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Methodology

The International Student statistics data was first collected from the
International Office whereby the data was verbally asked from the assistant registrar
named Encik Muhammad Iqbal Arami Bin Mohamed Sharif . He mentioned that this
statistics data portrays the latest and current number of international students that are
studying in UTHM from various countries. Consequently, from the data we can
acquire thetotal sum of international students studying at both undergraduate and
post-graduate level from all the 12 faculties. However, we will only limit our scope of
study on the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Manufactures (FKMP).
First and foremost, we used a pie chart to describe the percentage of
international students pursuing in Degree, Master and Doctorate programme in
FKMP. Secondly, the data was further analysed and the sample mean and sample
standard deviation for both undergraduate and post-graduate of international students
in FKMP is calculated by using the formula of

S=

x
n

and

( X X )
n1

respectively.

Thus, after obtaining the sample mean and standard deviation we will summarize the
data in a table which includes the sample size n, sample mean

,and sample

standard deviation, S for both undergraduate and post-graduate level.


To achieve the objective, it is ideally for us to use the hypothesis testing. In
our statistical analysis we are to determine if the average of both undergraduates and
post-graduates has a significance difference. Thus, this is a two-tailed test as we are
testing for the differnce in the average of international students between
undergraduates and post-graduates. The case study statistic is tested for the
occurrence within either of the two critical regions on the two extremes of the
distributions. Thirdly, we classify the test into two estimations, one with confidence
interval 99% and another one with confidence interval 95%. This is a two mean test
and therefore we conducted the testing of hypothesis on a difference between two
means.

The hypothesis that we are testing is:


h0 :

ugrd =

h1 : ugrd
Where

ugrd

pgrd

pgrd

(Claim)

is the population mean of undergradutes and pgrd

mean of post-graduates. If

h0

is the population

is rejected which the test value lies between the

critical value, Z , means h1 is accepted or vice versa.


C

Upon finishing the hypothesis testing, we decided to use Z distribution case to


construct a confidence interval for a difference between two means and hence
determine the range between two means at a significant level of 0.01 and 0.05.

Results and Discussion


Percentage of international student pursuing at both undergraduate and post-graduate level in FKMP for year 2016

19%

Degree

Master

24%

Doctorate

57%

University
Programme
Level of education
Number of

Undergraduate

international students
Total number of

Post-graduate

Degree

Master

Doctorate

10

13

31

54
international students
Generally, only Degree is an undergraduate programme. Hence, the sample size is
n=1 while Master and Doctorate is a post-graduate programme. Hence, the sample
size is n = 2.
Sample mean:
X ugrd

10
1

= 10.0 students
13+ 31
X pgrd =
2

= 22.0 students
Sample standard deviation:

S ugrd =

( 1010)2
11

= 0 student
The sample standard deviation for undergraduate is zero because
the data value is equal to the mean.

S pgrd =

( 1322)2+(3122)2
21

= 12.727 students

13

students

University Programme

Undergraduate

Post-graduate

Sample size, n

10

22

13

Sample mean,

Sample standard deviation,

Hypothesis testing:
h0
h1

ugrd

pgrd (Claim)

ugrd

First test: Level of significance = 0.01

pgrd

Second test: Level of significance = 0.05

= 0.01

= 0.05

Z Cr >2.326

Z Cr >1.645

Z Cr <2.326

Z Cr <1.645

Z Test =

(1022)0

02 132
+
1 2

=1.30
Z Test

Z Test =

(1022)0

02 132
+
1 2

Z Test =1.30

First test: At the 1% level of significance, the test value is -1.30 which is
greater than the critical value, Z Cr <2.326 , reject the null hypothesis is

rejected.

Second test: At the 5% level of significance, the test value is -1.30 which is
greater than the crictical value, Z Cr <1.645 , reject the null hypothesis.

Confidence interval for single mean:


The sample standard deviation,
+
using

is known and sample size, n < 30. Hence, by

( Sn )

t a
X
2

,v

Test for 95% confidence interval for post-graduates


Conditions: =n1
= 21
= 1
= 1-0.95 = 0.05

+ 0.025,1
t

t = =
+

,v

12.706

+ t (
2

,v

S
)
n

Hence, based on the sample data at 95% confidence interval, a range of


the population mean of post-graduate student is between -72.9 and 52.9.

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS:

35
31
30
25
20

Degree

15
10

13
10

Master
Doctorate

5
0
Number of International students pursuing in a educational programme in FKMP for year 2016

A bar chart is simulated in Excel describing a data for the number of


international students whom is studying at both undergraduate and post-graduate
programme in FKMP. From the bar chart we can perceived that most of the
international students in FKMP are pursuing in Doctorate level that is about 31 of
them. Besides, only 10 of the international students in FKMP are on the journey of
obtaining a Degree scroll. For Master level, there are only 13 international students
enrolled in this programme. Moreover, the number of international students in Master
is higher by margin compared to the number of international students in Degree. In
addition, at 0.01significance level the hull hypothesis is rejected. Thus, it is accepted
that h0 : ugrd

pgrd .

Further analysis revealed that the average of both undergraduates and postgraduates has a significance difference at a 0.01 and 0.05 significance level through
the hypothesis testing. In fact, to be more precise the average of undergraduates is
higher than post-graduates at 0.01 significance level. However, its average is lower
than post-graduates at 0.05 significance level. In addition, at 95% confidence interval,
we are certain that the average of post-graduates is between

72.9 and 52.9.

Conclusion:
As an overview, from the statically analysis it can be concluded that the
average of both undergraduates and post-graduates has a significance difference.
Meaning, their average value are not the equal. This justification had been proven
through the hypothesis testing. At 99% and 95% confidence interval were tested.
From the test, we deduced that at 99% confidence interval, the null hyothesis is
rejected since the value of ZTest is greater than ZCr. Thus, the alternative hypothesis is
accepted. However, at 95% confidence interval, the null hypothesis is accpeted since
the value of ZTest is lesser than ZCr. Aditionaly, at 95% confidence interval a range of
the population mean of post-graduate student is between -72.9 and 52.9.
There are differences in the average values deduced at different significance
values. This is because a sample has its own boundaries that it may exit the Z cr value
at both tail ends. Besides, our study case is limited to deduce the confidence interval
for an undergraduate. This is due to a very small sample size where n = 1. However,
in future, as we acquired more statistical techniques and enhance in skills, a problem
involving relatively very small sample size many not be an issue aftermath.
In the case study, the population is normally distributed and each value is
sampled independently from each other value.

Abstract:
This was a comparative study of undergraduate and post-graduate international
students pursuing their studies in UTHM. In addition, the scope of our study is limited
to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Manufacture (FKMP). A statistics data
of international students studying in UTHM in all 12 faculties was gained from the
International Office of UTHM. The study addressed two questions, using hypothesis
testing and through estimation approach. The principal instrument for the
investigation was the average of both undergraduates and post-graduates has a
significance difference. Associated hypothesis with the research questions were
statistically analyzed using independent Z-test and and paired t- test at an alpha level
of 0.01 and 0.05. The results were described using descriptive statistics aftermath. The
open-ended questions were analyzed according to established qualitative techniques.
The statistics data was intepreted which comprised of 462 international
students form all 12 faculties in UTHM. The results of this study identified that the
average for both undergraduate and post-graduate is not equal at 0.01 significance
level but, for a 0.05 significance level the average is equal. Also, at 95% confidence
interval was performed on post-graduates and a single mean range was obtained.

Reference:
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Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia.
Sherry, M., Thomas, P., & Chui, W. (2010). International Students: A
Vulnerable Student Population. Higher Education.
Norziha Che Him, Maria Elena Nor, Norhaidah Mohd Asrah, (2014),
Engineering Statistics, 4th Edition, UTHM FSTPI.
William M.Mendenhall, Terry L. Sincich, Nancy S.Boudreau, (2015),
Statistics for Engineering and The Sciences, 6th Edition.
Max Engelhardt, Lee J Bain, Introduction to Probability and Mathematical
Statistics, (2010), 2nd Edition.