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JMO mentoring scheme answers

October 2012 paper


1

Ans : 0
To divide by both 2 and 5 we would need to end the number in 0.

Ans : 64 digits
The number is the same as 562 266 = 1062 24

Ans : 17-06-2345 (17th June 2345)


We need at least one of the digits 0, 1, 2 or 3 for the date and at least one of the digits 0, 1 or 2 for the month. We need to
give priority to the year number to get the earliest date.

Ans : (a) Gabriel is not the captain


Paul must be the captain; it is the only one which fits with two of them not telling the truth. This then determines the
answer.

Ans : 35 sec
Every 140 seconds (LCM of 20 and 28), Alice does 7 revolutions while Bob does 5 revolutions. Alice does 2 more
revolutions than Bob in 140 seconds so we find the time she takes to do half a revolution more than Bob.

Ans : 3 3 or 27
If we dissect the parallelogram into two triangles using the shorter diagonal, we see that they can be reformed into an
equilateral triangle. There is a right angle between this diagonal and a shorter side. If the shorter side of the parallelogram
has length x, then the longer side has length 2x and, by Pythagorass Rule, the short diagonal has length 3x.
3x = 3
x = 3
The area of the parallelogram is the same as that of the reformed equilateral triangle, i.e. 233.
The ratio 1 : 3 : 2 for the sides of a 30, 60, 90 triangle should be remembered.

Ans : (9, -22)


The first 4 points form a square with side 1 unit. The next 4 sets of 3 points up to number 16 form a square with side 3
units (4 points including corners). The next 4 sets of 5 points up to number 36 form a square with side 5 units (6 points).
You can see that the odd square numbers lie on the line y = - x and that even square numbers lie on the line y = 1 - x.
442 = 1936 lies at (-21, 22) and 452 = 2025 lies at (22, -22). 2012 lies 13 to the left of 2025.

Ans : 2 - 1
This is another example needing Pythagorass Rule. If the radius of the small circle is r, then the centre of this circle lies at
r2 from the centre of the big circle. The radius of the big circle is then r2 + r.
r2 + r = 1
Thus r = 1 (2 + 1).
This is not the end of the story. We use a rule of algebra which states that (a + b)(a - b) = a2 - b2. E.g. if a = 7 and b = 3
we can see 10 4 = 49 - 9. If we put a = 2 and b = 1, we find that (2 + 1)(2 - 1) = 2 - 1 (= 1). 2 + 1 and 2 - 1 are
reciprocals of each other. If you are not convinced, try doing it on a calculator. Hence 1 (2 + 1) = 2 - 1.
This is another very useful trick to learn in dealing with numbers like 2.

Ans : 1 answer
If you make out a table of values for the curve y = x2(x - 3) and the line y = 3(1 - x) you will find the curve is below or on
the x-axis for x < 3 but above the x-axis for values of x > 3. Further work might convince you that the curve rises with
increasing x at all points where x > 2.