


Very little
energy is

Tele osts (B ony fish),

tadpoles of amphibia, tailed
amphibia (referred to as
ammonotelic animals)

2. Urea (less
toxic than

In the liver
from ammonia
and CO2


amount of
energy is

Anuran (frog and toad),

mammals, ca rtilaginous
fish (referred to as ureotelic

3. Uric acid
(least toxic)

Mostly in the
liver to some
extent in


Far more
energy is

Insects, land snail, land

reptiles, birds bats (referred
to as uricotelic animals).

l Other excretory Products

1. CO2 : Formed in the cells in respiration. It is lost by diffusion through general body surface in lower
organisms (Protozoan, Sponges, Coelenterates, Flatworms, Round Worm, Annelids etc.), and by special
respiratory organ in higher invertebrates and vertebrates.
2. Water : Formed in the body during respiration. Excess of water is excreted in the urine, sweat,
faeces and expired air.
3. Pigments : Mostly formed by the breakdown of haemoglobin, eliminated in urine and faeces.
4. Drugs : Eliminated mainly via kidneys.
5. Guanine : Excreted in few e.g. spider, due to Adenine and Guanine Metabolism.
6. Amino acids : In few (Aminotelic) e.g. molluscs, echinoderms.
7. Allantoin : Formed by oxidation of amino acid e.g. vertebrates embryo.

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l Excretory Organs (In different animals)

There are no special excretory organs in protozoans, sponges and coelenterates. Excretion in these
organism occurs by simple diffusion through general body surface.

Flame cell is the excretory organs of platyhelminths (mainly ammonotelic).

Hshaped Excretory canal is found in parasitic nematodes (ammonia, urea).

In Annelids (earthworm) excretion is brought about by various types of nephridia (integumentary,

pharyngeal and septal). Ammonia and urea is the chief excretory wastes.

In arthropods two chief excretory organs are malpighian tubules (terresitrial form) antennary or
green glands (aquatic crustaceans). Crustaceans excrete ammonia while insects excrete uric acid.

Organ of Bojanus (Kidneys) and Kebers organ is found in the molluscs (Pila). Ammonia and urea are
the chief excretory products.

No specialized organ for excretion is found in echinoderms. It takes place through wandering
phagocytic cells. Ammonia, urea and uric acids are the chief products.

The Chief excretory organ of vertebrates are 'Kidneys' which are of three types depending upon their
position and stage of development in the life cycle of particular animal.

1. Pronephros : embryonic kidney in all vertebrates (except myxine where it is functional in larval
2. Mesonephros : functional kidney of Petromyzon, fishes and amphibians. It is also functional during
embryonic stage of reptiles, birds and mammals.
3. Metanephros : functional excretory organs of adult amniotes (reptiles, birds & mammals).

l Mammalian (Human) Kidney

Kidneys are two in number lies just below diaphragm on either side between last thoracic vertebra
and third lumbar, left kidney being little higher than the right.

Nephron or uriniferous tubules are structural and functional units of kidney (about 1 million nephron
in both kidneys).

Each kidney is differentiated into outer (dotted) cortex and inner (striated) medulla. The latter is
subdivided into conical masses renal pyramids. Between pyramids the cortex extends into medulla
as renal "Columns of Bertin".

A slender whitish tube the ureter, emerge from each kidney which in turn opens into a pear shaped
sac urinary bladder, situated in the lower region of abdominal cavity. The bladder can hold about
700800ml of urine.

A canal like structure known as urethra, emerges from the urinary bladder and leads to exterior. In
male it is much larger (about 20cm in length) and carries both urine and semen (urinogenital duct).
In female it is short (about 4cm) and carries only urine.

l Nephron

It is of two types (i) Cortical lie in the renal cortex and have short loops of Henle that extend only a
little into medulla (ii) Juxta medullary, have their Bowman's capsule close to the junction of cortex
and medulla and have long loops of Henle extending deep into medulla.

A nephron is made up of two main parts.

(a) Malpighian body : Bowmans capsule + Glomerulus (Knot of blood capillaries)

(b) Tubule : differentiated into three regions.
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Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) : the part leaving the capsule.


Loop of Henle : having descending and ascending limb.


(iii) Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) : joins the collecting duct, collectively forms the
pyramid and opens into pelvis.

l Blood Supply of Kidney

Renal artery after entering the kidney through hilus branches into arterioles.

Afferent arteriole enters the glomerulus and efferent arteriole leaves it.

The efferent arteriole then breaks up into a capillary network closely investing the uriniferous
tubule. These capillaries reunite forming a venule.

All venule ultimately join to form renal vein which comes out of the kidney through the hilus.

l Mechanism of urine formation

Involves three steps : Glomerular filtration, Tubular reabsorption & Tubular Secretion.

Glomerular filtration :

It is the process by which water and some dissolved constituents of blood of low molecular weight
filter out through the capillary walls into surrounding Bowmans capsule. This phenomenon was
established by Richard and his associates.

Filtration Pressure :

Colloidalosmoticpressure + Intrarenalpressure = 25mmHg

Due to this EFP fluid enter Bowmans capsule beomces Glomerular filtrate GF = Bood (Blood
corpuscle + PLASMA PROTEINS). or = Plasma Protein

Filtration Fraction :

Filtration fraction measures the filtering efficiency of glomeruli.

Ultrafiltrate contains sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium ions, glucose, aminoacids,
vitamins, some hormones along with urea, uric acid, creatinine, ketone bodies and a large amount
of water. The filtrate therefore resembles protein and cell free plasma in composition.

An increase in the diameter of the afferent arteriole and decrease in the diameter of the efferent
arteriole increases glomerular pressure. This causes an increase in the quantity of ultrafiltrate.

A decrease in the diameter of the afferent arteriole and increase in the diameter of efferent arteriole
causes fall in glomerular pressure which reduces the quantity of filtrate.

Some Important facts for human

EFP = 60(32+18) = 60050=10 mmHg.

120 ml EF (or GF) is formed per minute almost 180 lts dailybut only 11.5 lts urine is formed daily.

RPF is almost 700 ml per minute.

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Tubular Reabsorption :

Nearly 1750 litres of blood passes through the kidney everyday. Of these 150180 litres is filtered
out through the glomerules. However the total amount of urine passed out by healthy person is being
11.5 litres. The rest is reabsorbed in the tubules of nephrons from where it goes to blood through the
peritubular capillaries.

Reabsorption in the tubules occurs by two processes diffusion and active transport.

About 9899% of total water in ultra filtrate is absorbed. Most of the reabsorption of water (8090%)
takes place in PCT, about 5% in the thin part of loop of Henle and rest in the DCT.

About 75% of the solids (all glucose, amino acid, part of phosphate most of the NaCI, bicarbonates
and potassium, some urea etc.) are reabsorbed in PCT. Potassium is however resecreted in the distal

Active absoption is not limited to any selected metabolite. Nearly all electrolytes even water is actively
reabsorbed. Glucose, amino acid are activity absorbed in the PCT while water and some more Nacl is
absorbed in the DCT.

Descending limb absorbs 5% water but never Na.

Acscending limb absorbs 25% K+, little amount of NA and Cl but impermeable to water.

DCTreabsorbs some Na and Cl secrete some K. 19% water is absorbed under ADH by facultative
water absorption.

Active Secretion :

It is process by which certain substances (creatinine, H+, para amino hippuric acid, potassium and
antibiotics) are brought into the tubules from blood against concentration gradiant.

Since both potassium and H+ are cations, they compete for the same transport mechanism. If
K+ concertration is high then less H+ is secreted and vice versa. This plays an imp. part in pH regulation
through the kidney.

l Osmotic pressure of urine

In PCT : Isotonic to blood plasma.

In descending limb of loop of Henle : Hypertonic (due to loss of water)

In ascending limb of loop of Henle : Hypotonic (due to active reabsorption of sodium)

In DCT : Isotonic (due to active absorption of sodium and obligatory reabsorption of water)

In collecting tuble : Hypertonic (due to facultative reabsorption of water)

l Composition of urine

The glomerular filtrate, after selective reabsorption and tubular secretion, termed 'urine' in the
collecting duct.

Chemically urine is composed of 95% water 5% other substances (inorganic & organic).

Organic substances include chiefly urea, uric acid and creatinine. The inorganic substances include
the salts (chiefly chlorides, sulphates and phosphates of sodium potassium and ammonium).

Urine has a faint yellow colour due to pigment urochrome, which is formed from break down of
proteins (haemoglobin).

l Micturition (Urination)

It is basically a reflex action called micturition reflex.

The reflex is initiated when interoreceptors, present in the wall of urinary bladder, get stimulated by
the tension created due to stretching of bladder wall, as the bladder gradually fills with urine brought
into it by the ureters.

The reflex may cause instantaeous urination (as sometimes occurs in children) but normally it
causes a concious desire to urinate by stimulating certain "Brain Centres".

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l Kidney disorders
1. Nephritis

Inflammation of Kidney.

2. Dysuria

Difficult or painful micturition.



Excretion of an excess amount of urine.

Deficient urine formation.
Absence of urine formation.
Presence of excess amount of urea in the blood.
Formed by precipitation of the uric acid.

Kidney Stones
Some Diseases

AlbuminuriaAlbumen in urine, HaematuriaBlood in urine, Pyuriapas in urine (pus) Brights

disease (Inflammation), Cystis (Inflammation of the urinary bladder), Enuresisbed wetting, Ketosis
presence of ketone or acetic acid, Gouthigher level of uric acid in the blood,
Blood Haemodialysis or artificial kidney Blood is taken outcolled to O C mixed with anticoagulant
pumped into artificial kidney (tubes bunded by cellophanes membrane impermeable to
macromolecule but permeable to small soluteswarming of the bloodmixing with the anticoagulant
into body.)
l Osmoregulation by Kidneys

Kidney besides excretion helps in osmoregulation depending on the availability of water and salts.
It excretes large quantity of hypotonic urine or small quantity of hypertonic urine.

The amount of water excreted in the urine is regulated by "counter current mechanism", which
involves loop of Henle, vasa rectae and nearest collecting tubules and the interstitial fluid between
these structures.

Animals who excrete hypertonic urine have longer loop of Henle in nephron.

Aldosterone, secreted by adrenal cortex acts on ascending limb of 'loop of Henle' and increases
active absorption of sodium ions.

Hormone Vasopressin (Anti Diueretic Hormone) secreted by post erior lobe of pituitary helps in the
reabsorption of water in distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubule.

Human can excrete both hypertonic or hypotonic urine depending on intake of water.

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