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# PRINCIPLE OF COMMUNICATIONS

CS=2

ANGLE MODULATION
INTRO TO FREQUENCY MODULATION
A major problem in AM is its susceptibility to
noise superimposed on the modulated carrier
signal. To improve on this, the first frequency
modulation
(FM)
communication
system was developed in 1936, which is
much more immune to noise than its AM
counterpart. Unlike the AM, FM is difficult to
treat mathematically due to the complexity
of the sideband behavior resulting from the
modulation process.
Angle Modulation
In AM, the amplitude of the carrier signal
varies as a function of the amplitude of the
modulating signal. But when the modulating
signal can be conveyed by varying the
frequency or phase of the carrier signal, we
have angle modulation. Angle modulation
can be subdivided
by
a. frequency modulation (FM) and
b. phase modulation (PM).
A. Frequency Modulation- the carriers
instantaneous frequency deviation from its
unmodulated value varies in proportion to
the
instantaneous
amplitude
of
the
modulating signal.
B.
Phase
Modulation,
the
carriers
instantaneous phase deviation from its
unmodulated value varies as a function of
the
instantaneous
amplitude
of
the
modulating signal.
Below is the figures illustrates the FM and PM
waveforms for sine wave modulation
FREQUENCY MODULATION
- Type of angle modulation wherein the
frequency of the constant-amplitude carrier
signal is varied or changed according to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating
signal.
- As the amplitude to the information varies,
the carrier frequency varies above and below
its normal center frequency.

Frequency Deviation,
-

v C ( t )=V c sin 2 f c t

v m ( t )=V m sin 2 f m t
V FM (t )

Modulation Index,
-

## the peak frequency shift that occurs in

the carrier.
- is the amount by which the carrier
frequency
is
varied
from
its
unmodulated value.

## Carrier swing is the peak to peak

frequency deviation.

mf =

mf

## The modulation index for an FM signal

is defined as the ratio of the maximum
frequency deviation to the modulating
signal frequency.

fm

Where:

mf = modulation index of fm
= maximum frequency deviation of the

signal.

f m=

## FM was developed to cope with the

undesirable noise, which competed with the
desired signal when it is amplitude
modulated.

MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF AN FM
SIGNAL
The instantaneous frequency of the FM signal
is given by the equation,

f =f c ( 1+k V m sin 2 f m t )
Where:

f c =

## unmodulated carrier frequency, HZ

K=

proportionality constant

V m sin 2 f m t =

instantaneous modulating

voltage, V
The instantaneous value of the FM signal is
given by the equation,

2 f mt

2 f c t+ sin
fm

V FM ( t ) =V c sin

Where:

fc

## f m = modulating signal frequency, Hz

= Frequency deviation

## V c = peak amplitude of the carrier voltage,

V
Recall that in AM, the frequency component
consists of a fixed carrier frequency with
upper and lower sidebands equally displayed
above and below the carrier frequency. The
frequency spectrum of the FM wave is much
more complex, that it will produce an infinite
number of sidebands
In expanded form,

## FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF A FM SIGNAL

The frequency spectrum of the FM
signal can be obtained using the Bessel
function table. (Please refer to the book)
Example:

## For a FM signal with a modulation index of

0.5, draw the frequency spectrum of the FM
signal. (Bessel Function Table)
BANDWIDTH REQUIREMENT FOR AN FM
SIGNAL
The exact bandwidth obtained using the
Bessel function is given by the equation,

BW =2 x n sideband pairs x f m
Approximate minimum
Carsons rule is

bandwidth

using

+f m ( max )
BW =2
Narrow Band FM with low modulation index
values, the minimum bandwidth is given by
the equation,

BW =2 f m
Wideband FM with high modulation iindex
values, the minimum BW is given by the
equation,

BW =2

PERCENT MODULATION
- Ratio of the actual frequency deviation to
the maximum allowable frequency deviation
allowed by law.
- For FM broadcast band, the maximum
allowable frequency deviation is 75KHz.
- For sound portion of TV broadcast, the
maximum allowable frequency deviation is
25KHz

%M=

actual
x 100
maximum

DEVIATION RATIO, DR
-

DR=

## - is the worst-case modulation index

and is equal to the maximum peak
frequency deviation divided by the
maximum
modulating
signal
frequency.
- The worst case modulation index
produces the widest output frequency
spectrum.

MAX
f m ( max)

## For FM broadcast band, the maximum

allowable frequency deviation is 75KHz.
For sound portion of TV broadcast, the
maximum allowable frequency deviation is
25KHz.
- For FM broadcast band and sound portion of
signal frequency is 15KHz.

## POWER CONTENT OF AN FM SIGNAL

PT =P C + P 1+ P2 ++ P n
V 2c V 21 V 22
V 2n
PT =
+
+
+ +
2R 2R 2R
2R
Comparison between PM and FM:
1.FM is more immune to noise than AM.
2.Rejection of interfering signals because of
capture effect.
3.Lower power output requirements.
4.Better transmitter efficiency since class C
amplifier may be used.
5.Improved signal to noise ratio.
1. Wider channel is required for FM
2. FM transmitter and receiver circuits are
more complex and expensive.
3. Since the reception is line of sight, the
area of reception for FM is smaller than for
AM.
4. Maximum deviation is limited.
PHASE MODULATION
modulation technique in which the amount
of phase shift of a constant frequency carrier
is varied in accordance with the modulating
frequency.
-FM can be obtained from PM by the use of
the Armstrong systems.
Phase shift the separation between two
sinewaves of the same frequency.
Principle of PM
In PM, when the modulating signal goes
positive, the amount of phase lag increases
with the amplitude of the modulating signal.
The effect is the frequency being increased,
when the modulating signal goes negative,
the amount of phase decreases thus
frequency is lowered.

## 1. Modulation Index is defined differently in

each systems
mp = is proportional to the amplitude of the
modulating signal.
Note: In PM, the max frequency deviation
takes place at the crossing points. While in
FM, maximum frequency deviation takes
place t the peak amplitude of the modulating
signal. The value of change in the carrier fm;
mf - indirectly proportional to fm.
2. FM is a form of PM.
3. mf indicates the amount of frequency
deviation, while mp indicates the phase
change introduced by the modulating signal.
mp is independent of the modulating
frequency.
Example: A 25 MHz carrier is modulated by
a 400 Hz audio sine wave. If the carrier
voltage is 4V and the maximum deviation is
10 KHz, Write the equation of this modulated
wave.
a. FM
b. PM
c. if the modulating frequency is increased to
2
KHz,
What is now the resulting FM and PM
equation?
Noise Triangle
-triangular noise distribution for FM

## There is a non- uniform distribution of noise.

Noise of the higher modulating frequencies is
inherently greater in amplitude than noise at
lower frequencies.

## For information signal with a uniform signal

level, a uniform S/N is produced. The higher
modulating frequencies have lower S/N than
the lower than the lower frequencies. To
Compensate for this pre-emphasis is used.
emphasis Network:

## Pre-emphasis process of emphasizing or

boosting in amplitude of the high frequency
signals prior to performing modulation.

and

De-

## 1. increased S/N ratio

2. increases fidelity
3. increased intelligibility of FM signals.
4. uniform S/N indicates stable flow of
signals.
Fu = upper break frequency where the signal
enhancement flatten.

Pre-emphasis circuit:

## De-emphasis reciprocal of pre-emphasis;

restores the original amplitude vs. frequency
characteristics of the information signal.

De-emphasis circuit:

## The break frequency, (the frequency

whrere pre emphasis and de emphasis
begins) is determined by the RC and L/R time
constant of the network. The break
frequency occurs at the frequency Where Xc
or XL equal R.
Mathematically:

## FM DUE TO AN INTERFERING SINUSOID

Pre-emphasis Network:
- A high pass filter that amplifies the
high frequency components more than
the low frequency components.
- A differentiator circuit.
The noise vector is super imposed on the
carrier circulating about it with a relative
angular Wn-Wc
Peak phase:

De-emphasis Network
- A low pass filter or an integrator.

First derivative:

## c. Linear Integrated-circuit direct FM

modulators
The peak frequency deviation

## The S/N ratio at the output of an FM

demodulator due to unwanted frequency
deviation from an interfering sinusoid is the
ratio of the peak frequency due to the
information signal to the peak frequency
deviation due to the interfering signal.
S/N =

Example:
For an angle modulated carrier

## Vc(t )=0.5 cos (2 200.01 MHzt )

Determine: a. the frequency of the
demodulated interference signal.
b. Peak phase and frequency deviation due
to the interfering signal
c. S/N at the output of the demodulator.
Solution:

FM GENERATION
a. Direct Method producing FM by directly
varying the output frequency of a carrier
oscillator.
-is angle modulation in which the
frequency of the carrier is varied (deviated)
directly by the modulating signal.

## b. Indirect method - producing FM by use

of phase modulation

region collapses

## reverse bias no current will flow in the

depletion region, acts as a capacitor

## Note: Width of the depletion region depends

upon the amount of reverse bias, the wider
the depletion the lower the reverse bias, the
thinner the depletion region.
FM modulator w/ Wc

1
f0 =

2 LC

f0 =

LC 1 +C

L
2
1

## Note: Capacitance of the Wc ( D1) is

controlled by:
a.) Fixed dc voltage (set by R1 and R2)
b.) Modulating signal voltage(that adds to
and subtracts from the fixed dc bias)
-

## Three common methods:

a. Varactor diode Modulators

b. FM Reactance Modulator

## If reverse bias increases, the

capacitance of D1 is lowered, thus the
frequency of the oscillator is increased
If the reverse bias decreases, the
capacitance of D1 is increased and the
frequency is decreased.

Reactance
- employs a reactance circuit that presents
inductive or capacitive reactance to the tank
circuit of an oscillator.
- the variation in reactance causes the
frequency of the oscillator to shift in
accordance with the modulating signal
thereby producing FM.

## Note: The equivalent capacitance depends in

the device transconductance as given by Ceq2
gmRc and can therefore be varied, with bias

id
vg , also the gate-to-

voltage since gm =
Basic FET reactance modulator
The impedance is entirely reactive. The value
of the reactance is proportional to the
transconductance of the device which is
dependent on the gate voltage and its
variations.
to det. Z:

v
i

z=

where: ib =

V
R jXc

VR
R jXc

Vg =

id= gmVg
id = gm

( RVRjXc )

then,

V
VR
gm
R jXc

z=

V
id

z=

R jXc 1
=

gm R
gm

z=

1 jXc
gm
R

)
R jXc
R gm

## The impedance is a capacitive reactance

Xeq =

Ceq =

gm
2 fn

impedance looking at

the terminals
Note: For z to be pure reactance
1. The bias network current in must be
negligible compared to the drained current,
id. The impedance of the bias network must
be large to be ignored.
2. The drain-to-gate impedance (Xc) must be
greater than the gate to source impedance
(R)
By analysis:
Vg = Rib

## drain impedance (Xc) is made 5 to 10 times

greater than gate-to-source impedance ( R ),
that is Xc = nR where n = multiplying factor.
Therefore,

Xc
R gm

1
1 /2 fc
=
2 f ceq
R gm Ceq= gmRc

Name
RC Capacitive
gm RC
RC Inductive
RL Inductive
L/gm R
RL Capacitive

## Zgd Zgs Condition

Reactance Formula
C
R
Xc>>R

Ceq =

C
L

R>>Xc
Leq = Rc/gm
R
XL>>L
Leq =

R>>XL

Ceq= gmL/R

Indirect FM
- The frequency of the carrier is deviated
indirectly by the modulating signal and is
accomplished by changing the phase of the
carrier, which is a farm of direct FM.
- With the use of FM, carrier oscillator can be
ophimized per frequency accuracy and of the
stability.
Note:
Primary disadvantage of direct FM is that
relatively unstable LC oscillators are used to
produce carrier frequency.
Advantage of direct FM is the relatively high
frequency deviation and modulation indices
attainable because of the LC oscillators
instability.
Primary Advantage of direct PM (indirect FM)
is the use of high stable crystal oscillators.
Disadvantage of direct PM the difficulty to
achieve high phase deviation and modulation
indices because of the inherent stability of
the crystal oscillator.
Indirect FM uses RC Phase Shifting Circuits

## A VVC Phase Modulator Circuit

Direct FM transmitter
- uses AFC to meet FCC specifications on
oscillator stability.

## and negative voltage if input frequency is

lower.
- Voltage output of the discriminator is in
series with the AF input of the reactance
modulator and therefore the
transconductance will either increase or
decrease. The output capacitance or
inductance is increase or decrease, thus
lowering or increasing the frequency of the
master oscillator. Any unwanted shift in the
frequency is connected.
Up-Conversion Method
1. Heterodyning or Mixing
- change the fc only

## 1. Crosby Direct FM Transmitter

- used in commercial broadcast band
transmitter.
- includes an AFC Loop
AFC Automatic Frequency Control
- provides the necessary correction in
case of unwanted frequency drifts
- uses discriminator circuit.
AFC Operation:
- Discriminator will give positive dc voltage if
input frequency is higher than what is tuned

2. Frequency Multiplication
- changes fc, mf, , etc.