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1.

0 ABSTRACT
This experiment is conducted to perform energy and mass balance on the cooling tower
system and to observe the effects of one of the process variables on the exit temperature of
water. For water cooling tower experiment, there are several parameters that can be adjusted
to observe its effects on the evaporation of water. The parameters are temperature and flow
rate of water, relative humidity and flow rate of air and cooling load. For the first experiment
We choose the cooling load as the variable while water flow rate as constant parameters
while for the second experiment we choose water flow rates as the variable and cooling load
as the contant variable. The steady flow equations which is energy and mass balances were
employed in order to provide an insight on the amount of energy transferred between phases
under different conditions. The energy transfer calculated from the experiment for cooling
load of 0.5kW, 1.0kW and 1.5kW.

2.0 INTRODUCTION
Cooling tower is a device called as heat rejection device.This device will reject waste heat to
the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers
may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to
near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of dry cooling towers,the cooling tower
usually rely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.To
demonstrate how the cooling tower really work so in this experiment SOLTEQ Basic
Cooling Tower Unit (Model: HE152) is used.The instrument that used in the experiment
resembles a full size forced draught cooling tower and it is an open system which two
streams of fluid pass through and there will be a mass transfer from one to another
stream.The unit is self contained supplied with a heating load and a circulating pump.The
effect on the performance of the cooling tower by certain parameters can be determine after
done calculating the mass transfer and energy transfer.Parameters that can be determine in
this experiment are :
I.
II.
III.

Temperature and flow rate of water.


Relative humidity and flow rate of air.
Cooling load.

Packing Characterictics Column is available for this device.This column is designed to


facilitate study of water and air conditions and three different additional stations within the
column will give different effect.This enables driving force diagrams to be constructed and
the determination of the Characteristic Equation for the Tower.

3.0 OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this experiment are:
1. To investigate the relationship between cooling load and cooling range.
2. To determine Energy and mass balances using the steady flow equation on the
selected systems
4.0 THEORY
Basic Principle
First consider an air stream passing over the surface of a warm water droplet or film. If we
assume that the water is hotter than the air, then the water temperature will be cooled down
by radiation, conduction and convection, and evaporation. The radiation effect is normally
very small and may be neglected. Convection and conduction depend on the temperature
difference, the surface area, air velocity, and others factors, evaporation will give the greatest
effect because it is where cooling takes place when water molecules diffuse from the surface
into the surrounding air. During the evaporation process, the water molecules are replaced by
others in a liquid form which the energy required is taken.
Evaporation from a Wet Surface
When considering evaporation will occur from a wet surface into the surrounding air, the rate
is determined by the difference between the vapour pressure at the liquid surface and the
vapour pressure in the surrounding air. The vapour pressure at the liquid surface is basically
the saturation pressure corresponding with the surface temperature, whereas the total pressure
of the air and its absolute humidity and the vapour pressure in the surrounding air can be
determine. Such evaporation process in an enclosed space shall continue until the two vapour
pressure are equal. In other words, until the air is saturated and its temperature equals the
surface.

However, if unsaturated air is constantly supplied, the wet surface will reach an equilibrium
temperature at which the cooling effect due to the evaporation equals the heat transfer to the
liquid by conduction and convection from the air, which under these conditions; will be at a
higher temperature. Under adiabatic conditions, this equilibrium temperature is the wet bulb
temperature.Wet bulb temperature means is best defined in term how it is measured.a porous
materials like cloth or cotton is soaked in water and wrapped around the bulb of the
thermometer to form a wick and the thermometer is placed in a stream of flowing air as
shown in the figure below.

Figure 1
Evaporation of water from the wick into the flowing air together with the transfer of heat
from the bulb that will cause a drop in the bulb temperature and also the thermometer
reading.The wick will remain moist and the bulb temperature falls to certain value and the
value will remain constant.The final reading of the temperature is the wet bulb temperature of
the flowing air that past the wick.
Cooling Tower Performance
A study on the performance of a cooling tower can be done with the help of a bench top unit.
Students shall be able to verify the effect of these factors on the cooling tower performance:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Water flow rates


Water temperatures
Airflow rate
Inlet air relative humidity

The effects of these factors will be studied in depth by varying it. In this way, students will
gain and overall view of the operation of the cooling tower.

Thermodynamic Property
In order to understand the working principle and performance of a cooling tower, a basic
knowledge of thermodynamic is essential to all students. A brief review on some of the
thermodynamic properties is presented below.
At the triple point ,the specific enthalpy of saturated water is assumed to be zero, which is
taken as datum. The specific enthalpy of saturated water (h f) at a range of temperature above
the datum conditions can be obtained from thermodynamic tables.
The specific enthalpy of compressed liquid is given by
h=hf + v f ( pp sat )

(1)

The correction for pressure is negligible for the operating condition of the cooling tower,
therefore we can see that h hf at a given temperature.
Specific heat capacity (Cp) is defined as the rate of change of the enthalpy with respect to
temperature (often called the specific heat transfer at constant pressure). For the purpose of
the experiment using bench top cooling water, we may use the following relationship:
h= p T

(2)

and
h= p T

(3)

where Cp = 4.18 kJkg-1


Daltons and Gibbs Laws
It is commonly known that air consists of a mixture of dry air (O 2 , N2 and other gases) and
water vapour. Dalton and Gibbs law describes the behaviour of such mixtures as:
a) The total pressure of the air is equal to the sum of then pressures at which the dry
air and the water vapour each and alone would exert if they were to occupy the
volume of the mixture at the temperature of the mixture.

b) The dry air and the water vapour respectively obey their normal property relationships
at their partial pressures.
c) The enthalpy of the mixture may be found by adding together the enthalpies at which
the dry air and water vapour each would have as the sole occupant of the space
occupied by the mixture and at the same temperature.
The Absolute or Specific Humidity is defined as follows:
Specific Humidity , =

Mass of Water Vapour


Mass of Dry Air

(4)

The Relative Humidity is defined as follows:


Relative Humidity , =

Pressure of Water Vapour the Air


Saturation Pressure of Water Vapour at the SameTemperature

(5)

The Percentage Saturation is defined as follows:


Percentage Saturation=

Mass of Water Vapour a givenVolume of Air


Mass of the SameVolume of Saturated Water Vapor at the SameTemperature

(6)
At high humidity conditions, it can be shown that there is not much difference between the
Relative Humidity and the Percentage Saturation and thus we shall regard the same.
To measure the moisture content of the atmosphere, this bench top cooling tower unit is
supplied with electronic dry bulb and wet bulb temperature sensors. The temperature readings
shall be used in conjunction with a psychometric chart.
Psychometric Chart
The psychometric chart which is also known as humidity chart is very useful in in
determining the properties of air/water vapor mixture. Among the properties that can be
defined with psychometric chart are Dry Bulb Temperature which is the abscissa of the chart,
Wet Bulb Temperature, Relative Humidity, Absolute humidity or also known as moisture
content which is the ordinate of the chart, Relative humidity, Dew point which is the
temperature at which humid air become saturated if it is cooled at constant pressure, Humid
Volume which is the volume occupied by 1 kg of dry air plus the water vapor that
accompanies it, Wet Bulb Temperature, Specific enthalpy of saturated air, Enthalpy deviation.
5

Knowing two of these properties, any other properties can be easily identified from the chart
provided the air pressure is approximately atmospheric. In the Bench Top Cooling Tower
application, the air inlet and outlet sensor show the dry bulb temperature and wet bulb
temperature. Therefore, the specific enthalpy, specific volume, humidity ratio and relative
humidity can be readily read from the psychometric chart.
Orifice Calibration
As mentioned above, the psychometric chart can be used to determine the value of the
specific volume. However the values given in the chart are for 1 kg of dry air at the stated
total pressure.
However, for every 1 kg of dry air, there is w kg of water vapour, yielding the total mass of
1+w kg.
Therefore, the actual specific volume of the air/vapour mixture is given by:
va =

va
1+ w
b

(7)

The mass flow rate of air and steam mixture through the orifice is given by

m=0.0137

x
va

(8)

Where,
m
= Mass flow rate of air/vapour mixture

v a = Actual specific volume end


x = Orifice differential in mmH2O
Thus,
m=0.0137

x (1+ w)
va

(9)

The mass flow rate of dry air,


6

m a=0.0137

m
a=

1
Mass flow rate of airvapour mixture
1+w

x (1+w)
1
0.0137
1+w
va

a=0.0137
m

x
v a (1+w)

(10)

A simplification can be made since in this application, the value of is unlikely to exceed
0.025. as such, neglecting

wb

would not yield significant error.

Application of Steady Flow Energy Equation


Consider System A for the cooling tower defined as in Figure 2. It can be seen that for this
system, indicated by the dotted line,
a) Heat transfer at the load tank and possibly a small quantity to surroundings.
b) Work transfer at the pump.
c) Low humidity air enters at point A.
d) High humidity air leaves at point B.
e) Make-up enters at point E, the same amount as the moisture increase in the air stream.

From the steady flow equation,

-P= H
exit H
entry
Q

s hs ) A ( m
a hda + m
s hs ) B m
g hg
QP=
( m a hda+ m

(11)

Note: The pump power, P is a work input. Therefore, it is negative.


If the enthalpy of the air includes the enthalpy of the steam associated with it, and this
quantity is in terms of per unit mass of dry air, the equation may then be written as:

a ( hB h A ) m
g hg
QP=
m

(12)

Note:

a) The mass flow rate of the air

( a) through a cooling tower is a constant, whereas

the mass flow rate of moist air increases as the result of evaporation process.
m
g hg
b) The term
can usually be neglected since its value is relatively small.

Under steady state conditions, by conservation of mass flow rate of dry air and of water (as
liquid or vapour) must be the same at inlet and outlet to any system.
Therefore,

( m a ) A =( m a ) B

(13)

and
g= ( m
s )B
( m s ) A + m

or

m
E =( m
s ) B ( m
s )A

(14)

The ratio of steam to air () is known for the initial and final state points on the psychometric
charts. Therefore,

( m s ) A =m a A

and

(15)

( m s ) B=m a B

(16)

Therefore,
m
E =m
a ( B A )

(17)

Say, we redefine the cooling tower system where the process heat and pump work does not
cross the boundary of the system. In this case warm water enters the system at point C and
cool water leaves at point D.
Again from steady flow energy equation,

exit H
entry
QP=
H

and

P=0

Q
may have a small value due to heat transfer between the unit and its surroundings.
m
a h B+ m
w h D ( m
a h A +m
w hC + m
e hE)
Q=

(18)

Rearranging,
m
a ( h Bh A ) + m
w ( h Dhc )m
E hE
Q=

m
a ( hB ha ) + m
w C p ( t D t c )m
E hE

(19)

Again, the term

m
E hE

can be neglected.

Characteristics Column Study


In order to study the packing characteristics, we define a finite element of the tower (dz) as
shown in figure 4, the energy balances of the water and air streams in the tower are related
to the mass transfer by the following equation:
w dT =K a dV ( h)
CP m

(20)

where
Cpw

= Specific heat capacity of water

mw

= Mass flow rate of water per unit plan area of packing

= Water temperature

= Mass transfer coefficient

= Area of contact between air and water per unit volume of packing

= Volume occupied by packing per unit plan area

= Difference in specific enthalpy, between the saturated boundary layer and the bulk

air

In this equation, we assume that the boundary layer temperature is equal to the water
temperature T and the small change in the mass of water is neglected.
Thus, from equation 20,

10

K a dV C p dT
=
m

h
w

(21)
Integration upper equation,
T2

KaV
dT
=Cp w
w
m
T 1 h wh a
(22)
The numerical solution to the integral expression upper equation using Chebyshev numerical
method gives,
T2

KaV
dT
T 2T 1 1
1
1
1
=Cpw
=
+
+
+
m w
h
h
4

h4
T1 w
a
1
2
3

(23)

Where
KaV
=Tower C h aracteristic
m w
h1 =value of hw he at T 2 +0.1 ( T 1T 2 )
h2 =value of hw he at T 2 +0.4 ( T 1T 2 )
h3 =value of h w he at T 1 0.4(T 1T 2)
h 4=value of hw h e at T 10.1(T 1T 2)
Thermodynamics state that the heat removed from the water must be equal to the heat
absorbed by the surrounding air. Therefore, the following equation is derived:
L(T2-T1)=G(ha2-ha1)

(24)

or,
L (ha 2ha 1)
=
G (T 2T 1)

11

Where,
L/G

= Liquid to gas mass flow ratio

T1

= Cold water temperature

T2

= Hot water temperature

ha2

= Enthalpy of air-water vapour mixture at exhaust wet-bulb temperature

ha1

= Enthalpy of air-water vapour mixture at inlet wet-bulb temperature

The following represents a key to figure 5:


BA

= Initial enthalpy driving force

AD

= Air operating line with slope L/G

Referring to equation 22, the tower characteristics could be found by finding the area
between ABCD in figure 5. Increasing heat load would have the following effects on the
diagram in Figure 5:
1. Increase in the length of line CD, and a CD line shift to the right
2. Increase in hot and cold water temperatures
3. Increase in range and approach areas
The increased heat load causes the hot water temperature to increase considerably faster than
does the cold temperature. Although the area ABCD should remain

constant,

it

actually decreases about 2% for every 10 F increase in hot water temperature above 100F.
To account for this decrease, an adjusted hot water temperature is used in cooling tower
design.

12

5.0 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

SOLTEQ Bench Top Cooling Tower Unit (Model: HE152)


Stopwatch
Deioni

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Figure 6
Orifice
Water Distributor
Packing Column
Flow Meter
Receiver Tank
Air Blower
Make-up Tank
Differential Pressure Transmitter
Load Tank

13

10. Control Panel

6.0 PROCEDURE
6.1 General Operating Procedures
6.1.1 General Start-up Procedures
1. Valves V1 to V6 are checked to ensure that the valves are closed and valve V7 is
partially opened.
2. The load tank is filled with distilled or deionised water.The make-up tank is removed
and then the water is poured through the opening at the top of the load tank.The
make-up tank is replaced onto the load tank and the nuts is lightly tighten.The tank are
3.
4.
5.
6.

filled with distilled or deionised water up to the zero mark on the scale.
Distilled or deionised water are added to the wet bulb sensor reservoir to the fullest.
All appropriate tubing are connected to the diffrential pressure sensor
The appropriate cooling tower packing are installed for the experiment.
Then,the temperature set point of the temperature controller is set up to 50 oC.The

1.0kW water heater is switched on and the water are heated until approximately 40 oC.
7. The pump is switched on and slowly the controller valve V1 is opened and the water
flow rate is set up to 2.0 LPM.A steady operation where the water is distributed and
flowing uniformly through the packing are obtained.
8. The fan damper is opened fully and then the fan is switched on.The differential
pressure is checked whether it giving reading when the valve manifold is switched to
9.

measure the orifice differential pressure.


The unit is let to run about 20 minutes, for the float valve to correctly adjusted that

the level in the load tank. The make-up tank is refilled as required.
10. Now, the unit is ready for used.
Note:
i. It is strongly recommended that ONLY distilled or deionised water be
used in this unit. The impurities existing in tap water may cause the
depositing in cover tower.
ii. Check that the pressure tubings for differential pressure measurement
are connected correctly.
(Orifice pressure tapping point to V4; Columns lower pressure tapping
point to V6; Columns higher pressure tapping point to V3; V5 leave to

14

atmosphere)
iii. To measure the differential pressure across the orifice, open valve V4
and V5; close valve V3 and V6.
iv. To measure the differential pressure across the column, open valve V3
and V6; close valve V4 and V5.
v. Always make sure that no water is in the pressure tubings for accurate
differential pressure measurement.
6.1.2 General Shut-down Procedure.
1. Heaters are switched off and the water are let to circulate through the cooling tower
2.
3.
4.
5.

system for 3 to 5 minutes until the water cooled down.


The fan is switched off and the fan damper is closed fully.
The pump and the power supply are switched off.
The water in the reservoir tank is retained for the following experiment.
The water is completely drained off from the unit if it is not in used.

6.2 Experiment 1 : Investigating of the Relationship between Cooling Load and Cooling
Range.
1. The cooling tower is prepared and started according to section 6.1.1.
2. The system is set under the following conditions and stabilizing is allowed for about
15 minutes:
Water flowrate
Air flowrate
Cooling load
Column installed
3. After the system

: l.0 LPM
: Maximum
: 0.0 kW
:C
stabilized, a few sets of measurements are recorded,then the mean

value for calculation and analysis are obtained.


4. Without changes in the conditions,the cooling load is increased to 0.5 kW.When the
system stabilized,all the data are recorded.
5. Similarly, the experiment are repeated at 1.0 kW and 1.5 kW.
5.3 Experiment 2 : End State Properties of Air and Steady Flow Equations.
15

1. The cooling tower is prepared and started with according to section 6.1.1.
2. The system is set under the following conditions and allow stabilizing for about 15
minutes:
Water flow rate : 1.0 LPM
Air Flow rate
: Maximum
Cooling load
: 1.0 Kw
Column installed : C
3. The make-up tank is filled up with distilled water up to level scale, and then the stop
watch is started.
4. The make-up water supplied is determined in an interval of 20 minutes.
5. In this 20 minutes interval,a few sets of the measurement are recorded.
6. The quantity ok make-up water that has been supplied during the interval is
determined by noting the height reduction in the make-up tank.
7. The observation is repeated at different water flow rates.

7.0 RESULTS

Experiment 1 :
Column installed : C
Water flow rate : 1.0 LPM
Blower

: Maximum

Description
Packing density
Air inlet Dry Bulb,T1
Air inlet Wet Bulb,T2
Water outlet Dry Bulb,T3
Water outlet Wet Bulb,T4
Water Inlet Temperature,T5
Water outlet Temperature,T6
Orifice Diffrential,DP1
Heater Power,Q1

unit
m-1
O
C
O
C
O
C
O
C
O
C
O
C
Pa
Watt

0.5 kW
200
29.8
26.7
25.4
25.7
38.5
25.0
135.0
424.0
Table 7.1

Experiment 2 :
Heater

: 1.0 kW
16

1.0 kW
200
30.4
26.8
26.4
26.5
40.2
25.3
127.0
514.0

1.5 kW
200
30.1
26.8
27.5
27.2
52.3
25.3
51.0
1210.0

Blower

: Maximum
Description

Packing Density,
(m-1)
Air Inlet Dry Bulb, T1 (oC)
Air Inlet Wet Bulb, T2 (oC)
Air Outlet Dry bulb, T3 (oC)
Air Outlet Wet Bulb, T4 (oC)
Water Inlet Temperature, T5 (oC)
Water Outlet Temperature, T6 (oC)
Orifice Differential,DP1 (Pa)
Heater Power, Q1 (Watt)

Water Flow Rate, FT1 (LPM)


1.0
2.0
3.0
200
200
200
30.4
26.8
26.4
26.5
40.2
25.3
127.0
814.0
Table 7.2

8.0 CALCULATIONS
Experiment 1 :
Water flow rate contant at : 1.0 LPM
Change of temperature for each power supply,T (coolin range)
= Water inlet temperature,T5 Water outlet temperature,T6
Power = 0.5 kW
T =T 5T 6
= 38.6 oC 25.0 oC
= 13.6 oC
Power = 1.0 kW
T =T 5T 6
= 40.2 oC 25.3 oC
= 14.9 oC
Power = 1.5 kW
T =T 5T 6
= 52.3 oC 25.3 oC

17

30.2
36.7
28.5
26.7
40.0
26.6
62.0
806.0

30.3
26.8
31.2
27.8
38.6
28.5
95.0
804.0

= 27.0 oC
Cooling Range,T (oC)
12.6
14.9
27.0

Power,P (kW)
0.5 kW
1.0 kW
1.5 kW

Water flow rate : 1.0 LPM


60
50
40

Temperature (OC) 30
20
10
0
424

814

1210

Cooling load (kW)


Water inlet temperature (oC)

water outlet temperature (oC)

Figure 7

Experiment 2 :
Heater power constant = 1.0 kW

18

Water flow rate 1.0 LPM = 0.012 kg/s


Cooling range,T = T5 T6
= 40.2 oC 26.6 oC
= 14.9 oC
Water flow rate 2.0 LPM = 0.024 kg/s
Cooling range,T = T5 T6
= 40.0 oC 26.6 oC
= 13.4 oC
Water flow rate 3.0 LPM = 0.036 kg/s
Cooling range,T = T5 T6
= 38.6 oC 28.5 oC
= 10.1 oC
Cooling range,T (oC)
14.9
13.4
10.1

Water flow rate (LPM)


1.0
2.0
3.0

9.0 DISCUSSION
SOLTEQ Water Cooling Tower (Model: HE 152) is used to run this experiment. This
experiment is conducted to study the effects of variables changes on the temperature of the
water. There are three variables that will affect the water temperature which are heater power,
water flow rate, and the blower. For this water cooling tower we do two experiment.For the
first experiment it is focused on the heater power as the changing variable and the water flow
rate and blower as the constant variables.For the second experiment, the changing variable
are the water flow rates meanwhile heater power and blower as the constant variables. For
every 20 minutes data will be taken to see the changes happen in heater power energy. This is
to ensure that the system is in steady state operation when the data is taken.

19

Heat is transferred from a body with a higher temperature to lower temperature. As for
cooling tower experiment, we need to produce a product which has a lower temperature
(cooler) than the system in the surrounding. The difference between heat exchanger and
cooling tower is the product that will be produced. Both products that produced will have a
reduction in temperature but for heat exchanger, the temperature of the outlet cooled water
cannot be lower than the temperature of the cooling air while for the water cooling tower, the
temperature of the outlet water can be lower than the temperature of the cooling air.
In the cooling tower, the process that takes place is known as evaporation. In this process,
heat energy is transferred between the water and air which having different temperature. As
the energy in the water molecules is transfer to the air flowing, the bond between the water
molecules becomes weaker and it slowly evaporate to the air. It can be prove from the result
of this experiment, whereby the water outlet temperature is lower than the inlet and it is the
same concept for the second experiment. For example, when we change the heater power in
this experiment the Water outlet temperature = 25.3 , Water inlet temperature = 40.2
.The packing column that is used in this experiment is to increase the the time contact

of the water and the air that flowing in the system.


From the data collected in the experiment, changes in heater power will affect the energy
being transferred within the system and surrounding. Larger heater power will cause higher
temperature in water. For this experiment, the temperature of the water is assumed higher
than the air flowing through the system. The difference in the temperature between the water
inlet and the water outlet are getting higher, we can assume that the higher the heater power
that being supply will cause the temperature difference will increase. As for second
experiment, change in water flow rate will is inversely proportional to the temperature
difference because the higher the water flow rate the lower the temperature difference. It can
be prove by the calculated data, for 1.0 LPM the temperature difference is 14.9 oC, for 2.0
LPM is 13.4 oC and for 3.0 LPM is 10.1 oC.

10.0 CONCLUSION
This experiment is conducted to study the effects of heater power on the exit temperature of
water and to perform energy and mass balance on the cooling tower system. From the data
20

obtained we can conclude that the higher the heater power supply, the higher the temperature
difference between water inlet and water outlet.For second experiment, we can conclude that
change in water flow rate will is inversely proportional to the temperature difference because
the higher the water flow rate the lower the temperature difference. It can be prove by the
calculated data, for 1.0 LPM the temperature difference is 14.9 oC, for 2.0 LPM is 13.4 oC
and for 3.0 LPM is 10.1 oC.
11.0 RECOMMENDATION
There are several recommendations that can be made after carried this experiment in order to
improve the results for this experiment. Firstly, use only deionised water or distilled water
because if water tap is being used in this experiment, the impurities that exist in the tap water
may cause the depositing in the cover tower and thus lower the efficiency of the cooling
tower consequently will effect the result obtained.
Secondly, when installing the cooling tower column or make-up tank, make sure that the nuts
are not too tight because it may cause crack. Also not too tight lightly which can cause
spilling of water out from the column. Other than that, ensure that the pressure tubing for
differential pressure measurement are connected correctly which orifice pressure tapping
point to V4, columns lower pressure tapping to V6, columns higher pressure tapping point
to V3 and V5 leave to atmosphere. Also, make sure that there is no water in the pressure
tubing for accurate differential pressure measurement. Besides, after completed the
experiment, make sure that the water inside the tower is cooled down first before draining it
off because if water still hot when draining off the water, the units efficiency will decreased.
12.0 REFERENCE
1. Richard M. Felder, Ronald W. Rousseau. (2005). Elementary Principles of Chemical
Process, 3rd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2.

Frank P. Incropera, David P. Dewitt, Theodore L. Bergman, Adrienne S. Lavine.


2007. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th Ed. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte

Ltd.
3. (2016,March,17th) retrieved from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooling_tower

4. (2016,March,17th) retrieved from

21

http://www.cti.org/whatis/coolingtowerdetail.shtml

13.0 APPENDIX
1. Basic water cooling tower flow diagram

Figure 8

22

2. The Psychometric Chart

23

24