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MA1505 Cheat Sheet

taken in AY 2015-2016 Semester I

limxa (f g)(x) = L L0
limxa (f g)(x) = LL0
All
limxa fg (x) = LL0
limxa kf (x) = kL, k R
polynomials are continuous at every point in R. All rational
p(x)
functions q(x) where p and q are polynomials are continuous
at every point such that q(x) 6= 0.
Composition is given by , e.g. (f g)(x) = f (g(x))

(f g)(x) = f (x) g(x)


(f g)(x) = f (x)g(x)
(f /g)(x) = f (x)/g(x)

Differentiation
Quotient Rule
Chain Rule

Geometric Series
n
X

Indeterminacy and LHopitals Rule

Functions

Product Rule

If f 0 (c) = 0 and f 00 (c) > 0 then f has a local minimum at


x = c.

(f g)0 (x) = f 0 (x)g(x) + f (x)g 0 (x)


 0
f 0 (x)g(x)f (x)g 0 (x)
f
(x) =
g
g 2 (x)
(f g)0 (x) = f 0 (g(x))g 0 (x) = (f 0 g)(x)g 0 (x)
dy
dy
= dx
dx
dt
dt

Maxima and Minima


A function f has a local/relative maximum value at a point c
in its domain if f (x) f (c) for all x in the neighborhood of c.
The function has an absolute maximum value at c if
f (x) f (c) for all x in the domain.
Reverse signs for minimum.

If the functions f and g are continuous at x = a but


f (x)
f (a) = g(a) = 0, then the limit limxa g(x) cannot be directly
evaluated.
Suppose that f and g are differentiable in a neighborhood of a,
f (a) = g(a) = 0 and g 0 (x) 6= 0 except possibly at a.
lim

xa

Integration

Series is convergent if < 1, divergent if > 1 and no


conclusion reached if = 1.

cn xn = c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 + ... + cn xn + ...

n=0

f (t)dt = f (x)
a

If the series is centered about x = a,

u(x)v (x)dx = u(x)v(x)

u (x)v(x)dx

Decide which function is u(x) with the LIATE rule in this


order of priority:
logarithmic
inverse trigo.
algebraic
trigo.
exponential
>
>
>
>
functions
functions
functions
functions
functions

Area between two curves f2 (x) and f1 (x) where f1 (x) f2 (x)
in [a, b] is given by
Z b
f2 (x) f1 (x)dx

First derivative test: Suppose c (a, b) is a critical point of


f.
If f 0 (x) > 0 for x (a, c) and f 0 (x) < 0 for x (c, b) then f (c)
is a local maximum.
If f 0 (x) < 0 for x (a, c) and f 0 (x) > 0 for x (c, b) then f (c)
is a local minimum.
Second derivative test: If f 0 (c) = 0 and f 00 (c) < 0 then f
has a local maximum at x = c.

an , let
a

n+1
lim
=
an

Integration by Parts
Z

a
1r

f (t)dt

f is increasing on an interval I when f 0 (x) > 0 for all x I.


f is decreasing on an interval I when f 0 (x) < 0 for all x I.

Derivative Tests for Maxima and Minima

arn1 =

A power series has the form

Area Bounded by Two Curves

The graph of y = f (x) is concave down on any interval where


y 00 < 0 and concave up on any interval where y 00 > 0.
A point c is a point of inflection of the function f if f is
continuous at c and there is an open interval containing c such
that the graph of f changes from concave up (or down) to
concave down (or up). The function need not be differentiable
at c.

Power Series

If f is continuous on [a, b], then


Z
F (x) =

Increasing or Decreasing Functions

Concavity

If |r| < 1 then arn1 0 as n ,

For a series

LHopitals rule can be applied multiple times in succession,


f 0 (x)
e.g. if g0 (x) is still indeterminate.

Extreme and Critical Points


Points where f can have an extreme value are: interior points
where f 0 (x) = 0, interior points where f 0 (x) does not exist and
end points of the domain of f .
An interior point of the domain of a function f where f 0 is
zero or does not exist is a critical point of f .

1 rn
1r

Ratio Test

f (x)
f 0 (x)
= lim 0
xa
g(x)
g (x)

d
d
F (x) =
dx
dx

arn1 = a

Partial Fraction Decomposition


A
B
px + q
=
+
(ax + b)(cx + d)
ax + b
cx + d
px2 + qx + r
A
B
C
=
+
+
(ax + b)(cx + d)2
ax + b
cx + d
(cx + d)2

cn (x a)n = c0 + c1 (x a) + c2 (x a)2 + ... + cn (x a)n + ...

n=0

Standard Series
(1 + x)r = 1 + rx +

r(r 1)...(r n + 1) n
r(r 1) 2
x + ... +
x
2!
n!

1
= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + ... + xn + ...for |x| < 1
1x
x2
x3
xn
+
+ ... +
+ ...
ex = 1 + x +
2!
3!
n!
x3
x5
(1)n x2n+1
sin x = x
+
... +
+ ...
3!
5!
(2n + 1)!
cos x = 1
ln (1 + x) = x

x2
x4
(1)n x2n
+
... +
2!
4!
(2r)!
x3
(1)n+1 xn
x2
+
... +
+ ...
2
3
n

Radius of Convergence
u

n+1
lim
<1
n
un

px2

+ qx + r
A
Bx + C
=
+ 2
(ax + b)(x2 + c2 )
ax + b
x + c2

Taylor Series

Series
Arithmetic Series
n
X
1

an =

n
(a1 + an )
2

X
f (k) (a)
f (n) (a)
(xa)k = f (a)+f 0 (a)(xa)+...+
(xa)n +...
k!
n!
k=0

A Maclaurin series is a special case of a Taylor series where


a = 0, i.e. is a Taylor series expansion of a function about 0

Computing the Fourier Series

Taylors Theorem

A periodic function of period T can be represented by a


The nth order Taylor polynomial of f at a is given by
Fourier series f (x).

n
X
(k)
(n)
X
f (a)
f (a)
f (x) = a0 +
(an cos nx + bn sin nx)
(xa)k = f (a)+f 0 (a)(xa)+...+
(xa)n
Pn (x) =
k!
n!
n=1
k=0
As the number of terms n approaches infinity, the Fourier
series begins to converge on the original function f (x) more
Then f (x) = Pn (x) + Rn (x) where
and more closely. A perfect approximation of f (x) can only
occur when n
f (n+1) (c)
Rn (x) =
(x a)n+1
Let 2L = T .
Z L
(n + 1)!
1
a0 =
f (x)dx
2L L
for some c between a and x, where Rn (x) is the remainder of
+
For the mth term where m Z ,
order n or the error term for the approximation of f (x) by
Z
Pn (x).
1 L
mx
am =
dx
f (x) cos
L L
L
3
Z
Three Dimensional Space R
mx
1 L
f (x) sin
dx
bm =
L L
L
From now onwards, any math character in bold face is a
If the function is even, we only need to consider cosine
vector, e.g. i, u
terms. Similarly, if the function is odd, we only need
to consider sine terms.
Dot Product

Convergence of Fourier Series
x1
x2
v~1 v~2 = y1 y2 = x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 = |v~1 | |v~2 | cos
Suppose f (x) is a piecewise smooth periodic function on the
z1
z2
interval L x L with a Fourier series fs (x)


f (x)
if f is continuous at x
fs (x) =
1

+
Unit Vector
[f (x ) + f (x )] if f is not continuous at x
2
For some vector u, its unit vector u
=

1
u
|u|

This is useful when evaluating the sum of the Fourier


coefficients a0 , an and bn for some x = k, k R in f (x)

Cross Product

Multivariate Functions

x1
x2
y1 z2 z1 y2
v~1 v~2 = y1 y2 = (x1 z2 z1 x2 ) = |v~1 | |v~2 | sin
z1
z2
x1 y2 y1 x2
The distance from a point P (x0 , y0 , z0 ) to a plane
: ax + by + cz = d is given by
|ax0 + by0 + cz0 d|
~

= projn OP
dist(P, ) =
a2 + b2 + c2

Space Curves

its arc length (if the curve is traversed once)


b

L=

(f 0 (t))2 + (g 0 (t))2 + (h0 (t))2 dt =

Even or Odd?
f (x) = f (x)
f (x) = f (x)

Fourier Series
function f is odd
function f is even

Let z = f (x, y) be a function of two variables.


The partial derivative of a function f (x, y) w.r.t. x is denoted
where the y term is taken as a constant.
by fx (x, y) or f
x
2f
2f
and fxy = (fx )y =
x2
xy
2f
2f
fyy = (fy )y =
and fyx = (fy )x =
2
y
xy
For most functions in practice, fxy (a, b) = fyx (a, b).
fxx = (fx )x =

Chained Derivatives

For some curve with the vector equation


r(t) = f (t)i + g(t)j + h(t)k,

Partial Derivatives

|r0 (t)|

Suppose z = f (x, y, z) where x = x(t), y = y(t) and z = z(t).


Thus, z = f (x(t), y(t), z(t)).
dz
f dx
f dy
f dz
=
+
+
dt
x dt
y dt
z dt
Suppose w = f (x, y, z) and x = x(s, t), y = y(s, t), and
z = z(s, t), giving w = f (x(s, t), y(s, t), z(s, t))
w
f x
f y
f z
=
+
+
s
x s
y s
z s
w
f x
f y
f z
=
+
+
t
x t
y t
z t

Directional Derivatives
Note that Di f (a, b) = fx (a, b) and Dj f (a, b) = fy (a, b) for the
standard unit vectors of the x and y direction.
= u1 i + u2 j,
For some unit vector u

Du f (a, b) = fx (a, b) u1 + fy (a, b) u2 = f (a, b) u


The directional derivative Du f (a, b) measures the change in
the value df of a function f when moved a distance dt from
the point (a, b) in the direction of the vector u, where
df = Du f (a, b) dt.

Gradient Vector
The gradient vector f is given by
f = fx i + fy j
Du f (a, b) = f (a, b) u = |f (a, b)| cos
The function f increases most rapidly in the direction f (a, b)
and decreases most rapidly in the direction f (a, b).

Maxima and Minima


f (x, y) has a local maximum at (a, b) if f (x, y) f (a, b) for all
points (x, y) near (a, b)
f (x, y) has a local minimum at (a, b) if f (x, y) f (a, b) for all
points (x, y) near (a, b)
A function f may have a local maximum or minimum at (a, b)
if: fx (a, b) = 0 and fy (a, b) = 0 or fx (a, b) or fy (a, b) is not
defined. A point that satisfies either condition is known as a
critical point.
Suppose that (a, b) is a critical point of f (x, y). Let us define
D as
D(a, b) = fxx (a, b)fyy (a, b) [fxy (a, b)]2
D > 0 and fxx (a, b) > 0
relative minimum at (a, b)
D > 0 and fxx (a, b) < 0
relative maximum at (a, b)
D<0
saddle point at (a, b)
D=0
no conclusion reached

Saddle Point
At a point (a, b) of f where fx (a, b) = 0 and fy (a, b) = 0, the
point (a, b) is known as a saddle point of f if there are some
directions along which f has a local maximum at (a, b) and
some directions along f which has a local minimum at (a, b).

Lagrange Multiplier
Suppose a function f (x, y) subject to the constraint g(x, y).
F (x, y, ) = f (x, y) g(x, y)
Solve for Fx = 0, Fy = 0 and F = 0 to solve for .

Multiple Integrals
For R = R1 R2 where R1 and R2 do not overlap except
maybe at their boundary,
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
f (x, y)dA =
f (x, y)dA +
f (x, y)dA
R

R1

R2

Suppose a rectangular region R in the xy-plane where


a x b and c y d, then
ZZ
Z dZ b
Z bZ d
f (x, y)dA =
f (x, y) dx dy =
f (x, y) dy dx
R

Type A Regions

Conservative Fields

Surface Integrals

Bottom and top boundaries are curves given by y = g1 (x) and


y = g2 (x) respectively, while left and right boundaries are
x = a and x = b respectively.

A vector field F is called a conservative vector field if it is the


gradient of some scalar function f such that F = f , where f
is known as the potential function for F.
Let F(x, y) = P (x, y)i + Q(x, y)j be a vector field on the
xy-plane.

A parametric representation of a surface is given by

R : g1 (x) y g2 (x), a x b
ZZ

f (x, y) dA =

f (x, y) dy dx

g1 (x)

Let F(x, y, z) = P (x, y, z)i + Q(x, y, z)j + R(x, y, z)k be a


vector field on xyz-space.

Type B Regions
Left and right boundaries are curves given by x = h1 (y) and
x = h2 (y) and bottom and top boundaries are straight lines
y = c and y = d respectively.
R : c y d, h1 (y) x h2 (y)
ZZ

h2 (y)

f (x, y) dA =
R

f (x, y) dx dy
c

h1 (y)

Polar Coordinates

P
Q P
R Q
R
=
,
=
,
=
, then F is conservative.
y
x z
x z
y
R
If F is a conservative vector field, then C F dr is independent
of the path taken.
H
If F is a conservative vector field, then l F dr = 0 for any
closed curve l, i.e. a curve with a terminal point that coincides
with its initial point.
If

Line Integrals of Scalar Functions

Circular regions/sectors can be described with polar


coordinates r and .
In general, a region R in polar coordinates is described by

When transforming from Cartesian to polar coordinates, (x, y)


is transformed to (r, ) where
x = r cos and y = r sin
and dA is changed from dx dy to r dr d.

Application of Double Integrals


Suppose D is a solid region under a surface defined by f (x, y)
over a plane region R.
ZZ
Volume of D =
f (x, y) dA
R

If f has continuous first partial derivatives on a closed region


R of the xy-plane, then the area S of that portion of the
surface z = f (x, y) that projects onto R is given by
Z Z s
z 2  z 2
+
+ 1 dA
S=
x
y
R

f (x(t), y(t), z(t))||r0 (t)||dt


r 
dx 2  dy 2  dz 2
f (x(t), y(t), z(t))
+
+
dt
dt
dt
dt
f (x, y, z) ds =

Z
R : a r b,

C
b

=
a

F dr =
C

F(r(t)) r0 (t)dt

Geometrically, the line integral of F over C is summing up the


tangential components of F with respect to the arc length of C.
Z
Z
f (x, y, z)ds =
f (x, y, z)ds
C

The vector equation of a curve C determines the orientation or


direction of C.
For some F(x, y, z) = P (x, y)i + Q(x, y)j + R(x, y)k,
Z
Z
Z b
dy
dx
Fdr =
P dx+Qdy +Rdz =
P (r(t))
+Q(r(t)) dt
dt
dt
C
C
a

Fundamental Theorem for Line Integrals


If f is a function of 2 or 3 variables whose gradient f is
continuous,
Z
f dr = f (r(b)) f (r(a))

Line Integrals

Greens Theorem

Vector Fields

Let D be a bounded region in the xy-plane and D the


boundary of D. Suppose P (x, y) and Q(x, y) has continuous
partial derivatives on D. Thus,
I
ZZ 
Q
P 
P dx + Qdy =

dA
x
y
D
D

F(x, y, z) = P (x, y, z)i + Q(x, y, z)j + R(x, y, z)k

Gradient Fields
f (x, y, z) = fx (x, y, z)i + fy (x, y, z)j + fz (x, y, z)k

For a sphere of radius a: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2


r(u, v) = (a sin u cos v)i + (a sin u sin v)j + (a cos u)k
When 0 u and 0 v 2, the representation gives a
full sphere.
When 0 u 2 and 0 v 2, the representation gives the
upper hemisphere.

Standard Parametric Representation:


Cylinder
For a circular cylinder of radius a: x2 + y 2 = a2
r(u, v) = (a cos u)i + (a sin u)j + vk
Here, u measures the angle from the positive x-axis about the
z-axis while v measures the height from the xy-plane along the
cylinder.
The same applies for x2 + z 2 = a2 (cylinder about y-axis)
r(u, v) = (a cos u)i + vj + (a sin u)k
and

y2

z2

= a2 (cylinder about x-axis)

Line Integrals of Vector Fields

A vector field on R is a vector function F that assigns to each


point a vector F(x, y, z).

Standard Parametric Representation: Sphere

Q
P
=
then F is conservative.
If
y
x

g2 (x)

r(u, v) = x(u, v)i + y(u, v)j + z(u, v)k

The orientation of D is such that, as one traverses along the


boundary in this direction, the region D is always on the
left-hand side, i.e. the positive orientation of the boundary.

r(u, v) = vi + (a cos u)j + (a sin u)k

Tangent Planes
Let S be a surface given by the parametric representation
r(u, v) = x(u, v)i + y(u, v)j + z(u, v)k
For some position vector r0 = r(u0 , v0 ) at a point P0 ,
Fixing v = v0 for a resulting curve C1 , the tangent vector of
the space curve C1 is given by
y
z
x
(u0 , v0 )i +
(u0 , v0 )j +
(u0 , v0 )k
u
u
u
Fixing u = u0 for a resulting curve C2 , the tangent vector of
the space curve C2 is given by
ru =

y
z
x
(u0 , v0 )i +
(u0 , v0 )j +
(u0 , v0 )k
v
v
v
Both vectors ru and rv lie in the tangent plane to S at P0 .
Thus, the cross product ru rv , assuming it is non-zero,
provides a normal vector to the tangent plane to S at P0 .
The equation of the tangent plane is described by
rv =

(r r0 ) (ru rv ) = 0

Surface Integrals of Scalar Functions


Suppose f (x, y, z) be a function defined on a surface S, where
we can find r(u, v) = x(u, v)i + y(u, v)j + z(u, k)k of S over a
domain D.
ZZ
ZZ
f (x, y, z) dS =
f (r(u, v))|ru rv | dA
S

Surface Integrals of Vector Fields

Conservative Fields*

Let F be a continuous vector fields defined on a surface S with


a unit normal vector n. The surface integral of F over S is
given as
ZZ
ZZ
F dS
F n dS or more simply

Let F be a vector field in xyz-space.


If curl F = 0, then F is a conservative field. The converse is
also true.

This integral is also known as the flux of F over S.


If S is given by a parametric representation r = r(u, v) with
domain D,
ZZ
ZZ
F dS =
F(r(u, v)) (ru rv ) dA
S

Orientation of Surfaces
By convention, a curve has a positive orientation if it
progresses counter-clockwise.
ZZ
ZZ
F dS =
F dS
S

Stokes Theorem
Let S be an oriented, piecewise-smooth surface that is
bounded by a closed, piecewise-smooth boundary curve C. Let
F be a vector field whose components have continuous partial
derivatives on S. Then,
I
ZZ
F dr =
(curl F) dS
C

You can use the right-hand grip rule with the thumb pointed
in the direction of the normal vector of C. The curve has a
positive orientation if your grip from knucle to fingertips
progresses counter-clockwise, or negative if otherwise.

Curl
Let F = P i + Qj + Rk be a vector field in xyz-space.
 R
 P
 Q
Q 
R 
P 
curl F =

i+
j+
k
y
z
z
x
x
y

Stokes Theorem can also be expressed as


I
P dx + Q dy + R dz =
C

ZZ 
 P R 
 Q P 
R Q 

dy dz +

dz dx +

dx dy
y
z
z
x
x
y
S
The orientation of C must be consistent with that of S.

Gauss Theorem

Divergence
Q
R
P
+
+
div F =
x
y
z
The divergence of a vector field is a scalar function.

sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u


cos 2u = cos2 u sin2 u = 2 cos2 u 1 = 1 2 sin2 u
2 tan u
tan 2u =
1 tan2 u

Half Angle Identities


1 cos 2u
2
1 + cos 2u
cos2 u =
2
1 cos 2u
2
tan u =
1 + cos 2u
sin2 u =

Sum Product Identities

uv
u+v
cos
2
2
u+v
uv
sin u sin v = 2 cos
sin
2
2
u+v
uv
cos u + cos v = 2 cos
cos
2
2
uv
u+v
sin
cos u cos v = 2 sin
2
2
sin u + sin v = 2 sin

Product Sum Identities

Let E be a solid region, S be the boundary of E given with


outward orientation (where the normal vector on the surface
always points away from E). Let F be a vector field whose
component functions have continuous partial derivatives in E.
Then,
ZZZ
ZZ
F dS =

div F dV
E

The curl of a vector field is also itself a vector field.

Double Angle Formulae

Trigonometric Identities

1
[cos (u v) cos (u + v)]
2
1
cos u cos v = [cos (u v) + cos (u + v)]
2
1
sin u cos v = [sin (u + v) + sin (u v)]
2
1
cos u sin v = [sin (u + v) sin (u v)]
2
sin u sin v =

Parity Identities

Pythagorean Identities
sin2 u + cos2 u = 1
1 + tan2 u = sec2 u

sin (u) = sin u


cos (u) = cos u
tan (u) = tan u

1 + cot2 u = csc2 u

Del Operator
=

i+
j+
k
x
y
z

The curl and divergence operations can be expressed in terms


of the del operator using cross and dot product.
curl F = F and div F = F

Sum and Difference Formulae


sin(u v) = sin u cos v cos u sin v
cos(u v) = cos u cos v sin u sin v
tan(u v) =

tan u tan v
1 tan u tan v

cot (u) = cot u


csc (u) = csc u
sec (u) = sec u
darren.wee@u.nus.edu
For MA1505 taken in AY2015/16 Sem. 1
LATEX compiled April 26, 2016.